Texte intégral 
Procédure : 2011/0283(COD)
Cycle de vie en séance
Cycle relatif au document : A7-0067/2012

Textes déposés :


Débats :

PV 18/04/2012 - 18
CRE 18/04/2012 - 18

Votes :

PV 19/04/2012 - 6.3
CRE 19/04/2012 - 6.3
Explications de votes
Explications de votes

Textes adoptés :


Compte rendu in extenso des débats
Mercredi 18 avril 2012 - Strasbourg Edition révisée

18. Instruments de partage des risques en faveur des États membres touchés ou menacés par de graves difficultés quant à leur stabilité financière (débat)
Vidéo des interventions

  Der Präsident. − Als nächster Punkt folgt der Bericht von Danuta Maria Hübner im Namen des Ausschusses für regionale Entwicklung über den Vorschlag für eine Verordnung des Europäischen Parlaments und des Rates zur Änderung der Verordnung (EG) Nr. 1083/2006 des Rates hinsichtlich bestimmter Vorschriften zu Risikoteilungsinstrumenten für Mitgliedstaaten, die von gravierenden Schwierigkeiten in Bezug auf ihre finanzielle Stabilität betroffen oder bedroht sind [COM(2011)0655 – C7-0350/2011 – 2011/0283(COD)] (A7-0067/2012).


  Danuta Maria Hübner, rapporteur. − Mr President, Commissioner, dear colleagues, over the last two and a half years, I have started most of my statements in this House by saying that Europe needs growth, and once again I say it today.

Austerity packages in those economies most strongly affected by the crisis have not generated growth because of a dysfunctional banking sector and high risk-aversion. Therefore, there is an urgent need to unlock EIB loans and guarantees to enable the private sector to become involved in important growth and job-creating projects, especially those co-financed by the EU cohesion policy. In this context, mobilising all the potential resources that can become growth triggers requires special measures, and this is what this legislative proposal is about. It provides for the establishment of a risk-sharing instrument with a view to facilitating the absorption of the European Regional Development Fund and the Cohesion Fund resources allocated to Member States covered by EU and IMF financial assistance programmes.

In these countries – and primarily in Greece – there are infrastructure and productive investment projects whose implementation has been blocked by the lack of private co-financing. This is particularly the case with transport and environmental infrastructure projects which generate revenue from the collection of charges from users and whose value cannot be covered by grants financed through the cohesion policy. This is also the case with those productive investments for which the maximum allowable public aid is capped by state aid rules. These projects are at risk of not being implemented because private sector investors and banks either lack the liquidity to lend to projects and project promoters or are no longer willing to bear the risks of investing in the present circumstances.

The measure also foresees the possibility of financing other projects which are not co-financed by cohesion policy programmes but which contribute to the achievement of the objectives of cohesion policy and bring important added value to the Union’s strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. The proposed measure will be implemented by the Commission at the request of the Member State concerned in agreement with the EIB or with another public or private institution with a public mission. The Member State concerned should address a formal request to the Commission identifying the projects and the funding needs to be covered by the risk-sharing instrument. The Commission will assess the request and will set up and manage the facility jointly with the EIB.

The regulation provides a detailed description of the procedure to be applied for the establishment and implementation of a risk-sharing instrument. We have also specified the budget ceiling for the risk-sharing instrument, and we have specified that there are no contingent liabilities for the Union budget or the Member State concerned beyond the financial allocations dedicated to the risk-sharing instrument. The Commission shall ensure that only projects for which the EIB or another interested institution with a public mission has taken a favourable financing decision are eligible for financing through this instrument.

I hope that, following tomorrow’s vote in the European Parliament, the Council will adopt this regulation promptly, allowing for joint signature by the European Parliament and the Council in May, as well as publication in the Official Journal of the European Union and entry into force on the same day.


  Algirdas Šemeta, Member of the Commission. − Mr President, in June 2011 the European Council encouraged the Commission and the EIB to enhance the synergies between loan programmes for Greece and EU funds. The aim was to increase Greece’s capacity to absorb EU funds and to stimulate growth and employment creation.

In July 2011 the Heads of State and Government of the euro area and the EU institutions extended the scope of that political mandate. They invited the Commission and the EIB to enhance the synergies between loan programmes and EU funds in all Member States benefiting from EU or International Monetary Fund assistance.

In January 2012 the European Council invited the Council, the Commission and the EIB to consider possible options for enhancing EIB action to support growth, including the possibility of using the EU budget to leverage the EIB Group’s financing capacity.

In October 2011 the Commission adopted a proposal to amend Council Regulation (EC) 1083/2006. The objective was to enable the use of available allocations under programmes cofinanced by the European Regional Development Fund and Cohesion Fund to back up guarantees and loans granted by the EIB or by other national or international bodies with a public mission offering adequate guarantees – the so-called ‘risk-sharing instrument’.

The target Member States are those experiencing serious difficulties with respect to financial stability and which have been granted financial assistance according to one of the existing mechanisms. The measure is intended to address the serious obstacles faced by some Member States, particularly Greece, in raising the private financing needed to implement infrastructure and productive investment projects, which can only be part-financed by public funds. This is particularly the case for infrastructure projects which generate net revenues, the value of which cannot be covered by grants financed through cohesion policy instruments. It is also the case for productive investments, for which the maximum allowable public aid is capped by state aid rules.

The recent approval of an increased rate of co-financing by the EU to 95% is part of the EU response to the crisis. However, it is not enough, in particular for the revenue-generating projects, since the investment costs covered by revenues are not eligible for EU co-financing. The measure proposed is an exception to the normal framework in which cohesion policy is implemented and is justified by the circumstances imposed by the crisis. Since the publication of the Commission’s proposal, there has been intense debate with the Council and Parliament.

I would like to take this opportunity to thank the members of the Committee on Regional Policy, and in particular its chair Ms Hübner for her support in this process. I would also like to thank the members of the Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs and of the Committee on Budgetary Control and their rapporteurs for their support.

The adoption tomorrow of the Hübner report will open the way to securing strategic investment projects financed by cohesion policy without increasing the EU budget allocated to it and without having a significant impact on the EU budget. It will facilitate the implementation of important transport and environment infrastructure, as well as other economic infrastructure projects which will provide a much-needed boost to economic activity and job creation in Greece.

In Greece alone, the effective implementation of important infrastructure projects in the transport sector will, it is estimated, create some 50 000 new jobs. Other Member States most affected by the current financial and economic crises may also benefit from this legislative proposal.

In recent years, cohesion policy has been mobilised several times to contribute to the changing needs of Member States under severe crisis conditions. Excellent interinstitutional cooperation made it possible to shape tailor-made crisis assistance, which was available within a short time. I therefore call on the Members of the European Parliament to give their support to this legislative proposal.


  Crescenzio Rivellini, relatore per parere della commissione per il controllo dei bilanci. − Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, la proposta di modifica del regolamento n. 1083/2006 può dare la possibilità di trasferire alla gestione diretta della Commissione i fondi assegnati agli Stati membri, i quali, a causa delle difficoltà finanziarie attuali, rischiano di perdere parte delle proprie risorse destinate ai programmi cofinanziati dal FESR al Fondo di coesione.

L'estensione di questa proposta a tutti gli Stati membri, da me proposta in quanto relatore della commissione CONT, sarebbe strategicamente rilevante per paesi come l'Italia che, sebbene non siano nella stessa situazione debitoria di Grecia e Portogallo, devono combattere anche loro la crisi.

Il quadro è pertanto chiaro, sebbene non vi siano stati disimpegni di fondi, la programmazione è fortemente carente e non permette il raggiungimento di risultati positivi. La possibilità contemplata dalla modifica sarebbe quindi non già la cessione di fondi, né la perdita di risorse, ma un atto di umiltà che consentirebbe ad alcuni paesi di organizzare meglio la propria spesa e di orientarla verso fini e finalità coerenti con i bisogni della comunità.

Le crisi finanziarie non hanno risparmiato nessuna nazione europea e limitare questa opportunità solo ad alcuni paesi è un grave errore.


  Γεώργιος Παπαστάμκος, εξ ονόματος της ομάδας PPE. – Κύριε Πρόεδρε, αξιολογώ ως απόλυτα θετική την πρόταση γα τη δημιουργία του χρηματοδοτικού μέσου επιμερισμού του κινδύνου με στόχο τη στήριξη έργων υποδομών και παραγωγικών επενδύσεων, όπως ανέφερε και η εισηγήτρια η κα. Hübner. Πράγματι, καθίσταται επιτακτική ανάγκη δημιουργία συνθηκών οικονομικής μεγέθυνσης σε μια κρίσιμη συγκυρία, σε μια οικονομική μετεωρολογία όπου οι δημοσιονομικές περικοπές θίγουν σημαντικά και τις ελληνικές δημόσιες επενδύσεις, ενώ η έλλειψη ρευστότητας και πρόσβαση σε χρηματοδότηση δυσχεραίνουν εξίσου και τις συμπράξεις δημοσίου και ιδιωτικού τομέα.

Κρίσιμα μεγέθη της ελληνικής οικονομίας έχουν επιδεινωθεί, δραματικά, παρά τις πρωτοφανείς θυσίες της ελληνικής κοινωνίας. Αναφέρομαι, πρωτίστως, στην εκτόξευση του ποσοστού ανεργίας το οποίο αγγίζει πλέον το 50% σε ό,τι αφορά τους νέους. Ευελπιστώ ότι, τόσο η Επιτροπή όσο και η Ευρωπαϊκή Τράπεζα Επενδύσεων, θα διασφαλίσουν τους όρους, π.χ. ως προς το δείκτη μόχλευσης και ως προς τις επιλέξιμες επενδύσεις, για την καλύτερη δυνατή αξιοποίηση του εν λόγω χρηματοδοτικού εργαλείου με πολλαπλασιαστικά οφέλη για την πραγματική οικονομία.

Τέλος, πέραν της επιβεβλημένης δημοσιονομικής εξυγίανσης απαιτείται κατά τη γνώμη μου κατεπειγόντως, τονίζω κατεπειγόντως, ένα ολοκληρωμένο σχέδιο δημιουργικής αναπτυξιακής φυγής προς τα εμπρός και έξοδος από τον φαύλο κύκλο λιτότητας και ύφεσης.


  Mojca Kleva, v imenu skupine S&D. – Izvajanje programov, ki se financirajo iz strukturnih skladov, zahteva sodelovanje javnih in zasebnih investitorjev. V državah članicah, ki so resno prizadete zaradi finančno-gospodarske krize, se je tudi zaradi znižanja bonitetnih ocen tako javnega kot zasebnega dolga ustavilo financiranje ravno s strani zasebnikov. Predlagani ukrep zato predstavlja izjemo v normalnem okviru kohezijske regulacije in je utemeljen izključno na podlagi izjemnih kriznih okoliščin. Preko evropskih instrumentov za porazdelitev tveganja bosta tako Evropska komisija in Evropska investicijska banka krili del tveganja v zvezi s posojili bank. S sprejetjem tega ukrepa tako skušamo ohraniti sodelovanje zasebnih vlagateljev ter premagati pomembne ovire glede izvedbe programov kohezijske politike, ki so bili že odobreni in so namenjeni razvoju evropskih regij in držav, zato evropski proračun ne bo imel nikakršnih dodatnih obveznosti.

Namen uredbe predlaganega ukrepa je torej zagotovitev nadaljevanja izvajanja projektov, ki jih sofinancira Evropski sklad za regionalni razvoj in Kohezijski sklad. Tak primer je Grčija, ki ima že danes pripravljene projekte za uporabo tega mehanizma in samo čaka na našo zeleno luč. Pri tem je pomembno izpostaviti, da je iniciativa za zadevni ukrep prišla prav s strani najbolj prizadetih držav članic, zato moramo mi, izvoljeni predstavniki ljudstva, takšnim predlogom prisluhniti in omogočiti hitro, učinkovito in transparentno implementacijo. Evropski parlament se tako konkretno vključuje v reševanje posledic krize v državah članicah, ki nas v tem trenutku najbolj potrebujejo.


  Ramona Nicole Mănescu, în numele grupului ALDE. – Orice modificare de regulament menită a facilita punerea rapidă în aplicare a programelor din cadrul politicii de coeziune va avea cu siguranţă un impact imediat şi real asupra economiilor statelor membre cele mai afectate de criză. Prin urmare, este extrem de important ca noi să adoptăm mâine raportul privind instrumentele de împărţire a riscurilor în cazul statelor membre care se confruntă cu dificultăţi grave cu privire la stabilitatea lor financiară, pentru a le oferi, astfel, sprijinul financiar necesar pentru a-şi continua proiectele şi procesul de relansare economică. De asemenea, este foarte important ca şi Consiliul să adopte cât mai curând. Chiar dacă raportul este unul foarte tehnic, grupul ALDE susţine compromisul actual, fiindcă din punctul nostru de vedere este o propunere echilibrată, care ia în considerare problemele care au fost identificate în decursul dezbaterilor.

În plus, este foarte important şi faptul că Banca Europeană de Investiţii are o poziţie foarte puternică în utilizarea acestui instrument financiar, pe care ţările care se află într-un program de asistenţă financiară vor avea posibilitatea să îl utilizeze în următorul an şi jumătate. Instrumentul în sine se bucură de susţinerea noastră, însă trebuie să ne asigurăm că nu vor fi finanţate proiecte care nu au sens din punct de vedere economic. Consider deosebit de important ca proiectele finanţate să facă obiectul unei analize cost - beneficiu detaliată pentru a ne asigura că sunt orientate spre creşterea numărului locurilor de muncă şi, implicit, a competitivităţii statelor membre.


  Elisabeth Schroedter, im Namen der Verts/ALE-Fraktion. – Herr Präsident! Die von der Kommission vorgeschlagenen Risikoteilungsinstrumente werden von uns Grünen begrüßt. Finanztechnisch lehnt sich dieser Vorschlag an den grünen Vorschlag für die Project Bonds an. Investitionen in die Realwirtschaft sind aus unserer Sicht auch der sichere Weg aus der Krise in Griechenland. Wir hätten gerne einem solchen Finanzinstrument zugestimmt. Doch so, wie die Änderungen in der Verordnung vorgenommen werden, garantieren sie in keinem Fall, dass diese Investitionen auch einen Qualitätsanspruch haben, da sie weder für nachhaltige Entwicklung noch für stabile Arbeitsplätze sorgen. Letztendlich laufen die Veränderungen in der Verordnung darauf hinaus, dass einfach die vorhandenen Autobahnen weitergebaut werden. Wir wollen, dass solche falschen Planungen jetzt überdacht werden und dass die Investitionen, deren Risiko alle Bürgerinnen und Bürger tragen, wirklich zukunftsfähige Investitionen sind. Deswegen können wir diesem Vorschlag so nicht zustimmen.


  Oldřich Vlasák, za skupinu ECR. – Diskutujeme dnes o opatření, kterým se Evropská komise snaží řešit dopady vysokého zadlužení některých členských států, ve kterých jsou problémy s likviditou a de facto poskytováním úvěrů.

Pro evropskou ekonomiku je jistě důležité usnadnit schvalování úvěrů, ať už ze strany Evropské investiční banky nebo i jiných finančních institucí. Jsem ale přesvědčen, že přílišná ingerence do trhu s úvěry není vhodná. Každá banka včetně Evropské investiční banky totiž musí podle svých běžných kritérií vyhodnotit riziko úvěru a podle něj nastavit úrokovou sazbu tak, aby pokrývala veškeré náklady na zapůjčené peníze. Pokud ho v budoucnu žadatel získá jen proto, že nyní přelijeme část prostředků z politiky soudržnosti do záruk, není to podle mého názoru ideální. Vyřešíme totiž nynější problém nízké likvidity, ale brzy budeme muset řešit problém nesplacených úvěrů a ekonomice tak nepomůžeme.

Chtěl bych proto apelovat, aby do budoucna byl kladen maximální důraz na posílení efektivity politiky soudržnosti oproti „pouhé“ finanční absorpci.


  John Bufton, on behalf of the EFD Group. Mr President, the creation of a risk-sharing instrument to enable the full take-up of regional funds through private-matched funding is not objectionable in its purposes. But the fact that the Commission has had to resort to the creation of such a facility to underwrite loans from the private sector further demonstrates that the approach to the financial crisis in the euro area is simply not working.

This is yet another example of the Commission seeking to equip themselves with a legal tool to fight a particular battle while the war still rages because the bigger issues are not being addressed.

Ardent pursuance of homogenised policy-making reflecting European ideology places a stranglehold on growth and is responsible for the ongoing euro crisis. The risk-sharing instrument enables the Commission to blindly pursue European ideals through regional funding that may or may not reflect the best interests of the Member State concerned, while continuing to live in denial, since it is actually the absurdity of the whole European project that is creating this mess in the first place.


  Ewald Stadler (NI). - Herr Präsident, meine sehr verehrten Kolleginnen und Kollegen! Mit dieser Verordnung wird die Kohäsionspolitik endgültig zum Bestandteil der Euro-Rettungsschirmpolitik gemacht. Das lehnen wir ab! Es ist nichts anderes als eine Art Verschuldungsbeteiligung, die eine Art Mini-Eurobond sein soll unter dem Titel der Kohäsionspolitik. Der Kollegin Hübner ist zuzustimmen, wenn sie sagt, dass die Sparpakete nicht die gewünschte Wirkung erzielt haben. Aber das war von vornherein klar. Sparpakete, vor allem in Griechenland, haben letztlich die Binnenkonjunktur geschwächt, wenn nicht sogar teilweise zerstört. Man sieht, dass sich also jetzt die Politik der Europäischen Union zur Euro-Rettung in Griechenland schön langsam ihrem Bankrott nähert.

Wenn es dann im Titel dieser Verordnung heißt „Risikoteilungsinstrumente für Mitgliedstaaten, die von gravierenden Schwierigkeiten betroffen sind“, dann ist das ein Euphemismus und eine Verharmlosung der Sonderklasse. Schwierigkeiten haben wir mittlerweile alle. Alle, die wir mit in die Haftung genommen worden sind und durch den ESM weiter mit in die Haftung genommen werden. Hier geht es um Staaten, die in Wirklichkeit vor dem Staatsbankrott stehen. Wir versuchen mit diesen Mini-Instrumenten einen Staatsbankrott zu vermeiden. Das ist ja geradezu am Rande der Lächerlichkeit. Den Griechen ist damit nicht zu helfen und wird auch nicht geholfen. Es sind in Wahrheit Placebos, die hier verteilt werden.

Mit der Finanzierung dieser Infrastrukturprojekte bzw. der operationellen Programme ist ja selbst ein Land wie Griechenland schon jetzt überfordert, sich selber zu finanzieren, geschweige denn die Kofinanzierung, die das Eineinhalbfache darstellen soll, auf die Beine zu stellen. Wie soll das funktionieren? Das funktioniert mit Sicherheit nicht. Das ist ein sozialistischer Ansatz, der scheitern wird. Wir müssen erkennen, dass Griechenland nur zu einem Wirtschaftswachstum zurückgebracht werden kann, wenn es Wettbewerbsvorteile bekommt. Der maßgeblichste Wettbewerbsvorteil, den es derzeit haben müsste, wäre ein Wettbewerbsvorteil aus einer eigenen Währung, mit dem es dann selber die eigene Wirtschaft wieder ankurbeln könnte und Wettbewerbsvorteile lukrieren könnte. Genau das wird nicht gemacht. Daher ist diese Politik grundfalsch!


  Iosif Matula (PPE). - Criza economică şi financiară persistentă peste tot în UE afectează stabilitatea macroeconomică a multor state şi accesul la finanţare. Propunerea pentru crearea unui instrument de împărţire a riscurilor doreşte să consolideze sinergiile dintre programele de împrumuturi şi fondurile Uniunii în statele care primesc asistenţă din partea UE sau a FMI: Grecia, Irlanda, Portugalia, România. Scopul este acela de a găsi soluţii pentru proiectele care generează venituri viabile. Exemplele ar fi obţinerea finanţărilor private necesare unor proiecte de infrastructură, care produc venituri nete, de exemplu autostrăzile cu plată, sau a investiţiilor productive pentru care ajutoarele de stat au o limită admisibilă maximă. Soluţia propusă este, desigur, o excepţie, dar este o măsură concretă, pe fondul crizei, de împărţire a riscurilor cu Banca Europeană de Investiţii şi alte instituţii financiare, pentru a menţine gradul de implicare al investitorilor privaţi şi de a depăşi obstacolele majore din calea aplicării programelor politicii de coeziune. Utilizarea mecanismului reprezintă o soluţie în plus pentru utilizarea fondurilor structurale şi de coeziune, care nu ar putea fi absorbite până la sfârşitul actualei perioade de programare 2007 - 2013. Aplicarea lui în limita a 10% din aceste fonduri este o idee foarte bună, care trebuie adoptată. Felicit raportoarea pentru excelentul mod în care a gestionat acest raport.


  Γεώργιος Σταυρακάκης (S&D). - Κύριε Πρόεδρε, θα ήθελα να ευχαριστήσω την εισηγήτρια και πρόεδρο της Επιτροπής Περιφερειακής Ανάπτυξης, κυρία Hübner, για τη μεθοδική δουλειά και την εξαιρετική έκθεσή της, όπως και τη συνάδελφο Kleva για την πολύ καλή έκθεσή της. Δεν θα αναφερθώ στα επιμέρους στοιχεία της έκθεσης μια και οι προηγούμενοι συνάδελφοι τα ανέλυσαν διεξοδικά.

Θα ήθελα όμως να τονίσω ότι με τις προτεινόμενες αλλαγές η πολιτική συνοχής συνεισφέρει για άλλη μια φορά τα μέγιστα στην προσπάθεια ανάκαμψης της οικονομίας, την ανάπτυξη και τη δημιουργία νέων θέσεων εργασίας. Δεκάδες χιλιάδες νέες θέσεις εργασίας αναμένεται να δημιουργηθούν μόνο στην Ελλάδα, ενώ ταυτόχρονα θα επιτευχθεί και η ολοκλήρωση του ελληνικού τμήματος των έργων του άξονος 7, του διευρωπαϊκού δικτύου μεταφορών. Φυσικά, για να "ξεμπλοκάρουν" τα μεγάλα έργα περιφερειακής ανάπτυξης, τα οποία έχουν σταματήσει στις χώρες που πλήττονται από την κρίση και να γίνει η όσο το δυνατόν καλύτερη αξιοποίηση των συγκεκριμένων μέσων, η μόχλευση θα πρέπει να είναι τουλάχιστον δύο ή και τρεις φορές μεγαλύτερη από το ποσό που θα δεσμευθεί από τα κονδύλια πολιτικής συνοχής.


  Νικος Χρυσόγελος (Verts/ALE). - Κύριε Πρόεδρε, ένα παρόμοιο εργαλείο διάχυσης του κινδύνου είναι σίγουρα σωστό αρκεί να στοχεύει στην αλλαγή προς κατευθύνσεις που κάνουν την οικονομία πιο βιώσιμη και πιο συμβατή με τους οικολογικούς στόχους. Γι' αυτό, ως Ομάδα των Πράσινων, είχαμε προτείνει το εργαλείο αυτό να βοηθήσει την ενίσχυση επενδύσεων όπως είναι το τρένο, το μετρό, η εξοικονόμηση ενέργειας και οι ανανεώσιμες πηγές ενέργειας.

Φαίνεται, όμως, ότι ο συμβιβασμός μεταξύ της Επιτροπής, της ελληνικής κυβέρνησης και της Ευρωπαϊκής Τράπεζας Επενδύσεων οδηγεί σε μια άλλη συμφωνία, που σε κάθε περίπτωση θα αφορά ουσιαστικά την ολοκλήρωση έργων αυτοκινητοδρόμων οι οποίοι δεν είναι και οικονομικά βιώσιμοι, αλλά δεν είναι και οικολογικά αναγκαίοι σήμερα. Όταν υπάρχει μεγάλη δημοσιονομική κρίση μειώνεται η κίνηση των αυτοκινήτων και πολλοί οικονομολόγοι ισχυρίζονται ότι αυτά τα έργα δεν είναι πια οικονομικά βιώσιμα. Εάν δεν κάνω λάθος και η ίδια η Ευρωπαϊκή Τράπεζα Επενδύσεων το έχει αναφέρει.

Εμείς λοιπόν θα θέλαμε αυτό το εργαλείο να χρησιμοποιηθεί προς την κατεύθυνση της πράσινης οικονομίας. Όταν το πρωί ο Επίτροπος είπε ότι έχει τεράστιες δυνατότητες η πράσινη οικονομία και είναι δυνατό να δημιουργηθούν 20 εκατομμύρια θέσεις εργασίας στην Ευρώπη γιατί, τότε, να μη δημιουργηθούν και στην Ελλάδα παρόμοιες θέσεις εργασίας με τη χρήση και τέτοιου εργαλείου.


  Nuno Teixeira (PPE). - Senhor Presidente, como bem sublinhou a Senhora Hübner no seu relatório, e eu aproveito para cumprimentá-la pelo seu excelente trabalho, estamos perante uma medida de exceção que se justifica pelas circunstâncias excecionais que vivemos. A crise financeira mundial e a recessão económica sem precedentes impõem que se tomem medidas para contrabalançar os efeitos negativos da crise e o impacto desta que está a ser amplamente sentido na economia real, no mercado de trabalho e nos cidadãos.

A crise aumentou a pressão sobre os recursos financeiros nacionais e, neste contexto, importa, agora mais do que nunca, assegurar a boa política de coesão enquanto instrumento de efeito multiplicador na economia. Felicito, pois, a Comissão Europeia pela sua proposta, que visa facilitar ainda mais o cofinanciamento ao abrigo do FEDER e do Fundo de Coesão, o que contribuirá para remover obstáculos na mobilização do financiamento privado necessário à realização de investimentos produtivos que apenas podem ser parcialmente financiados por fundos públicos. Com este mecanismo de partilha de riscos, a Comissão Europeia e o Banco Europeu de Investimento passarão a providenciar contribuições de capital para cobrirem os prejuízos resultantes de empréstimos e garantias aos Estados-Membros que estão a ser objeto de assistência financeira, como é o caso de Portugal.

Espero agora, muito honestamente, que esta medida seja apenas uma entre muitas que são necessárias para estimular a recuperação e o crescimento destes Estados-Membros, reforçando assim também a competitividade e a coesão da própria União Europeia.


  Joachim Zeller (PPE). - Herr Präsident! Liebe Kolleginnen und Kollegen! Mit dem vorliegenden Vorschlag zu den Risikoteilungsinstrumenten wird sicherlich kein Staatsbankrott dort, wo er auftreten sollte, verhindert werden können. Aber etwas zu tun ist immer noch besser als gar nichts zu unternehmen. Außergewöhnliche Situationen erfordern manchmal auch außergewöhnliche Maßnahmen.

Die Haushalts- und Verschuldungskrise in einigen Staaten führte zu einer derartig außergewöhnlichen Situation, dass wichtige Projekte und Maßnahmen im Rahmen der Kohäsions- und Strukturpolitik nicht mehr durchgeführt werden können, weil der Bankensektor als Finanzier ausfällt, und Privatinvestoren nicht mehr zur Verfügung stehen. Eine außergewöhnliche Maßnahme sehe ich im vorliegenden Vorschlag zur Schaffung von Risikoteilungsinstrumenten zur Weiterfinanzierung von Projekten in der Strukturpolitik. Mittel der Kohäsions- und Strukturpolitik, die den Ländern, die auf diese Teilungsinstrumente zurückgreifen wollen, zur Verfügung stehen, können zur finanziellen Absicherung bereits laufender Projekte eingesetzt werden.

Ich bin der Berichterstatterin Danuta Hübner sehr dankbar, dass sie sehr zur Präzisierung des Kommissionsvorschlags beigetragen hat und noch mal klar herausstellte, wann und wie diese Instrumente in Anspruch genommen werden sollten. Ich bin aber auch der Ansicht, dass diese Risikoteilungsinstrumente nur der aktuellen Situation geschuldet sein dürfen und kein Präjudiz für die künftige Förderperiode darstellen können.


  Marie-Thérèse Sanchez-Schmid (PPE). - Monsieur le Président, chers collègues, la technicité de ce rapport ne doit pas cacher l'urgence de son adoption.

En raison de la gravité de la crise et de la raréfaction des financements, la Grèce est actuellement asphyxiée par les retards dans les grands travaux d'infrastructures. Ces grands travaux sont essentiels au développement économique et à la reprise de la croissance du pays. L'État grec est sous la menace de lourdes amendes – évaluées par certains à plus d'un milliard d'euros – de la part de ses concessionnaires en raison de ses retards, mais aussi de la part de l'Union européenne pour non-respect de certaines directives, sur l'environnement notamment. D'autre part, la Grèce a des difficultés à utiliser ses fonds structurels, malgré les efforts entamés par l'Union pour en accélérer l'absorption, notamment en relevant de 10 points la part de cofinancement européen.

Ainsi, nous nous trouvons dans une situation paradoxale où les États, sous assistance financière, ne peuvent non seulement pas dépenser l'argent disponible mais risquent de plus d'être condamnés à des amendes par ceux-là mêmes qui tentent de les aider.

Je souhaite donc saluer le travail de la rapporteure, Danuta Hübner, qui a su convaincre le Conseil d'accepter la proposition de la Commission visant à utiliser les Fonds structurels comme fonds de garantie pour fluidifier les financements des projets d'infrastructures et attirer ainsi les investisseurs privés.

Je soutiens sans réserve ce rapport, mais je voudrais aller plus loin. L'Union européenne est accusée, à tort, d'être uniquement un instrument de rigueur et d'austérité. Au contraire, ce rapport montre que l'Europe peut-être efficace si elle utilise tous les outils qui sont à sa disposition pour relancer la croissance, aider à l'amélioration de la situation des finances publiques et soutenir l'investissement dans des projets d'avenir.


  Илиaна Ивaнова (PPE). - Г-н Председател, безспорно кризата нанесе сериозни щети както на публичните финанси, така и на банковия сектор на страните от Съюза. Затрудненията с ликвидността на финансовите институции ограничиха достъпа до финансиране за големи инфраструктурни проекти. Тези проблеми логично рефлектираха и по програмите на структурните и Кохезионния фонд.

Подкрепям Комисията в създаването на нов инструмент за споделяне на риска, защото той би могъл да се превърне в сериозен катализатор, който да подобри ликвидността и да осигури достъп до финансиране за проектите по тези програми. Държа да подчертая, обаче, че съществуващите трудности не са само проблем на шест страни, които вече са получили такава помощ.

Защо страните с добра фискална дисциплина, които полагат сериозни усилия, да нямат достъп до подобни инструменти? Някои от тези държави членки в същото време са едни от страните с най-ниски доходи на глава от населението. Ако ограничим новите инструменти само за страни с проблемни публични финанси, ще дадем лош сигнал, защото проблемът с ликвидността засяга всички държави членки.

Призовавам Комисията да осигури достъп до подобни инструменти за всички страни, които желаят да се възползват от тях. Това ще подобри глобално изпълнението на проектите по програмите и ще доведе до икономически растеж и създаване на работни места в целия Европейски съюз.


  Ρόδη Κράτσα-Τσαγκαροπούλου (PPE). - Κύριε Πρόεδρε, η έκθεση που συζητούμε απόψε και η πρόταση της Ευρωπαϊκής Επιτροπής αποτελεί μια σημαντική, μια έξυπνη απάντηση στην προσπάθεια αντιμετώπισης της οικονομικής και δημοσιονομικής κρίσης, κυρίως για χώρες που πλήττονται ιδιαίτερα και δριμύτατα, όπως είναι η χώρα μου η Ελλάδα. Χαιρετίζω λοιπόν ιδιαίτερα θετικά την παρούσα πρόταση όσον αφορά αυτό το εργαλείο, του μέσου καταμερισμού κινδύνου, που δίνει τη δυνατότητα σε χώρες να αξιοποιήσουν τους κοινοτικούς πόρους και να εκταμιεύσουν κεφάλαια από την Ευρωπαϊκή Τράπεζα Επενδύσεων ή άλλο οργανισμό, για τη χρηματοδότηση έργων που εκτελούνται με συνεισφορές των διαφορετικών ταμείων και του Ταμείου Συνοχής.

Δίνει τη δυνατότητα στον ιδιωτικό τομέα να συμμετέχει στην παραγωγή πλούτου, τη δημιουργία θέσεων απασχόλησης και, επαναλαμβάνω, αυτό κυρίως για χώρες που υφίστανται ισχυρές περικοπές δημοσίων επενδύσεων, όπως είναι η Ελλάδα. Η Ελλάδα έχει εκδηλώσει ενδιαφέρον για τον μηχανισμό αυτό, κυρίως για την παραχώρηση αυτοκινητοδρόμων, και πιστεύω ότι αυτό θα αποτελέσει μια καλή ευκαιρία για την επανεκκίνηση της οικονομίας, που τόσο έχει ανάγκη η χώρα μου ώστε να μπει σε τροχιά ανάκαμψης και ανάπτυξης.




  Petru Constantin Luhan (PPE). - Neîncrederea şi reticenţa investitorilor din sectorul privat, precum şi a celor din sectorul financiar au făcut ca în anumite state membre să existe şanse mari ca o serie de proiecte strategice să nu fie realizate. Principalele proiecte afectate sunt cele de infrastructură şi din analizele făcute reiese că resursele financiare necesare dezvoltării infrastructurii Uniunii Europene pentru perioada 2010 - 2030 sunt de peste 1 500 de miliarde de euro. Văzând această cifră ne putem da seama că o reţea de transport eficientă la nivel european necesită eforturi substanţiale şi pentru aceasta trebuie să existe surse de finanţare diversificate, atât publice, cât şi private.

Un instrument de împărţire a riscurilor va reprezenta o soluţie reală pentru aceste probleme cu care ne confruntăm şi va permite continuarea implementării programelor europene injectându-se în economie fonduri suplimentare de la BEI şi alte instituţii financiare. Fondurile menite să cofinanţeze proiecte puse în aplicare cu sprijinul fondurilor structurale şi de coeziune vor avea un impact imediat asupra economiei, contribuind semnificativ la creşterea locurilor de muncă.


  Jaroslav Paška (EFD). - Rozumiem úsiliu Európskej komisie pomôcť novým mechanizmom rozdeľovaním rizika pri realizácii infraštruktúrnych a produktívnych investičných projektov krajinám, ktoré majú vážne problémy s ich finančnou stabilitou.

V odôvodnení sa uvádza, že mnohé investície, na ktorých sa súkromný sektor s opatrnosti už nechce podieľať, by mohli vďaka prevzatiu rizika Európskou komisiou a jeho prerozdeleniu na celú Európsku úniu získať nádej na realizáciu. Návrhy formulované ako výnimka z politiky súdržnosti, ktorá je údajne odôvodnená súčasnou situáciou v zadlžených krajinách. Aj pán komisár Šemeta vo svojom úvodnom vystúpení priznal, že sa predloženým návrhom do istej miery obchádzajú európske pravidlá o poskytovaní štátnej pomoci. Priznám sa, že mám istú nedôveru k čestnosti a korektnosti tohto nariadenia. Ak totiž súkromný sektor vyhodnotí investičný projekt ako zmysluplný s potrebnou návratnosťou, vie si na jeho realizáciu nájsť primerané finančné zdroje. Preto som si nie istý, či je prezieravé a múdre zaťažovať Európsku úniu zárukami za investície, ktorým súkromný sektor už neverí.


  João Ferreira (GUE/NGL). - Senhor Presidente, estamos perante mais uma proposta da Comissão Europeia dirigida aos Estados-Membros em graves dificuldades. Propõe-se agora e cito: autorizar a transferência para a Comissão de uma parte das transferências financeiras disponibilizadas aos referidos Estados-Membros. O destino destas verbas, assim retiradas à dotação inicial dos Estados-Membros em dificuldades, aos Fundos Estruturais e ao Fundo de Coesão, será o de contribuir para cobrir prejuízos resultantes de empréstimos e garantias dados a investidores privados e bancos que financiem projetos cofinanciados por estes fundos. Estamos perante mais um sui generis exercício de solidariedade europeia. Em lugar de se aumentarem as dotações disponíveis para estes países, como se exigia, aquilo que se faz, certamente já antecipando as próximas Perspetivas Financeiras é, na prática, encurtar o montante global à disposição destes países. Outros caminhos existiam para ultrapassar as graves limitações existentes do lado do investimento privado.

No fundo, para além dos exorbitantes juros cobrados por via dos programas FMI / União Europeia, o que os povos de Portugal, da Grécia, da Irlanda ou da Roménia ficam a saber de uma forma cada vez mais clara é com o que podem e com o que não podem contar desta União Europeia.


  Elena Băsescu (PPE). - Salut coordonarea dintre programele de împrumuturi şi fondurile Uniunii pentru statele care se confruntă cu dificultăţi privind stabilitatea financiară. Este important să se asigure continuarea programelor cofinanţate prin FEDER şi Fondul de coeziune în ţările supuse constrângerilor bugetare. Consider că prezenta propunere va avea un impact pozitiv asupra economiei statelor membre afectate de criză. Ea va permite dezvoltarea unor proiecte majore de infrastructură, contribuind, astfel, la relansarea economică prin investiţii. România se numără printre statele care primesc asistenţă financiară din partea FMI. În ţara mea, dificultăţile economice au afectat şi proiectele de infrastructură. În aceste condiţii, măsurile discutate astăzi sunt binevenite, mai ales că FMI şi Comisia Europeană au recomandat României să utilizeze cât mai multe fonduri europene în programul naţional de dezvoltare a infrastructurii.


(Ende des „catch-the-eye“-Verfahrens)


  Algirdas Šemeta, Member of the Commission. − Mr President, I would like to thank all the Members for their remarks. I am glad to see that we share the will to help those Member States most threatened by the economic and financial crisis.

In terms of extending the proposal to all Member States, I know that this issue was raised during the discussions in the different committees and during today’s debate. Let me underline that this is an exceptional crisis response measure, justified primarily by the severe situation of Greece, even if some of its elements may also be present in other Member States receiving financial support. On the other hand, at a time of strong budgetary constraints, extending the proposal to all Member States would potentially have a strong budgetary impact.

Regarding the scope of the legislative measure, initially the Commission proposal addressed only national strategic reference framework projects. After discussions with the Member States, the EIB and MEPs, it was agreed to enlarge the measure to operations which contribute to the objectives of the national strategic reference framework of the requesting Member State and the Community strategic guidelines on cohesion. In the Commission’s view, this is a good compromise that will secure cohesion policy projects, taking into account other projects which fall under cohesion policy objectives. The Commission expects that a significant number of projects will be in the environment sector, including renewable energy.

I would like to draw your attention to the fact that covering projects which are not related to cohesion policy would raise a series of questions, mainly of a policy and legal nature. The risk-sharing instrument is a specific response mechanism addressed to a specific number of Member States. It cannot be considered to be a mechanism that offers an easy way out of reprogramming structural funds or accelerating absorption.

In conclusion, I would take this opportunity to underline that cohesion policy has again proven that not only is it a structural investment, it can also provide short-term assistance. I therefore call on the Members of the European Parliament to give their support to this legislative proposal.


  Danuta Maria Hübner, rapporteur. − Mr President, I would briefly like to make two points. First of all, it is clear from the discussion we had, and from what the Commissioner said, that this new policy instrument will necessitate good cooperation between the implementing institutions and the Member State concerned.

In the light of this, I would like to express my hope that this new unlocked financing will enable countries like Greece promptly to resume the implementation of top-priority projects. We expect the EIB and the Commission to finalise the required operating arrangements as a matter of urgency.

My second point is that, from my point of view as rapporteur, we had an extremely effective dialogue with the shadow rapporteurs, with colleagues from other committees who delivered opinions and with the Danish Presidency and the Commission. I would like to thank everybody.


  Der Präsident. − Die Aussprache ist geschlossen.

Die Abstimmung findet am Donnerstag, 19. April 2012, um 12.00 Uhr statt.

Schriftliche Erklärungen (Artikel 149 GO)


  Luís Paulo Alves (S&D), por escrito. A presente situação de prolongada crise financeira e económica, bem como o constante aumento da pressão sobre os recursos financeiros nacionais exige medidas que assegurem a boa execução dos programas da política de coesão. Com o objetivo de os Estados-Membros e as suas regiões continuarem a aplicar os programas dos fundos estruturais e do Fundo de Coesão pretende-se criar disposições que permitam a criação de um mecanismo de partilha de riscos. Para este mecanismo ser exequível é necessário que seja autorizada uma transferência para a Comissão de uma parte das dotações financeiras disponibilizadas aos referidos Estados-Membros. Concordando que a medida se destina a reforçar as sinergias entre os programas de concessão de empréstimos e os fundos da União nos Estados-Membros, que estiverem, ou possam vir a ser objeto de assistência da União e do FMI, e a contribuir para tentar ultrapassar os importantes obstáculos com que alguns Estados-Membros se defrontam para mobilizar o financiamento privado necessário para realizar investimentos infraestruturais e produtivos, não posso deixar de salientar que tenho algumas reservas no que toca à forma como este será processado, bem como uma certa apreensão se através deste mecanismo não serão, por exemplo, novamente prejudicadas as regiões mais desfavorecidas.


  Constanze Angela Krehl (S&D), schriftlich. Damit Griechenland wieder auf die Beine kommt, muss dort gezielt investiert werden – in die Wirtschaft, die Infrastruktur und den Ausbau erneuerbarer Energien. Dafür stehen die Mittel der europäischen Kohäsionspolitik bereit. Um unsere Projekte umzusetzen, brauchen wir aber die Gelder privater Investoren. Diese erhalten allerdings momentan nicht die dafür benötigten Bankkredite, weil die Banken Investitionen in Griechenland meistens für zu riskant erachten. Darum finde ich es richtig, einen Teil der Mittel, die wir Griechenland schon zugewiesen haben, zur Absicherung solcher Kredite zu nutzen. Die Banken können sicher sein, ihr Geld später zurückzubekommen, die Investoren erhalten ihre Kredite und können sich so an Projekten der EU beteiligen, wodurch in Griechenland die Schaffung mehrerer tausend Arbeitsplätze ermöglicht wird. Der Bericht hat auch den Vorteil, dass er einen sehr effizienten Umgang mit den knappen zur Verfügung stehenden Geldern ermöglicht: Indem wir die Mittel nur zur Risikoabsicherung nutzen, können wir mehr Investitionen generieren, als wenn das Geld direkt in Projekte gesteckt würde. Schließlich wird mit diesem Bericht folgendes deutlich: Die Europäische Union steht hinter Griechenland, und darauf können sich auch private Investoren verlassen!

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