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Procedūra : 2010/2772(RSP)
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PV 07/07/2010 - 19
CRE 07/07/2010 - 19

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PV 08/07/2010 - 6.7
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Trešdiena, 2010. gada 7. jūlijs - Strasbūra Pārskatītā redakcija

19. Konvencijas par kasešu munīcijas aizliegumu (CCM) stāšanās spēkā 2010. gada 1. augustā un ES loma (debates)
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  La Présidente. - L'ordre du jour appelle la déclaration de la vice-présidente de la Commission / haute représentante de l'Union pour les affaires étrangères et la politique de sécurité, à propos de l'entrée en vigueur de la Convention sur les armes à sous-munitions le 1er août 2010 et le rôle de l'Union européenne en cette matière (2010/2772(RSP)).


  Catherine Ashton, Vice-President of the Commission/High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy. − Madam President, I am extremely grateful for the opportunity to discuss the issue of cluster munitions. I believe this is an important moment to do so, less than one month before the entry into force of the Convention on Cluster Munitions.

As this House knows, this Convention, originally a Norwegian initiative, will prohibit all use, stockpiling, production and transfer of cluster munitions. Similarly to anti-personnel landmines, cluster munitions pose – as honourable Members know – a serious threat to the lives of civilians by causing indiscriminate damage, particularly affecting children.

The very nature of cluster munitions goes against basic humanitarian principles. Not only do they release small bomblets over a wide area with indiscriminate effects, they also leave behind a large amount of unexploded ordnance that can explode at any time, even decades after a conflict has ended. That is why the European Union is committed to making every effort to achieve a complete ban on these deadly devices.

The Convention on Cluster Munitions was agreed in December 2008. In only a year and a half, 106 states have signed the Convention and 36 have ratified it. In a way that reminds us of the inspiring dynamic triggered by the entry into force of the Ottawa Convention on Anti-Personnel Landmines, we can expect significant progress in our common efforts to reduce – and eventually eliminate – the production, use and transfer of cluster munitions.

The European Union as a whole is fully committed to tackling the impact of cluster munitions on civilian populations through all possible means. Although not all EU Member States are party to the Convention, there is a general understanding that the EU can, and must, play an active role in this area. As this House knows, the EU also continues to support the wider negotiation of an additional protocol on cluster munitions to the UN Convention on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons. The aim here is to expand the body of international norms spanning this category of weapons and to reach out to a large number of countries. I think we can be very clear on this point. The Convention on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons is a UN Convention and therefore a truly multilateral instrument, negotiated in the widest forum. Its provisions, and those of its additional protocols, contribute to reducing the suffering of combatants and civilian populations in areas of conflict.

It is therefore very important that the EU supports this Convention and its protocols. This is exactly what we have been doing since 2007 through a specific EU joint action that supports the universalisation of the Convention and its full implementation. In the negotiations on the additional protocol on cluster munitions, the EU is pleading for a prohibition and not only a restriction of the use, production, transfer and stockpiling of certain cluster munitions that cause particular humanitarian concerns.

I recognise that the scope of this protocol could not be as wide as the Convention on Cluster Munitions, but if we could achieve a protocol in the UN context with wider participation – in particular with the participation of those states that produce and have stocks of these weapons – it would help us to get closer to our objectives.

As for the next steps on the Convention on Cluster Munitions as such, I am pleased that preparations have begun for the first states-party meeting, which will take place in Laos in November 2010. The Santiago Conference in June already demonstrated a high level of commitment from large numbers of states, as indeed was the case for representatives of civil society. Many EU Member States played a very active role as Friends of the Chair in the discussions.

With respect to concrete assistance to third countries, let me emphasise that the European Union has been very active. We assist third countries in getting rid of their stockpile of cluster munitions, we help them to clear affected areas, and we provide assistance to the victims in countries such as Afghanistan, Laos, Cambodia, Lebanon or Sudan. Over the last 10 years, the European Union has devoted more than EUR 300 million to its work in the field of anti-personnel landmines and explosive remnants of war – including, sadly, the daily threat posed by cluster munitions.

I very much look forward to this debate.


  Michael Gahler, im Namen der PPE-Fraktion. – Frau Präsidentin! Vielen Dank, Frau Hohe Vertreterin, für Ihre einfühlenden Worte! Ich unterstütze es voll und ganz, was Sie gesagt haben, und ich denke, wir sollten auch durchaus hervorheben, was die Europäische Union im Bereich der Beseitigung dieser Waffen getan hat.

Kriege und Bürgerkriege sind immer das worst case-Szenario, vor allen Dingen für die betroffenen Menschen. Aber innerhalb dieses worst case-Szenarios gibt es dann eben noch eine Art von perfideren Waffen, wie eben diese Streumunition, die ganz besonders und langanhaltend ihre vernichtenden Wirkungen erzielt.

Deswegen ist es wichtig, dass wir zum einen jetzt zum 1. August feststellen können, dass diese Konvention in Kraft tritt, und zum anderen ist es der richtige Anlass, dass das Europäische Parlament insbesondere dazu beiträgt, dass wir im eigenen Haus für Ordnung sorgen, und das heißt dann eben konkret, dass wir diejenigen Mitgliedstaaten auffordern, die diese Konvention bisher entweder noch nicht unterzeichnet oder noch nicht ratifiziert haben, dies alsbald zu tun wir sagen, bis zum Ende des Jahres. Ich nehme an, bis zum 1. August – das wäre besonders schön – werden wir es nicht mehr schaffen, weil ja auch einige Parlamente bereits in den Ferien sind.

Wir haben noch einen Punkt aufgegriffen, und das ist die Aufforderung, dass die Europäische Union, die jetzt Rechtspersönlichkeit besitzt, dieser Konvention beitreten sollte. Vielleicht ist das ein Weg, auch die fehlenden Mitgliedstaaten zu ermuntern, das dann auch bilateral noch zu tun. Ich wünsche mir, dass wir tatsächlich binnen kürzester Zeit die Europäische Union und ihre Mitgliedstaaten auf diese Art und Weise zum Vorreiter auch gegenüber Drittstaaten machen, um diesen Drittstaaten helfen zu können, ihre Bestände zu vernichten, oder Streumunition in den Ländern, wo sie noch liegt, möglichst schnell beseitigen zu können.


  Ana Gomes, em nome do Grupo S&D. – Senhora Presidente e Senhora Alta Representante, as munições de dispersão destroem vidas e o ambiente de forma desproporcionada e imoral, sem distinguir alvos militares de civis em teatros de conflito armado. A ideia de que estas armas dão segurança aos Estados que as possuem é falsa, retrógrada, violadora do direito internacional humanitário e atentatória da segurança global. E são países e povos em países em desenvolvimento as principais vítimas destas armas.

A Convenção sobre Munições de Dispersão obriga os Estados-parte a destruir progressivamente os arsenais, responsabiliza-os pela eliminação das munições não accionadas e pela protecção e apoio às vítimas. A Convenção entra em vigor no dia 1 de Agosto e ainda só 11 Estados-Membros da União Europeia a ratificaram. É urgente que todos o façam para efectivamente contribuirmos para travar o uso, a venda e a transferência destas armas, universalmente, e conseguirmos a sua completa proibição e eliminação.

Outros nove Estados da União Europeia já aderiram à Convenção, mas tardam em ratificá-la. O meu país, Portugal, foi um dos que se deixaram prender nas teias da morosidade legislativa, depois de assinar a Convenção em Dezembro de 2008. Quase dois anos mais tarde, a Assembleia da República ainda não foi chamada a pronunciar-se. A lentidão é tão mais embaraçosa quanto Portugal se empenhou positivamente em promover a Convenção junto de outros países de língua portuguesa, e hoje Guiné-Bissau e Cabo Verde anunciam a ratificação para Agosto próximo, a tempo da entrada em vigor da Convenção e antes mesmo de Portugal.

Todo o atraso na ratificação desta Convenção é inaceitável. Também por isso pedimos à Senhora Alta Representante para a Política Externa, a Sra. Ashton, que desencadeie o processo para levar a União Europeia a aderir à Convenção sobre Munições de Dispersão, conforme possibilita o Tratado de Lisboa.

A União Europeia tem de estar na dianteira deste processo e os sete Estados-Membros que ainda nem sequer assinaram a Convenção devem ser chamados à responsabilidade, como justamente acontece nesta resolução do Parlamento Europeu em que os nomeamos.


  Elizabeth Lynne, on behalf of the ALDE Group. – Madam President, cluster bombs have killed and injured thousands of civilians during the last 40 years and sadly continue to do so today. We must remember that a third of all recorded cluster munitions casualties are children. Take the case of a Vietnamese girl helping her father with the gardening one day. She was the victim of a cluster bomb and lost both her legs. The tragedy is that she was considered lucky: four out of ten cluster bomb accidents result in death.

After years of campaigning, we finally now have a Convention which can help to deliver change. It is absolutely vital, first and foremost, that all EU Member States sign and ratify the Convention as a matter of urgency. Sadly, as Mrs Gomes says and as this resolution states, only 11 Member States have ratified the Convention so far.

As we move towards the entry into force of this Convention on 1 August, I would like to see a concerted effort by Parliament and the Commission to convince all EU Member States to sign and ratify it. EU Member States that have signed should work quickly to put into place national legislation to implement it and destroy their stockpiles, as Spain has already done.

In 2002, I was Parliament’s rapporteur for its report on the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, which was adopted in 2006. The EU will soon sign this landmark Convention. It will be a total contradiction if we then failed to take action on cluster bombs. Looking to the future, it is important as well that the Commission and the Council include a ban on cluster munitions in a standard clause in agreements with third countries. I would like to hear the High Representative’s plans to take this forward.

The Convention also establishes a new humanitarian standard for the assistance of victims in Article 5, calling for guidelines and good practice including in the areas of medical care, rehabilitation and psychological support. Also important, as the High Representative has mentioned, is the clearance of the millions of unexploded cluster munition remnants that are left behind after conflicts. Article 6 of the Convention calls for each country to provide assistance for clearance and destruction of cluster munition remnants and information concerning various means and technologies related to the clearance of those munitions.

We must do all we can to save the lives of thousands who have yet to be killed and injured and to help those who have been. We know enough about the horrific effects of these weapons to know that even those who have not signed the Convention should never ever use them again. I urge you all to support this resolution.


  Ulrike Lunacek, im Namen der Verts/ALE-Fraktion. – Frau Präsidentin! Frau Ashton, meine Damen und Herren! Ich habe vor etwas mehr als vier Jahren zum ersten Mal mit dem Thema Streumunition zu tun gehabt, als eine Gruppe von Organisationen der Zivilgesellschaft an das österreichische Parlament herangetreten ist, wo ich damals war, und uns ersucht hat, eine Veranstaltung zum Thema zu machen, um die Konvention auf den Weg zu bringen.

Es waren Betroffene dort, Menschen, die selbst durch Streubomben ein Bein verloren hatten oder andere massive gesundheitliche Probleme hatten, und sie haben uns Photos gezeigt von dem, was passiert, wenn so eine Bombe detoniert. Es sind lauter kleine, farbige Teile, die dann verstreut bleiben – daher der Name Streumunition – und die über Jahre hinweg liegenbleiben. Kinder, die später einmal dort spielen, denken sich, na wunderschön, etwas Buntes, sie nehmen es in die Hand, es explodiert, sie verlieren Beine und Arme.

Das hat mich damals so beeindruckt, dass ich in Österreich begonnen habe, mich dafür einzusetzen, und ich muss sagen, dass mein Land nach anfänglichem Widerstand eines der ersten war, das sowohl unterzeichnet als auch ratifiziert hat. Das ist gut so, aber es fehlen noch so viele Staaten der Europäischen Union. Ich freue mich sehr, dass es uns gelungen ist, hier mit dieser Entschließung einen Großteil – fünf Fraktionen – zu bewegen, das mitzutragen, gerade auch – und das richtet sich an Herrn Gahler –, weil ich weiß, dass es in Ihrer Fraktion sehr wohl zu einigen Punkten Befürchtungen gab. Ich danke Ihnen, dass es gelungen ist, auch Sie dazu zu bewegen, die Mitgliedstaaten zu nennen, die noch nicht unterzeichnet und ratifiziert haben und die noch nicht bereit sind, ihre Bestände tatsächlich zu zerstören und klarzumachen, dass sie sie nie einsetzen werden.

Frau Ashton, zwei konkrete Fragen an Sie: die Forderung, dass die EU dieser Konvention als eigene Körperschaft beitritt und dass Sie in Verhandlungen mit Drittstaaten das Verbot von Streubomben und Streumunition zu dem Standardpassus hinzufügen, der jetzt schon die Nichtweiterverbreitung von Massenvernichtungswaffen in Verträge hinneinnimmt. Ich bitte Sie da um eine Antwort.


  Sabine Lösing, im Namen der GUE/NGL-Fraktion. – Frau Präsidentin! Ich möchte mich auch bei meinen Vorrednerinnen und Vorrednern für ihre Ausführungen bedanken, denen ich ausdrücklich zustimmen möchte.

Streubomben gehören, wie es ausgeführt wurde, ja wirklich zu den brutalsten Waffen, die es gibt. Bis vor kurzem wurden sie von EU-Staaten und den USA mit Sicherheit noch eingesetzt. So im ehemaligen Jugoslawien, im Irak, in Afghanistan, im Jemen. Es ist schrecklich – wie es auch schon dargestellt wurde –, dass die Opfer von Streubomben bzw. von Streumunition nachweislich zu 98 % Zivilisten und von diesen wiederum 27 % Kinder sind.

Wie ist nun die Perspektive der weiteren Verwendung der Waffen zu beurteilen? Da ist es doch bemerkenswert, dass die Deutsche Bank über Tochterfirmen in die Herstellung dieser grauenvollen Waffen investiert. Die Geschäftsbeziehungen der Deutschen Bank zu führenden Anbietern und Herstellern von Streumunition, darunter L-3 Communications und Lockheed Martin, sind nachgewiesen. Ich finde es schamlos und menschenverachtend, wissentlich mit dem Tod von Zivilisten Geld verdienen zu wollen. Einsatz, Herstellung, Lagerung und Transport dieser Waffen müssen verboten werden, und auch Geschäfte damit müssen verboten werden.

Deshalb müssen alle EU-Mitgliedstaaten wie auch alle anderen Länder das Übereinkommen über Streumunition vor August dieses Jahres in vollem Umfang unterzeichnen und ratifizieren, und wenn das, so wie Herr Gahler ja ausgeführt hat, nicht möglich sein sollte, dann eben zum schnellstmöglichen Zeitpunkt. Es sollte zudem ein Moratorium zum Einsatz, zur Produktion und zur Weitergabe von Streumunition bis zur Ratifizierung des Abkommens geben, und schnellstmöglich sollte mit der Vernichtung der gelagerten Streumunition begonnen werden.

Ich freue mich sehr und begrüße im Namen meiner Fraktion, der GUE/NGL, diese fraktionsübergreifende Zusammenarbeit und Unterstützung des Übereinkommens über Streumunition in Form dieser gemeinsamen Entschließung. Wir denken, dass diese Entschließung wirklich ein großer Erfolg im Kampf gegen diese mörderischen Waffen ist.


  Γεώργιος Παπανικολάου (PPE). - Κυρία Πρόεδρε, πράγματι ειπώθηκε από τους συναδέλφους ότι μόνο 11 κράτη μέλη στα 27 έχουν κυρώσει αυτή την τόσο σημαντική σύμβαση για την κατάργηση της χρήσης, παραγωγής και αποθήκευσης και μεταφοράς όπλων διασποράς. Κανείς δεν διαφωνεί ότι πρέπει να επιδιώξουμε όλα τα κράτη μέλη να κυρώσουν αυτή τη σύμβαση.

Προκύπτει βεβαίως το ερώτημα γιατί τα υπόλοιπα κράτη μέλη δεν έχουν κυρώσει μέχρι σήμερα τη σύμβαση, παρότι η έναρξη είναι την 1η Αυγούστου. Η κύρια αιτία είναι λόγοι εθνικής ασφάλειας και σε μεγάλο βαθμό, σε κάποιες περιπτώσεις, είναι δικαιολογημένοι, ιδιαίτερα μάλιστα όταν γειτονικά κράτη εκτός Ευρωπαϊκής Ένωσης εμφανίζουν αυξημένη επιθετικότητα.

Κλείνω λοιπόν λέγοντας ότι, αν θέλουμε πραγματικά όλα τα κράτη μέλη να κυρώσουν αυτή τη σύμβαση και να έχουμε τα μέγιστα δυνατά αποτελέσματα σ’ αυτές τις τόσο σημαντικές πολιτικές της Ένωσης, θα πρέπει να πιέσουμε και γειτονικές χώρες που εμφανίζουν ένταση και επιθετική κινητικότητα να κινηθούν προς την ίδια κατεύθυνση, πολύ περισσότερο δε εκείνοι που επιθυμούν να ενταχθούν στην ευρωπαϊκή οικογένειά μας.


  Miroslav Mikolášik (PPE) - Kazetová munícia patrí k zbraniam najviac ohrozujúcim civilistov, pretože sa používa aj na rozľahlých územiach, proti tzv. rozptýleným, pohybujúcim sa a či ťažko viditeľným cieľom.

Ako už bolo povedané, až 98 percent obetí sú vlastne ľudia, ktorí nie sú zapojení vo vojnovom konflikte, čiže civilisti. A veľká časť z nich – 27 percent – sú deti.

Navyše asi 30 percent z kazetovej bomby nevybuchne, zostáva na zemi vo forme mín ohrozujúcich civilné obyvateľstvo ešte veľmi dlho po skončení konfliktu.

A napriek týmto smutným štatistikám mnohé členské štáty Európskej únie nepodpísali dohovor o kazetovej munícii zakazujúci jej výrobu, skladovanie a použitie, pretože sledujú vlastné ekonomické, a to je veľmi smutné, vlastné ekonomické záujmy spojené s výrobou a s vývozom tohto druhu munície.

Pani predsedajúca, s takýmto prístupom hlboko nesúhlasím a verím, že humanitárne záujmy a ochrana civilného obyvateľstva musia byť prvoradé.

A preto úlohou Európskej únie je podľa môjho názoru naliehať na všetky štáty a predovšetkým na členské štáty Európskej únie, aby dohovor o kazetovej munícii podpísali a aj ratifikovali.


  Seán Kelly (PPE). - Madam President, this evening we have spent some time discussing what you might call the dark side of modern life. A few moments ago we were discussing the destruction of life throughout the world because of HIV/AIDS; now we have the same destruction of innocent civilians by cluster munitions. It is good I suppose, with new instruments being made available with the Lisbon Treaty, through Baroness Ashton as High Representative, to at least try and bring solutions for these terrible problems.

However, we will have to put our own house in order first and, as the speakers have said, only 11 of the 27 have signed the Convention, which is not good enough. So the High Representative will have to use her influence to ask the others: ‘Why not?’ Then try to eliminate the barriers to their signing up.

Only then can we move forward with what we spoke about today, the European Union speaking with one voice to the rest of the world. If we cannot speak with one voice by putting our own house in order first, how can we go to the rest of the world saying that a new Lisbon Treaty has created new instruments and that we are going to lead in terms of giving a good example all around the world? So, put our house in order first, and then we can deal with the rest of the world.


  La Présidente. - Madame Ashton, comment allez-vous faire pour que les seize pays ratifient avant le 1er août?


  Catherine Ashton, Vice-President of the Commission and High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy. − Madam President, this has been a very important debate, and I have taken note of your remarks and, of course, your concern.

Let me begin by saying that the European Union will maintain its engagement to attain a complete ban on cluster munitions through our active political outreach in the framework both of the Convention on Cluster Munitions and of the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons. We will also continue to provide international cooperation and assistance by mainstreaming our activities against cluster munitions in our development and in our cooperation policies.

If I might address two or three of the key points that have also been raised in this debate. First of all, the decision on accession to the Convention by the European Union in the post-Lisbon era, of course, depends on the Member States, because it comes within their remit. Members are absolutely right to raise that as an issue that we will need to consider very carefully.

If I can say, though, that the position, as I understand it, of a number of Member States is that we have 11 Member States who have ratified as well as signed the Convention, but we have a further eight Member States who have signed it but not yet ratified it – so that is 19 Member States – and therefore eight Member States who have done neither at this stage. Members have made their positions very clear in wanting to see as many EU Member States as possible continue to take forward both the ratification and the signing.

I also want to address briefly the point that Ms Lynne made about assistance to third countries and, as I said in my earlier remarks, the importance of bringing what we do to support third countries as part of the mainstreaming of our policies – this whole post-Lisbon opportunity – to bring together different policies. We want to continue actively, through the external action instruments that we have, to contribute to the disposal of unexploded ordnances, anti-personnel mines and abandoned ammunition stocks precisely for the reasons, as Ms Lunacek vividly described, of what happens when these brightly coloured bomblets appear on the ground. There are many cases, particularly of children who have been devastated either by the loss of limbs or, occasionally, loss of life as a consequence.

We mostly make use of our geographical instruments in response to the needs that are expressed by our partner countries, and we also make use of the humanitarian aid instruments, for example in Lebanon or Sri Lanka, and also to make sure that we are dealing with issues on emerging crises as well.

I have mentioned that we spend about EUR 330 million in our commitment to support countries that have been directly affected by mines and cluster munitions. I described Afghanistan, where we have spent EUR 22 million, and Lebanon (EUR 7 million), and future projects in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Laos and Cambodia are under preparation.

I also want to make the point that, although I have given that figure, it is difficult to quantify the exact figures for our programmes, and the reason is that during operations on the ground we do not make distinctions between what we clear. The point is that we clear it and that, I hope, will be well understood by Members.

The final point I wanted to make is that we are trying to ensure that we assist and support the timely signature and ratification of the Convention by Member States. We have coordination meetings among EU disarmament experts which take place every month, and the issue of the universality of the Convention, as well as the state of preparedness of what I described earlier as the first states-party meeting, are regularly discussed. We have decided to contribute to the greatest extent possible to the preparatory committee to be held in September in Geneva, in order to ensure that we get good progress when we have that first states-party meeting.

Though the hour is late, this has been an extremely important debate and I am very grateful for the contributions that have been made.


  La Présidente. - J'ai reçu, conformément à l'article 110, paragraphe 2, du règlement six propositions de résolution.(1)Le débat est clos.

Le vote aura lieu jeudi 8 juillet 2010.

Déclarations écrites (article 149)


  Indrek Tarand (Verts/ALE), in writing. I fully support the initiative not to use cluster munitions, but, coming from a country whose neighbour does not follow the conditions of the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe, I have to admit that this idea is ahead of its time and I must therefore abstain. Ceterum censeo, France has decided to sell a Mistral class warship to Russia; we believe that it will sincerely regret its action.


(1)Voir procès-verbal

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