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Úterý, 13. září 2011 - Štrasburk Revidované vydání

20. Komplexní přístup k jiným antropogenním emisím ovlivňujícím klima, než jsou emise CO2 (rozprava)
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  Le Président. - L'ordre du jour appelle le débat sur la question orale à la Commission sur l'approche globale des émissions anthropiques, autres que les émissions de CO2, ayant des incidences sur le climat de Jo Leinen, Richard Seeber et Theodoros Skylakakis, au nom de la commission de l'environnement, de la santé publique et de la sécurité alimentaire (O-000135/2011 – B7-0418/2011).

 
  
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  Richard Seeber, Verfasser. − Frau Präsidentin, Frau Kommissarin, liebe Kolleginnen und Kollegen! Ich möchte mit einem Dank beginnen und diesen speziell an meinen Kollegen Skylakakis richten, mit dem zusammen ich diese Initiative gestartet habe, weil ich glaube, dass wir im Kampf gegen den Klimawandel alle Möglichkeiten, die wir zur Verfügung haben, ausschöpfen müssen. Ich weiß, dass wir in Connie Hedegaard eine Kämpferin in diesem Bereich haben und sie die nötigen Initiativen, die wir in dieser Entschließung fordern, auch umsetzen wird. Wir möchten sie dabei unterstützen, damit diese Dinge auch verwirklicht werden können.

Wir wissen, dass das Montreal-Protokoll der erste erfolgreiche internationale Vertrag war, der 1987 geschlossen wurde, und dem inzwischen über 196 Vertragsstaaten angehören. Es hat sehr stark zur Reduzierung dieser ozone-depleting substances beigetragen, gleichzeitig hat es aber auch den Nebeneffekt, dass auch Substanzen, die für den Klimawandel relevant sind, wie eben HFC, eingeschränkt werden, und das zu Kosten, die wesentlich geringer sind als die zur Vermeidung von CO2. Daher denke ich, dass wir uns auch aus wirtschaftlichen und sozialen Gründen auf diesen Kampf konzentrieren sollen, weil er wirtschaftlich wesentlich leichter erreichbar ist als die CO2-Reduzierung, die in manchen Bereichen für unsere Wirtschaft doch mit gewissen Kosten verbunden ist. Hier sollten wir ansetzen, weil wir wissen, dass wir sehr erfolgreich sein können, und das zu sehr geringen Kosten.

Der zweite Bereich ist natürlich die Reduzierung von Ruß. Wir wissen, dass Ruß als Aerosol auch zur Erderwärmung beiträgt und insbesondere durch die Ablagerung auf Schnee- und Eisflächen diese schneller zum Schmelzen bringt. Er entsteht durch die unvollständige Verbrennung von fossilen Stoffen. Auch dieses Phänomen können wir durch Regulierungen im europäischen Bereich zu relativ günstigen Kosten verhindern.

Ein letzter Bereich ist das bodennahe Ozon, das auch sehr klimarelevant ist. Die Vorläufersubstanzen werden insbesondere durch Autos geschaffen. Hier müssen wir unsere Regelungen, die wir durch die Luftreinhaltungs- und die Tochterrichtlinien geschaffen haben, verstärken und deren Umsetzung verbessern, damit auch die Entstehung dieses klimarelevanten Gases verhindert wird.

Insgesamt darf ich die Kommissarin bitten, ihren Kampf hier fortzusetzen. Sie haben im Parlament eine große Unterstützung. Ich darf noch einmal daran erinnern: Wir müssen im Kampf gegen den Klimawandel vereint sein. Aber lassen Sie uns doch gemeinsam die günstigste Variante wählen!

 
  
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  Θεόδωρος Σκυλακάκης, Συντάκτης. − Κυρία Επίτροπε, ευχαριστώ για την παρουσία σας εδώ. Να ευχαριστήσω και εγώ τον Richard Seeber για την πολύ σημαντική βοήθειά του για να προωθήσουμε αυτό το θέμα. Γνωρίζουμε όλοι ότι σημαντικό μέρος της κλιματικής αλλαγής προκαλείται από αέρια πέραν του διοξειδίου του άνθρακα. Όμως, η κλιματική μας πολιτική επικεντρώνεται - και αυτό ήταν ίσως λογικό στην πρώτη φάση - σχεδόν αποκλειστικά στο διοξείδιο του άνθρακα. Αυτό έχει για τους απλούς πολίτες πολύ μεγάλο περιβαλλοντικό αλλά και οικονομικό κόστος.

Και είναι παράδοξο - και δυσκολεύεται κανείς να το πιστέψει - ότι ακόμη δεν έχουμε μια ολοκληρωμένη πολιτική για να ελέγξουμε τις εκπομπές αυτές, ούτε στην Ευρώπη, ούτε σε διεθνές επίπεδο. Μία μόνο κατηγορία αερίων που δεν είναι διοξείδιο του άνθρακα, οι υδροφθοράνθρακες (HFC's), προβλέπεται ότι θα αντιστοιχούν στο 20% των παγκόσμιων εκπομπών μέχρι το 2050. Και γνωρίζουμε ότι από αυτά τα HFC's, από μία μόνο κατηγορία, το HFC-23, μετά από πρωτοβουλία του Κοινοβουλίου και της Επιτρόπου Connie Hedegaard, και πρέπει να την επαινέσουμε για αυτό, θα καταφέρουμε να εξοικονομήσουμε από το 2013 και μετά περίπου 1 δισεκατομμύριο ευρώ το χρόνο, που δίναμε άνευ λόγου και αιτίας στους Κινέζους και στους Ινδούς παραγωγούς.

Η σημερινή στρατηγική που προτείνουμε θα λειτουργήσει συμπληρωματικά με τη στρατηγική που έχουμε ακολουθήσει για το CO2 και για την ενεργειακή αποδοτικότητα και θα βοηθήσει και στην ανταγωνιστικότητα των ευρωπαϊκών επιχειρήσεων. Και θέλω να το πω αυτό, ιδίως, για τους συναδέλφους που αισθάνονται ότι προσπαθούμε να εισαγάγουμε άλλη μία κλιματική πολιτική. Αντίθετα, κάνουμε κάτι που στο σημερινό περιβάλλον της κρίσης θα είναι οικονομικά επωφελές και για τις επιχειρήσεις. Μπορούμε να ξεκινήσουμε μέσα σε 2-3 χρόνια αυτήν την πολιτική σε ευρωπαϊκό αλλά και σε διεθνές επίπεδο και να έχουμε πρακτικά αποτελέσματα μέσα σε 5-10 χρόνια και γρήγορα και με θεαματικά χαμηλό κόστος, γιατί όπως ανακαλύψαμε στην περίπτωση του HFC-23 - και ισχύει και για πολλές άλλες κατηγορίες - δεν μιλάμε για 12 ή 15 ή 20 ή 40 δολάρια τον τόνο, αλλά μπορούμε να μιλάμε για τα αντίστοιχα ποσά σε ‘cents’ (12, 15, 20 ή 40 cents το τόνο).

Πολλοί τονίζουν ότι χρειαζόμαστε υψηλή τιμή άνθρακα. Εγώ, προσωπικά, θα έλεγα ότι, στο σημερινό περιβάλλον της κρίσης, χρειαζόμαστε χαμηλή τιμή άνθρακα, αν μπορούμε να την εξασφαλίσουμε από την αγορά, αναλαμβάνοντας τέτοιες πρωτοβουλίες. Και είμαι βέβαιος ότι η Επίτροπος και η Επιτροπή θα αναλάβει τέτοιες πρωτοβουλίες. Το ελπίζω και το περιμένω.

 
  
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  Connie Hedegaard, Member of the Commission. − Madam President, I would like to give particular thanks to Mr Seeber and Mr Skylakakis for this opportunity to explain the Commission’s approach regarding man-made non-CO2 climate-relevant emissions.

You are quite right; non-CO2 gases are a significant contributor to climate change. If we wish to cut our greenhouse gas emissions substantially, we must address emissions from non-CO2 gases in an effective way. I fully agree with your motion for a resolution on this point.

The recent roadmap for moving to a low-carbon economy by 2050 explores cost-efficient pathways for key economic sectors in order to meet the 2050 EU objectives for greenhouse gas emissions reduction. This analysis clearly shows that the EU should reduce agricultural non-CO2 emissions by 42-49% and other non-CO2 emissions by 70-78% by 2050 compared to 1990 levels. Both gentlemen spoke about what is economically beneficial, and here these non-CO2 gases come very much into the picture.

As you know, the EU has already taken a number of measures to reduce such emissions. The Effort Sharing Decision covers CO2 as well as the five non-CO2 gases included in the Kyoto Protocol. The annual binding greenhouse gas emission targets for Member States will deliver a 10% reduction of emissions from the covered sectors in 2020 compared with 2005 levels.

We already address HFC emissions through the Regulation on certain fluorinated greenhouse gases and the Directive on fluorinated emissions from mobile air-conditioning. The Commission will adopt a report reviewing the Regulation in the coming weeks, which will show that the Regulation has already contributed to the EU commitments under the Kyoto Protocol. Moreover, if properly applied, the Regulation on certain fluorinated gases (‘F-gases’) could, together with the directive on mobile air-conditioning, prevent almost half of the projected fluorinated gas emissions by 2050. Even more importantly, the report shows that there are options which could contribute to further cost-effective reductions. Therefore, I intend to put forward a legislative proposal in 2012.

In addition to domestic action, internationally the Commission has repeatedly called for global action to address the use of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs). At the meetings of the parties to the Montreal Protocol, the Commission, as the negotiator for the European Union, supports the North American and Micronesian proposals to phase down global production and consumption of HFCs as a complement to mitigation action under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.

The Commission is also fully aware of the short-term climate implications of black carbon and tropospheric ozone, particularly – as I think Mr Seeber mentioned – in the Arctic area and in the Alpine regions. The Joint Research Centre of the European Commission has played a key role in several recent science assessments, in particular in the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) 2011 Integrated Assessment of Black Carbon and Tropospheric Ozone.

Within the EU, the Commission is preparing a review of the Thematic Strategy on Air Pollution. The review will be concluded in 2013 and will address air quality matters and their interlinkages with climate change policy. Black carbon and tropospheric ozone issues will be considered as part of that review.

Finally, in an international context, the EU is addressing pollutants like black carbon and tropospheric ozone under the Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution. Together with other European and North American countries, we are presently negotiating binding emission targets for ozone-creating pollutants. If a successful agreement can be struck by the end of this year – and I understand from my colleague Commissioner Potočnik, who is responsible for these negotiations, that this outcome is within reach and there is a very good chance of achieving it – some improvements can be expected by 2020.

Finally, I know that UNEP will publish a report very soon setting out possible measures to reduce levels of black carbon in an effort to push for an international action plan for which international backing can be secured at Rio+20 in Brazil next June. Needless to say, Europe will push very hard for that to materialise.

 
  
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  Sophie Auconie, au nom du groupe PPE. – Madame la Présidente, Madame le Commissaire, chers collègues, la politique, c'est penser à demain. Je salue donc le travail remarquable de mes collègues, M. Seeber et M. Skylakakis qui, effectivement, par cette résolution, anticipent sur des projets environnementaux et sur des normes environnementales.

Il faut que nous saisissions – comme M. Seeber le dit – toutes les occasions qui nous permettront de participer à la protection de notre planète. Sur ce point, je suis tout à fait d'accord. Si l'on adopte ce texte, cette résolution, c'est pour nous préparer à la mise en œuvre et anticiper des mesures aptes à lutter contre le réchauffement climatique.

Cependant – et comme l'a dit M. Skylakakis –, nous sommes tous d'accord pour dire qu'il est urgent d'attendre, que la conjoncture économique impose des délais quant à la mise en œuvre d'une nouvelle réglementation que nous imposerions à nos entreprises. Nous sommes tous d'accord pour dire que les acteurs économiques, aujourd'hui, souffrent et qu'il est essentiel que nous n'imposions pas une fois de plus à nos entreprises des normes environnementales majeures.

Antoine de Saint-Exupéry a dit: "Nous n'héritons pas de la terre de nos parents, nous l'empruntons à nos enfants". Il faut que nous allions dans ce sens: rendre à nos enfants une planète qui soit propre. Mais nous ne devons pas le faire sans une certaine richesse et sans l'assurance, pour nos enfants, d'y trouver des emplois.

Je voudrais terminer en vous disant que les gaz anthropiques sont des gaz produits à l'origine par l'homme, par exemple les gaz émis par les appareils de climatisation. Dans ce Parlement, il fait toujours très frais, voire froid. Je pense que si nous faisions, nous, en tant qu'institution européenne, un tout petit peu d'économies en baissant notre système de climatisation, nous participerions déjà, sans imposer de contraintes à nos entreprises, à moins polluer notre planète.

 
  
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  Le Président. - Madame Auconie, je prends au mot ce que vous dites. Ayant en charge le programme EMAS de ce Parlement, je ne manquerai pas de relayer votre proposition à ceux qui, parfois, ne sont pas très ouverts à ce type de suggestions.

 
  
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  Claudiu Ciprian Tănăsescu, în numele grupului S&D. – Schimbările climatice pe care fiecare din noi le resimte au consecinţe ecologice şi sociale care afectează în cele din urmă sănătatea umană prin schimbări ale calităţii şi cantităţii apei, aerului şi hranei, dar şi prin alterarea tiparelor meteorologice, agricole şi a ecosistemelor.

S-a demonstrat ştiinţific faptul că beneficiile reducerii emisiilor antropogenice non-CO2 se fac simţite imediat şi direct în zonele în care se iau măsuri. Mă bucură faptul că am reuşit să depăşim faza în care emisiile de dioxid de carbon erau de vină pentru toate relele din atmosfera terestră şi că, în fine, a venit momentul să acţionăm şi asupra celorlalţi factori, la fel de nocivi ca şi dioxidul de carbon.

Doar ca un exemplu, în prezent se estimează că impactul total al utilizării de hidrofluorocarburi (HFC-uri) asupra încălzirii globale reprezintă aproximativ 2% din totalul emisiilor de gaze cu efect de seră. Cu toate acestea, se preconizează că o creştere în cererea de HFC-uri ar putea duce la o contribuţie de 7 - 13% din totalul gazelor cu efect de seră până în 2050. Ca atare, dacă vrem să luăm taurul de coarne, industria ar avea nevoie rapid de un cadru legal stabil pentru a încuraja producătorii să dezvolte alternative la HFC-uri.

Aşa cum am spus, acesta este doar un exemplu dintre multele acţiuni posibile în cazul reducerii emisiilor antropogenice. Mi-am dorit ca răspunsul Comisiei la întrebarea adresată cu privire la acest subiect să fie unul concret şi ferm, care să permită luarea unor măsuri într-un interval de timp relativ scurt. De asemenea, deoarece Protocolul de la Montreal a reuşit să demonstreze că este posibilă reducerea cu succes a emisiilor gazelor cu efect de seră, consider că reprezintă forumul cel mai potrivit pentru a reglementa şi a reduce la nivel internaţional producţia şi consumul de hidrofluorocarburi.

 
  
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  Chris Davies, on behalf of the ALDE Group. – Madam President, I want to tell a story to the Commissioner and the House. Back in 2004, the Commission put forward legislation, which I think was called the ‘F Gas Regulation’, part of which called for the phasing-out of the existing requirements as regards the gases used in mobile air conditioning – i.e. air conditioning systems in cars.

I remember arguing that I did not have an air conditioning system in my car, but my Greek colleagues assured me that these things were essential, so I lost the argument. I said at the time that we should just open the window, but now I have succumbed myself and got an air-conditioned car. However, at the time, and indeed now, almost every car in use in Europe used or uses in its air conditioning system a hydrofluorocarbon called HFC-134a, which has a global warming potential 1 400 times greater than carbon dioxide. So if any leaks out, even in small quantities, it is an important contributor to the problem.

Eventually, after years of argument, we eventually resolved that from 2011 all new models of car should be fitted with an air conditioning system which used a gas with a global warming potential no greater than 150 times CO2. This led to a confused situation in the industry and there have been all sorts of rows over the years, but eventually Honeywell and Dupont, two of the biggest chemical manufacturers, came up with an alternative air conditioning system using HFO-1234yf, which has a global warming potential of just four. This is going to become the standard: from 1 400 times CO2 to just four times CO2.

The message of this story is very simple. Regulations, much derided though they may be by businessmen, can push forward the pace of innovation, and the Commissioner should be aware that, even though her staff may say there is no alternative to what we do at the moment, if she pushes the boat out it is amazing what industry can achieve.

 
  
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  Satu Hassi, Verts/ALE-ryhmän puolesta. – Arvoisa puhemies, hyvät kollegat, lämmin kiitos tämän kysymyksen aloitteentekijöille Seeberille ja Skylakakisille.

Tiedämme, että nopeasti vaikuttavat, ilmastoa lämmittävät päästöt pitäisi kääntää laskuun vuoteen 2015 mennessä. Jotta siihen olisi mitään mahdollisuuksia, on toimittava ripeästi myös muiden ilmastoa lämmittävien kaasujen kuin hiilidioksidin suhteen. Kollegat ovat jo todenneet, että monesti näiden kaasujen päästöjä kyetään vähentämään huomattavasti halvemmalla kuin hiilidioksidin, jopa sata kertaa halvemmalla ilmastovaikutukseen nähden.

Chris Davis viittasi jo siihen, että F-kaasujen ilmastoa lämmittävä vaikutus on jopa tuhansia kertoja suurempi kuin hiilidioksidin. Me tiedämme, että niiden osuus ilmastoa lämmittävistä päästöistä on kasvamassa, joten rajoituksilla on kiire. Näitä rajoituksia voidaan saada Montrealin pöytäkirjan kautta, mutta EU on maailman suurin markkina-alue ja se voi toimia myös omilla päätöksillään. Se voi näyttää tietä ja poistaa näitä kaasuja käytöstä myös omilla päätöksillään.

Olemme jo kuulleet esimerkkejä siitä, että moniin tarkoituksiin on jo olemassa parempia ja ilmastoystävällisempiä vaihtoehtoja, ja tutkijat ja insinöörit kehittävät niitä lisää koko ajan. Kun näytämme omalla esimerkillämme mallia, on helpompaa vakuuttaa muutkin maat samojen toimien tarpeellisuudesta ja samalla kehittää omaa teknologista johtoasemaamme.

Erään tutkimuksen mukaan kauppojen jäähdytyslaitteistoissa käytettävistä F-kaasuista vuotaa vuodessa 5–20 prosenttia. Tämä on erittäin merkittävä määrä, ja meidän on todella tartuttava toimiin näyttääksemme omalla toiminnallamme tietä maailmalle.

 
  
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  Elisabetta Gardini (PPE). - Signora Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, ringrazio i colleghi Seeber e Skylakakis e ringrazio anche la Commissaria Hedegaard. Credo che stiamo qui oggi discutendo e ragionando per cercare davvero di raggiungere una politica climatica europea forte, in grado di salvaguardare lo sviluppo economico e il benessere dei cittadini europei.

Le politiche climatiche internazionali – come è stato ricordato fin qui – si sono concentrate principalmente sulla riduzione delle emissioni di CO2, è importante invece come questa proposta evidenzi come noi dobbiamo affrontare anche la lotta alle altre emissioni antropiche che provocano la formazione di ozono troposferico, incidendo sui cambiamenti climatici.

Sono già state ricordate tantissime cose e credo sia giusto avere ben presente: noi oggi siamo in grado di farlo con costi assolutamente ragionevoli, abbiamo le tecnologie a disposizione, e per quanto sia indubbio che sono le emissioni di CO2 che incidono principalmente, e per quanto sia indubbio che invece gli altri gas a effetto serra presenti nell'atmosfera siano percentualmente in quantità molto più limitata, è indubbio che il loro potenziale è molto alto e che quindi noi potremmo davvero in pochi anni, in pochi lustri, raggiungere risultati significativi e molto importanti.

Ci sono segnali, è stato ricordato anche negli Stati uniti dalla Commissaria, ho visto uno studio pubblicato su Nature proprio dall'Agenzia scientifica del dipartimento del commercio americano, con il quale trovo ci siano molti punti di contatto rispetto all'analisi che hanno fatto i colleghi e quindi immagino che potranno essere anche queste cose che permetteranno all'Europa di presentarsi a Durban con una posizione ancora più forte, concreta e importante.

Per il momento straordinariamente difficile e delicato che stiamo vivendo – abbiamo parlato dei senzatetto fino a pochi minuti fa – c'è una sensibilità nei cittadini europei di cui dobbiamo tenere conto e, quindi, considerando che la grande sensibilità ovviamente al primo posto è per i posti di lavoro, dobbiamo essere in grado di fare una campagna di comunicazione che spieghi bene ai cittadini cosa concretamente vogliamo fare nella direzione dello sviluppo, del loro benessere e della tutela dei posti di lavoro.

 
  
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  Csaba Sándor Tabajdi (S&D). - Kedves Biztos Asszony! Az Európai Unió a legfrissebb Európai Bizottsági előrejelzések szerint a szén-dioxid-kibocsátás csökkentése terén a vártnál jobban teljesít. Túlnyomórészt a szén-dioxid-kibocsátás csökkentésének köszönhető, hogy az Európai Unió 2006-ban elfogadott energia- és klímacsomag következtében a végrehajtással akár 25%-kal is csökkentheti kibocsátását 2020-ra. Ugyanakkor, ahogyan ez a javaslat is, ez az állásfoglalás-tervezet is nagyon helyesen állapítja meg, fontos a nem szén-dioxid-alapú üvegházhatású gázokra is koncentrálni. Van azonban egy kritikai megjegyzésem, nevezetesen, hogy az emberi tevékenységet a jelentéstevők leszűkítve értelmezik. Hiszen a növénytermesztés és az állattenyésztés is az emberi tevékenység eredménye.

Márpedig a metán által kiváltott üvegházhatás a szén-dioxidnak huszonötszöröse, a nitrogén-oxid hatása csaknem háromszázszorosa. Márpedig a növénytermesztés is az emberi tevékenységnek az eredménye. A növénytermesztésben a műtrágyahasználat mérséklése, időben és térben való célzottabb használata jelentős mértékben elősegítheti a nitrogén-oxid-kibocsátás csökkentését. Ugyanez vonatkozik az állattenyésztésre is, ahol a metánt vissza kellene szorítani, ezért rendkívül fontos a biogáz. Ennek jelentéstevője voltam 2008-ban, és nagyon fontosnak tartom, hogy az új közös agrárpolitika 2014-től az első pillérben, a közvetlen kifizetések terén zöldítéses komponenst vezet be, ezáltal csökkenhet a mezőgazdaság által kibocsátott metán és nitrogén-oxid.

 
  
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  Riikka Manner (ALDE). - Arvoisa puhemies, hyvä komission jäsen, olen erittäin iloinen siitä, että Euroopan parlamentti on ottamassa kokonaisvaltaisemman ilmastopoliittisen kannan myös tämän lausuman myötä.

Ilmastonmuutoksesta puhuttaessa meidän huomiomme usein keskittyy liiaksi vain hiilidioksidipäästöjen vähentämiseen, vaikka huomiomme pitäisi kiinnittyä asioihin huomattavasti laajemmalti. Euroopan ja muidenkin maanosien on pyrittävä vähentämään hiilidioksidipäästöjen ohella myös muita kasvihuonekaasupäästöjä. Meillä on historiassa erittäin hyviä esimerkkejä onnistuneista ilmastosopimuksista, kuten Montrealin pöytäkirja, jonka tuloksena laajamittainen otsonikato estettiin, ja samalla vähennettiin merkittävästi myös kasvihuonekaasupäästöjä.

Haitallisten kylmäaineiden rajoittaminen on ollut hyvin tehokasta, mutta vielä riittää hyvinkin paljon tehtävää myös Euroopassa. Esimerkiksi otsoniystävällisempi HFC-kylmäaine ei ole ilmastoystävällinen. Lisäksi esimerkiksi jäähdytys- ja kylmälaitteiden kysyntä kasvaa melko lailla myös tulevaisuudessa, sillä Kiinan ja Intian elintason nousu ja taloudellinen kasvu vaikuttavat myös kylmäntarpeeseen. Ihmiset ostavat jääkaappeja ja ilmastointilaitteita yhä enemmän, siksi meidän on Euroopassa myös satsattava entistä enemmän ilmastoystävällisten kylmälaitteiden kehitykseen.

On muistettava, että myös energiatehokkuudesta, ja jääkaappien kohdalla myös ruokaturvallisuudesta, on pidettävä hyvin tiukasti kiinni. Ruoan kylmäketjun on toimittava, jotta kuluttajille voidaan taata jatkossakin turvallisia elintarvikkeita. Toivon, että komissio huomioi myös nämä puolet uudistaessaan näitä asetuksia.

 
  
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  Bas Eickhout (Verts/ALE). - Madam President, I would like to thank my colleagues Mr Seeber and Mr Skylakakis for putting this question, and also to thank the Commissioner for replying.

I should like to point out to my colleague Mrs Auconie that, though we keep stressing the need for changes to benefit the economy, we should be clear that, as Achim Steiner said today in Mexico, by tackling black carbon we are not only addressing climate change but also improving our air quality. If you look at the health co-benefits we are talking about the possibility of saving billions of euros by reducing our black carbon emissions, so it is not only environmentally but also economically a very clever thing to do. We really should bear that in mind.

I have a question for the Commissioner as regards black carbon, which was specifically mentioned by Achim Steiner, because while we say it is very important we know that in Europe around 50% of black carbon emissions come from domestic combustion. What kind of measures are you thinking of taking to address that? Also, 20% of black carbon emissions come from non-road machinery, and we know that this year the Commission – albeit not your DG, Commissioner – proposed lower emission limits and greater flexibility in that area. So can we expect more surprises when it comes to black carbon?

We know aviation will be covered by the Emissions Trading Scheme in the coming year, but does the Commission have any specific plans concerning the issue of the formation of contrails and cirrus? We know that these can have a huge different impact on climate change as well, especially along aircraft flight paths, and the issue could be addressed in cooperation with meteorological institutes.

Finally, what can we expect on NOx emissions by the aviation sector, because action was promised in 2008, and we are still anxiously waiting for a proposal from the Commission?

 
  
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  Silvia-Adriana Ţicău (S&D). - Promovarea unei economii eficiente din punctul de vedere al utilizării resurselor, ecologică şi competitivă, constituie un element central al Strategiei Europa 2020.

Acţiunile Uniunii Europene din ultimele decenii au avut drept rezultat o reducere considerabilă a emisiilor de poluanţi atmosferici, inclusiv dioxid de sulf, oxizi de azot, compuşi organici volatili, amoniac şi pulberi în suspensie. O contribuţie extrem de importantă la această reducere au avut-o directivele privind calitatea carburanţilor, folosiţi atât în transportul rutier, cât şi în cel maritim. Directiva 32/99 privind reducerea conţinutului de sulf din anumiţi combustibili lichizi stabileşte conţinutul maxim permis de sulf pentru păcura grea, pentru motorină şi pentru motoarele navale utilizate în Uniune. De asemenea, măsurile privind eficienţa energetică a clădirilor şi reciclarea deşeurilor vor contribui în mod semnificativ la reducerea emisiilor poluante.

Doamna Comisar, aş dori să vă întreb care sunt măsurile pe care intenţionaţi să le luaţi pentru a asigura reducerea emisiilor poluante generate de sectoarele industriale, mai ales în contextul crizei economice şi financiare.

 
  
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  Μιχάλης Τρεμόπουλος (Verts/ALE). - Κυρία Επίτροπε, το Μάιο του 2011 εγκρίθηκε επίσημα το σχέδιο κανονισμού της Ευρωπαϊκής Επιτροπής που απαγορεύει τη χρήση πιστωτικών μορίων από έργα βιομηχανικών αερίων του θερμοκηπίου, όπως οι υδροχλωροφθοράνθρακες, στο σύστημα εμπορίας εκπομπών της Ευρωπαϊκής Ένωσης μετά τον Απρίλιο του 2013. Ωστόσο, η απαγόρευση αυτή δεν καλύπτει τους εθνικούς στόχους των κρατών μελών της Ευρωπαϊκής Ένωσης για τους τομείς που δεν εντάσσονται στο σύστημα εμπορίας, όπως η γεωργία και οι μεταφορές. Και αυτό είναι σημαντικό, δεδομένου ότι, σύμφωνα με την απόφαση για τον επιμερισμό της προσπάθειας, έως τα 2/3 των συνολικών μειώσεων εκπομπών που απαιτούνται από τα κράτη μέλη θα μπορούσαν να καλυφθούν μέσω της χρήσης πιστωτικών μορίων.

Περιβαλλοντικές οργανώσεις ζητούν από την Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωση να επεκτείνει την απαγόρευση χρήσης τέτοιων μορίων και στους τομείς που δεν καλύπτονται από το σύστημα εμπορίας. Ανησυχούμε πως χωρίς μία ξεκάθαρη δέσμευση ορισμένα κράτη μέλη θα μπορούν να συνεχίσουν να χρησιμοποιούν τέτοια πιστωτικά μόρια για την επίτευξη των εθνικών στόχων, τη στιγμή που ήδη απαγορεύεται σε επιχειρήσεις να τα χρησιμοποιήσουν για την επίτευξη των δικών τους στόχων μείωσης των εκπομπών. Ερωτώ λοιπόν: δεν θα έπρεπε η Επιτροπή να εξετάσει μια τέτοια απαγόρευση;

 
  
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  Iosif Matula (PPE). - Un paradox al zilelor noastre gravitează între nevoia de a controla emisiile poluante şi tendinţa creşterii consumului într-o epocă a globalizării. Asistăm neputincioşi la efectele dezastruoase ale schimbărilor climatice, dar ezităm să trecem la măsuri mai concrete. Rezervele din cadrul acordurilor de la Copenhaga şi Cancun sunt concludente. Rămânem cu speranţa ca viitoarele conferinţe să stabilească o poziţie fermă în acest sens.

Europa constituie un exemplu de iniţiativă în lupta împotriva schimbărilor climatice. Consider că rolul Comisiei în acest moment este de a iniţia o strategie concretă de scădere treptată a producţiei şi consumului de substanţe cu efect poluator. Programele-cadru de cercetare şi inovare ar putea contribui la identificarea soluţiilor alternative de înlocuire treptată a tehnologiilor actuale cu tehnologii inovatoare nepoluante.

Sunt inginer chimist; chimia ne ajută azi foarte mult în viaţa de zi cu zi, dar ne poate şi ucide. Cu discernământ, trebuie să depăşim etapa unor minunate declaraţii de intenţii şi să trecem urgent la măsuri concrete.

 
  
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  João Ferreira (GUE/NGL). - Senhora Presidente, são diversas, como vimos neste debate, as emissões atmosféricas de origem humana susceptíveis de interferirem com o clima terrestre. Mas a abordagem da União Europeia à problemática das alterações climáticas tem vindo a centrar-se quase exclusivamente, como sabemos, no dióxido de carbono. A tal não será alheio o facto de ter sido este o composto eleito para a montagem de um esquema de geração bilionária de activos financeiros fictícios através do chamado mercado do carbono. Entretanto, onde foram já experimentadas estas chamadas soluções de mercado – que em tese e na prática se têm aplicado também a outros compostos – estas soluções, dizia, não demonstram a sua proclamada virtuosidade. Bem pelo contrário, estas soluções têm demonstrado ser ineficazes e perversas.

Impõe-se, por isso, em alternativa às chamadas soluções de mercado, uma abordagem normativa à limitação das emissões de gases susceptíveis de interferirem com o clima terrestre. Uma abordagem que tenha em conta as potencialidades abertas pelo conhecimento científico e técnico, pelos seus avanços, a situação concreta de cada país, e uma imprescindível alteração profunda do modo de produção actualmente dominante à escala mundial.

 
  
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  Jaroslav Paška (EFD) - Európska únia robí veľa pre postupné zlepšovanie klímy. Je lídrom v navrhovaní a presadzovaní účinných opatrení na zníženie emisií kysličníka uhličitého v rámci celého svetového spoločenstva. Aktuálne poznatky však ukazujú, že pre záchranu klímy bude potrebné zvoliť komplexnejší prístup k antropogénnym emisiám. Ukazuje sa, že tak, ako sa to uvádza v predloženej otázke, postupne by sme mali začať obmedzovať výrobu a spotrebu hydroflóruhlíka, znižovať emisie čierneho uhlíka, či obmedzovať produkciu plynov prispievajúcich k tvorbe troposférického ozónu. Už v súčasnosti sa pri rozširovaní úsilia o okamžité zníženie výroby a spotreby hydroflóruhlíka na medzinárodnej úrovni môžme oprieť o ustanovenia Montrealského protokolu. Skúsenosti zo súčasného správania sa svetového spoločenstva nám však ukazujú, že aj ďalšie opatrenia potrebné pre zlepšenie klímy bude potrebné opäť pripraviť a iniciovať asi tu, v Európe. No a čím skôr s tým začneme, tým skôr sa budú môcť k našim opatreniam na zlepšenie klímy pridať aj ďalšie krajiny sveta.

 
  
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  Connie Hedegaard, Member of the Commission. − Madam President, I can see that he is not here any more but concerning the first intervention by Mr Tănăsescu, I just wanted to clarify one thing. I think that most people here will be aware of it, but although it does sound as if we are always only addressing CO2 emissions this is actually not true. The vocabulary we use for simplicity’s sake always refers to CO2 emission reductions. This is because everything in the international negotiations is measured in CO2 equivalents, but that of course means that other kinds of emissions are being translated, so to speak, into the currency of CO2. Sometimes therefore this might give the wrong picture as if we are only talking about or only addressing CO2 emissions. That is not the case.

On Chris Davies’s story about air conditioning in cars, I know that Mr Davies will be aware that I agree 100% with the view that we heard, that when you make a regulation it actually pushes innovation forward. The story we heard started back in 2004 when we drew up the F-Gas regulation. I recall that very well because that Environment Council meeting was my first Council meeting as Danish Minister, and we had this big fight about how ambitious the F-Gas regulation should be. I still recall that a few of us – I think Austria and Denmark – fought so that we could have more ambitious targets in our respective Member States, so I can assure the whole Parliament that I have given a very clear message to all my services that the review we are going to make must be as ambitious as it can sensibly be. I look forward very much to working with Parliament in securing that.

I could ask a lot of detailed questions, saying what about this or that, but I think I addressed most of them in my first intervention. One key initiative to try to address many of these things will be the review that I mentioned for the Thematic Strategy on Air Pollution: the review will be ready for 2013. That is a major initiative and I think we will have a chance there to address many of these things.

Mr Tremopoulos mentioned that it is fine that we have imposed a ban on HFC-23 for companies, but what about Member States? I can tell you that back in March at the Environment Council the Danish Minister proposed that the Member States commit voluntarily not to use HFC-23, and by the next Council meeting in June this alliance had grown quite substantially. I cannot exactly recall here, but there were maybe 10 - 12 countries or more who said they would check and come back, so I think there is a growing movement among Member States to follow our legislation.

Finally, I can also say that, since last week when I had the chance to discuss this in New Zealand, in Australia and elsewhere, it is my feeling that when we do things like this with HFC-23 in Europe, others consider how they can follow. It is not that we do it in an empty room and then nothing more happens.

I would very much like to thank you for the draft resolution and I will be looking forward also to working with the European Parliament when we come with this review and the suggestions as to how to follow up on the F-Gas regulation. That is one thing we can do relatively soon internally in Europe. At the same time, as I mentioned, there are a number of international initiatives where we could try to mutually support one another and try to push forward this agenda at international level too. So thank you very much for this initiative. I am looking forward to continued cooperation on this.

 
  
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  Le Président. - J'ai reçu, conformément à l'article 108, paragraphe 5 du règlement, une proposition de résolution(1).

Le débat est clos.

Le vote aura lieu demain à 11 h 30.

 
  

(1)Voir procès-verbal.

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