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Donnerstag, 19. April 2012 - Straßburg Überprüfte Ausgabe

5. Menschenhandel (Aussprache)
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  La Présidente. - L'ordre du jour appelle le débat sur les déclarations du Conseil et de la Commission sur la traite des êtres humains.

 
  
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  Morten Bødskov, formand for Rådet. − Fru formand, ærede medlemmer, ærede kommissær Malmström! Jeg vil gerne indlede debatten her i dag med at takke for muligheden for at tage del i dagens debat om menneskehandel, som jo er et meget vigtigt og påtrængende emne.

Der skal ikke herske nogen tvivl om, at menneskehandel er en modbydelig form for kriminalitet, som skal bekæmpes på alle fronter. Det er et problem, som vi også ved ikke kan løses nationalt, men som kræver både en regional, en international og også en global indsats. Der er i den forbindelse behov for, at vi koordinerer den europæiske indsats mod menneskehandel med vores eksterne samarbejdspartnere. Derfor er jeg glad for, at kampen mod menneskehandel har så høj en prioritet hos både FN, Europarådet, Organisationen for Sikkerhed og Samarbejde i Europa og International Organisation for Migration.

Jeg sætter også stor pris på, at de seks FN-agenturer i fællesskab er fremkommet med en række kommentarer til vores direktiv fra 2011, og jeg er sikker på, at dette bidrag vil vise sig nyttigt, når medlemsstaterne skal gennemføre direktivet frem mod fristen den 6. april 2013. I den forbindelse skal bemærkes, at der er tale om et direktiv, der indeholder minimumsregler. Dermed står det medlemsstaterne frit at indføre mere vidtgående regler end dem, der følger af direktivet. FN's anbefalinger retter sig da også til medlemsstaterne i forbindelse med deres nationale gennemførelse af direktivet. Det er således et nationalt anliggende, hvorvidt man ønsker at efterkomme FN's anbefalinger i det omfang, de går videre end selve direktivet.

Det følger bl.a. af direktivet, at medlemsstaterne for at bidrage til en koordineret og konsolideret EU-strategi for bekæmpelse af menneskehandel skal lette opgaverne for en EU-koordinator for bekæmpelse af menneskehandel. I marts 2011 udpegede Kommissionen som bekendt den første antimenneskehandelskoordinator. Koordinatorens rolle består i at yde generel strategisk vejledning omkring menneskehandel, herunder i relation til tredjelande. Jeg og de øvrige rådsmedlemmer er særdeles glade for, at vi nu har en antimenneskehandelskoordinator, der udfører et meget vigtigt arbejde. Kommissionen vil komme nærmere ind på koordinatorens mandat.

Et andet væsentligt element i direktivet er bestemmelsen om, at medlemsstaterne skal udpege nationale rapportører eller etablere tilsvarende mekanismer. Rapportørernes opgaver består bl.a. i at vurdere tendenser i menneskehandelen, måle resultater af aktioner til bekæmpelse af menneskehandel samt forestå indsamling af statistikker og foretage rapporteringer.

I 2009 besluttede Rådet at etablere et netværk bestående af nationale rapportører og tilsvarende mekanismer til overvågning af menneskehandel. Som det også fremgår af FN-kommentaren, er det særdeles vanskeligt at vurdere det reelle omfang af menneskehandel. Et af formålene med dette netværk er at forbedre vores forståelse for fænomenet menneskehandel og indsamle pålidelige data. Netværket er tilgængeligt for EU-institutioner og -agenturer samt relevante internationale organisationer, herunder selvfølgelig også FN. Formandskabet for Rådet koordinerer i samarbejde med Kommissionen netværkets aktiviteter og leder møderne. Netværket mødes cirka hvert halve år, og Rådets generalsekretær og Parlamentets sekretariat inviteres til at deltage i møderne. Det seneste møde fandt sted i februar her i 2012.

Jeg håber, at det var svar på jeres spørgsmål, ellers er jeg selvfølgelig sikker på, at Kommissionen kan være behjælpelig med yderligere oplysninger.

 
  
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  Cecilia Malmström, Member of the Commission. − Madam President, I think this is a very good opportunity to discuss this matter. Trafficking of human beings is a horrible crime. It goes on today, it affects millions of people – young children, women, men – and it is a shame. It is unacceptable that today, in 2012, this modern slavery still goes on.

I think – or rather I know – that the European Parliament has pursued this issue for many years, and some Member States have been very quick to engage in these issues, while others have taken a little more time. However, I think it is fair to say that today everybody is very committed – Member States, the Commission, Parliament – to fighting this horrible violation of human rights. It is a priority for all of us, and it is very important for me personally.

The directive to which the Presidency was referring and which was the subject of your oral questions is very important for preventing and combating the problem, as well as for protecting the victims. It is a reflection of our joint commitment. It has a comprehensive and integrative approach. It is centred on the protection of victims and on human rights. It is gender-specific and does not only focus on repression but aims to prevent the crime and to ensure that the victims of trafficking are given the opportunity to recover and be reintegrated into society.

It brings robust provisions to deliver protection, assistance and support for victims. It asks, for instance, the Member States to ensure that all victims are dealt with on the basis of an individual risk assessment. Additionally, the Member States should establish appropriate mechanisms to identify, assist and support the victims in cooperation with different support organisations.

There are special provisions concerning children who are victims of trafficking. The Member States are obliged to appoint a guardian or a representative for each child victim and always to take into consideration what is best for the child.

Regarding prevention, we fully share your concern on the need to put in place concrete preventive measures. The Member States are obliged to take measures to discourage and reduce the demands that foster all forms of exploitation. We also foresee the inclusion of a study on demand and supply in our upcoming communication on the strategy, with a view to better understanding the roots and causes of trafficking.

The need for preventive actions in addressing the role of the Internet in recruitment, as well as in advertising services, was repeatedly brought up during the consultation with stakeholders when elaborating the strategy. The strategy which we are currently in the process of writing will therefore consider the best ways to reflect on the Internet.

As regards the gender dimension, women, men, boys and girls can all become victims of trafficking. However, victims of trafficking are affected in different ways and to different degrees, so Directive 2011/36/EU and the Strategy for Equality between Women and Men should mainstream a gender-specific approach in all areas of human-trafficking policy and legislation, reducing vulnerability to trafficking and responding to victims’ needs.

The Directive is a great achievement, and our focus now must be on transposition and implementation. The commitment of the Member States’ governments to enacting national legislation that would give full effect to the provisions is fundamental, and the Member States have one year left fully to transpose the provisions. In order to assist them – as has been mentioned – there is an informal contact group on the Directive. It brings together experts on the transposition of the Directive at national level. During these meetings, Member States can discuss questions related to this process that they consider important, and the European Parliament is invited to participate in these informal meetings.

In this context, we welcome the joint United Nations commentary on the Directive and its strong focus on human rights. The commentary is a positive exercise by the United Nations’ agencies to combine the previously-adopted UN and Council of Europe legislation with the implementation of the EU Directive. It places EU policy in a global context, and this is crucial for consistency, as we are discussing a global phenomenon.

You asked about the national rapporteur or equivalent mechanism. The Directive obliges Member States to set up these mechanisms. They will be responsible for the assessment of trends and measuring the result of the anti-trafficking actions: statistics, reporting, etc. Some Member States already have this in place, and others are now in the process of setting it up. The Commission will discuss, within the informal network, how best to implement this provision, and this will also be a question to be discussed in the contact group.

Let me inform you that the third group of experts on the trafficking of human beings was appointed by the Director-General of DG Home Affairs, Mr Manservisi. The call for experts was an open call, and the selection was made by a committee which ensured the presence of different specialisations and areas of expertise, as well as a geographical and gender balance. This group of experts included many human rights and gender experts, and they will feed into the Commission policies, advise us on policies and initiatives related to trafficking issues, help us to assess policy and assist us in identifying measures to be taken. Overall, this group of experts is a forum for the discussion of all issues relating to the trafficking of human beings.


The anti-trafficking coordinator, Mrs Vassiliadou, took up her mandate a year ago. The Commission is in the process of providing additional staff for her in order to support her and ensure that she can fully exercise her tasks and priorities. She has been working on making anti-trafficking policies more coherent, such as by mainstreaming the issue in different policy strands and ensuring coordination between the different actors.

Partly in order to ensure transparency, the anti-trafficking coordinator will have to contribute to the Commission’s biennial reporting on the progress made in addressing trafficking in human beings. In order to evaluate this process, as stated in your resolution on the prevention of trafficking in human beings, there is a need for better information gathering.

Last year, the Commission sent out a questionnaire to the Member States to collect data on the trafficking of human beings at EU level. We have received replies from everybody. A general overview of the data will be integrated into the strategy on which we are currently working, and the Commission will most likely be able to publish a separate analysis of this later this year.

As you know, the Commission funds many projects aimed at preventing trafficking both within and outside the EU. Some projects address the root causes: for example, there is a project in Kosovo that aims to raise awareness amongst the most vulnerable groups in rural areas of Kosovo. More information on this project and others is available on the anti-trafficking website.

We have an action-oriented paper aimed at strengthening the commitment and the coordinated action of the EU and Member States against trafficking in human beings. This will be done in partnership with third countries, regions and organisations at international level. The Commission has established an inter-service group on trafficking of human beings shared by the anti-trafficking coordinator. This group brings together diverse policy areas such as migration, asylum, development cooperation, trade, employment and gender policy, to name but a few. Coordination is one of the main objectives here, and that was the objective of last year’s anti-trafficking day, which resulted in a joint statement from seven agencies on ensuring future cooperation on trafficking between them.

Much has been done and much is prepared. The strategy will be presented later this spring or just before the summer. I will be happy to come back and talk about this specific strategy once it is ready, but I would like to thank you for your strong commitment, for your engagement and for urging the Commission and the Member States never to give up on this and to make sure that we do everything possible to eradicate this horrible form of modern slavery.

 
  
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  Edit Bauer, a PPE képviselőcsoport nevében. – Elnök Asszony! Kedves Biztos Asszony! Kedves Miniszter Úr! Köszönöm ezt a lehetőséget, hogy eszmét cserélhetünk az irányelv alkalmazásáról és transzpozíciójáról. Az elmúlt hetekben több civil szervezettel eszmét cseréltünk arról, hogy milyen feladatok várnak ránk, és az egyik résztvevő azt mondta, hogy ez az irányelv, ez egy átkozottul jó irányelv. Elnézést kérek a kifejezésért, de pontosan akartam idézni. Ez persze nem azt jelenti, hogy most már hátradőlhetünk, mert mindent jól elvégeztünk, hanem a munka dandárja gyakorlatilag előttünk áll. És annak ellenére, hogy ez valóban egy jó irányelv, és köszönet azért, hogy a Bizottság és a Tanács jó együttműködése alapján ez így létrejöhetett, magában az irányelvben is vannak olyan hiányosságok, amiket előbb-utóbb pótolni kell, ilyen például az ideiglenes tartózkodási engedélyre vonatkozó irányelv, amelyik feltételhez köti az áldozatok támogatását, miközben ez az új irányelv feltétel nélküli támogatást biztosít az áldozatoknak.

De ugyanígy hiánypótló intézkedésekre van szükség, ami a nemzeti koordinátorokat és az európai koordinátor kapcsolatát illeti, és úgy érzem, hogy talán fontos lesz az elkövetkező időben több figyelmet fordítani a különböző politikák összehangolására. Legyen az a fejlesztési politika, ahol igazából nem vesszük figyelembe még ma sem azt, hogy milyen fontos lenne az emberkereskedelem témáját fontosabb helyre rangsorolni a fejlesztési politikákban. Nagy figyelemmel kísérjük és várjuk, hogy mit fog hozni az új stratégia, és azt szeretném kérdezni, hogy milyen hozzáadott értéket várhatunk tőle?

 
  
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  Anna Hedh, för S&D-gruppen. – Fru talman! Som föredragande är jag stolt över de framsteg som åstadkommits tillsammans med rådet och kommissionen i samband med att vi antog den nya lagstiftningen mot människohandel. Direktivet har ett helhetsperspektiv med fokus på både förebyggande åtgärder och lagföring av människohandlare. Nu har det gått mer än ett år sedan direktivet antogs och jag är glad över att få höra både från kommissionen och rådet här idag om dess genomförande.

För några veckor sedan var jag på ett seminarium tillsammans med EU:s anti trafficking-samordnare. Hon meddelade där att den senaste tillgängliga statistiken från medlemsstaterna visar att en klar majoritet, över 70 procent av offren i människohandel, är kvinnor som fallit offer för sexslavhandel. Trots att detta bekräftas av en rad andra studier upplever jag att det finns ett motstånd mot att prata om detta faktum. Istället för att diskutera sexslaveri, som enligt all tillgänglig statistik står för den övervägande delen, så finns det tendenser att vilja fokusera på utnyttjande i andra sektorer.

Detta är djupt olyckligt då vi aldrig kommer att komma åt människohandeln om vi inte vågar tala öppet om alla dess orsaker. En mycket väsentlig del i direktivet handlar just om att arbeta mot efterfrågan och slå mot själva lönsamheten för människohandeln. Enligt artikel 18 är medlemsstaterna inte bara skyldiga att agera mot människohandeln utan också att vidta lämpliga åtgärder i syfte att motverka och minska den efterfrågan som ligger till grund för alla former av utnyttjande som är relaterat till människohandel. I detta ingår att se över köparnas ansvar, oavsett vilken typ av slaveri de betalar för. Det är därför särskilt intressant hur rådet och kommissionen ser på detta i ljuset av lagstiftningen. Jag ser fram emot den utvärdering som så småningom kommer!

 
  
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  Antonyia Parvanova, on behalf of the ALDE Group. – Madam President, one year after the adoption of the directive on combating and preventing trafficking in human beings, Member States still need to take concrete action to put an end to trafficking and effectively protect the victims of such crimes.

We hope that the directive, including its provisions concerning criminal offences, will be implemented in a timely, consistent and effective manner and will, together with the EU strategy, lead to improved cooperation cross the Union. The further legal framework would enable Member States’ actions to have a greater impact not only in terms of law enforcement but also for the protection and assistance provided to victims.

It is therefore crucial that the European anti-trafficking coordinator is provided with appropriate tools and means of cooperation, in order to coordinate efforts at national and EU level. Existing data show that women and girls represent the majority of trafficked people, and we should take into account the root causes of such phenomena, particularly when we speak about gender-based discrimination and violence against women. In this respect, transposing and implementing this directive with an open gender perspective is crucially needed. Further efforts in terms of ensuring the establishment of national rapporteurs responsible for gathering gender-separated national statistics and data would be welcome. In terms of prevention and information, gender-sensitive awareness campaigns still remain to be developed.

Finally, as rapporteur for the European Parliament on the Victims’ Rights Package, I would like to stress the need to draw up a solid and ambitious legislative framework establishing minimum standards for victims of crimes and facilitating the recognition of protection measures – civil or criminal –across the EU.

I hope the Council will also acknowledge that supporting victims and recognising their rights throughout the Union is essential in order to facilitate the reporting of crimes and effectively combat organised crime networks which abuse thousands of people and deprive them of their fundamental rights, regardless of their nationality and place of residence.

 
  
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  Judith Sargentini, namens de Verts/ALE-Fractie. – Een groot gemis in de bescherming van slachtoffers van mensenhandel blijft toch wel de beperking op de verblijfsvergunning. In de debatten die wij in dit Parlement met elkaar hebben gevoerd, hebben de Groenen geprobeerd om ruimhartige voorstellen in te brengen, waarbij slachtoffers van mensenhandel bescherming kregen in de vorm van een verblijfsvergunning. Dat is ons niet gelukt, het is een tijdelijke verblijfsvergunning geworden en een tijdelijke verblijfsvergunning betekent dat je na bijvoorbeeld een rechtszaak terug zou kunnen worden gestuurd naar de plaats vanwaar je verhandeld bent, wellicht ook naar de mensen die hebben geholpen jou te verhandelen. Dat blijft een tekortkoming.

Ik ben wel blij om te zien dat in het slachtofferpakket waarover nu met de Raad wordt onderhandeld erkend is dat slachtoffers steun verdienen, ongeacht hun legale status, dus of zij legaal dan wel illegaal zijn. Dat zal slachtoffers van mensenhandel helpen.

 
  
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  James Nicholson, on behalf of the ECR Group. – Madam President, we all agree that human trafficking is an abhorrent crime which grossly violates the human rights of its victims. This is a modern form of slavery, the incidence of which across Europe continues to grow at an alarming pace. In my own region of Northern Ireland there is a huge problem with human trafficking. Criminal gangs use the province as a gateway to traffic people into the mainland United Kingdom, as well as retaining some victims for local illegal activities. The Police Service of Northern Ireland, the PSNI, is engaged in a comprehensive battle against human trafficking, which focuses both on rescuing victims and catching perpetrators. However, the first person who was convicted on a charge of human trafficking in Northern Ireland was only sentenced a few weeks ago. This shows that we still have a long way to go.

I welcome the Commissioner’s statements here today. It is important that this issue is not brushed under the carpet. It should remain very much at the top of the agenda in the fight against crime, and I believe the most important tool for fighting this crime is tougher sentencing of the perpetrators of human trafficking.

 
  
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  Zbigniew Ziobro, w imieniu grupy EFD. – Pani Przewodnicząca! Z wielkim smutkiem należy stwierdzić, że mimo upływu 230 lat od zniesienia niewolnictwa w Europie nadal mamy do czynienia ze zjawiskiem niewolnictwa i handlu ludźmi. Nadal dochodzi do strasznych krzywd najczęściej wyrządzanych kobietom, które również dzisiaj – teraz, kiedy debatujemy w Parlamencie Europejskim – w najbogatszych krajach Unii Europejskiej są zmuszane pod groźbą szantażu, pobicia, czasami – co do opornych – zabójstwa nawet do tego, aby świadczyć usługi seksualne. Odmawia im się godności ludzkiej, a często organa ścigania w poszczególnych państwach rozkładają ręce i udają, że problemu nie ma. To wielki wstyd, by nie użyć mocniejszych słów, i dlatego w tej sprawie należy podejmować wszelkie działania, które umożliwią podjęcie skutecznych środków zaradczych.

Po pierwsze, trzeba kwalifikować takie zachowania zawsze jako działania w ramach zorganizowanych struktur przestępczych. Po drugie, trzeba takie działania odpowiednio surowo karać, surowiej niż zwykłą przestępczość kryminalną, bo wsparcie grupy przestępczej stwarza większe zagrożenie i siłę rażenia takich przestępców oraz ich poczucie bezkarności. Po trzecie wreszcie, trzeba wprowadzić elementy konfiskaty rozszerzonej we wszystkich krajach Unii Europejskiej, aby odbierać ten cel i sens działania zorganizowanej przestępczości handlu ludźmi, czyli zarabianie pieniędzy na krzywdzie, najczęściej krzywdzie kobiet, ale też i dzieci. Te wszystkie działania razem podejmowane, koordynowane w ramach poszczególnych krajów Unii Europejskiej, koordynowane też przez zaangażowane instytucje europejskie, mogą przynieść rezultat, ale tylko wtedy, jeśli będą podejmowane wszechstronnie i właśnie z takim nastawieniem, zdecydowaniem i konsekwencją, której do tej pory niestety brakowało.

Media co chwila opisują straszne dramaty kobiet z Europy Wschodniej, kobiet z Trzeciego Świata, które podstępem zostały sprowadzone do rzekomo uczciwej pracy w krajach Europy Zachodniej, a później spotkały je koszmarne zdarzenia, przestępstwa, pobicia, a czasami nawet zabójstwa. Musimy z tym skończyć, musimy też bronić ofiar tych przestępstw. Musimy pokazać tutaj stanowczość!

 
  
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  Mikael Gustafsson, för GUE/NGL-gruppen. – Fru talman! Den absolut vanligaste formen av människohandel gäller naturligtvis kvinnor och flickor som utnyttjas sexuellt. Jag kommer därför att fokusera på det.

Kvinnor och flickor luras och övertalas in i en exploaterande och grym värld. Eftersom efterfrågan på att köpa kvinnor är större än vad det finns prostituerade i Europa så rekryteras dessa kvinnor från andra delar av världen för att köpas och säljas om och om igen. Detta är cyniskt, ovärdigt, kolonialt och till och med rasistiskt. Vi måste våga fatta beslut som ifrågasätter detta. Sexköp är inte okej. I egenskap av man säger jag nej till mäns rätt att köpa kvinnors kroppar. I egenskap av politiker säger jag att vi måste våga fatta beslut som verkligen avskaffar kvinnohandeln.

Det behövs självklart många viktiga åtgärder, t.ex. utöka stödet till offren för människohandeln, förstärka deras rättigheter, ge offer för människohandel rätt till uppehållstillstånd i det land de utnyttjas. Samtidigt måste vi alltdi komma ihåg att utan efterfrågan på kvinnokroppar så finns ingen handel med kvinnor och flickor. Det betyder att det verkliga problemet ligger hos sexköparna.

Jag anser att vi måste gå hela vägen i den kedjan för att kunna stävja handeln, dvs. även kunna förbjuda sexköp. Det har visat sig vara en effektiv åtgärd i Norge, Sverige och Island. För det är inte kvinnorna i prostitution som ska bestraffas utan det är männen som ska sättas i fokus.

För att sammanfatta: att bekämpa människohandel i EU handlar till stor del om att bekämpa handel med kvinnor och flickor. För att göra den kampen effektiv krävs politiskt mod att bekämpa efterfrågan. En sådan politik skulle vara betydligt mer effektiv än dagens fokus på biometriska id-handlingar, passageraruppgifter och stärkta gränskontroller.

 
  
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  Anna Maria Corazza Bildt (PPE). - Madam President, I welcome Commissioner Malmström’s genuine commitment to fighting trafficking, along with all the measures that the Commission has implemented already. Now is the time for all the Member States to do the same and implement fully, swiftly and effectively the directive that was adopted a year ago. But there is more to be done, because the figures are stunning and the stories are heartbreaking. The issue is the millions of women, children and men who live as slaves in our neighbourhoods.

There is a need for a cultural paradigm shift, and the time of impunity has to come to an end. The culture of impunity, of abuse, cheating and oppression, has to be replaced by a culture which criminalises trafficking. All the perpetrators should hear our voice. They will not feel immune anywhere, in any corner of Europe. We have to join forces on this, not only by better training police forces and taking into account children’s and women’s special needs as well as victim protection, but also by adding some prevention. We need to do more than just persecute; we must also really improve cooperation and have stronger sanctions. This may be a challenge for a criminal system, but we need to see adults and children freed and perpetrators in prison.

 
  
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  Silvia Costa (S&D). - Signora Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, apprezzo l'intervento del Consiglio e del Commissario Malmström, credo che oggi dobbiamo finalmente parlare di una vera strategia europea incentrata sulla lotta al traffico, sulla prevenzione e sulla tutela delle vittime.

Importantissimo il ruolo del coordinatore europeo, il cui staff va a mio giudizio irrobustito, e ci vuole un forte indirizzo della Commissione perché tutti gli Stati membri realizzino analoghi organismi che affianchino il relatore nazionale con consulte permanenti e con le ONG, che spesso sono le più impegnate su questo piano, e con un collegamento forte con la polizia, con la magistratura e con la polizia informatica per i reati su Internet.

È importante confrontare anche le misure che ci sono nei vari paesi sui clienti e sullo scoraggiamento della domanda, per fare un passo avanti e raccordare di più però gli interventi sui minori in modo più olistico in attuazione di questa direttiva e di quella sulla pedopornografia su Internet.

Credo che sia centrale la formazione degli operatori di giustizia, ma anche la coerenza della legislazione e segnalo la gravità della situazione di chi nel nostro paese dal 1998 aveva il permesso di soggiorno umanitario – e spero che questo governo cambi questo punto – perché oggi è stato introdotto il reato di clandestinità per l'immigrazione clandestina che sta vanificando la possibilità di applicare il soggiorno umanitario per le donne vittime della tratta.

 
  
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  Nathalie Griesbeck (ALDE). - Madame la Présidente, si l'esclavage a été aboli au dix-neuvième siècle, de nombreux enfants, des femmes et des hommes sont encore victimes chaque jour de la traite des êtres humains en Europe. Il s'agit d'esclaves domestiques, de prostituées, de mendiants, de travailleurs clandestins, qui vivent un véritable calvaire fait de violences physiques, d'humiliations et à chaque étape de cet enfer, c'est l'indignation. Ce phénomène concerne en outre, pour près de 40 %, des enfants. Totalement impuissantes, ces personnes sont enlevées, gardées contre leur gré, frappées, soumises à des violences sexuelles et à d'autres formes de torture et de traitements inhumains et dégradants, privées de leurs droits.

L'Union, les États membres de l'Union ont une responsabilité historique, comme vous l'avez rappelé, Madame la Commissaire, et nous devons agir ensemble pour faire face à ce phénomène criminel qui bafoue tous les droits humains, particulièrement ceux des femmes. Mais surtout, il incombe bien sûr à l'Union de protéger les plus fragiles, les plus vulnérables que sont les enfants.

Madame la Commissaire, en ce qui concerne cette coopération, si bien sûr la directive constitue une avancée, un pas en avant, il vous revient de contrôler fermement la responsabilité des États à travers des mesures concrètes, tangibles, pour pouvoir éliminer ce véritable cancer qui constitue une offense aux fondements de nos sociétés démocratiques et aux valeurs qui ont cimenté la construction européenne.

Qu'allez-vous faire par rapport aux obligations des États de mise en œuvre de la transposition de la directive? Deuxième question: quid de la campagne d'information et de sensibilisation massive? Et, enfin, quid de la collecte des informations relatives à la traite des êtres humains et quelles actions pourraient être prises à partir justement de cette collecte de données?

 
  
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  Peter van Dalen (ECR). - Voorzitter, de richtlijn tegen mensenhandel biedt meer bescherming voor de slachtoffers en de daders kunnen nu beter worden aangepakt. Helaas is het echter zo dat de lidstaten de kansen van de richtlijn nog te weinig benutten en bovendien vooral de prostitutie nog te weinig aanpakken.

Wij weten dat 80% van de vrouwen en meisjes in de mensenhandel terechtkomen in de prostitutie, vooral door een mix van leugens, valse beloftes en corruptie. En dan zijn zij gevangen in die onderwereld. Daar moeten wij hen uit proberen te halen, mevrouw de Voorzitter, want deze misdaad wordt helaas nóg te weinig erkend. Het gevolg is dat Europese projecten om vrouwen en meisjes te waarschuwen of op te vangen nauwelijks van de grond komen. De samenwerking tussen de politie, met name tussen West- en Oost-Europa, moet écht veel beter.

Wij moeten deze misdaad niet uit schaamte verzwijgen, maar wij moeten gebruikmaken van de richtlijn. Ik roep de lidstaten daartoe op en ik steun daarin de Europese commissaris. Want wij moeten van deze misdaden af, zij kunnen namelijk nog te veel ongehinderd plaatsvinden en daar moeten wij tegen blijven strijden.

 
  
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  Roberta Angelilli (PPE). - Signora Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, Signora Commissario, con l'adozione della direttiva sul trafficking l'Unione europea ha compiuto un passaggio fondamentale nell'ambito della cooperazione giudiziaria penale tra gli Stati membri dell'Unione europea per la lotta contro tutte le nuove schiavitù.

La disciplina definisce regole comuni sulla definizione di un reato e il livello delle sanzioni, garantisce una maggiore protezione delle vittime, soprattutto dei bambini che, a mio avviso, sono forse la categoria più vulnerabile, quella che corre maggiori rischi e che pertanto va tutelata con il rafforzamento delle sanzioni, anche per i reati commessi sul web.

Come è noto, il recepimento della direttiva dovrà avvenire nel 2013, quindi c'è ancora un anno, però voglio fare qualche domanda e chiedere a che punto sono gli Stati membri e come procede la collaborazione transfrontaliera tra le autorità di polizia, quali sono i dati raccolti in materia e anche qualche notizia sulla annunciata campagna di informazione.

Perché pongo queste domande? Perché io credo che la Commissione debba in qualche modo monitorare la situazione negli Stati membri e in qualche modo supportare gli stessi nella corretta ed efficace trasposizione della direttiva, questo perché la direttiva è sicuramente uno strumento legislativo all'avanguardia di cui dobbiamo essere fieri, ma la mia preoccupazione è che gli Stati membri possano essere un po' in ritardo rispetto all'obiettivo o comunque trovare delle difficoltà applicative, quindi a mio avviso dobbiamo seguire con responsabilità questo processo per il miglior esito del lavoro che abbiamo fatto.

 
  
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  Carmen Romero López (S&D). - Señora Presidenta, el más dramático final de todos aquellos que vienen a Europa pensando que es el paraíso es el de las mujeres que se sienten y están obligadas a pagar su trayecto con su cuerpo. Sin duda, ninguna humillación es semejante a esa y realmente es la esclavitud más dura que estamos viviendo. Es un fenómeno que no es imposible de combatir, estamos ante un fenómeno muy difícil que nos obliga a profundizar día a día los métodos para luchar contra el mismo.

Pero, de hecho, es un fenómeno que podemos abordar. Esa es nuestra responsabilidad: gracias a la Directiva que acabamos de poner en marcha y a los medios que hemos puesto en marcha —como, por ejemplo, la figura del coordinador o de la coordinadora en esta materia— podemos avanzar muy rápidamente. Necesitamos urgentemente un informe sobre las rutas, los fenómenos, las causas, de cuáles son los ...

(La Presidenta retira la palabra a la oradora)

 
  
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  Salvatore Iacolino (PPE). - Signora Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, la tratta di esseri umani è certamente un reato odioso, ma è anche un reato che ha una natura transnazionale.

L'obiettivo per sconfiggerlo è quello di una cooperazione internazionale fra Stati membri e paesi terzi con un ruolo preminente da parte delle istituzioni europee. Dobbiamo sconfiggere lo sfruttamento della prostituzione, il lavoro illegale, la microdelinquenza, ma parlare di tratta degli esseri umani senza parlare di crimine organizzato – perché molto spesso la tratta degli esseri umani è nelle mani del crimine organizzato – sarebbe come avere un approccio parziale a questo fenomeno così inquietante.

Si è costituita nei giorni scorsi la commissione CRIM, della quale io sono il relatore e non vi è dubbio che uno degli indirizzi concreti e una delle priorità politiche sarà proprio quella di valorizzare al meglio questo nostro lavoro per avere un maggior rapporto di collaborazione e di cooperazione con i paesi terzi, perché noi siamo dell'avviso che la migrazione regolare e legale vada incoraggiata, ma vada decisamente contestata e sconfitta – o almeno ci proveremo – quella illegale.

Sono pertanto necessari accordi bilaterali fra l'Unione europea e i singoli paesi terzi nella regolazione dei flussi migratori, tutela delle libertà fondamentali attraverso garanzie decise, ruolo di collaborazione delle agenzie Europol e Frontex innanzitutto, con due principi: solidarietà e responsabilità, senza i quali non si può certamente andare avanti.

Questo è l'indirizzo forte che daremo anche nella commissione CRIM e il fatto che oggi una direttiva che sta per essere recepita in tutti gli Stati membri rappresenti uno strumento essenziale del contrasto alla tratta degli esseri umani ci dà la misura di quanto un approccio europeo forte possa dare a questo inquietante e ancora dilagante fenomeno.

 
  
 

Interventions à la demande

 
  
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  Miroslav Mikolášik (PPE). - Medzinárodný organizovaný zločin ohrozuje bezpečnosť a obchodovanie s ľuďmi sa týka takmer milióna ľudí ročne, z čoho 80 % je žien. A to neberieme už do úvahy ďalších ľudí vystavených obchodovaniu v rámci jednotlivých štátov. Obchodovanie s ľuďmi, či už vo forme sexuálneho zneužívania, nútenej práce, otroctva alebo dokonca vo forme nelegálneho odoberania orgánov z tela žiaľ patrí medzi latentné formy kriminality, a veľmi vážne. Domnievam sa, že špeciálnu pozornosť si vyžaduje vypracovanie a implementácia preventívnych programov zameraných na deti a mládež z rizikových skupín. Komplexné riešenie širokospektrálnej problematiky obchodovania s ľuďmi logicky musí zahŕňať aj komplexný program návratu a integrácie obchodovaných osôb. Dámy a páni, toto je oblasť, kde musíme pomôcť najmä ženám, ktoré naletia pochybným obchodníkom, ktorí ich lákajú do inej krajiny za účelom atraktívnej práce.

 
  
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  Catherine Bearder (ALDE). - Madam President, Europe will soon be in the football spotlight, and UEFA should be commended for launching campaigns to tackle racism in the game. However, I believe that it is not doing enough to raise awareness of human trafficking. This vile trade will be fuelled in Poland and Ukraine.

The Commissioner has already told me she is concerned about trafficking for sexual exploitation at events such as football championships. UEFA suggests large football events are irrelevant when it comes to trafficking, but it wishes to remain vigilant. I am not convinced. Mega-brothels opened in host cities in the 2006 World Cup in Germany, and already strip clubs are opening near the football stadiums in Kiev. Where there is a spike in the demand for sex workers there will also be a spike in the demand for the number of women trafficked.

It is vital that UEFA makes a strong stand to clamp down on the potential for trafficking at its big tournaments. This summer is a massive year for sport in Europe, and millions of people will enjoy the games. We must all make sure that such great events are not tarnished by trafficking.

 
  
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  Ana Miranda (Verts/ALE). - Senhora Presidente, Senhora Comissária, você está muito consciente que por terra, por mar, por ar, continua o tráfico de seres humanos na Europa: mulheres, crianças, sobretudo raparigas forçadas a prostituir-se como escravas sexuais, migrantes e solicitantes de asilo, vítimas das redes criminais organizadas, um delito que vai contra a dignidade humana, que por muito tempo foi considerado como episódio isolado, mas o incremento nos últimos anos como um problema global ao que nenhum Estado europeu é alheio. Por exemplo, o Estado espanhol está nos principais destinos do tráfico de pessoas a nível mundial, hoje este drama é um problema estrutural. Por isso, é muito importante esta estratégia europeia coordenando, monitorizando as políticas públicas, as causas, mas não é suficiente pela posição dos Estados-Membros. É necessário prosseguir…

 
  
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  Andrew Henry William Brons (NI). - Madam President, whilst trafficking in human beings can be for many purposes, the dominant form is of women and girls for sexual exploitation. When this subject was discussed in the Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs about two years ago, I asked the representative from Europol whether any population groups were prominent among the traffickers and the trafficked. He answered without any qualification: the answer to both questions is the Roma. We need to examine the significance of that answer.

Of course, criminal sexual exploitation of girls does not always involve crossing international frontiers. The grooming of under-age girls for prostitution by Asian men in the United Kingdom was first brought to public attention by our chairman. The authorities responded by prosecuting him for alleged incitement. It was only when he was acquitted that the authorities were forced to start prosecuting those responsible for the grooming. International human trafficking is hindered by border checks.

(The President cut off the speaker)

 
  
 

(Fin des interventions à la demande)

 
  
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  Cecilia Malmström, Member of the Commission. − Madam President, honourable Members, Minister, I have met young women who have come to Western Europe with the aim of working in a restaurant or as an au pair, and who instead find themselves working in brothels selling sex up to fifteen times a day. I have met small children, very young children, who are forced to beg on the streets of Brussels, Paris, Stockholm and Vienna. All these people are examples of the modern slavery that exists today in Europe: a very profitable form of organised crime and unworthy of Europe today.

For the sake of all those people and many others, we must fight this crime. The directive we have been referring to is a very good tool. The Commission will make sure that it does everything to support the Member States in fully transposing and implementing it.

You asked a question on the Directive on residence permits. It is clear that not all Member States are making full use of it. We are right now studying the causes of this before taking further action, and the input and ideas of the European Parliament here are most welcome.

The upcoming strategy intends to move on from where we are with the Directive: to take a broad, consistent and coherent approach on prevention, protection and prosecution. We want to focus on training, raising awareness and providing information to key groups. We want to focus very much on the desperately-needed coordination that so many of you mentioned. We want to streamline our work on human trafficking and launch studies on, for example, demand and the root causes of trafficking in human beings. This will be a strategy for the coming five years; the aim is that it will be concrete, practical and measurable. It will be adopted later this spring or summer and presented to you as soon as possible.

I am looking forward to discussing this with you, and again I want to thank you for a very good debate and for your strong commitment to this very important cause.

 
  
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  Morten Bødskov, formand for Rådet. − Fru formand! Det har været meget interessant at følge debatten her i dag, og den har understreget, at vi har med et område at gøre, hvor det er utroligt vigtigt at forstærke indsatsen.

Det er grusomme forhold, som vi er vidne til i forbindelse med menneskehandel. Derfor vil jeg gerne benytte lejligheden til at forsikre jer om, at Rådet vil arbejde for opfølgning på direktivet, og at vi vil gøre alt, hvad der står i vores magt, for som sagt at bekæmpe det grusomme fænomen, som menneskehandel er.

Det er glædeligt, at vi er enige om, at der skal være en koordineret tilgang til bekæmpelse af menneskehandel, både på EU-niveau og i det øvrige internationale samfund. Også af den grund synes jeg, at det er værd at se frem til den strategi om bekæmpelse af menneskehandel, som Kommissionen ventes at præsentere snarligt, og at det også er værd at glæde sig over, at vi har et godt samarbejde med Parlamentet og kan se frem til nye initiativer i kampen mod menneskehandel også herfra.

Tak for en rigtig god debat, som har understreget, at menneskehandel er et uhyrligt fænomen, som vi skal forstærke indsatsen overfor.

 
  
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  La Présidente. - Le débat est clos.

Déclarations écrites (Article 149)

 
  
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  Carlos Coelho (PPE), por escrito. – O tráfico de seres humanos é a moderna forma de escravatura e a segunda atividade mais lucrativa para o crime organizado em todo o mundo, afetando milhões de pessoas. Aguardo com expectativa a estratégia que nos deverá ser apresentada, em breve, pela Comissão, proporcionando uma abordagem mais abrangente, que possa lidar de forma mais eficaz contra este tipo de criminalidade e, ao mesmo tempo, reforçar a vertente da prevenção e proteção das vítimas, com especial atenção para as crianças e outros grupos de risco.

A Diretiva aprovada em 2010 representou um passo importante ao criar normas mínimas comuns e suprindo a lacuna jurídica que existia. Cabe, agora, aos Estados-Membros procederem à sua transposição atempadamente - até abril de 2013. Considero positiva a criação de um coordenador da luta contra o tráfico da UE, que deverá contribuir para a existência de uma estratégia anti-tráfico mais coerente e coordenada, delineando orientações estratégicas gerais e diretrizes a aplicar na cooperação com países terceiros. É, igualmente, positiva quer a criação, por parte da Comissão, de um grupo de trabalho para a luta contra o tráfico, quer a criação, por parte do Conselho, de uma rede de relatórios e mecanismos equivalentes para analisar este fenómeno e recolher dados fiáveis.

 
  
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  Diane Dodds (NI), in writing. – Human trafficking is a form of modern day slavery. Not only is it a serious crime, it is also a serious violation of a person’s fundamental human rights. The reality is that the exploitation of human beings is happening in our streets, towns and cities throughout Europe. Organised crime gangs are making huge profits by trafficking people into my own constituency of Northern Ireland for labour and sexual exploitation. An organisation that campaigns for ethnic minorities has recently stated that ‘Northern Ireland has the fastest growing sex industry in any part of the UK’, with victims originating from Ghana, Zimbabwe, China and Slovakia. This statement, coupled with the fact that the first conviction for human trafficking violations in Northern Ireland took place only in February of this year, highlights the urgent need to tackle this problem head on and, in doing so, help some of the most vulnerable in society. These victims are being sentenced to a life of misery and exploitation. We need to send a strong and clear message that human beings are not commodities that can be bought and sold for profit.

 
  
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  Joanna Senyszyn (S&D), na piśmie. – Handel ludźmi – po narkotykach i broni, to trzecie pod względem opłacalności przestępstwo w Unii Europejskiej o tzw. niewielkim stopniu ryzyka. Komisja Europejska ocenia, że kilkaset tysięcy osób rocznie pada ofiarą handlu ludźmi w obrębie UE, z czego 80 proc. z nich to kobiety i dziewczęta.

Traktat lizboński wzmocnił działania UE w obszarze współpracy sądowej i policyjnej w sprawach karnych, w tym w zwalczaniu handlu ludźmi. W marcu 2011 Rada przyjęła dyrektywę ustanawiającą reguły dotyczące określania przestępstw i wysokości kar odnoszących się do handlu ludźmi. Te uregulowania są pierwszym, bezpośrednim następstwem traktatu lizbońskiego w dziedzinie materialnego prawa karnego – pierwszym aktem wspólnie uzgodnionym w tej dziedzinie przez Radę i Parlament Europejski. Celem tego aktu jest lepsze zapobieganie handlowi ludźmi oraz ochrona ofiar. Państwa członkowskie mają wprowadzić dyrektywę do ustawodawstwa krajowego do 6 kwietnia 2013 r. Konieczny jest plan działań w zakresie zwalczania handlu ludźmi podczas zbliżającego się EURO 2012. Koordynator ds. przeciwdziałania handlowi ludźmi powinien wnosić wkład w sprawozdania Komisji na temat postępów w walce z handlem ludźmi, które byłyby co dwa lata przedstawiane Radzie i Parlamentowi Europejskiemu. W centrum strategii zapobiegania i zwalczania handlu ludźmi powinny znaleźć się prawa człowieka w odniesieniu do ofiar.

 
  
  

PRESIDE: ALEJO VIDAL-QUADRAS
Vicepresidente

 
Rechtlicher Hinweis - Datenschutzbestimmungen