Li jmiss 
 Test sħiħ 
Rapporti verbatim tad-dibattiti
It-Tnejn, 12 ta' Jannar 2009 - Strasburgu Edizzjoni riveduta

18. Il-politika komuni għall-agrikultura u s-sikurezza dinjija tal-ikel (preżentazzjoni qasira)
Vidjow tat-taħditiet

  Presidente. - Segue-se o relatório da Deputada Mairead McGuinness, em nome da Comissão da Agricultura e do Desenvolvimento Rural, sobre a Política Agrícola Comum e a segurança alimentar mundial (2008/2153(INI)) (A6-0505/2008).


  Mairead McGuinness, rapporteur. − Mr President, when I initiated this report the issue of global food security was very high on the political agenda and, to some extent, it has slipped from the highlights. But it is certainly an issue that is of concern because there are still upwards of one billion people globally who suffer hunger or malnutrition. Thirty thousand children die of hunger and poverty-related illnesses a day. These are horrific statistics and it makes the issue of how we produce sufficient food and give people access to that food a key issue.

I would like to thank the Commission for working with me in drafting this report and also the very many committees in the House, in particular the Committee on Development, which were obviously involved in its production.

In four minutes it is impossible to do justice to what is in the report, but let me just highlight some of the issues which I believe are of importance. Firstly, the fact that I have put the common agricultural policy and global food security in the one heading suggests that the old practice of bashing the common agricultural policy and blaming it for all the ills of the developing world has moved on, and that we are now aware that the common agricultural policy has provided food security for European citizens, and that as a model it can provide lessons for what we need to do in the developing world in terms of food production.

It is very clear that we have allowed agriculture development to slip down the political and development agenda over the last decade or so. There was a time when much of our development aid money went to stimulating agriculture and to projects on food production. That is not the case today, although I think, since the food price hike, we are beginning to refocus on agriculture, both in the EU and globally.

That means allowing those countries which have the resources to grow food to do that, to help them and their small-scale farmers produce food locally to meet their needs. It involves not just the provision of the basis ingredients of food production, such as seeds and fertilisers, but also the know-how, the advisory services, the assistance to farming families in the developing world to allow them to produce to meet their own needs.

It can be done. We have examples of Malawi and other countries that have managed to come from situations of extreme famine to producing food. It takes public policy initiatives to do it. It also requires that the European Union, given its huge involvement in the developing world, urges countries to look at their agriculture and begin stimulating food production in their own countries.

The issue of supply and demand is a very delicate one because there is a growing world population – it will increase by 40% by 2050 – so we are going to have to look at these issues. The problem of competition – as we have witnessed – between food production, feed production and fuel, is obviously a key concern. I suppose, driving all of this, we need to look at the issue of research and development.

I believe that we have not done enough in terms of research and development. We, in Europe, had looked towards producing less food and therefore perhaps had not looked at the need to look at the efficiencies of agricultural production and the need to produce more into the future.

One of the key messages that I really want to get across in the short time I have is to say that farmers worldwide will produce food if they can make an income from doing it, so the pressure on policymakers is to get that right, to provide the policies that will give farmers stable incomes. How do we do that? By providing stable prices and also looking at the costs of food production. Unless farmers get that income stimulus, they will pull back.

I give a warning. Well over a year ago we were talking about high commodity prices. Today there are surpluses of grain, for example, in store and no market for them. Those farmers will not produce as much in the next season, and that could exacerbate the longer-term problem of global food security.

There is a lot in this report. I hope colleagues can support it and again I thank the many people who took a great interest in it.


  Androulla Vassiliou, Member of the Commission. − Mr President, the Commission welcomes the report prepared by Ms McGuinness and the intense debate which has taken place in the various EP committees on the elements surrounding this very topical subject, which range from trade to biofuels, price monitoring, investment policy, the financial crisis, climate change and water use in agriculture.

The Commission shares the broad analysis on the causes of the food crisis which hit many developing countries in the first part of 2008. The Commission will continue to analyse the link between food prices and energy prices. The causality issue is a highly complex one as it involves the interplay of a number of demand and supply factors. Energy prices constitute only one of these factors but one which has both a direct and indirect impact. The topic of biofuels was discussed in detail during the various EP sessions. There is a clear difference between EU and US policy on the extent to which cereal production is being diverted to biofuels. EU biofuels policy does not reduce the availability of food, as the quantities of feedstocks used are very small on a global scale.

Even if the EU moves closer to its 10% target, the impact on food prices will be limited, in particular for two reasons: first, more and more biofuels will come from non-food feedstocks or will be made from residues or waste. Second, the efficiency of techniques for producing biofuels will further improve, and average yields can also be expected to continue to increase.

A sustainable EU biofuels policy is overall a pro-poor policy. It will provide additional opportunities for the two thirds of the world’s poor who live in rural areas and thus depend on a thriving agricultural sector. However, not all groups will benefit to the same extent. The Commission is committed to closely monitoring the effects on food security and on food prices.

The EU has already taken steps in order to address global food security by adapting the CAP to the changed market and global situation. The health check which was recently agreed will modernise, simplify and streamline the CAP and remove restrictions on farmers, thus helping them to respond better to signals from the market and to face new challenges.

The agreement on the health check abolishes arable set-aside, increases milk quotas gradually leading up to their abolition in 2015, and converts market intervention into a genuine safety net.

New challenges, such as climate change, water management, renewable energy and biodiversity, which will have an impact on developing countries, have also been addressed in it.

The CAP will not remain static after 2013, and the preliminary debate has already been engaged since the informal agricultural ministers meeting in Annecy in September. The future CAP has to be seen in the context of a broader vision in which sustainable development, competitiveness and global food balances will form an integral part.

Various high-level events have placed global food security high on the international agenda. There is a clear understanding and recognition internationally to place agriculture and rural development higher on the policy agenda at national, regional and possibly at continental level. For example, we have discussed in detail the topic of agriculture and food security during our college-to-college meeting with the African Union in October, a debate which we intend to intensify in the course of this year.

Last but not least, the Commission needs to follow up on the G8 leaders’ statement on global food security. In the run-up to the adoption by the Council of the food facility on 16 December, the European Commission has already had very fruitful discussions with the UN high-level task force.

The European Commission looks forward to the implementation of the comprehensive framework for action. The Commission is convinced that the global partnership on agriculture and food security which is gradually taking shape will have a key role in implementing the various recommendations made in this report, including how to support smallholder farmer production and what type of trade policies should be adopted to contribute to food security, especially in the most vulnerable communities.

Evidently, export restrictions and bans should be avoided and the way forward is more rather than less trade liberalisation. Enhanced trade flows are part of the solution towards food security.

The Commission hopes that the bold step taken by the European institutions to mobilise the one billion euros which will complement other financial instruments which have been earmarked to respond to the food crisis – of both a short- and medium- to long-term nature – is followed up by other donors.

The Madrid Conference on food security for all on 26 and 27 January is certainly a key event to move the debate to another level, one that seeks to identify the key priorities to address world food hunger.

The European Commission will continue to play a proactive role in contributing to global food security and the McGuinness report has certainly been a good analysis to look at some possible avenues which could be considered by the EC and the broader international community.


  Presidente. − Este ponto é dado por encerrado.

A votação terá lugar na terça-feira, às 12 horas.

Declarações escritas (artigo 142.º)


  Kader Arif (PSE), par écrit. La mobilisation du Parlement suite aux émeutes de la faim a permis de dégager 1 milliard d'euros pour lutter contre la crise alimentaire. Au-delà de cette mesure d'urgence, je tiens à souligner le besoin d'une stratégie mondiale de long terme basée sur les agricultures locales et vivrières et adaptée aux besoins des populations et aux potentialités des territoires.

En effet, l'augmentation de la population mondiale, le réchauffement climatique, la production incontrôlée d'agro-carburants et les spéculations agressives sont autant de facteurs qui augmentent les tensions sur les marchés agricoles. Ces éléments indiquent que la crise ne sera pas passagère et qu'il faudra repenser globalement les politiques publiques afin d'améliorer les méthodes de production et la régulation des marchés internationaux.

Je considère que la PAC, corrigée de ses excès et imperfections, pourrait devenir un exemple de politique efficace, équitable et responsable, répondant au défi alimentaire, alliant à la fois économie, social et environnement. Elle doit également aider les pays en développement par un partage des techniques, des connaissances et de l'expérience européennes. Mais l'Europe doit surtout œuvrer à réformer les règles du commerce mondial pour qu'elles ne s'opposent pas au droit des pays à soutenir leur agriculture pour garantir leur sécurité alimentaire.


  Κατερίνα Μπατζελή (PSE), γραπτώς. Oι έως τώρα διεθνείς και περιφερειακές συμφωνίες έχουν αποδειχθεί ανεπαρκείς για την ομαλοποίηση του εφοδιασμού της αγοράς και του εμπορίου, αλλά και της διαφάνειας και σταθερότητας των τιμών των γεωργικών προϊόντων.

Η ρύθμιση των γεωργικών αγορών θα πρέπει να βασίζεται σε μακροπρόθεσμη στρατηγική αποτελεσματικών μέτρων, καθώς και στην οργάνωση και πληροφόρηση των παραγωγών ως προς την κατάσταση και τις προοπτικές των αγορών.

Η βασική αρχή μιας τέτοιας πολιτικής είναι η θέσπιση ενός δικτύου ασφαλείας του εισοδήματος έναντι κινδύνων και κρίσεων που προέρχονται είτε από αντίξοα φυσικά φαινόμενα είτε από στρεβλώσεις στην αγορά και ασυνήθιστης διάρκειας και έκτασης πτώση των τιμών.

Απαιτούνται ολοκληρωμένες και αποτελεσματικές πολιτικές όπως:

- ευρωπαϊκά και διεθνή συστήματα παρακολούθησης της παραγωγής και της αγοράς για την έγκαιρη προειδοποίηση καθορισμού των τάσεων της παραγωγής,

- ένας παγκόσμιος κατάλογος απογραφής των τροφίμων και των επισιτιστικών αποθεμάτων,

- ένα ευρωπαϊκό σύστημα παρακολούθησης της αγοράς για την καταγραφή των μεταβολών των τιμών των γεωργικών προϊόντων και του κόστους των εισροών, σύστημα το οποίο μπορεί να συνδυαστεί με ένα αντίστοιχο διεθνές στα πλαίσια του FAO.

Επίσης είναι επιθυμητό η μελλοντική συμφωνία για τον γύρο της Ντόχα να συμπεριλάβει και τις καταστάσεις εκτάκτου ανάγκης κατά τις οποίες θα επιτρέπεται η παροχή επισιτιστικής βοήθειας διότι οι μέχρι τώρα διατάξεις δεν έχουν δεσμευτικό χαρακτήρα.


  Constantin Dumitriu (PPE-DE), în scris. Concluziile raportului dnei McGuiness referitoare la securitatea alimentară globală sunt evidente acum şi în România: ne confruntăm cu o creştere a preţului tuturor produselor alimentare de bază, determinată de devalorizarea monedei naţionale, scumpirea materiei prime şi a creditelor contractate de procesori.

Mai mult, din cauza încălzirii globale, în ultimii ani am văzut culturi nimicite tot mai des de calamităţi naturale, iar fermierii din noile state membre sunt cei mai dezavantajaţi în aceste situaţii, deoarece nivelul subvenţiilor acordate acestora este mai redus decât în celelalte state membre.

De aceea, prin amendamentele propuse, am solicitat Comisiei să analizeze posibilitatea constiturii unor mecanisme de intervenţie la nivel comunitar, independente de ajutorul specific pentru asigurarea culturilor, pentru prevenirea şi combaterea efectelor încălzirii globale.

Standardele comunitare impuse producătorilor de alimente sunt înalte şi, de aceea, preţurile la alimente în UE sunt mari. Am însă convingerea că agricultura poate constitui motorul de relansare al economiilor europene lovite de criza globală, iar dezvoltarea surselor de energie regenerabile poate avea un impact pozitiv asupra sectorului agro-alimentar.

Luând măsurile de precauţie necesare, putem realiza creşterea producţiei de biocombustibili fără a pune în pericol mediul înconjurător sau rezerva de alimente necesare la nivel mondial.


  Roselyne Lefrançois (PSE), par écrit. Ce rapport relatif à la PAC et à la sécurité alimentaire mondiale nous offrait une formidable occasion de réfléchir à la manière de faire pleinement participer l'agriculture européenne à la réalisation de l'équilibre alimentaire de la planète. En effet, alors que les besoins alimentaires ne cessent d'augmenter dans le monde, la part d'aide au développement dédiée à l'agriculture a quant à elle subi une diminution constante depuis les années 80. C'est pourquoi j'avais déposé en commission AGRI un certain nombre d'amendements visant à rendre ce rapport plus ambitieux et notamment à proposer que la Commission européenne adopte une stratégie globale sur les questions de sécurité alimentaire, permettant davantage de cohérence entre toutes les politiques communautaires de l'Union.

Si je me réjouis que ce texte insiste sur le rôle capital de la PAC pour atteindre l'objectif de sûreté alimentaire, je regrette que la rapporteure défende une orientation accrue de la politique agricole vers le marché et accuse les initiatives de protection de l'environnement d'être responsables d'une réduction de la production agricole en Europe. Cette affirmation est à mes yeux totalement erronée et il me semble au contraire nécessaire de se saisir de la problématique du changement climatique pour valoriser de nouveaux modèles visant à produire plus et mieux.


  Véronique Mathieu (PPE-DE), par écrit. Aujourd'hui, l'UE doit renforcer, en toute urgence, la sécurité sanitaire en matière agricole et répondre à des défis majeurs. Tout d'abord, l'agriculture devra doubler sa production en 30 ans car la population mondiale atteindra 9 milliards d'individus d'ici 2050. Or, 860 millions de personnes souffrent toujours de la faim. Ce développement devra être durable et s'appuyer en priorité sur les agricultures locales.

La fluctuation massive des prix mondiaux des denrées alimentaires tout comme la bonne gestion des stocks mondiaux représentent un autre défi. Pour garantir des revenus équitables aux agriculteurs européens, je soutiens l'idée que les polices d'assurance protègent davantage les agriculteurs contre les fluctuations de prix tout comme l'initiative d'instaurer un système global d'inventaire des stocks alimentaires.

Enfin, compte tenu de l'accroissement des échanges d'animaux et de végétaux, l'UE se doit de mettre en œuvre une stratégie efficace pour prévenir toute crise sanitaire en Europe basée sur la prévention, la traçabilité et la réactivité. En ce sens, la récente décision du Conseil des Ministres de renforcer et d'harmoniser les dispositifs de contrôle à l'importation permettra de mieux garantir la qualité des produits alimentaires à nos concitoyens.

L'agriculture joue plus que jamais un rôle central en matière de croissance et de développement. Nous devons donc à tout prix la protéger !


  Daciana Octavia Sârbu (PSE), în scris. Criza mondială a alimentelor, generată de creşterea continuă a preţului porumbului, grâului şi a energiei, creşterea demografică mondială, precum şi schimbările climatice, a generat o serie de tensiuni şi revolte care, dacă nu sunt rezolvate în viitorul apropiat, ar putea contribui la o destabilizare a ţărilor şi regiunilor la nivel mondial. Este alarmant diferenţa între ritmul de creştere al populaţiei care ar putea ajunge la peste 9 miliarde de locuitori în 2050 şi reducerea rezervelor alimentare la nivel global. O astfel de situaţie va duce cel mai probabil la înlocuirea conflictelor pentru petrol cu cele pentru apă potabilă şi hrană, respectiv cu lupta pentru supravieţuire. În momentul de faţă, Uniunea Europenă este donatorul principal în materie de ajutor umanitar, însă rezervele de alimente încep să se epuizeze şi ţările în curs de dezvoltare, în special Africa, au nevoie de mai mult sprijin pentru combaterea sărăciei şi a foamei cronice. Reducerea dependenţei agriculturii de sursele de energie fosilă, utilizarea produselor biologice, păstrarea solurilor fertile, precum şi adaptarea Politicii Agrare Comune la situaţia crizei alimentare, sunt câteva din elementele cele mai importante care trebuie luate în considerare pentru a trece peste acest impas.


  Csaba Sándor Tabajdi (PSE), írásban. Az európai agrárszektor legnagyobb kérdése 2009-ben, hogy miként befolyásolja a gazdasági világválság a mezőgazdasági termékek termelési feltételeit és a fogyasztást. A kérdés központi témája lesz a II. Magyar Agrárakadémiának is, amelyet Gőgös Zoltán FVM államtitkárral közösen szervezek 2009. április 17-én, Pápán. 2006 óta a kukorica ára háromszorosára, a búza világpiaci ára pedig 180%-al nőtt, miközben az élelmiszerárak összességében 83%-al emelkedtek. 2050-re a világ népessége 9 milliárd főre gyarapszik, ellátásukhoz meg kell duplázni a jelenlegi mezőgazdasági termelési szintet, az olcsó élelmiszer korszakának tehát vége szakadt. Ezért kiemelten fontos, hogy megőrizzük, és lehetőség szerint növeljük az Európai Unió mezőgazdasági potenciálját. Elfogadhatatlan, hogy a KAP ágazati reformjainak következtében csökkent az Európai Unió mezőgazdasági termelése. Ezt jól példázza a magyar cukoripar eltűnéséhez vezető cukorreform, a szőlőtőkék kivágására adott támogatás a borreform keretében, és ebbe az irányba hat a közvetlen mezőgazdasági támogatások termeléstől való elválasztása is.

Meg kell találnunk a megfelelő egyensúlyt az élelemtermelés és a bioüzemanyag-előállítás között, utóbbi nem veszélyeztetheti a globális élelmiszerbiztonságot. Az Egyesült Államok bioetanol programja jelentős szerepet játszott a 2008-as élelmiszerár-robbanásban, a tapasztalatokból okulva az Európai Uniónak felül kell vizsgálnia a bioüzemanyagok arányára tett korábbi vállalását. Végül sürgetem az uniós szintű cselekvést az élelmiszer-kiskereskedelmi monopóliumok kialakulása ellen, a termelők védelmében.


  Silvia-Adriana Ţicău (PSE), în scris. Cresterea pretului energiei, fenomenele meteorologice nefavorabile si sporirea cererii de energie datorată cresterii demografice globale au generat preturi ridicate pentru alimente. Solicit Comisiei să analizeze legătura dintre preturile ridicate la alimente si preturile din ce în ce mai mari la energie, în special pentru combustibilii utilizati.

Sectorul agricol necesita îmbunătătirea eficientei energetice. Cresterea ponderii culturilor pentru biocombustibili si utilizarea energiei regenerabile ar putea avea un impact pozitiv asupra sectorului agro-alimentar, care este afectat de preturile ridicate ale îngrăsămintelor, pesticidelor, de costurile ridicate pentru prelucrare si transport. Solicit Comisiei să monitorizeze îndeaproape efectele productiei ridicate de biocarburanti atat în UE cat si în tările terte în ceea ce priveste modificările legate de utilizarea terenurilor, de preturile produselor alimentare si de accesul la alimente.

Stimulentele pentru cultivarea durabilă a culturilor energetice nu ar trebui să pericliteze productia de alimente. Consider că sunt necesare cercetări în domeniul agricol, pentru a spori productivitatea agricolă si invit statele membre să exploateze pe deplin oportunitătile oferite în ceea ce priveste acest aspect in cadrul celui de-al saptelea Program-cadru pentru cercetare și dezvoltare tehnologică si să adopte măsuri de îmbunătătire a productiei agricole în mod durabil si eficient din punct de vedere energetic.

Avviż legali - Politika tal-privatezza