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7. Vuotuisen kasvuselvityksen 2012 työllisyys- ja sosiaalinäkökohdat - Osallistuminen vuotuiseen kasvuselvitykseen 2012 - Jäsenvaltioiden työllisyyspolitiikan suuntaviivat (jatkoa keskustelulle)
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  Der Präsident. − Wir kommen nun zum „Catch the eye“-Verfahren, und ich bin mit der Situation konfrontiert, dass wir momentan 15 Wortmeldungen vorliegen haben, die wir nicht alle aufrufen können. Ich bitte dafür um Verständnis. Ich gehe jetzt nach den Fraktionen und dem Einlangen der Wortmeldungen vor.

 
  
 

„Catch the eye“-Verfahren

 
  
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  Joanna Katarzyna Skrzydlewska (PPE). - Panie Przewodniczący! Polityka gospodarcza państw członkowskich i całej Unii Europejskiej zwłaszcza w dobie kryzysu pozostaje kluczowym zagadnieniem i wymaga naszej szczególnej uwagi. W tym trudnym momencie naturalnym rozwiązaniem powinno być dążenie do stabilizacji rynków ekonomicznych. Możemy to osiągnąć tylko przez zdecydowane i skoordynowane działania w ramach polityki budżetowej, nakierowane na rozwój innowacyjności. Ponadto istotne jest tworzenie nowych miejsc pracy, szczególnie dla młodych, zmniejszenie ich kosztów, zrewidowanie polityki fiskalnej i zmniejszenie obciążeń związanych z narastającą biurokracją.

To wszystko ma być następstwem realizacji priorytetów strategii Europa 2020, dlatego ich realizacja musi odbywać się w sposób spójny, z uwzględnieniem sektorów edukacji i pracy. To stanie się kluczem do wyjścia z kryzysu, a w długiej perspektywie znacząco wpłynie na walkę z ubóstwem i wykluczeniem społecznym.

 
  
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  Vilija Blinkevičiūtė (S&D). - Iš tiesų labai svarbu atkreipti Europos Vadovų Tarybos dėmesį į tai, kad socialiniai krizės padariniai, kaip antai, nedarbas, skurdas, socialinė atskirtis, dar labiau sustiprėjo kai kurioms Europos šalims pernelyg uoliai pradėjus taikyti taupymo priemones. Tai ypač pajuto jaunimas, pensininkai, neįgalieji, ilgalaikiai bedarbiai ar žemos kvalifikacijos darbuotojai.

Deja, realybe tapo ir tai, kad Europos Sąjungoje didėja dirbančiųjų skurdas. Tai reiškia, kad darbo vietos yra vis labiau nekokybiškos, nesaugios ir mažai apmokamos, todėl Vadovų Taryboje būtina pabrėžti, kad biudžeto valdymo, ekonomikos augimo ir užimto priemones būtina vertinti kartu, nes jos visos vienos nuo kitų priklauso ir yra būtina ekonomikos atsigavimo sąlyga.

 
  
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  Inês Cristina Zuber (GUE/NGL). - As políticas consignadas no semestre europeu, na governação económica e no pacto orçamental são um reforço de legitimação e institucionalização das chamadas medidas de austeridade, que não podemos aceitar. Essa receita não pode nunca e não é possível que seja conciliada com os princípios da justiça social, do crescimento e da promoção do emprego, porque elas preconizam exatamente o contrário, a diminuição dos custos salariais, o aumento da exploração dos trabalhadores e a retração do Estado, o ataque aos direitos sociais e laborais adquiridos.

Estas políticas da chamada consolidação orçamental estão a provocar verdadeiros dramas e desastres sociais, como o aumento da pobreza, para além do facto de só aprofundarem o caminho da recessão económica e do aumento das dívidas públicas. O que é necessário é uma verdadeira rutura com este caminho. A construção de uma Europa de cooperação, que tenha como principal objetivo a defesa dos interesses dos povos e o fim de processos de opressão e colonização por parte das maiores potências. No passado sábado, nas ruas de Lisboa, em Portugal, mais de 300 mil pessoas exigiram o fim das medidas de austeridade e prometeram que a luta vai continuar.

 
  
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  Csaba Sógor (PPE). - A 2012. évi növekedési jelentéssel kapcsolatban fontosnak érzem hangsúlyozni, amire képviselőtársam jelentése is rámutat, hogy az európai adósságválság kezelésében nem hanyagolhatjuk el a szociális szempontokat. Európa országainak jelenleg az adósságválság a legnagyobb problémája, ugyanakkor ennek kezelése során a terheket nem háríthatjuk aránytalan mértékben a lakosságra. Az utóbbi évek eseményeinek a tükrében megkérdőjelezhetővé vált az az eddig a fejlett világban széles körben elterjedt nézet, miszerint az életszínvonal fokozatos, hol gyorsabb, hol lassabb növekedése visszafordíthatatlan, és az elkövetkező generációk jobban fognak élni, mint mi. Ezt a felfogást erősítheti a költségvetések konszolidációja, s a makrogazdasági stabilitás oltárán feláldozzuk a gazdasági növekedést, a foglalkoztatottság bővítését, a szociális felelősségvállalást. Remélem, néhány év múlva nem úgy fogunk tekinteni a 2012-es évre, mint a szociális válság miatt fellángoló társadalmi feszültségek megelőzésének elszalasztására.

 
  
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  Monika Flašíková Beňová (S&D). - V prvom rade by som chcela vysoko vyzdvihnúť správu, ktorú predložila kolegyňa Berès, a to najmä z toho dôvodu, že v nej nezdôrazňuje len potrebu úsporných opatrení, ale na aktuálnu krízu pozerá aj ako na krízu sociálnu.

Dominantné zameranie sa na úspory viedlo k doteraz nesúrodému prístupu. Sledovala sa rozpočtová a makroekonomická stabilita bez toho, aby sa zohľadnili hlavne sociálne a vzdelávacie ciele a tiež ciele stratégie 2020 v oblasti zamestnanosti. Prioritou musia byť investície do trvalo udržateľných pracovných miest. Musíme zabezpečiť, aby najzraniteľnejšie skupiny a tí, ktorých najviac zasiahla kríza, boli chránení proti redistribučným účinkom hospodárskej krízy a plánom na fiškálnu konsolidáciu. Musíme tiež riešiť nedostatok kvalitných pracovných miest s dôstojnou mzdou a dôstojnými pracovnými podmienkami.

 
  
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  Gay Mitchell (PPE). - Mr President, I feel that it is necessary to apply the austerity programmes in Member States in order to bring the public finances under control.

In my own experience, in the 1980s in Ireland, once we got the public finances under control, we experienced recovery after some time. The problem is that, if the patient (in the form of the Member State) is to survive the austerity programme, some sort of new incentive has to be given. I think it is time we stopped just looking at the stick and started looking at the carrot.

Greece represents about 2% of the GDP of the euro area and much less than that of the EU. Are we going to allow this to bring the whole euro area down? It is time to start thinking of Marshall Aid-type assistance to those countries that are prepared to suffer. No matter what they did in the past, we will all gain from this, and there will be a return and a dividend if we have more of the carrot as well as the stick.

 
  
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  Alejandro Cercas (S&D). - Señor Presidente, Comisario Andor, ayer el Comisario Olli Rehn aplaudía una reforma en España que consagra el despido libre y sin indemnización para los centenares de miles de jóvenes a los que se les aplicará.

¿No cree, señor Comisario, que ha llegado el momento de decir que la Carta Social Europea protege a los trabajadores contra los despidos arbitrarios, y que no es bueno que los jóvenes pasen de engrosar el ejército de gente sin trabajo al de los trabajadores pobres? ¿No ha llegado el momento de decir que queremos empleo pero que queremos empleo digno y con derechos para nuestros jóvenes?

 
  
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  Hubert Pirker (PPE). - Herr Präsident! Geld alleine zur Verfügung zu stellen hilft zweifelsohne nicht, die Wachstumsprobleme und die Schuldenprobleme in einzelnen Mitgliedstaaten zu lösen. Bloß Löcher zu stopfen ist zweifelsohne keine Lösung. Notwendig ist vielmehr, dass wir Investitionen machen in nachhaltige Maßnahmen als Hilfe zur Selbsthilfe, wie etwa in den Bereich der Bildung, in den Bereich der Forschung, in den Bereich der Innovation und Hilfe für kleine und mittelständische Unternehmen. Das wird das Wirtschaftswachstum und die Beschäftigung zweifelsohne forcieren.

Notwendig ist aber auch die Kontrolle der Europäischen Union, ob die Mittel, die zur Verfügung gestellt werden, tatsächlich auch ordnungsgemäß eingesetzt und verwendet werden. Nur unter diesen Bedingungen wird es uns gelingen, Verständnis bei den Bürgern zu erreichen, vor allem in den Mitgliedstaaten, die viele Geldmittel zur Verfügung stellen und die über die Jahre hinweg ordnungsgemäß gewirtschaftet haben. Alle bisherigen Erfahrungen haben jedenfalls gezeigt, dass Vertrauen zwar gut ist, dass eine Solidargemeinschaft aber auch die notwendige Kontrolle braucht.

 
  
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  Victor Boştinaru (S&D). - Toate bune şi frumoase! Şi rapoartele prezentate, şi intervenţia Comisiei sunt însă contrazise, pe alocuri, de realitatea dramatică din statele membre. Odată şomerii ieşiţi din plată, din ajutor, cel puţin în cazul României, dispar şi ca statistică, şi ca preocupare a guvernului. Ei nu mai există în pachetul de frământări, de îngrijorări, de preocupare al societăţii. Reforma sistemului de pensii şi flexibilizarea pieţei muncii de care s-a vorbit aici sunt, de asemenea, foarte simpatice, foarte importante, dar, în România, sub supravegherea Fondului Monetar Internaţional şi a Comisiei Europene, s-a realizat această reformă, care înseamnă ce: demantelarea completă a cadrului legislativ şi instituţional de activitate a sindicatelor, dezmembrarea Codului Muncii, dizolvarea, în fapt, a Consiliului Economic şi Social şi refuzul partenerilor sociali de a mai participa la mimarea aşa-zisului dialog.

Dacă nu căutăm o redresare, un răspuns la aceste frământări, România rămâne doar o parte a statisticii europene - şi este totuşi un stat membru! Aş vrea să cred că ieşim din acest neortodoxism liberal şi încercăm să găsim răspunsuri. Nu aş dori nimănui să trăiască o zi în pielea şomerului din România, nici aici în Strasbourg şi nicăieri în statele membre.

 
  
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  Diogo Feio (PPE). - Senhor Presidente, queria começar por saudar os vários relatores dos documentos que hoje aqui estamos a discutir, em especial o meu colega Jean-Paul Gauzès, que no seu relatório salienta a necessidade de se encontrar soluções para a crise financeira e soberana que atualmente vivemos. Também como medida de disciplina, mas também com o reforço das medidas de crescimento de médio e longo prazo, é altura de determinarmos prioridades. Fazer tudo ao mesmo tempo e muitas vezes de modo contraditório não é a solução.

Em primeiro lugar, é necessário encontrar soluções para o curto prazo, para dar liquidez à economia real, para resolver a situação bancária de crise que atualmente vivemos, para resolver o problema dos Estados. Em segundo lugar tem que se caminhar para um conjunto de reformas estruturais que sejam claras no sentido do crescimento de natureza económica e, por fim, é também necessário um conjunto de alterações institucionais a nível do funcionamento do euro e a nível do funcionamento da União Europeia. É necessário, por fim, um discurso político claro. Todos temos que o apoiar e felicito a forma como o Conselho hoje aqui o fez.

 
  
 

Ende des „Catch the eye“-Verfahrens

 
  
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  László Andor, Member of the Commission. − Mr President, I am grateful for the opportunity to have heard Members’ views on the Commission’s 2012 Annual Growth Survey. First, I believe there is a broad convergence of views on the key policy priorities for 2012, on the higher priority for growth and the urgency of reform implementation, and on the fact that we should take action on employment and not just talk. I think there is an agreement that we have to work for improved consistency between the long-term objectives for economic and social development as explained in the Europe 2020 Strategy, and short-term measures to create stability in Europe and particularly in the euro area.

This convergence of views is comforting for the Commission. I believe that political support from the elected representatives of European citizens for these policy priorities will enhance the credibility of the relevant reforms and thus have a positive impact on confidence. However, based on different political views and approaches, there are differing approaches and emphasis on particular instruments – how exactly we should approach our goals for economic growth and job creation.

Let me give you the Commission’s view on what exactly we think needs to be done for growth and particularly for more jobs in this period. In the discussion I think there was sufficient attention and appreciation for the Youth Opportunities initiatives, and I am grateful for the positive remarks on this Commission document, in which we relaunched the campaign for a youth guarantee in Europe. I would like to thank those such as Mr Őry, Ms Bastos and Ms Gurmai who mentioned this youth guarantee in a positive light, because I believe this is a very important measure. The Commission can provide technical support for the Member States which are ready to go down this road.

I also believe it is very important, as many participants in the discussion stressed, to improve education and training according to the needs of the labour market in order to create a better match between the supply of and the demand for labour. These aspects will be covered in the country-specific recommendations at the end of this semester.

However, as we needed to update and upgrade the Youth on the Move flagship initiative in the form of the Youth Opportunities initiative, we are also working on an upgrade and an update of our employment policy in the form of an employment package to be presented in April. This will respond to and connect with many issues which you stressed in the discussion, such as how flexicurity policies are helping to develop the European labour market following Denmark’s inspirational example, but also how we want to work more effectively in order to create green jobs, because this is one of the areas where employment will increase in the coming period. We have to ensure that green jobs also appear in Europe and not only in other continents, where this is also a priority.

In addition to green jobs, we also have to look at white coat jobs in the health and care sector and the ICT sectors, which will be a bigger employer in the future. This employment package will also deliver the quality framework on traineeships which many of you called for. I share the view that we have to do a lot more – and do it more effectively – to ensure quality jobs and opportunities for young people, and this quality framework will be a key instrument in addressing this.

There is a need to do more for enterprise, including for SMEs. I think this is again an important point – but let us see what the real bottleneck is in the context of enterprise and SMEs. Perhaps we can do more for smarter regulation – efforts are also being made to streamline regulation inside the Commission – but I believe the real bottleneck is finance. We have to ensure that the banking sector gives more support to enterprise and SMEs, and we can also promote a microfinance facility. This has already been introduced in about one third of the Member States, and my services are working with other Member States to introduce the Progress Microfinance Facility in a more rapid manner and support SMEs across Member States.

Let me also say that in my view the greatest challenge at this time in terms of economic governance is to deal with the increasing polarisation within the European Union. It is not simply about diversity. We have already learned and applied the principle that there is no one size that fits all: we have to take differences into account. But we are now experiencing something which is more serious than that: an increasing asymmetry – a polarisation – between Member States that are relatively strong financially and economically, in terms of employment performance and social stability, and other Member States – largely those on the periphery – where all this is more difficult and where, instead of recovery, many Member States experienced a recession this year and the risk of losing a generation. For many of these Member States, like Ireland, Portugal and Greece, there is significant out-migration, which also means out-migration from Europe, because young people do not see the opportunities and they do not see them returning in the coming years.

I am also grateful for the comment from Latvia, because this also demonstrates that, although some stability has been restored, this example should not be used as a model for other countries, especially the southern countries looking for an exit from recession and financial instability.

I would like to stress that the European Semester is a learning process for all parties involved. With the help of the European Parliament, important lessons have been drawn from the first European Semester, and presenting the Annual Growth Survey earlier has left much more room for debate this time round. The Commission has done this because it recognises the importance of open debate and democratic accountability for the success of the European Semester.

The Commission is keen to contribute to strengthening the strategy’s governance – notably through improved monitoring of employment and social targets – and to bolster the political ownership that is vital for its success. This is very much about sustaining the Europe 2020 Strategy and its content and its objectives – together with numerical targets – instead of abandoning them.

In addition to being involved, we also need you to help us strengthen our links with the national parliaments in order to anchor our 2020 objectives in national political agendas as well.

 
  
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  Margrethe Vestager, President-in-Office of the Council. − Mr President, if I am asked by the press when I leave this Assembly what was the focus of the debates there will be one answer: youth unemployment. That has been the key word from every speaker in this debate on growth and unemployment that has lasted over an hour.

This is a key issue and we have to find ways to address it. It is important to grasp all the nuances here because there is no necessary contradiction between consolidation and growth. It is all a question of priorities: very hard, very difficult priorities in our budgets. We can no longer just discuss this and ask: ‘who is going to spend the next million or the next billion’? We have to discuss how we are spending in general and make sure that we get our priories right; that is important in any parliament, that is important in the European Parliament.

Do we have our priorities right? I think that is a key question and answering it entails a great deal of conflict, because if we want to change our priorities we will have to have debates that actually change things and concern the people who are the beneficiaries of the present budget and the present way of spending.

Another issue is the fact that greening our economy is part of the answer. I know that some people think that we will have to wait, but greening our economy is part of the answer: being more efficient in the way that we use our resources and, in so doing, creating more space for the most important resource we have: human beings.

It is very important to take note of the Commission’s five priorities because they are important steps in actually reaching the goals of Europe 2020. We must make sure that we pursue differentiated, growth-friendly fiscal consolidation. Second: we must restore normal lending to the economy because SMEs cannot create jobs if they cannot borrow, if their credit line is cut. So normal lending is very important. Third: we must promote growth and competitiveness for tomorrow. A lot of the proposals already tabled are heading in exactly that direction. Fourth, as we have been discussing today, we must tackle unemployment and the social consequences of the crisis. And fifth – perhaps an undervalued point – public administration must be modernised to make sure that we actually help enterprise to create jobs.

These are the important issues and I think that labour market reforms should also be understood as a way of facilitating young people’s entry to work, making sure that they are actually taken on by enterprises and giving them a chance to show that they can actually participate, and that their work is also beneficial to their enterprise.

Last but not least, this is an important debate because it forms part of a long series of debates that Parliament has held in the past and which we will continue to have in the future. Solving the crisis is a very long and very demanding task for everybody. It takes cooperation and when we discuss solutions – be it some of the things that I have mentioned, some of the things mentioned by the Commissioner or a number of the things mentioned in the three reports that we have been discussing today – a major challenge is to make sure that we cooperate.

I am very much looking forward to continuing cooperation with Parliament on the proposals already tabled, and making sure that we can make it obvious that there is no necessary contradiction between wise consolidation and growth within the European Union.

 
  
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  Marije Cornelissen, rapporteur. − Mr President, I would like to thank all of you for this debate and to thank the shadows for working closely in a very speedy process. Special thanks go to Mr Gauzès and Mrs Berès for the excellent cooperation on our reports. I am very proud to form a troika together with you, to refer to what Mrs Rapti said.

We have shown that it is possible to deliver complementary views from the economic and the social side, and I am happy with the broad support expressed in this House for our work.

I agree, Mrs Harkin, that both deficit and surplus countries should be addressed. Unfortunately, in yesterday’s alert mechanism report, surplus countries like the Netherlands and Germany were unaffected. I hope Mrs Harkin will be able to support the paragraph in my report that counters this asymmetrical approach.

I am happy that the call for a job-rich recovery, expressing worries about rising poverty, is growing louder in all institutions and all political groups. What I am afraid of now is that this call will remain lip service. We need measures to give the employment and social goals the power and standing to rise to the level of the budgetary ones, so perhaps we need an excessive unemployment procedure and an excessive poverty-increase procedure. Why not expand what was once the six-pack – and is now going to be the eight-pack – immediately to a ten-pack, in order also to include the social and employment goals. And let us differentiate our approach, to give all Member States a prospect of recovery.

 
  
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  Jean-Paul Gauzès, rapporteur. − Monsieur le Président, ce n'est certainement pas le meilleur moment pour prendre la parole mais je voudrais, moi aussi, me féliciter de l'excellent travail de coopération entre les rapporteurs Mme Cornelissen, Mme Berès et moi-même et les rapporteurs fictifs.

Sur le fond du débat, je dirais que ce qu'il faut aujourd'hui, c'est qu'après les paroles il y ait des actes, et c'est certainement la chose la plus difficile à faire. Sur la forme, je voudrais rappeler que l'exercice 2012 du semestre européen sera le premier à relever du cadre légal nouveau de la gouvernance économique renforcée. Afin de permettre une bonne information du Parlement, nous vous demandons instamment, Monsieur le Commissaire, que la Commission fournisse une évaluation détaillée de la mise en œuvre, par les États membres, des recommandations par pays.

Le Conseil, pour sa part, doit expliquer publiquement sa position dans le cadre du dialogue économique avec le Parlement, lorsque cette position s'écarte significativement des recommandations et des propositions de la Commission.

Bien évidemment, les États peuvent disposer d'une marge d'appréciation conforme au principe de subsidiarité. Le nouveau cadre légal prévoit que le Parlement doit être dûment associé au semestre européen afin d'accroître la transparence et la responsabilité des décisions prises, notamment à travers le dialogue économique tel qu'il est prévu par la législation secondaire pertinente.

À cet égard, je souhaite, en terminant, rappeler les demandes formulées par le Parlement à l'adresse du Conseil et de la Commission dans sa résolution du 1er décembre 2011. Il importe de donner à cette résolution une réponse publique et précise. Il y va de la réalité et de l'efficacité du contrôle démocratique qui revient à ce Parlement.

 
  
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  Pervenche Berès, rapporteure Monsieur le Président, Monsieur le Commissaire, vous avez dit que le Parlement européen avait accepté de ne pas changer les lignes directrices. Soit, mais nous aimerions bien que les lignes directrices soient mises en œuvre et, dans nos rapports, nous vous faisons un certain nombre de propositions pour vous donner les moyens de surveiller cette mise en œuvre.

En particulier, je retiendrai une proposition, celle de travailler avec les États membres à une nomenclature budgétaire qui permette de vérifier quelle est la contribution des États membres, par exemple, à la réalisation des objectifs de la stratégie 2020 plutôt qu'à des dépenses militaires ou que sais-je encore.

Madame la Ministre, je vous remercie de votre disponibilité. Vous avez indiqué que, lors de l'ECOFIN du 21 février, vous rendrez compte de ce débat et des travaux de ce Parlement. C'est exactement ce que nous souhaitons. C'est dans cet esprit-là que nous souhaitons faire avancer la démocratie européenne et c'est dans cet esprit-là aussi que nous rencontrerons les 27 et 28 février des représentants de l'ensemble des parlements nationaux pour que, dans ce semestre européen, la dimension démocratique puisse vivre également.

Enfin, Madame la Ministre, permettez-moi de vous appeler, lors de ce Conseil ECOFIN, à tenir compte de la même manière de la nouvelle étude d'impact que la Commission doit rendre publique demain, s'agissant de l'évaluation de la taxation des transactions financières.

 
  
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  Der Präsident. − Die Gemeine Aussprache ist geschlossen.

 
  
  

IN THE CHAIR: ALEJO VIDAL-QUADRAS
Vice-President

 
  
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  Evelyn Regner (S&D). - Herr Präsident! Ich habe versucht, in der vorherigen Debatte zum Jahreswachstumsbericht via blaue Karte eine Frage an den Abgeordneten Obermayr zu stellen. Das war allerdings nicht möglich, weil er sofort den Saal verlassen hat. Ich ersuche, dass die Abgeordneten zumindest so lange im Saal bleiben, dass eine blue-card-Frage überhaupt an sie gerichtet werden kann.

 
  
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  President. − Ms Regner, yes, you are right. Gentlemen should always wait for questions from ladies. Joking apart, you are quite right that Members should wait if there is a Blue-card request, so we take good note of your remark and we will act accordingly.

Written statements (Rule 149)

 
  
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  Elena Oana Antonescu (PPE), în scris. – Uniunea Europeană se confruntă în continuare cu imperativul depăşirii efectelor crizei economice şi financiare internaţionale. Măsuri precum continuarea investiţiilor pe termen mediu şi lung în perspectiva atingerii obiectivelor strategiei Europa 2020, precum şi efectuarea de investiţii pentru stimularea creşterii economice pe termen scurt se pot dovedi instrumentele prin care restabilirea încrederii cetăţenilor europeni şi a pieţelor financiare în capacitatea comercială şi industrială a Uniunii Europene poate fi restabilită. Este la fel de important pentru succesul strategiilor economice ale Uniunii Europene ca mai multe elemente asupra cărora acordul la nivel european există să fie implementate cât mai rapid în practica statelor membre. Succesul recuperării economice europene depinde în mod esenţial de construirea unei politici fiscale de consolidare care să încurajeze creştere economică, adoptarea de măsuri de prevenire a creşterii şomajului în rândul tinerilor, precum şi de lansare a unor măsuri punctuale pentru prevenirea marginalizării şi izolării sociale, în conformitate cu documentele strategice europene. Îmi exprim sprijinul pentru adoptarea propunerilor parlamentare. Folosirea fondurilor structurale în vedere redresării acestor dezechilibre economice de moment, în baza unei strânse cooperări între Comisie şi statele membre constituie, alături de întărirea Pieţei Unice, dezvoltarea economiei digitale şi reducerea birocraţiei instituţionale sunt soluţii care trebuie luate în considerare.

 
  
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  Филиз Хакъева Хюсменова (ALDE), in writing. – Днес сме свидетели на редица негативни последици от финансовата криза, както в икономически, така и в социален аспект. Нарастващата безработица, увеличеният риск от бедност и социално изключване и несигурността сред заетите са част от проблемите, пред които сме изправени, и за които са необходими бързи и адекватни решения. При ограничените поради кризата ресурси е необходимо да насочим усилията си към политиките, подпомагащи в най-голяма степен растежа и устойчивото развитие, и те следва да залегнат широко в Годишния обзор на растежа за 2012 г. Държавите членки и Европейската комисия трябва да гарантират прилагането на своевременни и координирани мерки за подобряване на ситуацията на пазара на труда, като специално внимание следва да се обърне на младите хора, жените и други уязвими групи. Необходимо е борбата срещу безработицата, особено сред младите хора, да се превърне във водещ приоритет, подкрепен с действия за обучение, квалификация, стажове, стимулиране на предприемачеството. Важно е и осъществяването на по-тясна връзка между образованието и нуждите на бизнеса, което би гарантирало и по-голяма възможност за професионална реализация на завършващите. Стимулирането на мобилността на младежите и предоставянето на по-гъвкави условия за работа биха допринесли за повишаване на производителността на труда и за подобряване на конкурентоспособността на европейската икономика.

 
  
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  Lívia Járóka (PPE), in writing. – I welcome the fact that tackling the social consequences of the crisis is one of the five priorities listed in the recent Annual Growth Survey. It is very important that the sector of employment and social affairs is not overshadowed by the focus on fiscal consolidation, and that the headline target of increasing employment is kept on the agenda and further promoted by investing in sustainable job creation. It must be ensured that consolidation measures will not have further negative impacts on people at risk of poverty and/or social exclusion. The Commission should therefore put more emphasis on guiding Member States in coordinating their National Reform Programmes with the goals of the Europe 2020 Strategy, in particular increasing employment and introducing effective incentives for work. The successful launch of the national Roma inclusion strategies and its European framework is indispensable in this respect, since Roma constitute a huge reserve of idle workforce and are disproportionately over-represented among those living in poverty. Increasing the employment of Roma – so that this approximates to the regional average – would already trigger substantial economic growth that many countries with a significant Roma population and hit by the sovereign debt crisis are so desperately in need of.

 
  
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  Jaromír Kohlíček (GUE/NGL), písemně. – Evropa a Evropská unie je od roku 2008 zasažena hospodářskou krizí. Vedle poklesu nejrůznějších umělých ukazatelů, jako je HDP, klesla významně zaměstnanost a domácí spotřeba v jednotlivých státech. Setkáváme se také s tím, že výrazně stoupá počet lidí v členských státech EU, kteří mají zaměstnání, dostávají mzdu, ale tato mzda je tak nízká, že i podle stále se horšících a přísnějších kritérií pro poskytování nejrůznějších sociálních příspěvků mají tito zaměstnaní lidé nárok na nejrůznější druhy kompenzací k jejich nízké mzdě. V uplynulých dvaceti letech se bohužel stalo typickým jevem, že výrazně poklesla zaměstnanost v primárním i sekundárním sektoru, velmi výrazně se snížila zaměstnanost v zemědělství a lesním hospodářství. Dříve klíčové odvětví pro zaměstnanost obyvatel průmyslově rozvinutých států, tj. průmysl, se dostalo na okraj zájmu zejména ve státech střední a východní Evropy. Ve starých zemích se již v předchozím období důraz na rozvoj průmyslu přesunul do podpory rozvoje služeb. Bohužel právě v oblasti služeb je řada oborů, které jsou zejména v krizové situaci z hlediska zajištění zaměstnanosti a z hlediska výdělku pro pracovníky v těchto oborech velmi rizikové. Řešením je podpora průmyslu a řemesel, zvýšení minimální mzdy, ochrana pracovních míst, rozvoj odborného školství a progresivní zdanění právnických i fyzických osob.

 
  
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  Vladimír Maňka (S&D), písomne. – Úsporné opatrenia, ktoré mnohé krajiny EÚ zaviedli ako reakciu na krízu, vedú k prehlbovaniu chudoby v celej EÚ. Situácia na pracovnom trhu je veľmi kritická, najmä pre mladých ľudí bez ohľadu na úroveň dosiahnutého vzdelania. Kríza zasiahla aj ľudí, ktorí sa blížia k dôchodkovému veku, dlhodobo nezamestnaných a nekvalifikovaných pracovníkov. Záväzky prijaté v národných programoch reforiem nepostačujú na dosiahnutie cieľov stratégie Európa 2020 v oblasti zamestnanosti, vzdelávania a znižovania chudoby.

Musíme sa preto zamerať na integrované reformné opatrenia, ktoré podporujú rast v krátkodobom, strednodobom aj dlhodobom meradle.

Európska rada vo svojich politických usmerneniach musí zabezpečiť, že budú vyčlenené prostriedky EÚ na dosahovanie cieľov stratégie Európa 2020.

Európska rada v súlade so zásadou subsidiarity musí schváliť usmernenia zamerané na zvýšenie príjmov prostredníctvom spravodlivého, progresívneho, re-distribučného, účinného a efektívneho zdanenia, aby prostredníctvom lepšej daňovej koordinácie podporila boj proti daňovým únikom a zabezpečila tak spravodlivosť systému a zachovala sociálnu súdržnosť.

 
  
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  Rareş-Lucian Niculescu (PPE), în scris. – Propunerea de rezoluţie face referire la situaţia - pe piaţa forţei de muncă - a tinerilor şi a persoanelor care se apropie de vârsta de pensionare, precum şi a lucrătorilor cu nivel scăzut de calificare, aceste categorii fiind considerate ca cel mai sever afectate de criză. În ansamblul domeniilor de activitate economică, cele trei categorii sunt deosebit de prezente, în unele state membre, în agricultură; de aceea, consider că măsurile de încurajare a instalării tinerilor fermieri, prin preluarea unor ferme sau extinderea unor exploataţii, dar şi sistemele de pensionare anticipată a agricultorilor vârstnici trebuie să continue şi în cadrul viitoarei Politici Agricole Comune. Trebuie reţinut faptul că lucrătorii din mediul rural, tineri sau vârstnici, au o situaţie cu totul specială, pentru care sunt necesare soluţii speciale.

 
  
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  Rovana Plumb (S&D), în scris. – Intervenţie plen – Annual Growth Survey 2012 Consecințele sociale ale crizei sunt foarte mari, chiar accentuate de impactul măsurilor de austeritate adoptate în anumite țări ca răspuns la criza datoriei suverane, de reducerea locurilor de muncă, în sectorul privat și cel public, a prestațiilor sociale și a serviciilor publice, agravându-se cazurile de sărăcie în întreaga UE. Conform Eurostat, din 2010, 41,4% din populaţia României riscă sărăcia sau excluderea socială, reprezentând 8,89 milioane de persoane dintr-o populaţie totală de 21,47 milioane. Bulgaria are 42%, Letonia 38%, Lituania 33% şi Ungaria 30%. La nivel european, trebuie sprijinite inițiative care facilitează dezvoltarea sectoarelor cu cel mai mare potențial de locuri de muncă, în special în ceea ce privește trecerea la o economie durabilă (locurile de muncă „verzi”), servicii sociale și de sănătate (locurile de muncă „albe”) și economia digitală. Trebuie, de asemenea, pus accentul pe strategia de combatere a şomajului în rândul tinerilor.

 
  
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  Evelyn Regner (S&D), schriftlich. – Mit diesem Bericht ist es dem Europäischen Parlament gelungen, eine aktive Rolle in der Debatte zur Krisenbewältigung zu spielen, und so neben den wirtschaftlichen auch die sozialen Aspekte in den Mittelpunkt der Debatte zu stellen. In Hinblick auf das Frühjahrstreffen des Europäischen Rates wurde ein starkes Signal geschickt, damit denen geholfen wird, die am stärksten von der Krise betroffen sind. Aktuelle Wirtschaftsdaten zeigen, dass mit den rigiden Sparkursen, die in vielen Ländern eingeschlagen wurden kein Aufschwung zu erzielen ist. Es muss investiert werden - vor allem in den BürgerInnen Europas - um eine Trendwende zu erwirken. Um Wachstum anzukurbeln, brauchen wir starke Impulse und auch konkrete Mittel. Deshalb freut es mich, dass eine Referenz auf die Finanztransaktionssteuer im Bericht verankert ist. Was ich im Jahreswachstumsbericht vermisse ist eine Hervorhebung der Ziele der EU-2020-Strategie; hier scheint es mir an Kohärenz zu fehlen. Denn diese Ziele sollten oberste Priorität gegeben werden. Das gilt besonders für die Jugendarbeitslosigkeit; es müssen jetzt konkrete Jugendbeschäftigungsinitiativen den bisherigen Absichtserklärungen folgen, damit diesen jungen Menschen Hoffnung gegeben wird. Mir ist auch sehr wichtig, dass im Bericht auf makroökonomische Ungleichgewichte hingewiesen wird. Eine Streichung dieser Referenz ist vor allem deswegen bedenklich, weil diese Ungleichgewichte Hauptauslöser der Krise waren.

 
  
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  Joanna Senyszyn (S&D), na piśmie. – W kontekście sprawozdania w sprawie zatrudnienia i aspektów społecznych w rocznej analizie wzrostu gospodarczego na 2012 r. zwracam szczególną uwagę na olbrzymie bezrobocie wśród młodzieży. Obecnie ponad 5 mln młodych w Unii Europejskiej jest bezrobotnych, co oznacza, że co piąta młoda osoba na rynku pracy nie może znaleźć zatrudnienia. W Polsce na początku 2011 r. w urzędach pracy zarejestrowanych było prawie pół miliona bezrobotnych, którzy nie ukończyli 25 lat. Absolwenci szkół i uczelni nie mogą znaleźć pracy między innymi ze względu na brak doświadczenia, którego zdobycie jest obecnie bardzo trudne.

Należy brać przykład z Niemiec i Francji, które w okresie szkolenia pracownika opłacają za pracodawców składki z Funduszu Pracy. To zachęca pracodawców do zatrudniania młodych. Niezbędne są standardy dotyczące jakości staży dla młodych ludzi. Po stażu młodzież musi posiadać wiedzę i umiejętności niezbędne na konkretnym rynku pracy. W dniu 1 lutego 2012 r. wszystkie państwa Unii zgodziły się na opracowanie własnego planu dotyczącego zatrudnienia młodzieży i wspierania małych przedsiębiorstw. Niektóre stworzą nawet specjalne grupy działania do zapobiegania bezrobociu wśród młodzieży. Liczę, że takie plany powstaną jak najszybciej, bo sytuacja dla młodych ludzi na rynku pracy jest wręcz tragiczna.

 
  
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  Valdemar Tomaševski (ECR), na piśmie. – Panie Przewodniczący! Kryzys finansowy, po którym nastąpił kryzys społeczny, pokazał bardzo wyraźnie, że Unia potrzebuje lepszego zarządzania gospodarczego. Szczególnie jest to niezbędne w sektorze zatrudnienia i rynku pracy. Bezrobocie w UE od 2008 roku znacznie wzrosło i osiągnęło poziom 23 mln osób, co odpowiada 10 procentom ludności w wieku produkcyjnym. Jest to wynik uśredniony dla całej Unii, a są przecież państwa członkowskie o znacznie wyższej stopie bezrobocia, przede wszystkim nowi członkowie UE.

Sytuacja na rynku pracy jest wyjątkowo trudna dla osób młodych, i to niezależnie od ich wykształcenia: oferuje się im umowy niedające pewności zatrudnienia. Zachowanie potencjału młodego pokolenia w gospodarce wymaga, aby Rada Europejska potraktowała priorytetowo problem bezrobocia wśród młodzieży i opracowała skuteczną strategię na rzecz osób młodych w Unii Europejskiej. Strategia ta powinna powstawać w ścisłej współpracy z partnerami społecznymi i powinna zawierać europejską gwarancję na rzecz młodzieży. Na jej podstawie państwa członkowskie zapewniałyby każdej młodej osobie w UE prawo do oferty zatrudnienia, nauki zawodu lub dodatkowego szkolenia po maksymalnym okresie bezrobocia danej osoby wynoszącym nie więcej niż sześć miesięcy.

Podobne inicjatywy znajdują się w sprawozdaniu pani Cornelissen i zasługują na merytoryczną analizę. Powinno to iść w parze z zachętą budżetową Rady Europejskiej do inwestycji w tworzenie trwałych miejsc pracy w jak największej liczbie sektorów gospodarki.

 
  
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  Kathleen Van Brempt (S&D), schriftelijk. – Het feit dat wij als Parlement slechts via een initiatiefrapport onze input kunnen geven over de beleidssnoeren in het kader van het Europees semester, geeft al meteen het probleem aan. Noch het Europees Parlement, noch de nationale parlementen hebben een zeg in of controlerecht over de uiteindelijke beleidssnoeren. Op zich nog geen ramp, zolang deze beleidssnoeren gebruikt werden zoals ze bedoeld waren: als richtlijnen. Er vindt echter een graduele verschuiving plaats, waarbij deze richtlijnen plots een veel dwingender karakter krijgen. Een voorbeeld hiervan is de belofte van de staatshoofden en regeringsleiders op de Europese Top van december om deze richtlijnen volledig uit te voeren. Het parlement (of het nu Europees of nationaal is) in zulke gevallen het medebeslissingsrecht ontnemen, is het democratisch proces ondermijnen. De gevolgen laten zich immers nu al voelen: de sociale dimensie van de beleidssnoeren wordt stiefmoederlijk behandeld en compleet in de schaduw van macro-economische en budgettaire doelstellingen gezet. Nochtans kan het een niet zonder het ander, en ik hoop dat de Europese Raad dit ook inziet en de sociale dimensie van de richtsnoeren de rol geeft die deze verdient.

 
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