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Процедура : 2007/2181(INI)
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Етапи на разглеждане на документа : A6-0052/2008

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CRE 13/03/2008 - 4.5
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Сряда, 12 март 2008 г. - Страсбург Редактирана версия

11. Роля на Европейския съюз в Ирак (разискване)
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  Πρόεδρος. – Η ημερήσια διάταξη προβλέπει τη συζήτηση επί της έκθεσης της Ana Maria Gomes, εξ ονόματος της Επιτροπής Εξωτερικών Υποθέσεων, σχετικά με πρόταση σύστασης του Ευρωπαϊκού Κοινοβουλίου προς το Συμβούλιο όσον αφορά τον ρόλο της Ευρωπαϊκής Ένωσης στο Ιράκ (2007/2181(INI)) (A6-0052/2008).

 
  
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  Ana Maria Gomes, relatora. − Senhora Presidente, no momento em que o Parlamento vai votar um relatório sobre o papel da União Europeia no Iraque é importante atentar nalgumas lições aprendidas com a história deste país. No próximo dia 16 de Março assinalar-se-ão vinte anos do ataque com armas químicas à cidade curda de Halabja, uma das operações mais mortíferas da campanha genocida de Anfal conduzidas pelas forças de Saddam Hussein contra o seu próprio povo. Halabja não foi caso único. Houve muitas Halabjas por todo o Iraque. Durante décadas o regime de Saddam Hussein, perante a passividade e por vezes a conivência dos governos europeus, submeteu o povo iraquiano a uma estratégia de brutalização sistemática cujas arrasadoras consequências ainda hoje se sentem. É por isso que eu, como relatora, quis que o axioma fundamental deste relatório fosse a responsabilidade moral e legal da Europa perante o povo iraquiano. Nenhum povo sofreu mais nas últimas décadas e poucos países são estrategicamente mais importantes para a segurança na Europa.

Além dos deveres, a Europa precisa de assumir que tem interesse na consolidação de um Iraque federal, democrático, onde "the rule of law" prevaleça e onde os direitos humanos sejam respeitados, incluindo os direitos das mulheres. Em 2003, o meu partido, o PS português, e eu pessoalmente, fomos contra a decisão de invadir o Iraque apoiada pelo então Primeiro-Ministro do meu país, Senhor Durão Barroso. Mantenho essa posição. Mas este relatório não deve servir para reiterar as nossas conhecidas posições numa questão que dividiu a Europa no passado. Este Parlamento é chamado, isso sim, a pronunciar-se sobre o presente e o futuro da contribuição da União Europeia para um Iraque seguro, próspero, democrático e em paz com os seus vizinhos.

Foi nesta perspectiva que eu fiz duas viagens ao Iraque em Janeiro e Fevereiro, em preparação deste relatório. Uma a Bagdad, Nassíria e à região dos Marshlands e outra ao Curdistão, no norte do país. Com um orçamento de 48 mil milhões de dólares para 2008, o que não falta ao Iraque é dinheiro. Não é preciso apoio orçamental nem "soft loans". O que o Iraque precisa e o que os iraquianos pedem é assistência técnica e capacitação institucional para que o Estado e a sociedade civil funcionem e os vastos recursos do país sejam postos ao serviço da população, incluindo milhões de deslocados internos e refugiados em países vizinhos.

Este relatório não se limita a incentivar o maior envolvimento da UE no Iraque. Exigimos também que a presença da União no Iraque se paute pela transparência, pela visibilidade e pela eficácia, e o Parlamento observa com agrado a crescente preocupação da Comissão em aperfeiçoar a utilização dos fundos europeus no Iraque num contexto tremendamente difícil. Nesse sentido achamos que a Comissão e os Estados-Membros podem e devem estar mais presentes no terreno, com pessoal e projectos, especialmente naquelas áreas do país onde a situação de segurança o permite, como é o caso da região curda. Por outro lado, exigimos regulação no que respeita às contratações de empresas militares e de segurança privada. Sublinho que, neste relatório, o Parlamento Europeu exige, pela primeira vez, a criação de regras claras para a utilização destas empresas por parte das Instituições da União Europeia.

A mensagem principal deste relatório, que é importante fazer chegar à Comissão, ao Conselho, às empresas europeias, às organizações não governamentais e opiniões públicas, é a seguinte: a Europa tem hoje uma oportunidade única de contribuir positivamente para o destino do Iraque e, por consequência, da região. A interacção com a Comissão ao longo da preparação deste relatório e o consenso com que o relatório foi recebido na Comissão dos Assuntos Externos deste Parlamento convencem-me de que a Europa está preparada para aceitar este desafio. Termino com um agradecimento pessoal a todos os colegas que ofereceram emendas e sugestões e em especial aos relatores-sombra, Jana Hybášková, Baroness Nicholson of Winterbourne, André Brie e Cem Özdemir pelas suas contribuições que muito enriqueceram este relatório.

 
  
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  Janez Lenarčič, predsedujoči Svetu. − Najprej bi želel čestitati poročevalki, poslanki Ani Mariji Gomes, za njeno poročilo o vlogi Evropske unije v Iraku. Z zanimanjem bomo prisluhnili današnji razpravi. Vsekakor bomo predloge poročevalke in celotnega zbora skrbno preučili.

Ob tej priložnosti dovolite, da posebej pozdravim nedavno odločitev Evropskega parlamenta, da vzpostavi ad hoc delegacijo za Irak. Ta bo nedvomno pripomogla k našim prizadevanjem za okrepitev odnosov med Evropsko unijo in Irakom na vseh področjih.

Evropska unija v tesnem sodelovanju z iraško vlado in drugimi akterji, predvsem Združenimi narodi, krepi odnose z Irakom, podpira osrednjo vlogo Združenih narodov v Iraku in bo še naprej tesno sodelovala z misijo Združenih narodov za pomoč Iraku UNAMI. Zagotavljala bo tudi podporo tej misiji pri izpolnjevanju njene vloge o resoluciji Varnostnega sveta Združenih narodov številka 1770.

Urad Evropske Komisije za humanitarno pomoč ECHO sodeluje pri izboljševanju humanitarnih razmer v tej regiji, ne le v Iraku, temveč tudi v soseščini. Pogajanja o sporazumu o trgovini in sodelovanju z Irakom so prav tako pomemben dejavnik pri krepitvi odnosov med Unijo in Irakom. Z zadovoljstvom ugotavljamo, da pogajanja zelo dobro potekajo.

EU odločno podpira proces, v katerem sodelujejo sosednje države. Še naprej bomo poudarjali pomen dialoga med Irakom in njegovimi sosedi. Ob tem naj poudarim, da je treba ohraniti ozemeljsko celovitost Iraka. Kot je znano, je predsedstvo izrazilo veliko zaskrbljenost zaradi nedavnih operacij turške vojske na iraškem ozemlju. Izpostaviti želimo velik pomen neprekinjenega dialoga in sodelovanja med Irakom in Turčijo ter močno vzpodbujamo vladi Turčije in Iraka ter regionalno vlado Kurdistana, da najdejo mirno rešitev razmer in se izognejo spopadom.

Da bi bil napredek pri izboljševanju varnostnih razmer dolgoročen in trajen, so bistvenega pomena uspešna prizadevanja za narodno spravo. Evropska unija je pripravljena podpreti Irak pri izpolnjevanju njegove zavezanosti, da ta proces nadaljuje.

Naj končam z navedbo, da je Evropska unija dodelila že veliko sredstev pomoči Iraku in še naprej prispeva za obnovo iraškega varnostnega sektorja, predvsem z integrirano misijo za krepitev pravne države v Iraku, ki je bila podaljšana do poletja naslednje leto. Kot vemo, iraške oblasti to misijo zelo cenijo.

 
  
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  Benita Ferrero-Waldner, Member of the Commission. − Madam President, first of all, please allow me to take a little more time, because this is a very important issue for me.

First, let me commend Ms Gomes and all the other Members of Parliament involved in the preparation of this important report. Ms Gomes has visited Iraq twice since December in order to get the clearest possible picture of what is and what is not happening in the country. I have sent my two directors in charge of the area to Iraq, one of whom, Mr Tomás Duplá del Moral, is here with me today. I will tell you more about that later.

Ms Gomes’s analysis is clear, comprehensive and above all it starts from the right place. We have no choice but to deal with the challenges Iraq faces now and in the future.

Five years after the fall of Saddam Hussein we may be entering a new phase of a gradual process. However, the process is still fragile, limited and unstable.

The security situation seems to be slightly better, partly as a consequence of the US surge, but also because of two other important factors: the activities of the Sunni Awakening Councils, armed and paid by the US, and most importantly Moqtada al-Sadr’s ceasefire, which has now been extended for another six months. The number of deaths among Iraqi civilians still remains very high and there is great uncertainty about the sustainability of these efforts and of improvements. Turkish incursions in the north contribute to complicating the situation, no matter how calm and measured the central and the Kurdish regional governments’ reactions may have been – at least for now.

On the political front, the Legislative Council approved an important package of laws: the 2008 budget, the provincial powers law and a limited amnesty related to the debaathification process, thereby giving satisfaction to Sunnis, Shias and Kurds. However, with the Presidential Council’s rejection of the provincial powers law, there is still uncertainty as to whether this limited progress can be consolidated.

The economic front shows a total reliance on the oil sector, difficulty in attracting foreign and even domestic investment, and lack of job creation opportunities. Collection of taxes and tariffs is very incipient and the amounts remain marginal. The capacity to spend the investments planned in the budget, while growing, is still limited. However, economic activity, including investments, seems at this stage to have more potential in the safest Kurdish area.

National reconciliation remains central in the political agenda and there are many initiatives and foreign-driven events. However, while domestic efforts to build up genuine Iraqi ownership and perspectives on the future of the country continue, a shared and clear vision is still lacking, and efforts are guided by sectarian, religious or ethnic interests, considerations or grievances. This is also what my director reported to me.

Let me take this opportunity to remind you of what we are already doing in and with Iraq and what we can set out to do under still difficult circumstances in the future. Our intervention extends over a wide range of activities covering the political, economic, assistance and humanitarian aspects.

First, the trade and cooperation agreement: it is a political endeavour, setting the basis for contractual relations between the European Union and Iraq for the first time. Our hope is that this will help Iraq to address its own reform agenda and facilitate its reintegration in the international community after years of isolation. We have just wrapped up the fourth round of talks. Rapid progress continues on areas from human rights to combating terrorism, from energy cooperation to the environment.

Secondly, the neighbours’ meetings, which the President-in-Office of the Council mentioned, could contribute very substantially to reducing interference, improving security and allowing political dialogue and reconciliation among the various factions. I have personally invested a good deal of effort to help this happen, having participated in two conferences, in Sharm el Sheikh and in Istanbul. I will continue to do so in the future if I can, to keep pressing home the need for Iraq’s neighbours to take up their responsibilities. Visits to Baghdad by the Secretary-General of the Arab League, Amr Moussa, and most recently even the Iranian President are to be taken as good signs in this direction.

As Ms Gomes points out in her report, the task of helping Iraq stand on its own feet cannot fall on the shoulders of the donor community or the Iraqis alone.

On the subject of assistance, I need not remind this House that the EUR 829 million of Community funds devoted to Iraq since funding started under my predecessor in 2003 were committed with the full support of the Council and the European Parliament.

We have never been naive about the difficulty of delivering an effective programme in Iraq. We did as this Parliament and all our Member States recommended, by working with the UN and its agencies, with the World Bank and the multi-donor Trust Fund. Working with them was the only viable option available. The United Nations had an extremely hard time after the assassination of Sergio Vieira de Mello and a good part of its staff when its office in Baghdad was blown up. The new Special Representative, Staffan de Mistura, has taken on his job with remarkable commitment and is highly appreciated. You recently met the Deputy UN Special Representative, David Shearer, and I think you had a good exchange of views on their mission and the risks still existing.

I could mention many projects, but I shall do that when I answer your questions later on. At the moment I shall just say that I think it is important substantive work, all the more important given the very limited capacity – and I agree with Ms Gomes on this – of the Iraqi Government to deliver results. From basic needs in health and education, through assistance with democratisation, elections and human rights promotion, to humanitarian and refugee support, we have persisted with an extremely comprehensive programme, using the best available means in the most challenging circumstances.

We have tried to ensure that specific attention is paid to the needs of vulnerable groups, not least displaced Iraqis, whether inside Iraq or in the neighbouring states. Last year a substantial package of EUR 50 million was provided for refugee support. The Commission also intends to allocate EUR 20 million from its humanitarian budget line for 2008 in support of IDPs/refugees and the most vulnerable groups in Iraq. We have also started some bilateral projects, but there is no ideal solution. In fact, every option has inherent and formidable drawbacks.

As I have already mentioned – and I am coming to a conclusion – last week on my instructions, my two directors responsible for Iraq from the External Relations DG and EuropeAid visited Baghdad with their teams. They held fruitful but very frank discussions with the Iraqi authorities and other players. The mission confirmed Iraq’s precarious security, the political and economic situation that I described earlier, the extreme weakness of the Iraqi institutions after Saddam Hussein’s years and the ensuing war, and the key role of our small delegation in Baghdad.

The Iraqi Government expressed its eagerness to work with the European Union. On this basis, we shall try to fund, alongside other bilateral and international donors, and we will help to strengthen the institutions and the capacity of the administration of a state which remains weak. We shall explore ways of taking more direct action as Parliament has asked – bearing in mind the security environment – and we would like to ensure the maximum efficiency, visibility and accountability of our assistance.

(Applause)

 
  
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  Ignasi Guardans Cambó, Ponente de opinión de la Comisión de Comercio Internacional. − Señora Presidenta, hay que dar la bienvenida a este informe, del que la Comisión INTA se ocupó y debatió en profundidad, desde el ángulo, evidentemente, de su competencia, que es a la que yo muy brevemente me voy a referir.

Querría destacar del conjunto de lo que era el informe de la Comisión INTA, sólo en parte asumido por la ponente —aunque buena parte del espíritu de lo que decía la Comisión de Comercio Internacional sí se ha recogido—, en primer lugar, la necesidad que tiene Iraq de reintegrarse en lo que podríamos llamar el sistema de la economía internacional y, en ese sentido, hay que dar la bienvenida al hecho de que sea observador en la Organización Mundial del Comercio; es un paso claramente positivo en esa dirección.

En segundo lugar, la necesidad de utilizar el Acuerdo de Comercio y Cooperación como medio muy útil para impulsar reformas internas que acerquen a Iraq hacia la disciplina propia de un sistema multilateral.

En tercer lugar, querría destacar la necesidad de que los concursos públicos en Iraq sean realmente transparentes y no discriminatorios. Ese es un punto que destacó la comisión y que volverá a ser presentado como enmienda en sesión plenaria en la votación de mañana. Me parece importante destacarlo: transparencia y equilibrio en todos los concursos públicos.

Y, finalmente, una llamada a la reinversión de los ingresos derivados del petróleo para que sean gestionados por el propio Gobierno iraquí a través de instituciones competentes para ello.

Habría mucho más, pero creo que el conjunto del informe merece la felicitación de esta Cámara.

 
  
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  Jana Hybášková, za skupinu PPE-DE. – Vážená paní předsedkyně, paní komisařko, z hloubi srdce děkuji baronce Nicholson a Aně Gomes a Komisi. Nesplnitelné se stalo možným. Tento parlament, Evropský parlament, nalezl jednotnou shodu ve svém doporučení Radě i Komisi v tom, jak by měla Evropská unie postupovat v Iráku.

Minulost stranou. Situace se přestala zhoršovat, začíná stabilizace. Mladí lidé se odvracejí od sektářství a násilí, milice ztrácejí podporu, armáda Mahdího spolupracuje. To je imperativ pro evropskou přítomnost. Hlavním evropským úkolem je posílení zákona a řádu, technická asistence policii, ministerstvu vnitra, soudnictví, vězeňství. Druhou oblastí je podpořit Iráčany, aby prostřednictvím rozpočtu mohli využívat své ohromné ropné bohatství. Třetí je posílení demokracie technickou podporou volebních procesů.

Vyzýváme také evropské firmy a společnosti k obnovení účasti v Iráku. K tomu potřebujeme ale společnou evropskou pozici. Dotýkáme se situace uprchlíků, azylantů a vysídlených. K tangu je zapotřebí dvou. Potřebujeme irácké partnery, kteří ctí transparentnost, bojují s korupcí a nepotismem, ctí právo, lidská práva a demokracii. Iráckému parlamentu jsme připraveni poskytnout partnerskou podporu, učit jejich asistenty, cestovat tam a fungovat v rámci ad hoc permanentní delegace.

Jeden vzkaz je ale důležitý, a to mi dovolte jako někomu, kdo přijel do Basry poprvé 7. dubna 2003: Evropa nemůže zůstat součástí problému. Nabídněme společnou evropskou účast při změně lidské tragédie generací Iráčanů.

 
  
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  Véronique De Keyser, au nom du groupe PSE. – Madame la Présidente, le rapport d'Ana Gomes est excellent et c'est, de plus, un tour de force. Sur un sujet aussi sensible que l'Irak, qui nous a si longtemps divisés, ce rapport réussit à jeter un regard neuf, constructif, sans pour autant utiliser la langue de bois, ce qui n'est pas étonnant de la part d'Ana Gomes. Il a d'ailleurs été adopté à une très large majorité au sein de la commission des affaires étrangères et je voudrais relever deux points parmi tant d'autres.

Premièrement, Ana Gomes appelle à utiliser de manière créative tous les instruments dont la Commission dispose pour reconstituer, en Irak, des capacités appropriées dans les domaines de l'État de droit, de la justice, des droits de l'homme, de la bonne gouvernance, des femmes, de la santé, de l'éducation. Ana Gomes le dit et l'écrit avec force: l'Irak n'a pas besoin d'argent, c'est un pays potentiellement riche, mais il est entièrement détruit sur le plan administratif et humain. Elle demande donc davantage de projets bilatéraux, soutenant l'édification de capacités et la société civile, et elle souligne le courage de la Commission, qui a ouvert à Bagdad même une délégation pour suivre de plus près ces projets et donner une plus grande visibilité aux efforts européens.

Deuxièmement, Ana Gomes a le souci, au-delà de l'Irak, de porter un regard sur le drame des réfugiés irakiens. Selon un rapport récent du Haut commissariat aux réfugiés, ils sont aujourd'hui plus de deux millions dans les pays voisins, mais c'est en Syrie – 1 400 000 – et en Jordanie – près d'un demi-million – que la situation devient explosive. Elle s'y accompagne de prostitution et de travail des enfants, malgré les efforts de ces pays. Ana Gomes appelle l'Europe à se montrer plus généreuse dans son accueil des réfugiés et la Commission à soutenir encore davantage ses programmes d'aide.

En bref, pour toute politique future à l'égard de l'Irak, et notamment budgétaire, ce rapport sera, à court terme et peut-être à moyen terme, absolument incontournable. Je rappelle, comme on l'a dit, que le rapporteur s'est rendu dans ce pays à deux reprises, immédiatement avant de nous soumettre son analyse. Quand on connaît les difficultés du terrain, on ne peut que saluer son courage.

 
  
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  Nicholson of Winterbourne, on behalf of the ALDE Group. – Madam President, I too offer my warmest congratulations to our rapporteur. Ms Gomes has produced a truly exceptional report, whose findings are derived directly from her first-hand experience on the ground. I congratulate the Commissioner for her own constant and assiduous attention to the most important elements of the Iraqi problem and the Head of Delegation, Mr Uusitalo, whose work I have seen on the ground on a number of occasions. First-class work by the Commission – I warmly congratulate you and Mr Uusitalo. The Council of Ministers has also given a lot of attention to the question of Iraq. Now today we in the Parliament are giving it our attention too, so at last the key institutions of the European Union have come together. Of course, together we can achieve much more.

Iraq today has a true parliament and a wholly secular constitution. Iraq is one of the very few nations in this region to have a democracy – a secular democracy – despite its flaws. We therefore must do all we can to help the Iraqis strengthen the democratic process. I believe strengthening ties between our respective parliaments is one of the key ways in which we can assist. I am most honoured to be the new chairman of the delegation that the Conference of Presidents has recently created.

In October last year – and again in January with Ms Gomes – I had the opportunity to address the Iraqi Parliament in plenary session. It was a great honour and we learnt immediately how much assistance they need. To help Iraq reverse the dismal administrative situation she has inherited, we need also to make close partnerships with the public service ministries and to use all of our experience in the enlargement process to help capacity-building and institution-building.

For, like us, the people of Iraq demand democracy and have a right to good governance. They also demand and need the provision of basic human rights, of essential public services and the full complement of those privileges that we have in our democracies in Western Europe. I would suggest that the price of a stable Iraq exerting a benign influence regionally and nationally is worth every effort to attain. Once Turkey joins the European Union, as I hope she will, Iraq becomes our neighbour and we therefore see her as part of the wider neighbourhood.

 
  
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  Adam Bielan, w imieniu grupy UEN. – Pani Przewodnicząca! Ja również się przyłączam do gratulacji dla pani poseł sprawozdawcy za przygotowanie tego sprawozdania.

Szanowni Państwo! Za kilka dni, 20 marca, minie dokładnie pięć lat od rozpoczęcia przez siły międzynarodowej koalicji drugiej wojny nad Zatoką Perską. Niestety, nie wszystkie państwa członkowskie Unii Europejskiej podjęły wówczas polityczną decyzję o udzieleniu wsparcia Stanom Zjednoczonym. Brak jednomyślności w 2003 roku do dziś negatywnie wpływa na rolę, którą Unia Europejska mogłaby potencjalnie odgrywać w odbudowie Iraku, a przecież dysponujemy szeregiem finansowych i politycznych środków, które skutecznie użyte mogą przyczynić się do wsparcia bezpiecznego i demokratycznego Iraku, co natychmiast przełoży się na zwiększenie stabilności w całym regionie.

Oczywiście, tu zgadzam się z panią poseł sprawozdawcą, Irak potrzebuje nie tylko pomocy finansowej, ale również wsparcia w dziedzinie odbudowy instytucji państwowych i społeczeństwa obywatelskiego. Pamiętajmy, że przez dziesiątki lat rządów dyktatorskich iracka administracja publiczna nastawiona była bardziej na kontrolę obywateli niż na służbę publiczną.

Przygotowując nową strategię Unii Europejskiej na rzecz przyszłego zaangażowania w Iraku nie możemy także zapominać o dialogu ze Stanami Zjednoczonymi, szczególnie w zakresie polityki bezpieczeństwa i obrony. Jestem przekonany, że dobra współpraca z USA jest jednym z głównych warunków budowy bezpiecznego i stabilnego Iraku.

 
  
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  Caroline Lucas, on behalf of the Verts/ALE Group. – Madam President, I would also like to thank Ms Gomes for her excellent report. I should like to start by underlining that any reflection on the EU’s involvement in Iraq must learn from the mistakes of the past, considering that the invasion has been such an enormous political and humanitarian catastrophe. Our starting point should be recognition that Iraq’s problems can only be resolved by giving real and comprehensive sovereignty, including over oil and other resources, back to the Iraqis and I would therefore call for the withdrawal of all foreign occupation troops.

I followed the opinion on the report in the Committee on International Trade and from that perspective I observed that the military occupation of Iraq was followed by an economic one, whereby the US privatised public property, liberalised trade and established rules regarding foreign direct investments in clear conflict with international law. That is why we need to be a bit cautious in the areas of trade and investment.

The report before us welcomes Iraq’s observer status at the WTO as a key step towards driving Iraq’s integration in the international economy and it looks forward to the EU-Iraq trade and cooperation agreement. I just want to make sure that Iraq has sufficiently built up its own capacities for negotiation and evaluation. Otherwise we risk that country becoming once again prey to outside interests.

Similarly, the report calls for help and encouragement for European firms to bid for contracts to rebuild Iraq. Again, let us be sure that we do all we can to build up the capacity of Iraqi companies, as well as the negotiating capacities of the Government, so that we can move forward in a more positive way for everyone.

 
  
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  Vittorio Agnoletto, a nome del gruppo GUE/NGL. – Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, diamo un giudizio positivo sulla relazione Gomes, che contiene alcuni punti qualificanti come la difesa dell'integrità territoriale e la necessità di un processo di riconciliazione all'interno dell'Iraq, ma allo stesso tempo diciamo che l'Unione europea deve chiedere alla Turchia di porre fine immediatamente all'invasione del nord dell'Iraq.

Condividiamo anche la richiesta di investire i profitti del petrolio per il benessere dell'Iraq, ma non si possono ignorare le leggi imposte dagli USA che hanno invece consegnato le risorse energetiche dell'Iraq alle grandi multinazionali statunitensi, permettendo loro di esportare ogni profitto e di ottenere enormi guadagni, come ad esempio l'Halliburton del Vicepresidente Cheney.

Certamente condividiamo la richiesta di trasparenza sulle regole e sulla collocazione giuridica delle organizzazioni dei contractors, ma non possiamo ignorare come in Iraq oggi operino eserciti privati di decine di migliaia di persone al di fuori di ogni regola.

La relazione chiede che sia assunto come vincolante il codice di condotta sull'esportazione delle armi, ma non è però possibile dimenticare che questa guerra costa 6.000 miliardi di dollari, che altrimenti avrebbero potuto essere investiti per raggiungere gli obiettivi del Millennio. Una guerra e un'occupazione che hanno prodotto centinaia di migliaia di morti; una guerra e un'occupazione che erano e rimangono illegali e che sono stati decise in completa violazione del diritto internazionale, unilateralmente e contro l'opinione maggioritaria degli Stati membri, delle Nazioni Unite e del pubblico mondiale.

Va richiesto l'immediato ritiro delle truppe d'occupazione e la loro sostituzione con una missione ONU, tesa unicamente a garantire la sicurezza ma a sospendere ogni azione di guerra.

 
  
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  Bastiaan Belder, namens de IND/DEM-Fractie. – Collega Gomes heeft grote inspanningen geleverd om de rol van de Europese Unie in Irak te beschrijven. De gecompliceerde situatie in Irak vraagt daarbij om een duidelijk en geëngageerd beleid. Bij het voorgestelde EU-beleid voor Irak rijzen evenwel enkele ernstige vragen. Die vragen hangen vooral ook samen met mijn werkbezoek aan Koerdistan.

De rapporteur benoemt Koerdistan als een regio waar stabiliteit en veiligheid enigermate gegarandeerd zijn, en waar de internationale ontwikkelingssamenwerking verder uitgebouwd moet worden. Uiteraard is de aanwezigheid van de Europese Unie in de regio van groot belang. En dat wens ik ook te onderstrepen. Scherpe in- en externe kritiek klinkt echter op tegen de regionale Koerdische regering inzake de handhaving van grondrechten, met name de positie van de Assyrische christelijke minderheid in Koerdistan oogt zorgwekkend. "Is er nog toekomst mogelijk voor deze groep in Irak?" is een serieuze vraag.

Kortom, Raad en Commissie, hoe kunt u daadwerkelijk bijdragen aan duurzame vrede en stabiliteit in de regio Koerdistan en ook aan de opbouw van de structuur van de democratische rechtsstaat.

Tot slot, mevrouw de voorzitter, een laatste punt. De miljoenen Iraakse ontheemden verdienen inderdaad onze aandacht en steun. De rapporteur adviseert de Raad om Iraakse vluchtelingen op te nemen in EU-lidstaten. Raad en Commissie, hoe realiseerbaar is deze goede suggestie? Ik dank U.

 
  
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  Слави Бинев (NI). – Уважаеми г-н Председател, уважаеми колеги, подкрепям доклада на г-жа Gomes, защото в него са посочени безпощадно ясно всички проблеми, които съпътстват изграждането на новото демократично управление в Ирак, както и начините за тяхното преодоляване.

На първо място, апелирам за незабавното оттегляне на окупационните сили от Ирак, тъй като войната и окупацията на тази суверенна държава бяха незаконни и решението за тях бе взето изцяло в нарушение на международното право – едностранно и противно на възгледите на мнозинството държави-членки на ООН и на световната общност.

Надявам се, създалата се ситуация да не застраши мирното население от 3500 членове на Организацията на народните муджахидини на Иран (PMOI) в „Ашраф“, които са под постоянен натиск. Убеден съм, че демокрацията в нито една държава по света не може да бъде изграждана с недемократични и насилствени методи.

Ще гласувам в подкрепа на доклада на Аnа Мaria Gomes, защото проблемите на Ирак могат да бъдат решени само чрез предаване обратно в иракски ръце на реален и всестранен суверенитет.

 
  
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  Nickolay Mladenov (PPE-DE). – Madam President, Commissioner, President-in-Office of the Council and Ms Gomes, I want to thank you for everything you have said and for all the work you have done until now.

I believe that this report sends a very important message to the rest of the European Union: that this House wants to look forward; it does not want to look backwards; it wants to be engaged in the future of a democratic and federal Iraq in support of that future.

I will say three things about the report, and I am particularly proud that this report is coming from the European Parliament on the day we celebrate 50 years of the achievements of the European Parliament. Today we celebrate what we have achieved in reconciliation in Europe. And the lessons we have learned over the past 50 years are lessons we need to transfer as experience and knowledge to our friends in Iraq so that they can use them and rebuild their country in a successful way.

The report outlines, of course, the achievements, but it does not shy away from the challenges being faced the Federal Republic of Iraq and the Commissioner very aptly outlined them.

I would like to point out one thing as a footnote to her statement. That is that the achievement on the security front is the primary responsibility of the Iraqis, supported by the internationals of course, but it is the responsibility of the Iraqis. No one can ensure the security of Iraq except the Iraqis; nobody can ensure the resolution of the political problems except the Iraqi politicians and their political process.

We call for a new strategy, a European strategy for Iraq. I spent a large part of 2006 working in the Council representation in Baghdad helping them. The message I was receiving from everyone every day was, ‘Where is Europe? We want to talk to Europe because your experience is vital to us.’ This, today, is a response to that call.

Finally, this House in its report reaffirms the commitment of the European Parliament to support the reconstruction and the building of the Iraqi Parliament, an extremely important role, and thank you Council for recognising the contribution that this Parliament has made by selecting and approving a Delegation for relations with Iraq.

I think today we are faced with a vital challenge: actually to use what we know and what we have in support of political process, not through weapons, but through words, not through arms, but through deeds in Iraq and help the people there.

 
  
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  Béatrice Patrie (PSE). – Madame la Présidente, chers collègues, je félicite à mon tour Mme Gomes pour la qualité de son travail sur un dossier très sensible et complexe. Nous savons tous combien le conflit irakien était source de divisions profondes entre nos États membres. Nous savons qu'aujourd'hui notre devoir est de contribuer à construire un Irak sûr, unifié, prospère et démocratique.

Je souhaite, pour ma part, mettre l'accent sur un drame majeur, largement occulté par nos gouvernements; je veux parler du conflit irakien, qui a jeté sur les routes près de 4,5 millions de personnes, ce qui constitue le plus grand déplacement de population au Moyen-Orient depuis 1948. Une action concertée est urgente au niveau européen.

Ma principale préoccupation concerne le sort immédiat et à terme des Irakiens qui ont dû fuir leur pays. Quelque 2,3 millions de personnes ont trouvé refuge dans les pays voisins, principalement en Syrie, en Jordanie, mais aussi en Égypte, au Liban, en Turquie, dans les États du Golfe. En accueillant près de 2 millions de personnes, la Syrie et la Jordanie ont consenti des efforts tout à fait méritoires.

Bien entendu, le rôle de l'Union et de la communauté internationale est de permettre à terme le retour de tous ces réfugiés chez eux, mais à ce stade, un retour n'est pas envisageable pour beaucoup d'entre eux. Une partie de ces réfugiés particulièrement fragilisés nécessite un transfert vers un pays occidental. Selon le HCR, 6,6 % des Irakiens résidant en Syrie, soit 100 000 personnes, doivent être réinstallés. J'appelle donc mes collègues à soutenir l'amendement en faveur des programmes de réinstallation prévoyant que l'Union accueille en 2008 une partie des réfugiés les plus vulnérables retenus par le HCR.

En conclusion, ne tournons pas le dos à nos valeurs. Respectons pleinement la Convention de Genève de 1951 et refusons tout retour forcé en Irak.

 
  
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  Patrick Louis (IND/DEM). – Madame la Présidente, chers collègues, pour Fernand Braudel, l'histoire commençait à Sumer, mais aujourd'hui, la longue histoire des minorités chrétiennes d'Irak semble finir. Nous, les nations d'Europe, ne pouvons pas cautionner cette grande injustice par notre inaction. Ces populations ont accueilli l'Islam dans leur hospitalité et, ensemble, ils ont construit ce pays qui fut prospère avant d'être ravagé par les fanatismes et les guerres.

Aujourd'hui, ces minorités doivent se résigner à fuir. L'avenir de l'Irak ne peut se faire sans leur présence et leurs compétences. L'avenir ne passe pas par une partition du pays, mais par une reconstruction de l'économie, une reconnaissance mutuelle entre les différentes communautés et cultures, et une valorisation de l'État de droit.

Si l'Union européenne se décide fermement à intervenir en Irak, elle doit avoir en permanence à l'esprit, dans le cadre de son projet, la réalité dramatique de toutes ces communautés minorisées. Leur devenir doit être la toise de son intervention, et la réalité du respect mutuel entre les communautés, le critère d'affectation de ses aides. Cette action sera alors l'honneur de nos nations.

 
  
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  Sorin Frunzăverde (PPE-DE). – Recunoscând progresele realizate de Irak în ultimul timp pe plan intern şi extern, Uniunea Europeană trebuie să încurajeze autorităţile irakiene să-şi continue eforturile de construire a unor instituţii statale democratice, stabile, legitime, de tip federal.

Având în vedere realităţile etnice şi religioase, consider că numai un Irak federal poate avea viabilitate. Mă refer la un Irak federal şi nu la un Irak divizat. Uniunea Europeană trebuie să încurajeze, de asemenea, existenţa unui Irak stabil, cu instituţii capabile să asigure suveranitatea naţională, unitatea statală, integritatea teritorială, dezvoltarea economică durabilă şi prosperitatea poporului irakian. Uniunea Europeană trebuie să susţină activ construcţia instituţională a Irakului, care trebuie să fie ancorată în realităţile sale, cu respectul tradiţiilor istorice, religioase, culturale şi identitare ale poporului irakian şi ale tuturor comunităţilor etnice şi religioase de pe teritoriul său.

În acest sens, ar fi benefică înfiinţarea unor organisme cu rol consultativ, compuse din liderii tuturor comunităţilor etnice şi religioase din Irak, cu scopul de a conferi mai multă legitimitate autorităţilor centrale. Construcţia instituţională irakiană trebuie să fie susţinută de Uniunea Europeană prin intermediul misiunii Eujust Lex, dar şi al instrumentelor financiare europene adecvate.

Subliniez necesitatea ca finanţările europene să se adreseze direct instituţiilor irakiene beneficiare. Aceste fonduri trebuie gestionate de către instituţiile Uniunii Europene de o manieră transparentă şi vizibilă pentru cetăţenii europeni.

Recomand instituţiilor Uniunii Europene să folosească experienţa şi expertiza acelor state membre care au deja o prezenţă civilă şi militară pe teritoriul irakian în procesul de stabilizare şi reconstrucţie a acestei ţări. Consider, în acelaşi timp, că trebuie încurajate şi susţinute companiile europene pentru a se implica în procesul de reconstrucţie a Irakului şi pentru a-şi putea dezvolta mai bine afacerile în această zonă.

 
  
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  Erika Mann (PSE). – Frau Präsidentin, Frau Kommissarin, Kollegin Gomes, verehrte Kollegen! Wir haben uns im Ausschuss für internationalen Handel im Wesentlichen natürlich auf die Bereiche konzentriert, die sich auf Handel und Wirtschaft beziehen, wir sind aber an einigen Stellen darüber hinausgegangen. Deshalb lassen Sie mich zwei Punkte ansprechen.

Erster Punkt: Wir sind sehr froh darüber, dass wir diesen Bericht haben und dass damit deutlich wird, dass die Rolle und das Engagement der Europäischen Union im Irak deutlich sichtbar wird. Wir halten es für absolut notwendig, dass eine Integration in das Handelssystem stattfindet. Dass die WTO natürlich eine ideale Plattform dafür ist, steht außer Frage. Technische Hilfe werden wir sehr viel mehr geben müssen, als wir das bislang gemacht haben. Diese technische Hilfe muss sich darauf konzentrieren, dass eine Heranführung an das europäische Wirtschaftssystem und auch an die europäischen Unternehmen bis zu einem gewissen Grad stattfinden kann.

Was den Bereich der Finanzierung angeht, haben wir eine gewisse Skepsis, dass alles nur über die UN oder die Weltbank oder den Multi-Donor Trust Fund abgewickelt werden soll. Wir würden es sehr begrüßen, wenn bis zu einem gewissen Grad auch eigene Kapazitäten aufgebaut werden, eigene Projekte verwaltet werden und wir dann über einen Datenbestand, über unseren eigenen Wissensausbau verfügen. Wir würden es sehr begrüßen, wenn Sie Ihre Entscheidungen in diesem Sinne treffen könnten.

 
  
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  Γεώργιος Γεωργίου (IND/DEM). – Κυρία Πρόεδρε, κατ’ αρχήν συγχαρητήρια στην κ. Gomes, αλλά συγχαρητήρια και στην κ. Επίτροπο, στην οποία διακρίναμε ένα άρωμα ανθρώπινης ευαισθησίας για ό,τι συμβαίνει σήμερα στο Ιράκ.

Εντούτοις, δεν ξέρω γιατί, κυρία Πρόεδρε, διατηρώ την εντύπωση ότι είμαστε ένας μηχανισμός, ο οποίος τρέχει πίσω από άλλους, οι οποίοι γκρεμίζουν, για να χτίσουμε. Αυτό δεν είναι κάτι που συμβαίνει για πρώτη φορά. 820 εκατομμύρια δίνουμε σήμερα για να βοηθήσουμε τους Ιρακινούς. Δεν μπορούμε να βοηθήσουμε τους νεκρούς. Οι σημερινοί νεκροί είναι πολλαπλάσιοι των νεκρών για τους οποίους πλήρωσε ο Σαντάμ Χουσεΐν. Αυτοί οι οποίοι είναι υπεύθυνοι για τους σημερινούς νεκρούς άραγε θα πληρώσουν κάποια μέρα;

Τα λέω αυτά γιατί μας συνέβησαν και στη Γιουγκοσλαβία. Εάν, κυρία Πρόεδρε, δεν μας αρέσουν οι δικτάτορες και οι μέθοδοί τους -που δεν πρέπει να μας αρέσουν-, ας βρούμε έναν τρόπο να απαλλασσόμαστε κάθε φορά από τους δικτάτορες. Δεν έχουμε κανένα λόγο να καταστρέφουμε τις χώρες, επειδή δεν αγαπάμε τους δικτάτορες. Γιατί αυτά συνέβησαν στη Γιουγκοσλαβία, αυτά συμβαίνουν σήμερα στο Ιράκ και δεν ξέρουμε και πότε θα τελειώσει το δράμα αυτής της χώρας.

 
  
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  Anna Záborská (PPE-DE). – Madame la Présidente, chers collègues, le vendredi 29 février, l'archevêque de Mossoul, Mgr. Rahho, a été enlevé. Ses trois accompagnateurs ont été brutalement tués. Il s'agit d'un grave incident. La quatrième Convention de Genève protège explicitement le personnel civil, sanitaire, religieux et humanitaire. Les simples militants de la paix par la non-violence sont nombreux en Irak, dans les territoires palestiniens et en Israël. Ils sont chrétiens, musulmans, juifs ou laïques.

Dans le cas de l'enlèvement du chef de la minorité religieuse, notre Parlement a deux possibilités pour agir immédiatement. Demain, au moment des votes sur le rapport de notre collègue Ana Gomes, nous pouvons voter un amendement oral qui condamne le kidnapping de Mgr. Rahho pour influencer la guerre. Ou bien jeudi, nous aurons également la possibilité d'ajouter à l'ordre du jour des urgences un texte très court pour prendre une position en notre qualité d'institution européenne.

 
  
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  Paulo Casaca (PSE). – Permita-me, Senhora Comissária, que, na sequência de todo o debate que nós temos travado sobre o assunto, lhe diga que as Nações Unidas me merecem o maior respeito. Sérgio Vieira de Melo, todos os outros que morreram, todos os outros que arriscam a sua vida, têm da nossa parte o maior dos respeitos. Isso não quer dizer que nós não devamos saber o que se passa, não devamos saber a quem estão a ser destinados os fundos que estão a ser utilizados no Iraque. E permita também que lhe diga que os 20 milhões de que a Senhora Comissária agora aqui falou – e, peço desculpa, já os li há dois ou três meses atrás – me parecem largamente insuficientes para fazer face ao drama dos refugiados e dos deslocados. É um drama de colossais dimensões, Senhora Comissária, de pouco adianta o petróleo que estará no Iraque. São pessoas que não têm acesso a esse petróleo. Agradecia, Senhora Comissária, que olhasse para esse assunto com mais força porque, tal como disse a minha Colega Béatrice Patrie, é urgente olhar para esse problema.

 
  
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  Ioan Mircea Paşcu (PSE). – Madam President, Europe was against the war in Iraq. However, irrespective of who was right and who was wrong, post-Saddam Iraq is a reality nobody can ignore.

Taking into account the impact of the Iraqi situation on the entire Middle East and beyond, the EU cannot continue to stay for the most part relatively on the margins. Through its huge resources and expertise, the EU must engage in a significant way in supporting the consolidation of the new Iraqi state. The Commissioner described the symptoms. Now we need to see how we could cure them, and not only in concert with other international organisations – the EU can do better than that – but mainly on our own. The strategic aim is to help the new, democratically elected authorities in that country to give credibility, and therefore authority, to the institutions of the new state. A new, democratic, self-sustaining, oil-rich Iraq in the middle of the Middle East is in the interest of all.

 
  
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  Renate Weber (ALDE). – În prezent, Comisia Europeană negociază un acord comercial şi de cooperare cu autorităţile irakiene, ocazie cu care sunt abordate şi chestiunile legate de respectarea drepturilor omului.

Cer Comisiei Europene să solicite ferm autorităţilor irakiene să găsească soluţii pentru reintegrarea refugiaţilor externi şi interni. Fac un apel şi către statele membre ale Uniunii să evalueze cu prioritate solicitările de azil făcute de refugiaţii irakieni. Răspunsurile diferite ale statelor în această chestiune demonstrează încă o dată necesitatea armonizării procedurilor privind statutul de refugiat la nivel european. Este esenţial ca acordul comercial şi de cooperare să se refere şi la dimensiunea cooperării interparlamentare.

Consider că Delegaţia pentru relaţiile cu Irak a Parlamentului European poate sprijini întărirea capacităţii instituţionale a legislativului irakian. Uniunea Europeană are responsabilitatea de a asista Irakul pentru ca acesta să devină un partener viabil într-o regiune sensibilă. Felicitări şi mulţumiri doamnei Ana Maria Gomes pentru raport.

 
  
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  Zbigniew Zaleski (PPE-DE). – Pani Przewodnicząca! Jeżeli chcemy w Iraku mieć partnerów do budowania demokracji jako fundamentu pokojowego współistnienia, to trzeba inwestycji. Pamiętam, kiedy byłem studentem, to w Polsce przebywała młodzież z tego świata w szkołach średnich, po prostu. Kto wie, czy teraz w Unii Europejskiej nie można takiej oferty złożyć młodym Irakijczykom, nie jak mają 24 lata, tylko wcześniej może, żeby mogli pobyć u nas, nauczyć się tego, krytycznym okiem oczywiście spojrzeć i to, co dobre, od nas przenieść tam z powrotem, co nie dobre, może u siebie robić to lepiej. Taką propozycję szkolną, nawet nie akademicką, tutaj chcę przedstawić, a wiadomo, że polityka zależy od ludzi, i to w ramach Pani kompetencji ten element też może mieć swoje miejsce.

 
  
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  Tunne Kelam (PPE-DE). – Madam President, this is a message from the European Parliament to the Council on the need to have a European strategy for Iraq. It is time to stop arguing about recent differences and to concentrate on the EU’s proactive engagement there. I would like to thank the Commissioner for a thorough account of the situation in Iraq, and there is cautious optimism in the air. I think there is an understanding that things could become better. This is what Ms Gomes so eloquently described as a golden opportunity for a positive contribution the EU could make.

For me, two points are essential. For Parliament it is important to channel EU support for building democratic governance, and this was met with great interest on the part of Iraqi politicians. Second, the EU is in an exceptional position to support the reconciliation process, and without this there could be only disintegration and further domestic warfare, so we need to make use of this opportunity.

 
  
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  Janez Lenarčič, predsedujoči Svetu. − Jaz bi se zahvalil vsem za predstavljena stališča in mnenja o tej tematiki, ki nam bodo gotovo koristila pri nadaljnjih aktivnostih. Želel bi morda podati tukaj en komentar in en odgovor.

Gospa Záborská je vprašala glede ugrabitve katoliškega kaldejskega škofa. Opozoril bi, da je na to temo predsedstvo izdalo izjavo 1. marca, s katero je odločno obsodilo to ugrabitev ter pozvalo k brezpogojni in takojšnji izpustitvi kaldejskega nadškofa.

Druga zadeva, gospod Mladenov in še nekateri drugi so izpostavili dejstvo, da je za varnost, vzpostavitev varnih razmer v Iraku predvsem odgovoren Irak oziroma iraške oblasti. To drži, drži pa tudi, da jim moramo pri tem pomagati, in bi še enkrat omenil misijo EUJUST LEX, ki deluje v Iraku že od leta 2005 in v kateri sodelujejo skoraj vse države članice Evropske unije.

V okviru te misije se je usposabljalo že približno 1500 visokih iraških uradnikov, zaposlenih v policiji, v pravosodju in v zaporih. Ta misija, kot sem že omenil, se bo nadaljevala do poletja 2009, in ocenjujemo, da predstavlja pomemben napredek k vzpostavljanju varnejših razmer v Iraku.

Še enkrat bi se zahvalil gospe Gomes za poročilo, ki nam bo služilo kot zelo koristna osnova za pripravo naših nadaljnjih aktivnosti. Med temi naj omenim predvsem, da je predvideno, da se bo predsednik Sveta za splošne zadeve in zunanje odnose, minister Rupel, predvidoma udeležil aprilskega srečanja držav, sosed Iraka, ki bo potekalo v Kuvajtu.

 
  
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  Benita Ferrero-Waldner, Member of the Commission. − Madam President, it was a good debate and it showed that we want to use the golden opportunity to finally reconstruct Iraq and make it a stable country in the Middle East, because I fully agree that this will be a very important goal for all of us.

I would first like to clearly state that you may rest assured that we will pursue our course of action. Thank you for the positive words concerning our Head of Delegation who works there with a few staff members in very difficult circumstances – housed by the British Embassy, by the way. He and his people are doing a very good job.

We have been working with the UN Trust Fund because, at the time, nothing else was possible. After the visit by my directors and their assessment, we will cautiously see what we can do regarding capacity-building and institution-building. We fully understand that this is very dear to many of you, but please also understand that security costs will be very high. Whatever we do there directly will be very costly, otherwise it would not be possible.

Outside the Green Zone, circumstances are very difficult, except perhaps in the few areas where there are fewer security problems, one of these being the north. I do not rule out gradually working more directly, for instance in the north, but I must stress that we always have to be sure that we do not discriminate between different groups. This is something I would also like to say to Mr Belder. This is how we have been working with our projects. We have always tried to have projects that include all groups, including the Christian groups that are finding it very difficult in Iraq at this time with this Government.

Having said this, I would just like to bring to the attention of many of you who do not always see what we are doing that, for instance, we prepared successfully for the general elections held in 2005. We have rehabilitated hundreds of primary and secondary schools, which is not only for the benefit of the schools but also for the pupils. Erasmus programmes are also open for some Iraqis, so we are pursuing that. We are also producing and distributing millions of schoolbooks for six million primary and secondary students. This is very basic but necessary.

At the same time we have rehabilitated almost 200 primary healthcare centres and 10 hospitals. We have given support to the completion of eight immunisation rounds, each involving 4.7 million children aged under five. We have completely rehabilitated the national drug quality control laboratory. I could go on and on.

I think the Commission has done a great deal, on behalf of the Union, in difficult circumstances. Now, we are aware that the key question will be how much we can do regarding capacity-building. You can rest assured that we will devote a good part of our resources to this, always depending, as I have said, on the security situation. According to our last assessment this is unfortunately not yet sustainable.

I would like to say a few words about refugees. I have mentioned that we, the Commission, have naturally been working to assist refugees. The entire package for last year was EUR 50 million from various Commission instruments. These funds are aimed not only at supporting the IDPs in Iraq but also to help the Governments of Syria and Jordan in their countries. We are of course in close contact with these countries. We have given EUR 80 million to Syria and EUR 32 million to Jordan because in this small country the large influx of refugees has created a big problem.

Finally, I would just like to say that I am as convinced as the Council that the dialogue that the Parliament will now have with the Ad Hoc Delegation for Iraq represents an excellent improvement and progress. We can only work together on that. Let me assure you that we have been trying from the beginning to have a transparent flow of our money channelled through the United Nations. In the future this will be channelled more and more directly.

 
  
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  Ana Maria Gomes, relatora. − Queria agradecer as palavras simpáticas que todos me dirigiram, e, em particular, saudar o meu amigo, o Ministro Lenarčič, com quem estive no Conselho de Segurança há uns anos, tratando justamente do Iraque, dos problemas causados pelo Iraque de Saddam Hussein.

Este relatório, como já disse, procura projectar a diversidade da realidade iraquiana contra a mensagem simplista de um Iraque a “ferro e fogo” que as televisões todos os dias nos fazem chegar. Deve ser visto como um plano de acção, um Road Map para o envolvimento da União Europeia no Iraque. Penso que posso falar em nome do Parlamento quando digo que queremos que a Comissão, o Conselho e os Estados-Membros se baseiem nas propostas operacionais que fazemos para desenhar futuros programas e projectos de apoio ao governo e à população do Iraque, naturalmente, tendo em conta as condições de segurança.

Voltei do Iraque impressionada com o entusiasmo iraquiano por “mais Europa”. Do Presidente Talabani ao professor de uma escola primária numa das zonas rurais mais recônditas do país, todos tinham uma sede de reconhecimento político e apoio institucional por parte da União Europeia. Fomos bombardeados com propostas de projectos nas áreas mais diversas: formação de quadros no Ministério do Interior, apoio a ONG locais activas nas áreas de desminagem, alfabetização de adultos e educação para a saúde sexual e reprodutiva, apoio técnico e institucional ao Parlamento iraquiano – enfim, são apenas alguns exemplos.

Penso que devemos medir o sucesso deste relatório, não tanto pelo número de votos na votação de amanhã, mas antes pela diferença que ele fará para a nossa acção no terreno, no Iraque, a partir de agora. A nossa Delegação Parlamentar para o Iraque, sem dúvida, assumirá as suas responsabilidades neste processo, e estou segura de que vamos contar com a Comissão, com a Senhora Comissária Ferrero-Waldner, que saúdo, até à sua corajosa equipa em Bagdad, competentemente dirigida pelo Embaixador Uusitalo como fundamental aliado na concretização deste Road Map.

 
  
  

PRZEWODNICZY: PAN ADAM BIELAN
Wiceprzewodniczący

 
  
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  Przewodniczący. − Zamykam debatę.

Głosowanie odbędzie się we czwartek.

Oświadczenia pisemne (art. 142)

 
  
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  Paulo Casaca (PSE), por escrito. O presente relatório omite responsabilidades e cumplicidades na propagação de falsas informações que serviram para justificar a intervenção militar no Iraque, tais como a existência e localização de "armas de destruição maciça" e de ligações do anterior regime ao terrorismo internacional, branqueando também responsabilidades na introdução no país dos Guardas da Revolução Iranianos e suas filiais iraquianas com a consequente disseminação de grupos terroristas e de esquadrões da morte e do genocídio de que foram e continuam a ser alvo primordial minorias étnicas e religiosas e as elites do país.

O relatório não condiciona as suas relações ou mesmo o apoio financeiro da União Europeia às autoridades iraquianas ao seu compromisso com o combate ao terrorismo e genocídio, e a perseguição e julgamento dos seus responsáveis, fora e dentro das forças de segurança, minimizando o drama vivido por milhões de refugiados e deslocados iraquianos e os atentados aos mais elementares direitos, liberdades e garantias, dos iraquianos, em especial das mulheres.

A invocação dos crimes do regime de Saddam Hussein seria aceitável se sincera e se não fosse feita escondendo os crimes actuais e os seus responsáveis que resultaram em centenas de milhares de mortos e milhões de deslocados.

 
  
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  Eija-Riitta Korhola (PPE-DE), kirjallinen. Arvoisa puhemies, kiitän kollega Ana Gomesia arvokkaasta mietinnöstä: käytännöllinen lähestymistapa on tuottanut poikkeuksellisen selkeän viestin niin neuvostolle ja komissiolle kuin irakilaisille.

Ongelman ydin nähdään kirkkaasti: Irakista ei puutu rahaa. Sieltä puuttuvat vakaus, poliittinen tahto, vahvat instituutiot ja hallinnollinen kyky käyttää rahat hyvin. Juuri näillä osa-alueilla unionilla on annettavaa.

Ensinnäkään Irak ei ole perinteinen kehitystyökohde, vaan poikkeuksellinen työmaa. Tästä syystä erillisin työvälinein ei kestäviä tuloksia saada aikaan. Yhdistämällä kehitystyön ja turvallisuuden välineet yhden varjon alle EU voisi tehostaa vuoropuhelua irakilaisen yhteiskunnan kanssa. Painotettakoon läpinäkyvyyttä: komission on sallittava rahoitusvälineiden demokraattinen valvonta.

Toiseksi unionin olisi sitouduttava nimenomaan parlamentaarisen ulottuvuuden tukemiseen. Meidän on tuettava hyvän hallinnon ja työtapojen juurruttamista edustajien neuvostoon, kouluttaa sekä tarjota voimavaroja parlamentaariseen työhön ja tarvittaessa asiantuntija-apua lainsäädännön kehittämiseksi – liittovaltiorakenne on lainsäädännöllinen haaste.

Kolmanneksi on pidettävä kiinni siitä, että ihmisoikeudet ovat Irakin kehityskilvoittelun keskiössä. Unionin panosta vaatii etnis-uskonnollisten vähemmistöjen asema. Kristityt assyrialaiset, kaldealaiset ja syyrialaiset sekä muut vähemmistökansat, kuten turkmeenit, kohtaavat jatkuvaa syrjintää ja hengenuhkaa. Niiden lopettamiseksi on ponnisteltava määrätietoisemmin.

Toivon, että kaikki kollegat ymmärtäisivät, ettei mietinnössä ole enää kyse menneisyyden virheistä. Ne virheet tunnustetaan, eikä niistä moittiminen auta irakilaisia. On kilvoiteltava ei vain siksi, että menneisyys velvoittaa siihen, vaan juuri siksi, että tulevaisuutta ei Irakissa muuten ole.

 
  
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  Tobias Pflüger (GUE/NGL), schriftlich. Im Bericht der Kollegin Ana Gomes zur Rolle der EU im Irak werden leider die beiden zentralen Fragen im Zusammenhang mit dem Irak umgangen:

Im Irak sind Besatzungstruppen der USA, Grossbritanniens, weiterer EU-Staaten sowie vieler anderer Staaten stationiert. Diese Truppen sind dort, nachdem der Irak 2003 völkerrechtswidrig angegriffen wurde. Begründet wurde dies mit nachgewiesenen Lügen (z.B. derjenigen von Colin Powell vor dem UN-Sicherheitsrat zu angeblichen Massenvernichtungswaffen im Irak.)

Sämtliche Änderungsanträge, u.a. von meiner Fraktion GUE/NGL, die klar die vielen Toten durch diesen Krieg und die andauernde Besatzung und eine Kritik am völlig falschen Angriff auf den Irak beinhalteten, sind abgelehnt worden. Damit sind zu diesem zentralen Aspekt praktisch keine Aussagen im Bericht von Ana Gomes zum Irak vorhanden.

Ich habe deshalb gegen diesen Bericht gestimmt, weil er in der jetzigen Form die reale Situation leugnet. Unter dieser Voraussetzung ist es fatal, von der Europäischen Union eine umfangreichere Rolle einzufordern, weil sie somit Teil des Kriegs- und Besatzungsregimes wird. Nichtsdestotrotz sind in dem Bericht auch eine Reihe von unterstützenswerten Aussagen enthalten. Aber wer zu Krieg und Besatzung schweigt, macht sich mitschuldig!

 
  
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  Toomas Savi (ALDE), in writing. Several Member States of the EU have sent their troops to Iraq to participate in the multinational force, United Nations assistance mission and NATO-sponsored training of the Iraqi police force, Estonia being one of those countries.

The humanitarian situation cannot be improved in Iraq unless peace and stability in the country is established. Unfortunately, both Republican and Democrat presidential candidates in the USA argue for withdrawing from Iraq, which will irresponsibly leave the country in a devastating situation.

I am confident that, if the European Union increased its involvement in Iraq by contributing funds, human resources and know-how in state-building, the deterioration of the country could be avoided. The European Union should play a vital role in Iraq as a mediator between different political and religious factions to establish a well-functioning society.

 
  
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  Konrad Szymański (UEN), na piśmie. Mam wrażenie, że Ana Maria Gomes przedstawiła nam nie jedno, a dwa sprawozdania.

Jedno, napisane językiem konkretu, pokazuje nam zasady naszego zaangażowania w Iraku. Kontrastuje to bardzo z rozgorączkowanym i propagandowym językiem uzasadnienia.

Jedna rzecz udała się na pewno w 2003 roku. Zlikwidowano autorytarny rząd, który był przyczyną destabilizacji w regionie. Bez roku 2003 nie moglibyśmy dziś spisywać 25 stron zaleceń dla demokratycznego Iraku w zakresie reform ustrojowych, prawa wyborczego czy praw mniejszości etnicznych.

Na szczęście w głosowaniu będziemy odnosili się do projektu zalecenia. Dlatego chętnie poprę ten dokument. Dobrze, że dostrzegamy naszą odpowiedzialność za powodzenie stabilnego i demokratycznego Iraku. Cieszę się też, że kraje, które podzieliła interwencja z 2003 roku, dziś będą mogły wspólnie skorzystać z szans, jakie ta wojna otworzyła.

 
Правна информация - Политика за поверителност