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Trečiadienis, 2012 m. kovo 14 d. - Strasbūras Atnaujinta informacija

18. Piratavimas jūroje (diskusijos)
Kalbų vaizdo įrašas
PV
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  Presidente. − L'ordine del giorno reca la dichiarazione della Commissione sulla pirateria marittima (2011/2962(RSP)).

 
  
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  Andris Piebalgs, Member of the Commission. − Mr President, the Commission is well aware of the threat piracy is posing to European – and not only European – ships and crews. It is unacceptable that criminal gangs are allowed to continue to take the international shipping lanes hostage and bring suffering to thousands of seafarers and their families – not to mention the threat to the stability and prosperity of the region and Somalia itself.

We all agree that only a comprehensive approach can bring a sustainable solution to the problem of piracy.

Containing maritime piracy at sea and ending impunity are two important elements of the EU’s comprehensive approach to combat piracy. Others relate to building regional capacities and the stabilisation of Somalia itself. Also, we definitely should not forget cooperation with the maritime industry.

When it comes to containing piracy at sea, the most visible of all EU counter-piracy action is EUNAVFOR – Operation Atalanta. The Council has just decided to prolong its mandate to December 2014.

But how do we make sure justice is served, once suspects have been arrested by the naval forces? One way of addressing impunity is by the prosecution of piracy suspects in the region. The Commission directly supports countries in the region which have accepted transfers for prosecution by EUNAVFOR and established a joint programme with the UN in support of judicial capacities. This cooperation is an excellent example of how Commission programmes and common security and defence policy actions go hand in hand.

Piracy has to be understood as organised crime that is happening at sea and on land. In the long run, only the establishment of the rule of law, good governance and economic development will bring the solutions we are seeking. The EU is therefore strongly committed to supporting Somalia in finding a political solution to the ongoing crisis. At the recent London Conference, the international community showed strong determination to support the transition process in Somalia.

To date, the EU is the biggest donor to Somalia, having committed EUR 415 million for development aid through the European Development Fund for the period 2008 to 2013. On top of these bilateral funds come additional budget funds from horizontal lines and EUR 77 million during 2011 for humanitarian aid.

Part of the new development funds will be directed to supporting the fishing industry, building alternative livelihoods and helping coastal communities and rural development more generally, thus tackling some of the root causes of piracy.

The European Union is also supporting the development of Somali security capacities. In addition to the training of police officers – we also provide some financial support if they stay in the service of the Somali Government – we are the main donor to the African Union peacekeeping mission in Somalia, which is funded through the African Peace Facility. Since 2007 the European Union has provided EUR 325 million and the Commission is proposing additional support for AMISOM.

As in the area of counter-piracy efforts, Commission action is closely linked with Council-led CSDP actions such as the EU Training Mission to Somalia (EUTM).

There is also an important role for the maritime industry to play in containing the threat of piracy. It is vital to implement International Maritime Organisation-supported ‘best management practices’ on board ships under EU Member State flags.

Let me also assure you that the Commission is following very closely the case of two Italian marines, Salvatore Girone and Massimiliano Latorre, who are now in custody in India. We have been in constant touch with the Italian Government on this issue from the beginning. Following Italy’s request for assistance, the EU has raised the issue with the Indian authorities both in Brussels and in New Delhi, encouraging a positive outcome as soon as possible. Yesterday the High Representative, Cathy Ashton, also discussed these matters with Prime Minister Mario Monti, who thanked the High Representative for the EU’s efforts.

It is clear that we need to address this issue in the broader context of our cooperation on counter-piracy and, more specifically, the regulation of armed protection aboard ships. We need to see what lessons we can learn to prevent this type of incident from happening ever again. The European Union and India had already agreed in principle to work on these broader policy issues, and this is what we are currently also taking forward.

But we have to differentiate between this case of EU Member States’ security forces protecting commercial shipment and using private contractors for armed deterrence on board commercial ships and even distant fishing vessels.

Due to the immensity of the sea area where Somali pirates now operate and the scarce naval resources available to protect this shipping lane, the industry has had no other choice than to turn to the services provided by privately contracted armed security personnel on board ships transiting the high-risk areas. This is an increasing phenomenon that we cannot ignore.

The International Maritime Organisation has already addressed this item and issued interim recommendations but, as no solution to piracy is apparent in the short term, we believe this must be addressed in more depth.

We are not confident with the idea of self-regulation by this new business in view of the risks involved in this kind of activity, which can potentially lead to the – sometimes lethal – use of force. In this regard we think that the IMO is the international body that should lead to the development of very clear, stringent rules and, in particular, of a mandatory instrument.

Ensuring prosecution of pirates captured at sea only takes care of one part of the problem. It is therefore vital to increase the ‘risk/reward’ ratio for those who benefit most from piracy, and the EU has decided to step up its efforts to break the underlying business model. Law enforcement agencies of EU Member States, Interpol and Europol are currently cooperating, not only in attempting to trace any flows going into EU Member States but also in collecting evidence packages against leaders, financiers and instigators.

Another element of the EU comprehensive approach is the support of the region. It is in the strategic interest of regional countries to engage in the fight against piracy. The EU is definitely keen to assist and enhance local ownership. This is why the European Union has been a strong supporter of the Eastern and Southern Africa – Indian Ocean Regional Strategy and Action Plan, which was adopted in October 2010 in Mauritius to fight piracy and promote maritime security.

Support measures are under way, and up to EUR 40 million of further support is currently under consideration. We have also been enhancing the surveillance capacities of our partner countries through the EU’s network of Fisheries Partnership Agreements, which strengthen our relations with the countries in the Western Indian Ocean area, and the regional surveillance programme which we have been financing with EUR 10 million from 2007 to 2011, and which is going to be renewed.

The Critical Maritime Routes Programme funded under the Instrument for Stability has also focused since 2009 on the security and safety of essential maritime routes in the areas affected by piracy. In close coordination with the IMO, one of the projects contributes to the implementation of the regional Djibouti Code of Conduct.

I would like to thank the European Parliament especially for requesting a pilot project on ‘maritime awareness’, which will provide technical tools to help the authorities to be aware of what goes on at sea. These programmes will work very closely with the planned Regional Maritime Capacity Building Mission.

 
  
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  Γεώργιος Κουμουτσάκος, εξ ονόματος της ομάδας PPE. – Κυρία Πρόεδρε, κύριε Επίτροπε, κανείς δεν θα μπορούσε να προβλέψει πριν από μερικά χρόνια ότι η πειρατεία θα συνιστούσε σήμερα τόσο σοβαρή απειλή για το διεθνές εμπόριο και τη ναυτιλία, για την περιφερειακή και διεθνή ασφάλεια. Πάνω απ' όλα όμως, η πειρατεία συνιστά απειλή για την ασφάλεια και τη ζωή χιλιάδων ναυτικών που εργάζονται στα πλοία που διασχίζουν τις επικίνδυνες περιοχές του Κόλπου του Άντεν και του Ινδικού Ωκεανού.

Αυτή τη στιγμή, εκατοντάδες ναυτικοί κρατούνται όμηροι. Οι ίδιοι και οι οικογένειές τους ζουν δραματικές ώρες, μέρες, ακόμη και μήνες. Η ανθρωπιστική διάσταση της πειρατείας από μόνη της μας υποχρεώνει να αναλάβουμε αποφασιστικότερη δράση. Η πειρατεία έχει γίνει μια εξαιρετικά επικερδής επιχείρηση για τους πειρατές, υψηλού οφέλους και χαμηλού κινδύνου. Οι τακτικές τους μεταλλάσσονται και οι επιχειρησιακές τους δυνατότητες ενισχύονται εντυπωσιακά σε μια περιοχή μεγάλης στρατηγικής αξίας για τη διεθνή οικονομία. Μέσω αυτής της περιοχής διακινούνται καθημερινά 3 εκατομμύρια βαρέλια πετρελαίου και περίπου το 50% του παγκοσμίου εμπορίου σε κοντέινερς. Το ετήσιο κόστος της πειρατείας υπολογίζεται μεταξύ 7 και 12 δισ. δολαρίων.

Η πειρατεία είναι απειλή στρατηγικού χαρακτήρα, είναι μια κοινή πρόκληση που απαιτεί συλλογική δράση. Οι αιτίες της πειρατείας εντοπίζονται στην ξηρά αλλά τα αποτελέσματά της στη θάλασσα. Διαθέτοντας τη μεγαλύτερη ναυτιλία στον κόσμο, η Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωση οφείλει να δράσει με μεγαλύτερη αποτελεσματικότητα. Σήμερα οφείλουμε να πρωτοστατήσουμε αποφασιστικά στις διεθνείς προσπάθειες κατά της πειρατείας. Οι επόμενοι μήνες θα είναι κρίσιμοι.

Σε συντονισμό με τον Διεθνή Ναυτιλιακό Οργανισμό, τον ΟΗΕ και το ΝΑΤΟ, οφείλουμε να εντοπίσουμε επιτέλους τη ροή του παράνομου και μαύρου χρήματος, να επιλύσουμε νομικά κενά για την αποτελεσματική ποινική δίωξη των πειρατών, να αποτρέψουμε τη διασπορά των πειρατικών βάσεων σε μία ευρύτερη περιοχή και να προωθήσουμε τον καθορισμό θαλάσσιων αποκλειστικών οικονομικών ζωνών στην περιοχή, σύμφωνα με το διεθνές δίκαιο της θάλασσας.

Κύριε Επίτροπε, άκουσα με προσοχή όσα είπατε. Εγώ θα προσέθετα ότι έχει γίνει άλλο ένα θετικό βήμα που είναι ο ορισμός εκπροσώπου στο Κέρας της Αφρικής. Αυτή είναι μια θετική εξέλιξη. Είπα ότι σας άκουσα προσεκτικά για όλα τα μέτρα. Είναι όλα θετικά. Ξέρετε τι μου έλειψε; Η αποφασιστικότητα. Δεν είδα την αποφασιστικότητα που ζητάμε. Περιμένουμε πολύ περισσότερα.

 
  
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  Saïd El Khadraoui, namens de S&D-Fractie. – Piraterij blijft een fenomeen dat ons zorgen baart en de aandacht verdient van de Europese instellingen. Vorig jaar waren er maar liefst 300 aanvallen en pogingen tot aanvallen op schepen in een gebied dat enkele jaren geleden beperkt was tot de Hoorn van Afrika, de Golf van Aden, maar ondertussen zowat de hele Westelijke Indische Oceaan bestrijkt. Daarbij werden 25 schepen effectief gekaapt en meer dan 400 bemanningsleden vastgehouden. Wij tellen ook elf dodelijke slachtoffers.

Tijdens de eerste twee maanden van dit jaar zijn er alweer 35 pogingen tot kaping geweest en zijn drie schepen ook effectief gekaapt. Deze situatie leidt ertoe dat bemanningsleden hun leven riskeren om hun werk te kunnen uitoefenen. Maar ook dat er aanzienlijke economische schade wordt geleden, rechtstreeks en onrechtstreeks in de vorm van losgeld, hogere verzekeringspremies, omwegen die gemaakt moeten worden om gevaarlijke zones te vermijden, de operatie Atalanta zelf natuurlijk, hogere voedselprijzen, etc., kosten die alles bij elkaar geraamd kunnen worden op vele miljarden. Bijgevolg is bijkomende actie en blíjvende actie vereist.

Operatie Atalanta werd weliswaar verlengd tot eind 2014, maar in enkele jaren tijd is het aantal schepen dat actief bijdraagt tot de operatie verminderd van 35 naar 10 en begin dit jaar zelfs naar drie schepen. De aanpak van piraterij vergt natuurlijk een globale aanpak - u heeft er zelf al naar verwezen - in Somalië zelf, in de regio.

Daarnaast stellen we duidelijk vast dat de druk op de rederijen met de dag groter wordt om zelf via privébewakingsfirma's in te staan voor de veiligheid van de schepen en hun bemanningsleden. Ik denk dus dat wij daar goed naar moeten kijken. Een aantal EU-vlaggenstaten laten dit toe, andere niet. Het is wenselijk dat de Europese Commissie met richtsnoeren komt om dit duidelijk te regelen, bijvoorbeeld afspraken te maken inzake opleidingscriteria van bewakingsagentschappen, procedures om gewapend op te kunnen treden, registratie van incidenten, de aard van wapens die aan boord mogen worden gehouden.

Ik zou u willen vragen om hier toch even iets over te zeggen, en te verduidelijken hoe u dat ziet; en ik vraag u ook niet te wachten op de IMO maar al in actie te komen op dit punt, en natuurlijk ook op andere punten die collega's zeker nog aan de orde zullen stellen.

 
  
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  Izaskun Bilbao Barandica, en nombre del Grupo ALDE. – Señora Presidenta, quiero comenzar esta intervención hablando de personas. Nuestra primera prioridad es liberar a las mujeres y a los hombres que permanecen hoy secuestrados por piratas, sea cual sea el mar en el que estos operen.

Centenares de seres humanos sufren un delito que deja graves secuelas psíquicas y requieren atención especializada y un reconocimiento y apoyo que ahora no tienen, porque los rehenes de estos secuestros padecen la acción de las mafias organizadas, muy violentas y que operan fuera de la Unión. Las normas europeas y estatales deben reconocer esta situación.

Las flotas de ayuda humanitaria, mercantes y pesqueras que sufren la piratería desarrollan, además, actividades lícitas, justas, amparadas por la legislación internacional. En el caso de la pesca, observan buenas prácticas medioambientales y apoyan el desarrollo local.

Desde esa perspectiva, los piratas no pueden justificar sus ataques, y nosotros no debemos permitirlo. Por eso es necesario prolongar la Operación Atalanta, y pregunto: ¿por qué se han reducido los efectivos de que dispone? y ¿cómo valora la autorización somalí para atacar las bases piratas en la costa? Me gustaría, señor Comisario, que respondiera a estas dos cuestiones.

Y lo que sí anima a muchos a convertirse en piratas es la pobreza. Hoy, mas de 3 500 delincuentes de este tipo operan en bandas organizadas sólo en el Índico. La piratería obliga a armadores, profesionales del mar y administraciones públicas a incrementar anualmente en cerca de 5 000 millones de euros el coste de sus operaciones. Sumando una pequeña parte de esa cantidad a lo que ya dedicamos al desarrollo y a la cooperación ganaremos todos y todas, porque podemos eliminar la miseria.

En 2011 sólo el 13 % de los 237 ataques tuvieron éxito, frente al 27 % de los que alcanzaron su objetivo en el año 2010. Pero los rescates que se pagan han batido récords. Apostemos por insistir en esas actuaciones antes de que sea demasiado tarde.

 
  
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  Keith Taylor, on behalf of the Verts/ALE Group. – Madam President, Parliament started to draft a resolution on this, led by the Committee on Transport and Tourism, for which I am the Green shadow.

We recognise that maritime piracy is an extremely complicated and problematic issue, but we also believe that it is a horizontal one incorporating development, security and foreign affairs aspects, while the link with transport issues is more secondary. I am given to understand that the reason why the Transport Committee is the leading committee is because the Commission’s Directorate-General for Mobility and Transport wants to lead on this instead of DG Development.

Greens are completely against this shift, as solutions to maritime piracy do not lie primarily with changes to transport policy. Therefore we welcome the fact that this resolution was taken off the agenda for this plenary session. If Parliament is determined to have a resolution on this, we think it should be led by another committee such as the Subcommittee on Security and Defence, as well as being better timed in order to tie in with the external work and developments.

Apart from the fact that we do not think that the Transport Committee should be leading on this issue, the solutions in the draft resolution are not in line with previous Parliament resolutions on piracy, Somalia and the Horn of Africa. Furthermore, they are too militarily based. We are against further militarisation and strongly in favour of strengthening the criminal justice approach to piracy, as advocated by the United Nations Special Advisor on Piracy, Mr Jack Lang.

This ultimately would also need a change in any future resolution from this place on this issue.

 
  
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  Peter van Dalen, namens de ECR-Fractie. – De problemen met de piraterij zijn de afgelopen jaren alleen maar toegenomen. Wat wij zien is dat meer schepen gekaapt zijn, meer zeelieden gegijzeld en dat het werkgebied van de piraten veel groter is geworden. Ook is de prijs die wordt betaald in mensenlevens en in losgeld gestegen. Honderden zeevarenden worden momenteel in kampen in Somalië vastgehouden, onder omstandigheden waarin u en ik nooit zouden willen verkeren.

Hoog tijd dus voor een steviger aanpak ten aanzien van piraterij. En ik denk daarbij aan vier punten.

1. De lidstaten moeten echt alle middelen inzetten om gevangen zeelieden te bevrijden en wat mij betreft zijn dat ook gerichte acties op de kust van Somalië.

2. De EU-lidstaten moeten nu eens een keer allemaal instemmen met de inzet van gecertificeerde en gewapende beveiligers aan boord. Nu zie je dat het ene land die bewapende beveiligers wel toestaat, en het andere land niet. Maar die piraten weten exact hoe die schepen varen en volgen ze precies, dus men weet bij welke schepen er geen beveiligers aan boord zijn. Dat is dus een extra risico, juist voor die schepen. Dus het gaat om veiligheidsrisico, maar ook om competitie, om concurrentie.

3. Er zijn aanwijzingen dat de piratenleiders geld witwassen via banken in Afrika en in Europa. Dat betekent dat de veiligheidsdiensten deze geldstromen in kaart moeten brengen en moeten zorgen dat de banken die daaraan meewerken worden aangepakt.

4. Somalië is een land zonder recht en zonder wet. De Commissie moet een plan ontwikkelen om Somalië te verbeteren. Wat mij betreft, commissaris Piebalgs, mag er iets meer ambitie komen, en ik hoor graag uw antwoorden.

 
  
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  Younous Omarjee, au nom du groupe GUE/NGL. – Madame la Présidente, dans ce débat, osons dire également quelques vérités qui dérangent, ces vérités sur les causes profondes de la piraterie.

Il y a d'abord les accords de pêche imposés par l'Union européenne qui organisent le pillage sans vergogne des eaux territoriales somaliennes. C'est ce pillage et celui aussi de la pêche illégale qui a ruiné la vie de milliers de familles de pêcheurs et créé de jeunes pirates. Chaque année, 450 millions de dollars de poisson sont prélevés, privant la population somalienne, l'une des plus pauvres du monde, d'une ressource alimentaire et économique vitale pour eux.

Autre vérité souvent occultée: les eaux au large de la corne de l'Afrique sont devenues une véritable décharge de déchets toxiques, des déchets de toute nature qui sont aussi radioactifs et qui sont rejetés en violation des règles de droit international. In fine, sous couvert de lutter contre la piraterie, ce sont des intérêts de politique étrangère, des intérêts géostratégiques, des intérêts économiques qui sont parfaitement servis.

Voilà le dessous des cartes, voilà aussi les ingrédients qui ont permis le développement de ce phénomène. Et pendant que l'on se focalise sur cette lutte qui, j'en conviens, est nécessaire pour la sécurisation des routes maritimes, les vrais bandits que sont pour l'Afrique les multinationales continuent d'agir en toute impunité.

 
  
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  Juozas Imbrasas, EFD frakcijos vardu. – Žvejybinių, prekybinių ir keleivinių laivų kriminalinių užpuolimų tarptautiniuose vandenyse padaugėjo. O tai kelia pavojų tiek įgulos narių, tiek keleivių gyvybei, saugumui ir turi stiprų neigiamą poveikį tarptautinei prekybai. Todėl būtina užtikrinti nekliudomą laivų, teisėtai vykdančių savo verslą, judėjimą ir apsaugą atviroje jūroje, nes tai būtina tarptautinės prekybos prielaida. Teisinės priemonės, skirtos kovai su piratavimu ir ginkluotais apiplėšimais kaip galima greičiau turi būti persvarstytos, atnaujintos ir pritaikytos šiandieninei situacijai siekiant persekioti ir nubausti pagal galiojančią tarptautinę teisę šiuos nusikaltimus vykdančius asmenis. Ypatingą dėmesį reikia skirti laivų saugumo stiprinimui, galimai pagalbai laivų įguloms, jų šeimos nariams, tarptautinių organizacijų veiksmams kovoje su piratavimu ir kitoms svarbioms bei reikalingoms iniciatyvoms. Reikia telkti tiek politines, tiek ir teisines pastangas rengiant globalų atsaką į šiuolaikinio piratavimo ir laivų ginkluotų užpuolimų keliamus iššūkius idant toks reiškinys kaip piratavimas būtų likviduotas.

 
  
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  Izaskun Bilbao Barandica (ALDE), pregunta de tarjeta azul a Younous Omarjee. – Usted ha hecho referencia a los buques de pesca que faenan de manera ilegal. Le pregunto si usted sabe cómo faenan los buques europeos en el marco de los convenios suscritos por la Unión Europea, con buenas prácticas que podrían ser un modelo y una referencia en el ámbito internacional y si, además, sabe que, por ejemplo, el 80 % del desarrollo local en Seychelles es posible gracias a la presencia de la flota europea, una presencia que reclaman los habitantes de esa zona.

Me gustaría, también, pedirle que, cuando hable de pesca ilegal, diga —porque queda muy confusa su intervención— de quiénes está hablando. Porque creo que la flota europea, al amparo de los convenios suscritos por la Unión Europea, es una referencia y un modelo, como digo, en el ámbito internacional. Y que si se siguiera este modelo, la sostenibilidad de las pesquerías en el mundo sería distinta. Por tanto, me gustaría, si puede, que respondiera a estas preguntas.

 
  
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  Younous Omarjee (GUE/NGL), réponse "carton bleu". – Madame la Présidente, je suis prêt au débat. Si vous m'aviez écouté très attentivement, j'ai distingué, d'une part, les accords de pêche et, d'autre part, la pêche illégale. Manifestement, nous percevons ce problème de la piraterie de manière différente puisque je me situe en fonction aussi des intérêts des peuples africains et de la corne de l'Afrique. On peut prolonger indéfiniment ce débat mais mon texte est clair et je crois que j'ai défendu une position sans doute iconoclaste mais qui devait, aussi, être exprimée ici.

 
  
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  Mathieu Grosch (PPE). - Frau Präsidentin! Die Hochseepiraterie ist für uns in diesem Hause nicht Neues. Wir hatten bereits 2009 eine Entschließung. Wir im Verkehrsausschuss wollen da auch keine Verfahrensfrage daraus machen. Wir wollen den Menschen helfen und sind problemlos damit einverstanden, mit den anderen Ausschüssen, die sich betroffen fühlen und helfen können, gemeinsam eine Entschließung zu machen. Also, das ist unsere Vorgehensweise, die wir auch beschlossen haben.

Die Hochseepiraterie ist zuerst eine Bedrohung für die Menschen. Wie die Kollegin es vorher schon gesagt hat, ist sie auch eine Bedrohung für den Außenhandel, aber auch für den Fischfang vor Ort. Den darf man auch nicht vergessen. Nicht zuletzt ist sie sogar eine Bedrohung für die Hilfsprogramme, die dort ankommen müssen und die auch bedroht sind. Man muss auch feststellen, dass in den letzten Jahren, gerade durch diese Bedrohung, dieser Beruf – der ein sehr interessanter Beruf ist, auch international anerkannt – sehr darunter leidet, weil für die Menschen vor Ort weiter diese Bedrohung besteht. Deshalb wünschen wir zuerst, und das war bereits auch in der Entschließung von 2009 drin, dass die EU initiativ wird. Die IMO – mit allem Respekt – ist für uns zu lahm und zu langsam.

Wir müssen initiativ werden. Im Rechtsrahmen, in der Zertifizierung, damit Menschen, die morgen die Sicherheit gewährleisten, nicht in Situationen kommen wie jetzt zwei Kollegen aus Italien, und man morgen dort auch einen unsicheren Rahmen hat. Wir müssen also das Problem anpacken, mehr Initiative auf EU-Ebene zeigen, um das dann auch auf die internationale Bühne zu bringen. Das ist, was wir erwarten. Das ist auch, was wir mit den anderen Ausschüssen problemlos zusammen diskutieren wollen.

 
  
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  Ana Gomes (S&D). - Senhora Presidente, a pirataria é problema sério, mas não é o único nem o mais grave ao largo do Corno de África. Para a combater eficazmente, a União Europeia tem de construir uma estratégia abrangente para a região. Isso implica atacar a fonte da pirataria, que não se localiza no mar, mas em terra. Reside na falta de Estado, de governação, de instituições representativas que defendam os interesses do povo somali. É por falta de se integrar numa tal estratégia que a operação Atalanta, apesar da importância como missão naval no quadro CSDP, não consegue atingir os seus objetivos. Pior, a pirataria sofisticou-se e vai de vento em popa, e os al-Chebab cresceram, armaram-se e radicalizaram-se.

O principal mandato da Atalanta é proteger a navegação internacional ao longo das costas somalis. Mas o que faz a União Europeia relativamente a muitos outros crimes marítimos cometidos por navios estrangeiros nas mesmas águas, desde a pesca ilegal ao dumping de lixo tóxico? Que informações tem Bruxelas nesta matéria, enviadas pela Atalanta ao longo dos três anos que já leva a operação, em cumprimento do mandato que também tem nesta matéria sobre a pesca dentro das 200 milhas da costa somali? Podem esses dados ser fornecidos a este Parlamento? Tem a União Europeia submetido esses dados à ONU e pedido a atenção do Conselho de Segurança para eles?

A Somália e a região precisam de um esforço reforçado e concertado a nível político, diplomático, económico e militar – no terreno, e não apenas no mar – que envolva a ONU, a União Africana, os Estados Unidos, a União Europeia, a Índia, a China e outras potências, mas que se centre no conceito de segurança humana para poder corresponder às necessidades de sobrevivência e desenvolvimento do povo somali, que estão na base da indústria da pirataria. Um esforço que produza resultados na construção de instituições representativas na Somália, que, demonstradamente, não passam pelo artificial TFG sustentado por tropas invasoras da vizinha Etiópia, e um esforço que não continue a negligenciar o potencial de governação que pode expandir-se a partir das áreas autonomizadas do Puntland e da Somaliland, com as quais a União Europeia tem de trabalhar.

(O orador aceita responder a uma pergunta "cartão azul" (n.º 8 do artigo 149.º).)

 
  
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  Peter van Dalen (ECR), "blauwe kaart"-vraag. – Voorzitter, het betoog van mevrouw Gomes is indrukwekkend, maar Somalië veranderen, dat gaan wij niet van de een op de andere dag realiseren, dat is een termijn van weet ik hoeveel jaren.

Het probleem speelt nú. Er zitten nu zeevarenden vast. Er worden nu schepen gekaapt en mensen vastgezet. Dus ik zou u willen vragen: wat vindt u van het meenemen van gewapende beveiligers om te zorgen dat die schepen veilig door kunnen varen. Somalië moeten wij oplossen, maar wij hebben ook nú een probleem, wat vindt u daarvan?

 
  
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  Ana Gomes (S&D), blue-card answer. – Madam President, I do not think that private security firms are the solution, but the EU, I would agree, can be. This is not a problem that can be solved overnight. It is a problem that has existed since at least 2005. The EU should have an autonomous strategy for Somalia.

If we look at how much money we have spent in the whole operation and at the results, including in fighting piracy, these are quite limited, because our objectives cannot be achieved until the core question of the governance in Somalia is addressed. The effort is too big for the EU alone. It has to act in concert with others in the international community. How much money could have been saved, though, if something more meaningful had been done for governance in Somalia. Nothing has been done so far.

Our strategy has been to follow the US totally in a very non-critical way. That is why we are where we are and unhappy with the results, including in fighting piracy and hostage taking. Until we address the question of the governance in Somalia – and not with a fake institution like the TFG, the transitional government – we will not improve the situation for ships passing through those waters.

 
  
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  Nathalie Griesbeck (ALDE). - Madame la Présidente, Monsieur le Commissaire, inlassablement, les pirates somaliens repartent à l'assaut des cargos qui passent au large de leurs côtes. La piraterie dans le golfe d'Aden et l'océan Indien ne recule pas – on vient de l'entendre –, les prises d'otages, les demandes de rançons, les disparitions, les actes de brigandage en haute mer prennent, au contraire, chaque jour un peu plus d'ampleur. Les incidents sont non seulement nombreux mais souvent très violents et il ne sert à rien de regarder en arrière, il faut voir de quelle manière on va construire l'avenir, les pirates n'hésitant plus, non plus, à entrer dans les eaux territoriales d'États étrangers, donc tout est permis.

En mission moi-même, il y a quelques mois, dans le golfe d'Aden auprès des marins de la mission Atalante, je puis vous dire que je suis convaincue que, sans leur action courageuse, les attaques seraient encore plus nombreuses, encore plus violentes et encore plus dangereuses.

J'ai deux questions de fond: la première touche aux suites apportées aux arrestations, justement, à la détention des pirates, au problème de leur jugement. Aujourd'hui, lorsqu'ils sont appréhendés, avec de gros risques pour les marins, ils sont gardés pendant une durée réglementaire directement sur les navires avant d'être relâchés et donc ils repartent dans la nature et commettent à nouveau, très vite, des actes de piraterie. Aussi, ne serait-il pas urgent que nous mettions en place au moins une aide à la constitution d'un système juridictionnel capable de prononcer des sanctions contre ces pirates?

Deuxièmement, cela vient d'être souligné – et je ne partage pas l'avis exprimé à l'instant –, le rôle de la mission Atalante est essentiel. C'est la clé de voûte, en fait, de la protection et de la lutte contre les pirates et, pour ma part, je m'inquiète de la multiplication des compagnies privées qui assurent la protection des navires. Quelles sont ces compagnies? Qui les contrôle? Quelles sont exactement leurs prérogatives? Nous avons vu sur plusieurs théâtres internationaux que le recours à ces compagnies privées peut mener à de graves abus (emploi abusif de la force, assassinats de civils, etc.), il faut donc les contrôler, limiter au maximum leur usage. Que proposez-vous, Monsieur le Commissaire?

 
  
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  Geoffrey Van Orden (ECR). - Madam President, what a pity the European Union does not focus its comprehensive approach more effectively on some of the civil areas the Commissioner has described so well.

I am sorry to say that in regard to piracy, as in so many other areas, the European Union has confused its own institutional ambitions with practical reality, and I am referring here to naval operations.

Since 2008, NATO using naval forces from North American and European allies has been engaged in both counter-piracy and maritime counter-terrorism operations in the Red Sea, the Indian Ocean and in the Gulf areas. But during its presidency, France saw an opportunity to open a new chapter in EU defence policy and create a maritime dimension for the European Union. Operation Atalanta was born. And the upshot I have to say is costly confusion.

There are now at least three multinational naval operations as well as deployments from individual countries such as Russia, India, China and Japan. There have been some successes, but attacks have escalated and the risk of serious consequences for pirates, as the Commissioner has said, is still too low to outweigh the lucrative rewards.

In January 2012, 80 pirates were captured by counter-piracy forces in the Gulf of Aden and the Indian Ocean, 75% of these were captured by NATO ships, yet maintaining the political will and naval assets for NATO’s operation Ocean Shield has been a challenge, particularly when more or less the same naval assets are being called on for an EU operation. The European Union should do something comprehensive on the civil side.

(The speaker agreed to take a blue-card question under Rule 149(8))

 
  
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  Γεώργιος Κουμουτσάκος (PPE), ερώτηση “γαλάζια κάρτα”. – Κύριε Van Orden σας άκουσα με μεγάλη προσοχή. Αναφέρεστε για μία ακόμη φορά στις προσπάθειες που καταβάλλει η Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωση για την καταπολέμηση της πειρατείας για να μας πείτε ουσιαστικά ότι η Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωση δεν πρέπει να έχει κοινή πολιτική ασφάλειας και άμυνας.

Αυτό είναι λάθος και το γνωρίζετε. Ειδικά στο θέμα της πειρατείας, η πρώτη επιχείρηση που έγινε, η επιχείρηση Atlanta, ήταν της Ευρωπαϊκής Ένωσης· μετά από καθυστέρηση πολλών μηνών ακολούθησε το ΝΑΤΟ. Η πρώτη αντίδραση ήταν ευρωπαϊκή και έχουν επιτευχθεί αποτελέσματα.

Νομίζω λοιπόν ότι πρέπει να ξεκαθαρίσετε τι ακριβώς θέλετε με την παρέμβασή σας και ποιο είναι το μήνυμά της.

 
  
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  Geoffrey Van Orden (ECR), blue-card answer. – Madam President, we have got to get our facts right here. There were NATO combined task groups operating in the Red Sea and Indian Ocean well before Atalanta was dreamed up. This was purely an initiative of the French Presidency acting out of Djibouti and that is what brought it all about.

What I am talking about is the way the European Union has military ambitions. It should leave military operations to those that know how to do it. We have a very good international alliance for that and it is called NATO.

One of the earlier speakers mentioned the lack of resources that are deployed. Well, no wonder there is a lack of resources because we have got the same navies producing ships for two different international naval operations. It is ridiculous. The European Union brings no additional naval assets to the table. It does not contribute anything additionally from a naval point of view.

So by all means. There is a lot to be done and even the European Union could do something useful if it focused its efforts on some of the civil activities which we have heard described this evening. But leave the military operations to those that know what they are doing. It is just going to waste money and overstretch our very depleted military forces.

 
  
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  Γεώργιος Τούσσας (GUE/NGL). - Η απόλυτη φτώχεια και εξαθλίωση εκατομμυρίων ανθρώπων που προκαλεί ο καπιταλισμός στην Αφρική, στην Ασία και στη Λατινική Αμερική γίνεται αντικείμενο εκμετάλλευσης από ισχυρά διεθνή κυκλώματα, τα οποία αναπτύσσουν την πειρατεία ως μια πολύ κερδοφόρα επιχειρηματική δραστηριότητα που αξιοποιεί πολυσύχναστους εμπορικούς δρόμους και συνδέεται με το εμπόριο όπλων και ναρκωτικών και με τα κυκλώματα της πορνείας.

Το φαινόμενο της πειρατείας και της ένοπλης ληστείας στη θάλασσα έχει πάρει μεγάλες διαστάσεις, με θύματα χιλιάδες ναυτεργάτες. Χαρακτηριστική της ποιοτικής διαφοροποίησης της πειρατείας είναι η αναβάθμιση της δράσης του πειρατικού κυκλώματος, διότι ο στόχος σήμερα δεν περιορίζεται στη ληστεία των ναυτεργατών και στην απόσπαση τροφίμων ή διαφόρων άλλων ειδών του πλοίου αλλά επεκτείνεται στην αιχμαλωσία πλοίων και πληρωμάτων, στην πώληση του φορτίου και στην απόσπαση λύτρων αξίας εκατομμυρίων ευρώ.

Η συγκέντρωση στο Κέρας της Αφρικής και στη ευρύτερη περιοχή ισχυρών πολεμικών ναυτικών δυνάμεων των ΗΠΑ, του ΝΑΤΟ, της Ευρωπαϊκής Ένωσης αλλά και άλλων κρατών, της Κίνας, της Ρωσίας και της Ινδίας, δεν έχει σχέση με την αντιμετώπιση της πειρατείας. Στο πλαίσιο των γενικότερων γεωστρατηγικών τους επιδιώξεων, χρησιμοποιείται η πειρατεία ως πρόσχημα για την εδραίωση της θέσης τους, για την προώθηση των επιτελικών σχεδιασμών, για τον έλεγχο των στρατηγικής σημασίας σημείων στην περιοχή, όπως είναι ο Κόλπος του Άντεν, η Αραβική Θάλασσα και ο Περσικός Κόλπος.

Οι εξελίξεις στον Περσικό Κόλπο, η επιθετικότητα του Ισραήλ, των Ηνωμένων Πολιτειών και του ΝΑΤΟ κατά του Ιράν και η προπαρασκευή ενός νέου ιμπεριαλιστικού πολέμου βρίσκουν μια ετοιμοπόλεμη ναυτική μηχανή στην περιοχή που ενισχύεται με το πρόσχημα της πειρατείας. Ήδη αναζητούνται πλοία και πληρώματα που θα μεταφέρουν στρατιωτικό εξοπλισμό για μεγάλες στρατιωτικές επιχειρήσεις του ΝΑΤΟ στην περιοχή του Περσικού Κόλπου.

Το θέμα περιπλέκεται περισσότερο με την απόφαση των κυβερνήσεων των κρατών μελών της Ευρωπαϊκής Ένωσης να τοποθετηθούν ένοπλοι φρουροί επί των εμπορικών πλοίων. Διαμορφώνεται έτσι μια πολύ επικίνδυνη κατάσταση που θα έχει ανυπολόγιστες συνέπειες λόγω της απειλής που ενέχει εναντίον της ανθρώπινης ζωής στη θάλασσα και εναντίον της θαλάσσιας μεταφοράς πρώτων υλών και εμπορευμάτων.

Η λύση που προτείνεται είναι αδιέξοδη και ενέχει απειλή κατά της ανθρώπινης ζωής στη θάλασσα, κατά των ναυτεργατών αλλά και γενικότερα κατά των λαών της ευρύτερης περιοχής.

 
  
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  Michael Gahler (PPE). - Frau Präsidentin! In Bezug auf ihren Hauptzweck ist die EU-Mission NAVFOR-Atalanta bisher als Erfolg anzusehen. Denn Hauptzweck ist der Schutz der Versorgungsschiffe des Welternährungsprogramms, die Nahrungsmittel nach Somalia liefern. Bisher sind das etwa 674 000 Tonnen, die angeliefert worden sind. Davon ist keine einzige Tonne verlorengegangen. Insofern ist der Hauptzweck durchaus erreicht.

Aber es gibt natürlich auch andere Zwecke, die angesprochen worden sind. In diesem Zusammenhang halte ich es für richtig, dass wir als Europäische Union dort mit dieser Mission vor Ort sind. Denn Tatsache ist doch, dass in diesem Zusammenhang die Partner, die mit der EU zusammenarbeiten – eben Russland, China, Indien – leichter mit der EU arbeiten als mit der NATO. Diese Auffassung muss man nicht teilen – und wir teilen sie sicherlich nicht –, aber das ist nun mal eine Realität. Und diesen added value, diesen Mehrwert der EU sollten wir da auch nutzen.

Ich unterstütze auch den comprehensive approach, den der Kommissar erwähnt hat. Wir haben ja auch zahlreiche Maßnahmen an Land, auch sehr kreativer Art. Wir unterstützen z. B. Projekte dort, wo eben Piraterie nicht stattfindet, in Somaliland, also im nordwestlichen Teil des Landes. Der Kommissar ist dort gewesen. Ich halte das für gut, dass wir dort pragmatisch vorgehen und auf diese Art dafür sorgen, dass wir die Bereiche stabilisieren, die gegen die Piraterie sind.

Ich würde mir wünschen, dass wir in der Lage wären, mehr über die Geldströme zu erfahren. Sie haben Europol und Interpol angesprochen. Können Sie da schon Erfolge nachweisen, dass wir sagen können, wir sind eines Teils dieses Geldes wieder habhaft geworden, um feststellen zu können, wie sich die Piraten dort finanzieren?

 
  
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  Μαρία-Ελένη Κοππά (S&D). - Κυρία Πρόεδρε, οφείλουμε να χαιρετίσουμε τις πρόσφατες αποφάσεις του Συμβουλίου για μια συνολική προσέγγιση στην αντιμετώπιση της πειρατείας, οι οποίες αφορούν, πρώτον, τον διορισμό ειδικού εκπροσώπου για το Κέρας της Αφρικής, γεγονός που ενισχύει τη διπλωματική δράση της Ένωσης στην περιοχή, δεύτερον, τη νέα επιχειρησιακή αντίληψη που διευρύνει τις δραστηριότητες της αποστολής Atalanta και τρίτον, την προετοιμασία μιας νέας αποστολής, στα πλαίσια της ευρωπαϊκής πολιτικής άμυνας και ασφάλειας, για την υποστήριξη της ανάπτυξης δυνατοτήτων σε τοπικό επίπεδο.

Είναι ωστόσο σημαντικό να εξετάσουμε όσα δεν έγιναν όπως έπρεπε τα τελευταία χρόνια. Στο επιχειρησιακό σκέλος, είναι πραγματική η ανάγκη να ξεπεραστούν τα εμπόδια για την ενεργοποίηση του επιχειρησιακού κέντρου στις Βρυξέλλες, διότι μόνον έτσι θα εξασφαλιστεί κεντρικός σχεδιασμός και καλύτερος συντονισμός ανάμεσα στις διάφορες αποστολές και δραστηριότητες της Ευρωπαϊκής Ένωσης. Επίσης, πρέπει να επανεξεταστεί ο μηχανισμός «Αθηνά» προκειμένου να εξασφαλιστεί χρηματοδότηση και να ενισχυθεί η συμμετοχή στις αποστολές. Τέλος, πρέπει να επιλυθούν τα σοβαρά προβλήματα που άπτονται της έγκαιρης πληροφόρησης των επιτόπου δυνάμεων.

Πρέπει όμως παράλληλα να εξετάσουμε τους πιθανούς κινδύνους που ενέχουν οι επιχειρήσεις στις ακτές της Σομαλίας και να επικεντρωθούμε περισσότερο στην ανάγκη να αντιμετωπιστούν οι αιτίες που τροφοδοτούν το φαινόμενο της πειρατείας. Σε ό,τι αφορά τα αίτια, είναι γνωστό ότι η αστάθεια και η εξαθλίωση στη Σομαλία έχει ωθήσει απλούς πολίτες στην παράνομη αυτή δραστηριότητα. Η λύση δεν μπορεί σε καμία περίπτωση να είναι αποκλειστικά στρατιωτική. Παράλληλα με την όποια στρατιωτική δράση, απαιτείται ενίσχυση των θεσμών και του κράτους δικαίου και κυρίως μεγαλύτερη προσπάθεια για να αντιμετωπισθούν τα γενεσιουργά αίτια της πειρατείας, με έμφαση στον τομέα της ενημέρωσης, της ευαισθητοποίησης και, φυσικά, στην ανάπτυξη και στη δημιουργίας ευκαιριών απασχόλησης.

 
  
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  Phil Bennion (ALDE). - Madam President, the issue of maritime piracy is becoming more and more urgent. We see ransom negotiations not just taking longer, but record ransoms being demanded and the piracy itself becoming more and more violent.

Maritime safety is an absolutely fundamental issue for the European Union, and particularly for those nations like the UK, Greece and Spain which have significant shipping interests. However, the fight against piracy cannot and will not be won alone by military means. We need to promote peace and we need development and state-building in Somalia.

The EU is the biggest aid donor to Somalia. We should welcome a fresh approach based on land-based solutions, which would replace the income from piracy with that from economic development on land. I call on the Commission to tackle the lack of economic data that we have, so that the EU can focus its aid on the most relevant sectors. We know about the potential of the livestock and fisheries sector, but we need to look to other sectors.

I would also call for better cooperation with the Somalia diaspora, which has so far been ignored, but which plays a major role in supporting the Somali economy, particularly through remittances. It is suggested that these remittances could be as much as EUR 800 million every year.

From a local point of view, we have a large Somali community in my constituency in Birmingham. Therefore, I call on the Member States to strengthen their integration policy towards the Somali diaspora.

I welcome the progress that has been made with the Joint Financial Board, and I also agree that we need a short-term plan to protect our ships and protect our maritime transport and trade, whether that is through Atalanta or through NATO or through some form of better coordination between the two. This does not necessarily have to be just a short-term plan, as we also need a long-term plan.

Somalia remains one of the poorest countries in the world, where a quarter of the population rely on the World Food Programme. Now that we have this window of opportunity, with progress being made in reconciling the warring factions, we need to take advantage of the situation and move forward with development.

 
  
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  Inês Cristina Zuber (GUE/NGL). - Senhora Presidente, é evidente que o problema da pirataria marítima deve ser combatido. No entanto, a pretexto do combate à pirataria marítima, não devem de forma nenhuma ser postos em prática planos imperialistas de controlo marítimo de águas internacionais, de controlo de regiões geoestrategicamente importantes, de acesso a recursos naturais ou ao controlo do seu fluxo, como pode ser o perigo no caso do Corno de África.

O que é determinante para combater a pirataria marítima é combater as causas que lhe estão associadas, nomeadamente combater a pobreza a que os povos dos países africanos foram votados no quadro do sistema capitalista, que sempre utilizou estes países para abastecer os países centrais de matérias-primas a baixo custo.

Neste sentido, o que é necessário é uma verdadeira política de desenvolvimento que respeite a soberania destes países e destes povos. O que é necessário é a rejeição da militarização da União Europeia, é o respeito pelo direito internacional, pela Carta das Nações Unidas, pelos princípios de soberania e de não-ingerência, pelo desenvolvimento de relações económicas internacionais mais equitativas e mais justas.

 
  
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  Carlo Fidanza (PPE). - Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, signor Commissario, innanzitutto devo constatare con dispiacere l'assenza della Baronessa Ashton a questo dibattito: sarebbe stato per tutti noi importante conoscere dalla sua viva voce gli aggiornamenti sulla situazione che vede coinvolti i due marò italiani, ingiustamente imprigionati in India dopo essere stati arrestati a seguito di un'operazione militare di contrasto alla pirateria su cui erano impegnati. Mi dispiace non poter ascoltare la viva voce della Baronessa Ashton, spero che poi il Commissario nella replica abbia modo di essere più puntuale sui passi avanti compiuti in questi giorni.

Questa non è una questione soltanto italiana, è una questione fortemente europea, perché – vedete – l'esclusiva giurisdizione in acque internazionali dello Stato battente bandiera è un principio di diritto internazionale universalmente riconosciuto e la sua messa in discussione da parte delle autorità indiane rischia di minare l'essenza stessa della lotta e del contrasto alla pirateria da parte della comunità internazionale e da parte dell'Unione europea stessa, che come abbiamo detto è impegnata nella missione Atalanta. Rivolgo quindi un appello alle istituzioni comunitarie affinché vengano profusi tutti gli sforzi diplomatici possibili per arrivare al rimpatrio dei nostri militari, per ottenere il rispetto del diritto internazionale e per far sì che vengano sottoposti ad un'inchiesta equa e trasparente nel loro paese di provenienza.

E poi, Presidente, mi permetta un appunto ai tanti interventi che ho sentito dai colleghi della sinistra radicale: io francamente sono convinto del fatto che l'Europa debba impegnarsi dal punto di vista politico e diplomatico per far crescere la Somalia e tutti i paesi in difficoltà, ma questa non può essere una risposta sufficiente di fronte alle tante centinaia di ostaggi, di famiglie che attendono a casa i loro cari e che sono stufi di chiacchiere e vogliono avere risposte concrete dal punto di vista della sicurezza internazionale.

 
  
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  Ricardo Cortés Lastra (S&D). - Señora Presidenta, señor Comisario, todos los aquí presentes sabemos que la piratería en altamar representa una amenaza continua y creciente para la vida humana, para la seguridad y el desarrollo, siendo un caldo de cultivo de la violencia y la inestabilidad política en Somalia y en el Cuerno de África.

En cifras, la piratería en el Golfo de Adén ha supuesto en el último año más de una docena de muertos en 30 ataques, 200 piratas capturados, casi 200 rehenes; una situación que afecta sin precedentes a la ayuda humanitaria de unos seis millones de personas que necesitan asistencia debido a la sequía y a la hambruna en la región; una crisis humanitaria que ya ha supuesto la muerte de miles de personas.

El dinero que las compañías navieras están gastando en seguridad supera en 40 veces la ayuda de la Unión Europea a Somalia. Aunque no podemos menospreciar el esfuerzo global que se está realizando a través de operaciones como Atalanta y las puestas en marcha por la OTAN, necesitamos más esfuerzos, más compromisos, esfuerzos que obligatoriamente tienen que incluir una estrategia antipiratería impulsada y apoyada por los líderes del África Central y Oriental.

La lucha contra la piratería se ha convertido en un problema global que necesita una respuesta conjunta y contundente, con una serie de acciones eficaces para atajar también las causas profundas de este fenómeno: desempleo juvenil, hambrunas, sequías e inestabilidad política. No podemos obviar que, según las Naciones Unidas, el 40 % de las ganancias de la piratería en Somalia han sido utilizadas para financiar el empleo local y han sido invertidas en infraestructuras para los más necesitados.

Para terminar, pido a la Comisión y al Consejo que sigan tomando medidas contundentes para atajar la raíz del problema. Ayudar al Cuerno de África a acabar con la piratería, que no solo va en aumento sino que también es cada vez más violenta, tiene que seguir siendo nuestra prioridad.

 
  
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  Corien Wortmann-Kool (PPE). - Dit is een belangrijk debat, want de zeepiraterij voor de kust van Somalië, en eigenlijk in een steeds groter gebied van de Indische Oceaan, is een heel groot probleem.

De tijd dringt, want onschuldige bemanningsleden worden het slachtoffer van geweld, lopen onaanvaardbare risico's. Er zitten 450 tot 600 bemanningsleden vast. Daarnaast wil ik ook met onze Italiaanse collega's de aandacht vragen voor de Italiaanse soldaten die vastzitten in India.

Ik prijs de onderlinge samenwerking van Europa voor de inzet van Europese marineschepen in de Atalanta-missie, maar wij moeten meer doen, meer werk maken van effectieve bestrijding van piraterij. Want de piraten worden steeds gewelddadiger en hun wapenarsenaal steeds geavanceerder. Daarom moeten wij ervoor zorgen dat wij alle kennis bij elkaar leggen om de piraten ook te land aan te pakken en daar te ontmantelen. Want we hebben de kennis om die piraten te lokaliseren voordat zij daadwerkelijk de schepen gaan aanvallen.

Om dat te doen is wel politieke wil en daadkracht nodig, en daar wil ik de Europese Commissie op aanspreken. Somalische krachten aan land trainen. De mogelijkheden bekijken van gerichte actie, op korte termijn onderzoeken of ook inzet van special forces mogelijk is om die piraten heel gericht aan te pakken.

Ook het nagaan van de geldstromen, en het opsporen en vervolgen van allen die meewerken om het geld van de piraten weg te sluizen. Er is namelijk ook een economisch belang mee gemoeid, dat wordt hier terecht gezegd, en zeker ook voor Nederland als zeevarende natie. Maar het mag vooral niet zo zijn dat al die onschuldige bemanningsleden voortdurend risico lopen. Vandaar graag uw aandacht hiervoor.

 
  
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  Σπύρος Δανέλλης (S&D). - Κυρία Πρόεδρε, το πρόβλημα των σομαλών πειρατών δεν ξεκινά στο νερό αλλά στη στεριά. Όσο συνεχίζει η χώρα να είναι το πιο διαλυμένο κράτος στον κόσμο, όπως την αποκάλεσε πρόσφατα ο βρετανός Υπουργός Εξωτερικών, τόσο οι νέοι της θα αναζητούν τους τρόπους και θα βρίσκουν τα κίνητρα για να στραφούν στην πειρατεία.

Τα πλοία μας όμως και τα πληρώματά τους δεν μπορούν να αφεθούν στην τύχη τους μέχρι να υλοποιηθεί η ανασυγκρότηση του κράτους της Σομαλίας. Οι μειωμένες δυνάμεις της EUNAVFOR δεν επαρκούν για το τεράστιο έργο που έχουν αναλάβει και οι πειρατές που συλλαμβάνονται δεν υποβάλλονται πάντα στην δέουσα δικαστική διαδικασία.

Έχουν κατατεθεί συγκεκριμένες προτάσεις στο πλαίσιο του ΟΗΕ όσον αφορά τη δίωξη των πειρατών, προτάσεις τις οποίες στηρίζει ο ΙΜΟ. Η έλλειψη προόδου όμως διαιωνίζει την τεράστια ανασφάλεια που συνεχίζουν να βιώνουν τα πληρώματα και η ναυτιλία, ενώ το διεθνές εμπόριο και οι καταναλωτές εξακολουθούν να επωμίζονται το μεγαλύτερο τμήμα του συνολικού ετησίου κόστους της πειρατείας το οποίο, σύμφωνα με πρόσφατη μελέτη, εκτιμάται ότι αγγίζει πιθανώς τα 7 δισ. δολάρια.

 
  
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  Dominique Vlasto (PPE). - Madame la Présidente, comme cela a déjà été dit, nous pensons aux victimes de la piraterie et à leurs familles. C'est un drame humain, mais c'est aussi un problème qui compromet une activité – la pêche – qui est aussi une ressource économique. Ceci doit nous conforter à demander le renforcement de la lutte contre cette piraterie en mer. Car ces assauts sont l'œuvre d'organisations criminelles de plus en plus violentes et se produisent de plus en plus souvent. Il y a donc urgence à mettre en place un cadre militaire et surtout juridique pour combattre cette piraterie et assurer la protection des hommes et des navires, tout en réfléchissant aux moyens d'éviter ces actes insupportables et de démanteler cette piraterie sauvage.

C'est pourquoi je ne comprends pas que les moyens militaires d'Atalante soient diminués, que le vote au Conseil sur la prolongation de cette mission ait été reporté. Je demande donc à la Commission d'insister auprès des États membres pour qu'ils augmentent de façon efficace et dans les plus brefs délais les moyens de cette mission. Nous devons aussi faire appliquer impérativement la Convention des Nations unies sur le droit de la mer pour mettre un terme à une impunité trop généralisée et inadmissible.

 
  
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  Debora Serracchiani (S&D). - Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, signor Commissario, il problema della pirateria non è nuovo per questa sede ed è stato trattato da questo Parlamento con la risoluzione del 2009. È nota la vicenda che ha coinvolto due militari italiani, in arresto con l'accusa di aver provocato la morte di due pescatori indiani. In proposito vanno accolte con favore le assicurazioni dell'Alto rappresentante per la politica estera, la Baronessa Catherine Ashton, che ha detto di seguire con attenzione il caso facendo tutto il possibile per risolverlo positivamente e che l'episodio va inserito, cito testualmente, "nel più vasto contesto della cooperazione internazionale contro la pirateria e più specificatamente nel quadro delle regole per la protezione a bordo delle navi".

Ma l'episodio impone di riflettere sul fatto che il fenomeno della pirateria nell'Oceano indiano o al largo delle coste somale è ancora un problema estremamente scottante. Nell'ambito della politica di difesa e di sicurezza, l'Unione europea ha lanciato la missione Atalanta nel dicembre 2008 e nei giorni scorsi è stato approvato il suo prolungamento fino al 2014, ma il numero di navi interessate è diminuito notevolmente, da 35 nel 2009 a 10 nel 2011. L'Unione europea intende coordinare, lo sappiamo, più strettamente le forze navali e militari imbarcati sulle navi civili dei paesi membri che controllano il Mar Rosso, il golfo di Aden e l'Oceano indiano.

Si ritiene utile quindi stabilire regole d'ingaggio comuni ad esempio? In generale quale altre iniziative coordinate l'Unione europea intende adottare per proteggere le navi mercantili dagli attacchi dei pirati? E quali misure intende prendere con i paesi terzi che non tutelano le navi mercantili che transitano tra il Mar Rosso, il golfo di Aden e l'Oceano indiano? Grazie.

 
  
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  Maria do Céu Patrão Neves (PPE). - Senhora Presidente, Senhor Comissário, a pirataria marítima é hoje um fenómeno cada vez mais amplo e frequente, mais organizado e lucrativo, mais audaz e violento, a que nenhuma embarcação parece estar imune, desde barcos de pesca e navios mercantes a iates e cruzeiros. Há 1 500 piratas que atuam só ao largo da Somália. A segurança e liberdade de pessoas são seriamente afetadas, todas as atividades marítimas e a economia sofrem avultados prejuízos, para além dos custos de resgates, seguros, desvio de rotas, perseguições, etc. Só em 2012, há registo de 22 assaltos e, só no mês de fevereiro, piratas somalis capturaram 17 embarcações e fizeram 251 reféns.

Em 2009, a Comissão sistematizou uma intervenção articulada a dois níveis: prevenção, dissuasão e repressão, e ainda combate das causas que motivam a pirataria. Mas esta persiste e cresce, o que exige o reforço quer das medidas da Comissão quer dos Estados-Membros.

A Comissão deve estender a sua ação militar para além de 2012 e intensificar a sua ação diplomática para obter uma efetiva colaboração dos países terceiros em que os piratas se albergam. Os Estados-Membros terão de se empenhar, quer no plano da investigação criminal, sobretudo no que se refere ao rasto do dinheiro pago em resgates, quer no plano jurídico, sobretudo no que se refere ao estabelecimento de condições para o julgamento dos piratas.

Estas ações concertadas da Comissão e dos Estados-Membros, mas igualmente com outros países e regiões do mundo, são urgentes para restaurar a segurança nos mares, a qual, no que se reporta às pescas, tanto afeta frotas industriais como pequenas embarcações locais, afetando a economia da União Europeia, mas também a subsistência de comunidades locais, agravando a sua pobreza e atirando a população para a pirataria, num ciclo que se vai intensificando sucessivamente e que importa cortar definitivamente.

 
  
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  Mario Mauro (PPE). - Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, signor Commissario, sono lacrime di coccodrillo quelle della comunità internazionale che ha abbandonato al suo destino la Somalia ormai da molti anni, proprio rinunciando a una forte presenza militare sul terreno che avrebbe contribuito a preparare le condizioni di governance per salvare quel paese, che oggi di fatto costituisce una spina nel fianco di tutta la convivenza civile.

Sono lacrime di coccodrillo, anche quelle di coloro che protestano contro la presenza di militari a bordo di navi mercantili e nello stesso tempo non capiscono che senza adire la forza, e quindi portare forze speciali alle spalle e con azioni mirate, contro i pirati, noi non riusciremo a ottenere i risultati che speriamo. Ma soprattutto potrebbero essere lacrime di coccodrillo quelle dell'Unione europea nel momento in cui non riuscissimo a riportare a casa i militari italiani. Per una ragione semplicissima: chi impegnerà, infatti, forze militari nel momento in cui queste non possono essere ricondotte alla giusta giurisdizione, secondo i principi del diritto internazionale?

È la fine dell'azione contro la pirateria, se i militari italiani non tornano a casa. E perlomeno ci si risparmi la confusione estrema messa in essere, sicuramente non dall'Alto rappresentante, ma da alcuni malaccorti portavoce, che continuano a parlare di guardie private quando invece parliamo di personale militare regolarmente inquadrato secondo le leggi internazionali e secondo i principi del nostro diritto. Grazie.

 
  
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  Potito Salatto (PPE). - Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, io non mi unirò ai miei colleghi italiani nel chiedere l'intervento della Comunità europea a salvaguardia dei due militari italiani, perché ritengo che questo debba essere invece un fatto doveroso da parte dell'Alto rappresentante per la politica estera e la sicurezza nei confronti di due cittadini europei di origine italiana.

Se in quest'Aula e nelle nostre istituzioni non si assume la volontà di un salto culturale per il quale l'Alto rappresentante della politica estera deve doverosamente occuparsi dei suoi cittadini, soprattutto quando si è in presenza di spregio alle regole internazionali – la più elementare è quella che una nave nelle acque internazionali, la giurisdizione spetta alla bandiera che quella nave batte – noi non riusciremo a dare un ruolo significativo a livello internazionale a tutto il Parlamento europeo. E questo sarebbe di un danno incalcolabile e continuare a lasciare alle singole nazioni del contesto europeo lo svolgimento di una politica estera significa non voler creare quello Stato sovranazionale, l'Europa, che i cittadini richiedono a gran voce.

Io sono rimasto meravigliato quando lady Ashton in una prima fase sollecitata dai colleghi italiani rispose "non abbiamo avuto sollecitazioni dal governo italiano". E questa sera anche lei signor Commissario, ha introdotto l'argomento dicendo "ci stiamo muovendo su richiesta italiana": questo è un modo culturale e politico errato, noi siamo una grande nazione, un grande continente, abbiamo e dobbiamo avere a cuore i nostri cittadini europei, a prescindere dalla loro nazionalità, in qualsiasi parte del mondo, intervenendo a loro tutela secondo le leggi internazionali. Mi auguro che lady Ashton questo salto di qualità, prima o poi, sappia farlo. Grazie.

 
  
 

Procedura "catch the eye"

 
  
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  Elena Băsescu (PPE). - În ultimii ani, mai mulți marinari români au fost răpiți de pirații somalezi. Anul trecut, în octombrie, trei dintre aceștia au fost, din fericire, eliberați, după o perioadă de captivitate de opt luni. Fenomenul pirateriei trebuie abordat de UE atât din perspectiva cauzelor sale, cât și a impactului asupra siguranței din regiune.

Europa trebuie să schimbe strategia privind construcția politică și economică a Somaliei, prin cooperarea cu Uniunea Africană. Eforturile trebuie însoțite și de o distribuție eficientă a ajutoarelor umanitare. În paralel, eforturile de combatere a atacurilor pe mare trebuie centralizate. Astfel, în zona de coastă se desfășoară azi misiuni paralele ale UE, China și SUA. De asemenea, protecția militară a coridorului internațional de tranzit din Golful Aden trebuie să fie prioritară într-o asemenea structură.

 
  
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  Barbara Matera (PPE). - Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, il problema della pirateria marittima è ormai un problema noto e la triste vicenda che vede coinvolti i due soldati italiani è ancora una volta la fotografia della non collaborazione fra le istituzioni. Se i due fucilieri, mentre espletavano attività a favore dello Stato italiano per contrastare la pirateria, hanno sbagliato pagheranno, ma dovranno essere processati dalla magistratura italiana come sancito dal trattato di Montego bay. A tal fine chiedo alla Commissione europea di attivarsi concretamente affinché il diritto internazionale venga rispettato. In questo momento ci sono due cittadini europei che aspettano di capire se le istituzioni che li rappresentano sapranno garantire i diritti di cui l'Europa tanto parla. Grazie.

 
  
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  Marco Scurria (PPE). - Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, sembra un film d'altri tempi: pensavamo che la pirateria fosse ormai solo una cosa che riguardasse Internet e i temi inerenti il diritto d'autore o questioni similari; invece la pirateria è proprio quella che conosciamo sui libri o sui film d'avventura. Certo, in versione moderna, andando all'arrembaggio con i mitra e i lanciarazzi e non con le scimitarre e, sinceramente, colleghi della sinistra, la lotta di classe non c'entra nulla.

È irresponsabile dire che i pirati sono tali per lo sfruttamento capitalista, non ci sono giustificazioni quando si assalta, si ruba, si uccide – e a dirlo si rischia di diventarne complici. È una vicenda tragica ed ancora più tragico diventa quando persone che sono a difesa delle navi secondo convenzioni internazionali vengono addirittura arrestate da autorità di altri Stati, anche con l'inganno e la palese violazione del diritto internazionale, come è accaduto nei giorni scorsi ai due soldati italiani in India, o meglio in acque internazionali che poi qualcuno a portato fino al molo indiano.

Ringrazio il Commissario per quanto ha detto qui, questa sera, in Aula su questa vicenda anche perché spero che la tutela del diritto sia davvero una priorità dell'Unione europea.

 
  
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  Sergio Paolo Francesco Silvestris (PPE). - Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, due cittadini europei italiani, Massimiliano Latorre e Salvatore Girone, sono in questo momento in arresto in India. Il ministro della difesa italiano oggi ha raccontato che questi soldati e la nave su cui loro prestavano servizio sono stati attirati in porto con un inganno, dicendo loro che vi erano dei pirati in porto, poi una volta entrata la nave in porto, loro sono stati fatti scendere dalla nave usando la forza e i nostri due ragazzi sono scesi solo per evitare altri spargimenti di sangue.

Di fronte a questa storia, noi chiediamo oggi in maniera chiara "che cosa sta facendo l'Europa? Dov'è la signora Ashton, perché non è venuta qui, oggi, a riferire a noi?". E se la sua presenza e la sua attenzione a questa vicenda sono pari alla sua presenza in quest'Aula, beh, questo ci preoccupa davvero.

Signor Piebalgs, lei che qui rappresenta la signora Ashton, le dica di venire presto e subito a spiegarci quello che sta facendo su questa vicenda, diversamente se e quando dovesse tornare in quest'Aula troverà noi pronti ad accoglierla con il garbo e la cortesia che si sarà meritati. Da questo Parlamento europeo, un abbraccio forte e sincero ai nostri due marò arrestati in India e alle loro famiglie che vivono in Italia ore d'angoscia.

 
  
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  Janusz Władysław Zemke (S&D). - Chciałem z żalem stwierdzić, że niestety walka z piratami nie przynosi oczekiwanych efektów. Dane pokazują, że liczba ataków na statki handlowe wynosi już rocznie kilkaset, a piraci przetrzymują dalej jako zakładników ponad 450 osób. Do tej pory ważną rolę w walce z piratami pełniła Unia i jej operacja Atalanta. To się niestety zmienia na niekorzyść. W sposób drastyczny spada liczba okrętów biorących udział w walce z piratami. Jeśli w roku 2009 było to jeszcze 35 okrętów, w 2011 roku było to już zaledwie 10, a teraz w tej operacji uczestniczą tylko 3 okręty. Inaczej mówiąc, nie może Unia apelować do innych, Unia sama musi podjąć znacznie większy i konkretniejszy wysiłek, jeśli chodzi o walkę z piratami.

 
  
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  Licia Ronzulli (PPE). - Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, abbiamo deciso di indossare queste t-shirt per mantenere alta l'attenzione e per chiedere all'Unione europea un impegno concreto, utile a risolvere positivamente la difficile vicenda dei due soldati italiani arrestati in India. Solo unendo gli sforzi si può sperare nella liberazione e nel rimpatrio dei nostri militari. L'Europa si è mossa con colpevole ritardo. È assurdo ancora una volta constatare l'assenza della responsabile della politica estera, Catherine Ashton, nel corso di questo dibattito. L'ennesima dimostrazione dell'insensibilità, peraltro ricordo anche la vicenda di Lampedusa, nel prendere decisioni efficaci e condivise in tempi rapidi, nei momenti di crisi diplomatica. Grazie.

 
  
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  Andris Piebalgs, Member of the Commission. − Madam President, that was a very emotional debate.

The accusation that the EU is not supporting the repatriation of the two Italian servicemen is a false accusation. I would mention just a couple of the steps it has taken. The EU has made approaches to the Indian Ministry of External Affairs, to the Indian chargé d’affaires in Brussels, and to the Indian Deputy National Security Advisor, and that is not all. Baroness Ashton is fully committed to doing everything we can do from the EU side, but there is no magic wand solution. However, we are fully committed and we will take full care of the issue.

On Atalanta, this has actually been much more successful than was said; the number of ships in the hands of pirates has been reduced from 20 to eight. While there is still concern over around 200 hostages, there are sufficient resources for this year at least, and good coordination.

On the Somalia strategy, it is true that for 20 years there has not been sufficient international involvement, but the EU alone does not hold the magic key to solving Somalia’s problems.

First of all, Somalia needs legitimate representatives, and today we have the transitional institutions. They are the only institutions we have in that country, and we should support them because of this.

Second, we support – and I mentioned the figures – the security operations. It is not easy to fight Al-Shabaab. Now, the number of African troops that are risking their lives, and taking quite heavy casualties – many soldiers from Burundi and Uganda have lost their lives fighting Al-Shabaab and preserving security – has increased to 17 000, so that might make a difference. However, the fact that a blast was reported at the presidential palace in Mogadishu today shows that the fight to ensure security is not an easy one.

We have made quite substantial investments in development and humanitarian aid – I have mentioned the figures – and it is true that we are doing more in Somaliland and in Puntland, where the security situation is better. However, it would not be true to say that we are not doing everything in our power. We are actually using all the financial resources that the Member States are prepared to give us.

On international shipping, we need the IMO. The IMO has responded to the call we made to it by organising a conference on how to protect merchant shipping. That conference will be held in May.

I could go on and on, but my point is that we need to find a solution to the security situation in Somalia and its political development. This is what is needed. The accusations that the EU provoked the crisis are ridiculous. We have not provoked the crisis. We are trying to resolve the crisis, as far as this is in our powers. By the way, last year there was only one EU vessel taken in Somali waters.

This is a lot about alliances. The EU is doing its full share. We are engaging with our international partners. It is very important to understand that the EU’s efforts alone cannot provide a lasting solution to this issue. We need other members of the international community, and the bigger countries, to become fully involved. Only then will we be able to find, step by step, lasting solutions to fully eradicating piracy.

 
  
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  Presidente. − La discussione è chiusa.

La votazione si svolgerà nel corso di una successiva tornata.

Dichiarazioni scritte (articolo 149)

 
  
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  John Attard-Montalto (S&D), in writing. Too much has happened in addressing the serious problem of maritime piracy. The most conspicuous area where it is present is in the Indian Ocean. The main pirates come from Puntland, North Somalia. I have always believed that the only way to break this criminal activity is to make it economically not profitable. Indeed, maritime piracy is organised very much like a business venture, with shares taken up by investors who pass on the strategic information to the pirates who are in possession of state-of-the-art technologies. Patrolling such a huge area by navies has had an impact but the piracy still exists. It has also spread to other areas like the Gulf of Guinea. Today we are seeing more and more ships being protected by armed guards, the entire ship perimeter defended by razor wire. Gradually, tankers and merchant ships are being turned into sea fortresses. The problem, however, is to turn failed states like Somalia into nations respectful of international law. The UN is not even able to safeguard Mogadishu and therefore it should delegate the task to those powers that are able and willing to use force to restore the rule of law.

 
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