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Menetlus : 2007/0223(CNS)
Menetluse etapid istungitel
Dokumendi valik : A6-0193/2008

Esitatud tekstid :

A6-0193/2008

Arutelud :

PV 04/06/2008 - 25
CRE 04/06/2008 - 25

Hääletused :

PV 05/06/2008 - 6.5
CRE 05/06/2008 - 6.5
Selgitused hääletuse kohta

Vastuvõetud tekstid :

P6_TA(2008)0245

Arutelud
Kolmapäev, 4. juuni 2008 - Brüssel Uuendatud versioon

25. Ebaseadusliku, teatamata ja reguleerimata kalapüügi vastane ühenduse süsteem (arutelu)
PV
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  President. − The next item is the report by Marie-Hélène Aubert, on behalf of the Committee on Fisheries, on the proposal for a Council regulation establishing a Community system to prevent, deter and eliminate illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing (COM(2007)0602 – C6-0454/2007 – 2007/0223(CNS)) (A6-0193/2008).

 
  
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  Joe Borg, Member of the Commission. − Madam President, first of all allow me to thank the rapporteur for her work on this report. I am pleased to note the strong support of the Committee on Fisheries on this important proposal to prevent, deter and eliminate IUU fishing.

As you know, IUU fishing constitutes a major threat to the sustainability of fish stocks and marine biodiversity, which undermines the very essence of the Common Fisheries Policy. I do not believe that it is necessary to expand any further on the disastrous global environmental and economic consequences of IUU fishing, as you are well aware of that. However, it is important to bear in mind that IUU fishing is a worldwide phenomenon, affecting in particular developing countries. This is why the proposal is a non-discriminatory instrument, applying to all Community trade of fishery products deriving from IUU fishing, in all waters, and to all Community nationals engaging in or supporting IUU fishing activities conducted under any flag.

International cooperation is the key to the efficient elimination of IUU fishing. This is why the Commission has already commenced bilateral contacts with third countries. The Commission has also defined a working programme, in close cooperation with the Development DG and EuropeAid, to support developing countries, in order to assist them with a smooth and successful implementation of the regulation, in particular with regard to the catch certification scheme. This working programme includes seminars and workshops in a large number of third countries.

The Commission can agree with nearly all amendments proposed, which are either covered by the proposal or which are incorporated in the Presidency compromise text.

I am extremely happy that the report supports, in particular, the implementation of the regulation to all vessels, its catch certification scheme and the harmonisation of sanctions.

The inclusion of Community vessels is an important feature which will ensure non-discrimination and consistency with WTO rules. It is also important that the Community demonstrates its seriousness in fighting IUU fishing activities, by including all vessels infringing conservation and management rules.

The catch certification scheme is the instrument which will ensure the control of traceability of fishery products. Inspired by current practices in Regional Fisheries Management Organisations and customs regulations, it must apply to all fishery products, including processed products, in order to be efficient. Aquaculture products and products with marginal Community trade will, however, be excluded from its scope. We can do this during final negotiations in Council.

Harmonised sanctions will strengthen the ability of Member States to take measures to prevent IUU activities and to ensure that any economic advantage will be more than offset by the fines imposed. The Commission strongly believes that a system of dissuasive, proportionate and harmonised sanctions and accompanying measures is the key to compliance with the regulation.

I would once again like to thank Mrs Aubert for the report and the committee for its attention on this very important issue. This report is a significant contribution to a truly efficient fight against IUU fishing.

 
  
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  Marie-Hélène Aubert, rapporteur. − Madame la Présidente, l'actualité des manifestations qui se tiennent ce jour même à Bruxelles nous montre à quel point l'avenir de la pêche européenne est menacé si l'Union européenne n'est pas capable de mettre en œuvre une gestion durable des ressources halieutiques et une réorientation en profondeur des politiques menées jusqu'à maintenant. La lutte contre la pêche INN est un élément majeur de cette politique plus exigeante et plus cohérente. Or, la mondialisation des échanges commerciaux, la libre circulation des flux financiers ainsi que les progrès des transports et des communications, ont considérablement accru les activités de pêche illégale ces dernières années.

Aujourd'hui, la situation n'est plus tenable et les pêcheurs européens, comme, d'ailleurs, tous les acteurs de la filière, tels que les ONG, demandent unanimement de combattre plus efficacement ce phénomène, qui accélère la dégradation des ressources et constitue une concurrence totalement déloyale par rapport à ceux qui respectent les règles. Mais c'est peu dire que les États membres n'ont pas été capables, jusqu'à aujourd'hui, de contrôler et de sanctionner les pratiques illicites comme ils auraient dû le faire et le rapport de la Cour des comptes publié il y a quelques mois est, à cet égard, accablant.

C'est pourquoi la proposition ambitieuse de la Commission européenne, communiquée en octobre dernier, a été particulièrement bien accueillie par notre commission, qui avait déjà adopté à une écrasante majorité un rapport d'initiative sur le plan d'action de l'Union européenne pour combattre la pêche INN en février 2007. En fait, la proposition législative de la Commission reprend l'essentiel de nos recommandations et nous nous en réjouissons. Listes noires et publication de ces listes, mesures de contrôle renforcées dans les États du port, certificats de capture obligatoires pour l'État du pavillon et donc refus de l'importation de produits issus de la pêche illégale sur le marché de la Communauté européenne, sanctions renforcées et harmonisées, système d'alerte, etc. Il ne manque donc pas grand-chose à cette proposition de la Commission.

Mais comme vous le savez, trois points ont fait l'objet de vifs débats au Conseil, notamment concernant le champ d'application. Je me réjouis, pour ma part, que nous ayons finalement obtenu le maintien du champ d'application que vous aviez proposé, qui concerne aussi bien les navires communautaires que les navires des pays tiers. Le certificat de capture aussi a été jugé trop lourd ou trop complexe, et le niveau et la nature des sanctions ont également été âprement discutés.

Au sein de notre commission, ces questions ont également été soulevées. Mais finalement, nos amendements ont permis, je crois, de clarifier le texte tout en préservant l'ambition et les objectifs majeurs de ce nouveau règlement. Le rapport a été voté à l'unanimité et je voulais remercier mes collègues pour leur excellente contribution qui a permis d'aboutir à ce résultat. C'est un signal très fort que le Parlement européen veut lancer aujourd'hui, en pleine crise du secteur, et qui s'adresse tout particulièrement au Conseil, qui a trop tardé à assumer les responsabilités dans ce domaine.

Il reste, Monsieur le Commissaire, que la lutte contre la pêche INN n'est qu'une partie d'une politique plus large incluant le règlement-contrôle et celui sur les infractions graves. Cette division n'a pas contribué à la clarté des débats, c'est le moins que l'on puisse dire. Et nous attendons encore des précisions de votre part sur la façon dont vont s'articuler ces trois nouveaux règlements. De même, les inquiétudes sur la complexité du certificat de capture n'ont pas été que de mauvais prétextes pour affaiblir le texte ou le différer. Nous avons besoin, en effet, de procédures compréhensibles par tous, praticables par des personnels compétents et en nombre suffisant, fiables et efficaces, et qui soient aussi accessibles aux pays en voie de développement, qui sont par ailleurs les premières victimes de la pêche pirate. Là aussi, nous attendons de votre part des éclaircissements et des engagements.

Enfin, nous comptons, Monsieur le Commissaire, sur votre entière détermination – et nous savons qu'elle est grande – pour mettre rapidement un terme à la pêche illégale, qui touche particulièrement le thon rouge et le cabillaud, espèces très prisées mais largement surexploitées à l'heure actuelle. Voilà au moins une réponse concrète, dès ce soir, aux problèmes graves que connaît le secteur de la pêche en ce moment. Il y a encore beaucoup de travail à fournir, et vous le savez, pour assurer un avenir durable aux pêcheries européennes, mais un pas important sera franchi cette semaines et je m'en réjouis avec vous.

 
  
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  Daniel Varela Suanzes-Carpegna, Ponente de opinión de la Comisión de Comercio Internacional. − Señora Presidenta, señor Comisario, queridos colegas, este debate tiene lugar cuando se está produciendo la más grave crisis en el sector pesquero comunitario que se recuerda.

Concurren diversas causas que hacen que este sector no cubra costes y que, hoy por hoy, no sea rentable salir a pescar. Las importaciones de pescado y la entrada de pesca Ilegal, No Declarada y No Regulada (INDNR) (en inglés: illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing) en la Unión Europea figuran entre dichas causas. Apoyamos, por tanto, la propuesta y el informe, pero no son suficientes.

Quiero aprovechar esta ocasión para levantar mi voz desde el Parlamento Europeo a fin de pedir a la Comisión y al Consejo que hagan algo urgentemente, que no dejen morir este sector que, de seguir así, va a la quiebra.

Pido al Comisario y al Consejo que preparen y adopten un programa común urgente de choque, que contemple también medidas a medio y largo plazo. Francia está liderando esta lucha y la inminente Presidencia francesa es una ocasión de oro para llevarlo a cabo.

La Comisión tiene que ejercer su poder de iniciativa más activamente —ayudas, compensaciones, reestructuraciones, innovaciones— para paliar los costes que está sufriendo el sector y frenar las competencias desleales en las importaciones. El tiempo apremia.

Quisimos que la Comisión de Comercio Internacional estuviese presente en este debate, porque de poco vale prohibir la pesca INDNR si luego la Unión Europea le abre sus mercados.

¿Es mucho pedir que en la Unión Europea se venda sólo pescado legal?

Se precisan más controles, más trazabilidad, más y mejor etiquetado, en definitiva más garantías de lo que entra en la Unión Europea. Hace falta que no lo haga sólo la Unión Europea sino que se haga a escala mundial por la vía multilateral y bilateral.

Los acuerdos de asociación deben ser también un instrumento para ello, con las correspondientes ayuda técnica y formación, a fin de no levantar nuevas barreras al comercio, sino medidas eficaces para todas las partes implicadas.

En ello nos va el futuro de todo un sector económico, muy concentrado en la Unión Europea en regiones muy dependientes de él y por ello con enormes repercusiones sociales.

Y nos va en ello también la sostenibilidad de los recursos pesqueros, fuente primordial de alimentos saludables, en un momento de crisis alimentaria.

 
  
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  Ιωάννης Γκλαβάκης, εξ ονόματος της ομάδας PPE-DE. – Κυρία Πρόεδρε, κύριοι Επίτροποι, αγαπητοί συνάδελφοι, ευχαριστώ την κ. Aubert για την έκθεσή της.

Η παράνομη, ανεξέλεγκτη, αδήλωτη, λαθραία αλιεία είναι ένα από τα σημαντικότερα προβλήματα του κλάδου, διότι πρώτα και κύρια κάνει πολύ ζημιά στο περιβάλλον, είναι το κορυφαίο πρόβλημα του πλανήτη. Στρεβλώνει τον ανταγωνισμό. Αυτοί που λαθραία, ανεξέλεγκτα και παράνομα αλιεύουν, βρίσκονται σε πλεονεκτικότερη θέση από τους νόμιμους τους οποίους καλούμεθα να προστατεύσουμε. Η αδήλωτη αλιεία σημαίνει διαφυγή εσόδων για την πολιτεία.

Η πρόταση κανονισμού που ψηφίζουμε, προβλέπει, μεταξύ άλλων, τη δημιουργία ενός καθεστώτος ελέγχου από το κράτος λιμένα που θα απαγορεύει την είσοδο στα σκάφη τρίτων χωρών που εμπλέκονται σε δραστηριότητες παράνομης αλιείας. Η πρόταση προβλέπει την απαγόρευση εισαγωγής αλιευμάτων από παράνομη αλιεία· τη δημιουργία ενός καταλόγου σκαφών που εμπλέκονται στην παράνομη και αδήλωτη αλιεία· την ανάπτυξη κοινοτικού συστήματος έγκαιρης προειδοποίησης, όταν υπάρχουν υποψίες ότι έχουν εντοπιστεί αλιεύματα που προέρχονται από παράνομη αλιεία· την απαγόρευση της εισαγωγής αλιευμάτων από χώρες που έχει διαπιστωθεί ότι δεν συνεργάζονται στα πλαίσια του καθεστώτος της Ευρωπαϊκής Ένωσης.

Υπάρχουν κάποια σημεία τριβής στον κανονισμό όπως, για παράδειγμα, το πεδίο εφαρμογής του. Κάποια κράτη μέλη ζητούν να το περιορίσουν σε αλιευτικές αρμοδιότητες των κοινοτικών σκαφών εκτός κοινοτικών υδάτων, καθώς ήδη υπάρχει πληθώρα διατάξεων για τον έλεγχο της αλιείας εντός κοινοτικών υδάτων. Επί πλέον, μέχρι το τέλος του 2008 αναμένεται και η αναθεώρηση του βασικού κανονισμού για τον έλεγχο της αλιείας. Θεωρώ ότι θα υπάρξει επικάλυψη των δύο κανονισμών και δεν θα διευκολύνουν τη διαδικασία απλούστευσης της κοινής αλιευτικής πολιτικής.

Ολοκληρώνοντας θα ήθελα να πω ότι το θέμα είναι εξαιρετικά σοβαρό κι έτσι πρέπει να το αντιμετωπίσουμε. Με αυστηρότητα και αποφασιστικότητα και πάντοτε σε συνεργασία με τους αλιείες, που θέλουμε και τη γνώμη τους και τη συμμαχία τους.

Πάντως, στηρίζουμε την έκθεση της κ. Aubert, την οποίαν ευχαριστούμε για την εργασία της.

 
  
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  Luis Manuel Capoulas Santos, em nome do Grupo PSE. – Senhora Presidente, Senhor Comissário, caros Colegas, o relatório Aubert sobre a pesca ilegal, como já foi dito pela relatora, que felicito, foi aprovado por unanimidade na Comissão das Pescas. Este facto, só por si, é provavelmente mais esclarecedor do que tudo o que eu possa dizer neste momento sobre o assunto.

Porém, nunca é demais repetir que a pesca ilegal é um crime contra a natureza e contra a economia, que, infelizmente, fica muitas vezes impune e contra o qual temos que nos mobilizar com determinação e coragem. Saúdo, por isso, o Comissário Borg e a Comissão pela forma pronta como reagiram às preocupações manifestadas pelo Parlamento, em Fevereiro de 2007, apresentando uma proposta de regulamento que superou todas as expectativas e que mereceu o nosso justo aplauso.

Contudo, por melhor que seja o quadro normativo, sem empenho dos Estados-Membros e a disponibilização dos meios humanos e materiais adequados, não será fácil ter sucesso num combate que se trava em condições extremamente difíceis. É, por isso, preciso mobilizar também os Estados-Membros.

De qualquer modo, com este relatório e a regulamentação que se vai seguir, a União Europeia dá um passo muito importante e assume-se como um exemplo que nos enobrece e orgulha. Estou certo de que a Comissão não deixará de acolher favoravelmente os contributos do Parlamento para melhorar ainda mais a sua proposta.

Senhora Presidente e Senhor Comissário, peço desculpa se, a partir deste momento, infrinjo alguma norma regimental, mas não posso deixar de aproveitar a sua presença aqui para fazer um veemente apelo. O sector das pescas atravessa momentos de grandes dificuldades em virtude do aumento do preço dos combustíveis. Neste momento, todos sofrem, mas sofrem mais os mais frágeis.

Sei que vários Estados-Membros, entre os quais o meu país, Portugal, tencionam solicitar-lhe, ou solicitaram já, apoio para o encontro de soluções no quadro europeu, designadamente através da flexibilização do Fundo Europeu das Pescas, para adoptar medidas que possam atenuar os efeitos sociais da actual crise. Sei que não seria necessário fazê-lo, mas não deixo de apelar à sua solidariedade e ao espírito de abertura que tem tido sempre para com os problemas do sector, para que contribua para o encontro de uma solução satisfatória, o mais rapidamente possível.

 
  
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  Elspeth Attwooll, on behalf of the ALDE Group. – Madam President, the ALDE Group wishes to express its full support for Mrs Aubert’s excellent report. The amendments it proposes clarify and, in some cases, develop various aspects of the Commission’s proposal, including some useful additions on force majeure subsidies and sanctions.

The emphasis placed on the need for non-discrimination in application of the regulation too is particularly welcome, for there is no doubt that IUU fishing is something that needs to be tackled on a global basis and the EU measures are an important step in that direction.

Last week I was fortunate to be on a delegation from the Committee on Fisheries to Norway. We were told that in the last three years, and particularly since the introduction of a port state control scheme for the North East Atlantic Fisheries Commission in May 2007, there has been a huge reduction in IUU fishing in the area. That scheme covers all EU Member States, as well as Norway, Iceland, the Faroe Islands and Russia. Indeed, Norway’s Minister for Fisheries and Coastal Affairs spoke highly of the EU’s cooperation in this regard.

But there is agreement too that localised measures can have the effect of displacing the problem rather than resolving it. That is why it is especially good to see Amendments 5, 6 and 54, which seek to do more to minimise any negative impacts on developing countries. I would add, too, that I believe we have a special responsibility to assist in the improvement of inspection and control systems in developing countries and to do so not only in the cases of those countries with which we have fisheries partnership agreements.

Further, I hope that the Commission, Parliament and the Council alike will be active in promoting the adoption of a binding convention on port state control at United Nations level. Preparation has already begun in the FAO and, with the right will, could be adopted in March 2009.

 
  
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  Ian Hudghton, on behalf of the Verts/ALE Group. – Madam President, I should like to thank my group colleague, Marie-Hélène Aubert for the amount of work she has put in successfully to this report.

It is obviously in the interests of all fishing nations and fishing communities to eliminate illegal fisheries. After all, it is the fishing communities themselves who will benefit from the successful conservation of the resource. International cooperation is essential in successfully eliminating illegal fishing by the pirates and organised criminals worldwide who operate in the field.

Within the common fisheries policy too much attention has been paid to the recent report of the Court of Auditors on control and enforcement. That report was based on data supposedly gathered from the six most important fishing Member States. However, that data that the Member States listed included the UK (England and Wales). Scotland has some 70% of the UK’s fisheries and was not included in that data. I would just like to make the point that there are distinct and separate quota and management and enforcement organisations within Scotland.

We have made some progress in my fishing nation too in recent years on improving controls. We have the registration of buyers and sellers and we have designated ports of landing. Good enforcement is, of course, important, but equally important is a sensible management regime which provides incentives to conserve by guaranteeing that Scotland’s fishermen, for example, are guaranteed to benefit in the long term from the conservation measures that they have to apply from time to time. The CFP has simply not provided that kind of guarantee.

I was glad to hear you, Commissioner Borg, say recently that you favour root-and-branch reform of the CFP. I agree. I say: let us return day-to-day management and control of the resource to the fishing nations themselves, who have fishing entitlements in logical fishing areas such as the North Sea, and let us abandon the unworkable notion that we can have equal access to waters and resources.

 
  
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  Pedro Guerreiro, em nome do Grupo GUE/NGL. – Independentemente de um ou outro aspecto que nos merece reserva, valorizamos a iniciativa de prevenir e procurar impedir e eliminar a pesca ilegal, não declarada e não regulamentada, concordando com as linhas gerais do relatório.

Entre outros aspectos, salientamos a importância de que as normas definidas no âmbito desta iniciativa sejam aplicadas a todas as embarcações, quer as de países que integrem a União Europeia, quer as embarcações de países terceiros. No entanto, salientamos que a futura consonância entre as presentes propostas e uma futura revisão das normas comunitárias sobre o controlo, deverá salvaguardar as competências dos Estados-Membros, nomeadamente quanto aos procedimentos e à realização de inspecções. Aliás, consideramos igualmente que todo o âmbito de questões em torno das sanções é da competência de cada Estado-Membro.

Por fim, desejo apenas sublinhar que se a Comissão fosse tão expedita a dar resposta às justas reivindicações do sector como o foi relativamente a esta iniciativa, que este não se confrontaria com a contínua agudização da sua situação socioeconómica.

 
  
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  Hélène Goudin, för IND/DEM-gruppen. – Fru talman! Förordningen som diskuteras i dag är både omfattande och komplex och jag vill passa på att betona ett par punkter.

För det första: Förslaget att fiskare som ertappas med att svartfiska ska återbetala de subventioner som de har erhållit från EU är mycket bra. Vi kan inte tillåta att skattebetalarna tvingas subventionera brottslig verksamhet. Däremot bedrivs svartfiske från alla typer av båtar. Därför borde förslaget omfatta alla fartyg, både EU-fartyg och tredjelandsfartyg.

För det andra: Det föreslagna fångstintyget är positivt. Certifieringsprocessen har en nyckelroll i bekämpningen av svartfisket. Gemensamma maximiböter ställer jag mig dock mer tveksam till. Medlemsstaterna ska kunna ta sitt ansvar genom avskräckande avgifter.

Avslutningsvis anser jag att den gemensamma europeiska fiskepolitiken har visat sig vara ett misslyckande och måste reformeras. För att verkligen kunna bekämpa det olagliga fisket behöver vi samarbeta internationellt, både med regionala fiskeorganisationer och med andra internationella organ.

 
  
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  Jim Allister (NI). – Madam President, illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing is indeed something to be stamped out. There is much, therefore, in this report with which I agree, but I do have to reject its attack on subsidiarity by demanding that the EU should be setting the criminal sanctions and the establishment of an EU core of inspectors. Likewise, I oppose the unnecessary additional bureaucracy of applying the regulation to EU-flagged vessels, because these are already subject to the stiff provisions of the common fisheries policy.

We do not need more regulation on our own fishermen to deal with third countries which continue with their rogue activities. Having seen in recent months some punitive fines on local fishermen in the United Kingdom, I for one reject the suggestion that we need more and stiffer regulations and penalties on our own fleets.

 
  
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  Carmen Fraga Estévez (PPE-DE). – Señora Presidenta, quiero dar las gracias a la señora Aubert por su informe. Creo que en él queda clara la voluntad política de este Parlamento para respaldar cuantas acciones sean necesarias a fin de erradicar la pesca ilegal en todos los ámbitos y, empezando por lo que nos toca, para cerrar el territorio comunitario a las importaciones y al comercio de productos de la pesca ilegal.

Sin embargo, no se puede obviar la responsabilidad que en virtud de esta propuesta recae sobre el Estado de puerto y sobre la propia Comisión. Estamos hablando de un Reglamento de letra muy ambiciosa que obligará a los Estados miembros a una vigilancia extrema y a no escatimar medios ni materiales ni humanos –uno de los puntos débiles de toda la política de control– para que la letra se convierta en hechos. Y, por desgracia, eso significa, una vez más, que es necesario poner en juego otras voluntades políticas además de la nuestra.

El daño que la pesca ilegal causa, no sólo a los recursos biológicos, sino a los pescadores legales, es apreciable cada día desde hace años. Tenemos ahora mismo a gran parte del sector en estado de revuelta ante un nuevo máximo de caída de su rentabilidad, una de cuyas causas más graves, por supuesto, es la escalada de los precios del gasóleo. Pero hay otros factores que se unen al capítulo de pérdidas, entre los que la masiva entrada en nuestras fronteras de importaciones a bajo precio y dudoso origen es, en estas circunstancias, especialmente sangrante.

Por poner un ejemplo: sólo en los cinco últimos meses que llevamos de año, en España, el precio del gasóleo ha subido un 38 %, mientras que el precio del pez espada –especie importada por excelencia– ha bajado un 40 %. No hay empresa en ningún sector que pueda sobrevivir en semejante contexto económico, y, sin embargo, es un hecho comprobado que, cuando se ha tenido la voluntad política de vigilar de cerca las importaciones, como ha ocurrido en el pasado, y yo puedo dar fé de ello, los precios pagados a los productores comunitarios se recuperan de manera inmediata.

Por tanto, señor Comisario, pido firmeza a usted y a los Estados miembros para poner en práctica este Reglamento con la mayor urgencia posible.

 
  
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  Σταύρος Αρναουτάκης (PSE). – Κυρία Πρόεδρε, κύριε Επίτροπε, αγαπητοί συνάδελφοι, θα ήθελα να ευχαριστήσω την εισηγήτρια και να τη συγχαρώ για την πραγματικά εξαίρετη δουλειά που έχει κάνει στην έκθεσή της.

Πρέπει επί τέλους, ως Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωση, να κατανοήσουμε ότι, όσο αφήνουμε αυτό το ανεξέλεγκτο καθεστώς να εξελίσσεται, τόσο υποθηκεύουμε το μέλλον της θαλάσσιας αλιείας και του παγκόσμιου θαλάσσιου οικοσυστήματος. Η Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωση πρέπει να προχωρήσει άμεσα, όχι μόνον ως μια ένωση γραφειοκρατικών, πολύπλοκων και πολλές φορές ανεφάρμοστων ακόμη και από τα μέλη της κανονισμών, σε μια παγκόσμια πρωτοβουλία χωρίς να φοβάται τα μεγάλα συμφέροντα και χωρίς να υποκύπτει σε διεθνείς ή άλλες πιέσεις, ώστε όλη η παγκόσμια κοινότητα που ασχολείται με την αλιεία να κατανοήσει, να αποδεχθεί και τελικά να συμφωνήσει για την ελαχιστοποίηση της παράνομης και λαθραίας αλιείας. Προαπαιτούμενο σε αυτήν την πρωτοβουλία θα είναι βεβαίως μια παγκόσμια αποδεκτή συμφωνία για τη διατήρηση των αλιευμάτων. Και θα ήθελα και εγώ να προσθέσω τη φωνή μου στη φωνή των υπολοίπων συναδέλφων Ευρωβουλευτών για τη μεγάλη κρίση που έχουν οι Ευρωπαίοι αλιείς. Πρέπει, κύριε Επίτροπε, να δούμε άμεσα αυτά τα θέματα και να αντιμετωπίσουμε τα προβλήματα.

 
  
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  Zdzisław Kazimierz Chmielewski (PPE-DE). – Pani Przewodnicząca! Rozporządzenie Rady stanowi interesujący przykład legislacji zapobiegawczej, regulacji skierowanej przeciwko nielegalnym połowom, groźnemu dla zachowania zrównoważonego poziomu zasobów ryb procederowi. Szanse skuteczności tego szczególnego dokumentu stwarza przede wszystkim klarowność proponowanych rozwiązań. Precyzyjne zdefiniowanie intencji prawodawcy.

Sprawozdawczyni znakomicie uchwyciła specyficzny charakter rozporządzenia, dokonując niezwykle pomocnych zabiegów interpretacyjnych, ułatwiających po prostu właściwe odczytanie najistotniejszych zapisów. Rządy krajów południowego i wschodniego Bałtyku obszernie odniosły się do tej ważnej inicjatywy prawnej. W środowiskach eksperckich nadal jednak trwają polemiki w sprawie proponowanych przez Radę kryteriów karania rybaków dopuszczających się nielegalnych połowów.

Ponawiane jest pytanie: czy pomysł na szukanie gwarancji skuteczności kary poprzez jej daleko idące sformalizowanie uwzględnia zróżnicowanie potencjału połowowego europejskich akwenów? Czy w dalszych pracach legislacyjnych nie powinna być wzięta pod uwagę możliwość uzależnienia wysokości grzywny od wielkości zasobów ryb i obowiązujących kwot połowowych przeławianych gatunków? Wierzę, że ujawniona ostatnio zmodyfikowana ocena ICS w stosunku do ekosystemu bałtyckiego stanowi zapowiedź odwilży w polityce rybołówczej, procesu korygowania rewolucyjnych działań Unii Europejskiej na rzecz ochrony zasobów.

Komisja Rybołówstwa Parlamentu Europejskiego przewidująco uzupełniła dokument o specjalną poprawkę, która traktuje pierwszy rok obowiązywania rozporządzenia, jako okres przejściowy, adaptacyjny, pozwalający państwom członkowskim podjąć niezbędne działania dostosowawcze.

 
  
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  Avril Doyle (PPE-DE). – Madam President, the world’s fisheries are in crisis. The EU’s fisheries are in crisis, compounded by a 30% increase in marine fuel prices in recent months. The fishermen are on our streets in Brussels and in our Member States. Your response, Commissioner, is urgently awaited. Moving now from unsustainable economic pressure to unsustainable environmental pressure, experts report that 75% of fisheries are significantly depleted and over-exploited. Illegal unreported unregulated fishing is a global problem that compounds the present fisheries crisis.

According to the FAO, overall IUU fishing accounts for up to 30% of total captures of some important fisheries, and catches of particular species could be up to three times the permitted amount. IUU fishing undermines sustainable fisheries, harms and destroys marine habitats and threatens the livelihood of responsible fishermen and communities depending on fishing. Illegal fishing also jeopardises food security, particularly for those heavily dependent on fish as a source of animal protein.

By-catch, due mainly to large-scale industrial bottom-trawling, often carried out unregulated, illegally and unreported by distant fishing fleets, has devastating effects on local fishermen and fish stocks. Over one third of the world’s catch is simply discarded due to inappropriate fish sizes or simply due to unintended catch. Misguided EU fishery regulations have encouraged completely unsustainable practices, such as discarding on a massive scale, as it is – perversely – illegal to land by-catches, the examination of which would be invaluable to the scientists.

The extreme vulnerability of most deep sea fish stocks to rapid depletion means that this fishery may no longer exist by the time regulations are implemented. I would like to ask the Commissioner whether he has looked at the possibilities for satellite tracking of vessels, electronic documentation systems for catches and on-board CCTV as possible measures to combat illegal fishing, as happens in other jurisdictions.

Proper implementation of this regulation will require a high degree of integration at Community level of the services responsible for inspection and control. It will also require fishermen and other stakeholders to take responsibility and ownership of the policy.

 
  
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  Iles Braghetto (PPE-DE). – Signora Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, l'Unione europea ha il dovere e la responsabilità di svolgere un ruolo importante nella lotta alla pesca illegale, non dichiarata e non regolamentata e lo fa con una serie di iniziative di carattere repressivo, potenziando controlli, ispezioni e sanzioni.

Ma l'obiettivo più ambizioso è di carattere preventivo: rendere possibile e garantire la tracciabilità del prodotto dalla cattura fino alla destinazione finale. Questo perché, se gravi sono i danni di tale attività illegale sul piano economico e della salvaguardia dell'ambiente marino, non meno importanti sono gli obiettivi da raggiungere per la tutela del consumatore con un prodotto di qualità e per la salvaguardia della professione del pescatore, oggi più che mai messa in crisi da molteplici fattori non solo congiunturali ma anche strutturali.

Sono questi obiettivi sociali significativi che guidano l'Unione europea nel prevenire, scoraggiare ed eliminare la pesca illegale, oggetto di questo regolamento, e che rafforzano l'impegno per il rispetto delle norme della politica comune della pesca nelle acque comunitarie.

Il voto all'unanimità che si è registrato nella relazione Aubert in commissione è un segnale importante della volontà di rendere efficaci le misure proposte.

 
  
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  Петя Ставрева (PPE-DE). – Уважаема г-жо Председател, уважаеми членове на Европейския парламент, този доклад засяга много важни въпроси, свързани със защитата на моретата и набелязване на мерки за борба с нелегалния риболов.

Необходимостта от промяна на съществуващата нормативна уредба е продиктувана от факта, че това явление придобива все по-големи размери и застрашава екосистемите и риболовната индустрия в Общността. Съществен въпрос е отбелязаният от докладчика факт, че страните членки не спазват общата политика на риболова.

Санкциите, които се налагат до момента, са различни в различните държави от Общността, което дискриминира някои рибари в Европейския съюз. Ето защо е много важно да се подобри сътрудничеството, координацията и обменът на добрите практики между европейските страни за предотвратяване на незаконния и недеклариран риболов.

Установяването на система за контрол, съобразена с нуждите на риболовния бранш, е сериозна крачка в тази посока. Освен екологичните вреди, незаконният улов на риба има икономически и социални последици, които ощетяват годишно с милиарди евро легалната риболовна индустрия.

Забраната на вноса на рибни продукти от незаконен, недеклариран или нерегулиран риболов в Европейския съюз също може значително да повлияе на печалбите от нелегалния улов. Политиката по контрол и сериозни санкции за нарушителите е в основата на по-доброто управление на рибните ресурси.

В България също има протести на рибарите, които преживяват много трудности. Това изисква от нас отговорни решения за бъдещето на сектора. Подкрепям доклада на г-жа Aubert.

 
  
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  Mairead McGuinness (PPE-DE). – Madam President, I should like to thank Mrs Aubert for this report.

The one issue that needs to be stressed is the consumers’ lack of awareness of the problem of unregulated, unreported and illegal fishing and that is something we need to speak more about.

As others have said, the legal fishing sector is under severe threat and the impact of this illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing is just part of the problem. Fuel costs are a major issue for them and we need some response from the Commission to the crisis which has seen fishermen give away fish in Member States and take to the streets in protest. Perhaps part of the problem we have with the illegal side of the fishing is over-regulation on the legal sector – but perhaps that is a debate for another issue.

Yes, we need a global agreement on this, but we need to start at home and whatever we do, rather than just layer on bureaucracy, which we are very often accused of in this place, we need to make sure that the regulations we put in place are effective and tackle the problem at source, so that we do not destroy both the economics and the environment.

 
  
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  Paulo Casaca (PSE). – Senhora Presidente, de facto temos um excelente relatório, está de parabéns a nossa relatora. A proposta, como já aqui foi dito por parte da Comissão, é uma boa proposta, mas gostaria de sublinhar aqui a mensagem que nos foi dada pelo relator da Comissão do Comércio Internacional, Daniel Varela Suanzes-Carpegna, ou seja, este é exactamente o dispositivo que pode responder de forma efectiva a uma crise como aquela que estamos hoje a viver no sector das pescas.

É exactamente por que não são respeitadas normas de sustentabilidade na pesca que os pescadores estão a ser confrontados com esta crise, e esta é a lição fundamental que espero que todos nós saibamos tirar. O problema é que o relógio está a andar e o relógio não pára por causa do nosso processo legislativo, e desse ponto de vista, Senhor Comissário, é urgente tomar medidas, como já aqui foi dito, porque de outra forma não iremos a tempo de responder aos nossos desafios.

 
  
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  Avril Doyle (PPE-DE). – Madam President, if five minutes of the catch-the-eye are not taken up, even people who have contributed to the debate can put a question to the Commissioner. I have done this several times since the catch-the-eye procedure came in. Therefore, with your permission, I should like to put a specific question to the Commissioner.

 
  
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  President. − I have been told that I am only allowed to take two speakers. I am willing to give you the floor.

 
  
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  Avril Doyle (PPE-DE). – Madam President, I do not want preferential treatment but there are facilities for five minutes of catch-the-eye.

Could Commissioner Borg comment on the application of subsidies on marine fuels in some Member States and not others and, indeed, on an even-handed approach to subsidies? How can this be squared under the common fisheries policy – with an emphasis on common – and does it square with the competition policy rules? We have to help the fishing community who, at the moment, are in a severe economic crisis, particularly with the 30% increase in marine fuel prices. Could you be sure to respond specifically to this, as requested by several speakers, in your reply?

 
  
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  Joe Borg, Member of the Commission. − Madam President, first of all, the level of the debate on this important subject demonstrates that we share a strong commitment to address the issue of IUU in an effective and comprehensive manner. The truth of the matter is not only that IUU is an activity that threatens the sustainability of fish stocks, but it is also an activity that threatens the future of honest fishermen within and outside the European Union.

In order for us to be successful in our efforts, we must ensure three crucial principles. The first is that the scope of the proposal remains comprehensive. Secondly, the certification scheme put in place must be effective yet ensure that there are no unnecessary burdens imposed as a result. And the sanctions scheme we proposed must be such that these can serve as effective punitive measures and, therefore, be dissuasive by their very nature.

With regard to these three principles, I have heard confirmation that you have managed to sort out various issues with Member States concerning the scope, the certification scheme and the sanctions. You have done so without diluting or diminishing the effectiveness of the proposal. Specifically on the sanctions, let me say that one of the major problems with control is the fact that the range of sanctions applied by Member States is so diverse that it is the sector itself which has consistently and constantly called for a level playing field in this area. It is for this reason that, at the very least, we have proposed levels which should be applied in a proportionate and in an effective manner.

On the wider issue regarding the reform of the common fisheries policy, I can confirm that we have started reflecting on this and will be having an orientation debate in Council in the coming months. In fact the idea is to have an informal ministerial meeting in September. We are also dealing with over-regulation, with a view to simplifying the regulatory regime that is in place.

Let me also say that I cannot agree more with the comment made by Mrs Aubert that the fight against IUU, if effective, will help fishermen to better face up to the problems and the difficulties they are now facing, and this point was made by certain other Members who intervened. I also, however, agree that it is not sufficient.

On the issue of developing countries, we are committed to addressing this issue effectively, as I said in my opening remarks. Taking measures to assist developing countries is key if we are to solve the problem and not simply to displace it.

As regards control issues, let me assure the rapporteur that the Commission is coming up with a strong proposal during the third quarter of this year which will also be merged, or harmonised, with the IUU proposal that we have before us. In that way, both will be convergent and attain the same results.

As regards the fuel crisis, we already have the possibility of medium- to long-term measures that are in place, and this would be in combination with the restructuring of the sector. We will be looking at the market measures in place – this point was raised by some Members who intervened – which work in such a way that increased costs are borne by the fishermen and are not passed on to the consumer, as happens in other sectors. We therefore need to look into this in order to find out why.

There are systems in place which bring about a situation whereby it is the fisherman who ends up suffering, who ends up having to bear the increased costs himself, rather than those being passed on to the consumers.

We also offer fishermen some possibilities for providing immediate assistance, if this is linked to restructuring in the form of rescue and restructuring aid. However, I need to say here that I am also looking at this and am discussing it with my colleagues, with a view to trying to identify other ways and means whereby we can help fishermen face up to this new reality in the very short term. But I need to underline that we can only do this if there is a firm and a fixed-term commitment to restructuring, because the problem is also that of over-capacity. Therefore, unless we tackle the problem of over-capacity, we will have a recurring problem for as long as fuel prices remain as they are, or – worse still – if they continue rising, as the indications suggest.

This is what we have done with France, where agreement was reached between the Commission and France on a package of measures which are intended to help the French fisheries sector to restructure. I have to admit that this was not enough and did not satisfy the French fishermen.

I need to underline that, for the Commission to respond, we also need the cooperation and active engagement of Member States. We cannot act on our own. In this regard I understand that this crisis will be raised and discussed at the forthcoming June Council, and I personally welcome it.

On the question raised at the very end by Mrs Doyle concerning the application of subsidies by some Member States and not others, the information that the Commission has is that these subsidies that have been granted by different Member States either fall within the parameters of the de minimis (and any Member State can grant subsidies as long as they fall within the threshold of de minimis) or are under restructuring programmes to which I made reference before. There is the communication with regard to rescue and restructuring aid and, if agreement is reached – if the Commission gives the green light to a restructuring programme – then there are certain possibilities with regard to subsidies, with regard to state assistance, which would not otherwise be possible.

Where we have had information with regard to other subsidies which are not covered either by de minimis or under restructuring programmes, we are investigating them. There has just been, for example, a notification to France that the amount which was paid in the form of an insurance scheme has to be re-collected. So we do take action in order to see to it that the European rules with regard to competition are properly observed. However, I would end by saying that the immediate crisis is such that we need to address it very carefully in order to find ways and means whereby we try to find solutions of an immediate nature but which would also have the conditionality that there is a firm commitment within the short term for the fisheries sector to restructure in order to bring about capacity levels to match what can sustainably be fished out of the seas.

 
  
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  Marie-Hélène Aubert, rapporteur. − Madame la Présidente, je voudrais d'abord remercier tous les collègues qui ont participé au débat, et Monsieur le Commissaire. Bien évidemment, nous avons abordé aussi le contexte de crise grave que traverse le secteur actuellement, ce qui est bien normal, et je remercie le commissaire d'avoir bien voulu répondre aussi précisément que possible aux questions qui ont été posées à ce sujet, même si, évidemment, il est délicat d'entrer dans les détails à certains égards. En tout cas, dans ce contexte, il est regrettable que l'Union européenne – Bruxelles, comme on dit – soit systématiquement accusée de tous les maux et je pense justement que nous avons là une bonne occasion de montrer que l'Union européenne, Bruxelles, n'est pas partie du problème, mais surtout partie de la solution. Il est vrai que, quand on voit le ressentiment qu'il peut y avoir à l'égard de l'Union européenne, on se rend compte à quel point les États membres et bon nombre d'acteurs de la filière ont fui pendant des années leurs responsabilités en privilégiant des intérêts à très court terme, pensant en tirer profit pour quelque temps, mais en refusant de voir que, ce faisant, ils conduisaient tout un secteur au bord du précipice.

Maintenant, nous y sommes. Comment trouver des solutions immédiates à une situation qui perdure depuis des années? Ce n'est pas facile. Vous avez tracé quelques pistes. Mais on ne s'en sortira pas si on ne prend pas effectivement des mesures exigeantes, rigoureuses, si on n'emploie pas tous les moyens nécessaires, car ces textes ne trouveront pas d'application sans moyens financiers et humains, tout en adoptant des sanctions beaucoup plus dissuasives qu'elles ne le sont aujourd'hui en ce qui concerne la pêche illégale, et ce ne sera pas très difficile, vu le nombre très faible d'infractions et d'amendes qui ont été pris ces derniers temps.

Il faudra aussi inciter beaucoup plus et récompenser, rémunérer beaucoup plus les comportements, les pratiques intelligentes, durables, et souvent les pêcheurs, les entreprises de pêche qui s'orientent vers des pratiques à la fois extrêmement respectueuses des règles et innovantes en vue d'une gestion durable des pêches, se sentent peut reconnues, peu récompensées. Je crois également que, aussi bien en termes de lutte contre la pêche illégale qu'à l'égard d'autres sujets qui ont été abordés, comme les rejets ou la gestion des ressources, le respect des quotas, on doit aussi penser à une politique qui soit beaucoup plus rémunératrice pour ceux, justement, qui vont de l'avant et qui vont dans la bonne direction, ce qui, me semble-t-il, n'est pas le cas aujourd'hui.

En conclusion, je pense que ce rapport nous donne l'occasion d'évoquer toutes ces questions. Évidemment, cette discussion ne suffira pas à résoudre les problèmes. Nous allons continuer à en discuter, je pense, dans le rapport suivant, mais je crois que nous avons besoin d'un temps fort de concertation très générale, sans ce tête-à-tête entre les représentants de la profession, le gouvernement et la Commission, vu du haut en bas, mais bien une concertation très large, très transversale, plus horizontale que verticale, qui nous permette de dégager les bonnes solutions et là, l'Union européenne, le Parlement européen, joue encore une fois pleinement son rôle et assumera toutes ses responsabilités dans les solutions à trouver pour répondre à la crise du secteur.

 
  
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  President. − The debate is closed.

The vote will take place on Thursday, 5 June 2008.

Written statements (Rule 142)

 
  
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  Margie Sudre (PPE-DE), par écrit. Le Parlement européen porte un nouveau coup à la pêche illicite, non-déclarée et non-réglementée, véritable fléau international.

Les mesures adoptées complètent efficacement le dispositif existant. Je retiens particulièrement la mise en place, par l'État du port, d'un régime de contrôle des navires y faisant escale, impliquant la délivrance d'un certificat attestant de la légalité des captures et l'interdiction d'accepter des navires pirates. De même, je salue l'interdiction d'importer du poisson provenant de la pêche illicite ainsi que la publication d'une liste répertoriant les navires voyous.

La valeur ajoutée de ces nouvelles règles européennes découle également du développement d'un système d'alerte communautaire se déclenchant en cas de soupçon de pêche pirate. Le système de sanctions a par ailleurs été renforcé, incluant l'interdiction pour les navires clandestins de bénéficier de subventions publiques et l'obligation de les rembourser, le cas échéant.

Surtout, je me suis battue avec succès pour que le Parlement européen porte aux régions ultrapériphériques une attention particulière dans le cadre de la lutte contre la pêche illicite, en raison de l'exceptionnelle fragilité de leurs écosystèmes. C'est un signal fort adressé aux flottes sans scrupules qui permettra de mettre un frein réel à la concurrence déloyale étouffant à petit feu nos pêcheurs.

 
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