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Processo : 2012/2684(RSP)
Ciclo de vida em sessão
Ciclos relativos aos documentos :

Textos apresentados :

RC-B7-0304/2012

Debates :

PV 13/06/2012 - 18
CRE 13/06/2012 - 18

Votação :

PV 14/06/2012 - 11.9
CRE 14/06/2012 - 11.9
Declarações de voto
Declarações de voto

Textos aprovados :

P7_TA(2012)0261

Debates
Quarta-feira, 13 de Junho de 2012 - Estrasburgo Edição revista

18. Mutilação genital feminina (debate)
Vídeo das intervenções
PV
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  Presidente. − L'ordine del giorno reca la discussione della Commissione sulla mutilazione genitale femminile.

 
  
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  John Dalli, Member of the Commission. − Madam President, all forms of gender-based violence constitute an unacceptable violation of fundamental rights and a clear obstacle to gender equality. Female genital mutilation is one form of violence against women that is particularly unacceptable. It is degrading, it violates fundamental rights, it violates the right to health and it violates children’s rights.

An estimated three million women and girls in the world suffer female genital mutilation every year. Up to half a million women living in Europe have suffered genital mutilation already and many thousands are at risk.

Female genital mutilation can under no circumstances be justified by cultural or religious traditions and practices. It has both immediate and long-term consequences for the health of women and can cause death. The Commission is determined to take concrete action and develop a strong policy response to tackle the issue of violence against women in Europe. Female genital mutilation is of particular concern. The Commission has already said so in its Strategy for Equality between Women and Men 2010-2015.

The lack of reliable and comparable data is a huge challenge. My colleague, Vice-President Viviane Reding, has asked the European Institute for Gender Equality to assess the reliability and comparability of data available in Member States and to identify data gaps. On this basis, the Institute will report on the state of play with regard to this phenomenon, and of the replies drawn up in the Member States. We should get a report in the second half of 2012. Its results will help us to take even-better-informed action in this field.

In 2011 and 2012, the Commission has made funding available for combating harmful practices through the Daphne III Programme. Financial support will be granted for the implementation of transnational projects to grass-roots organisations working to prevent such practices by raising awareness and changing social attitudes.

Although there is no specific EU-wide legislation on female genital mutilation, it is criminalised in most EU Member States, either through specific laws or under the general criminal codes. A large majority of EU Member States have also included the principle of extraterritoriality in their criminal provisions, thus enabling prosecutions to be brought for female genital mutilation that has been committed outside the European Union.

The Commission is taking measures in the criminal justice area and has proposed legislation on the rights of victims of crime. The aim with the Victims Directive is to ensure that all victims across the European Union have a basic set of minimum rights, that they are treated as individuals and receive appropriate treatment. This instrument notably aims at ensuring that the needs of victims are individually assessed and that the most vulnerable, including victims of female genital mutilation, receive specific treatment appropriate to their needs. The Commission proposal, with changes proposed by the European Parliament, will significantly improve the situation for women as victims of violence.

The EU also addresses the issue of female genital mutilation in its external actions. It supports advocacy and lobbying initiatives for promoting and protecting women’s rights and prohibiting harmful practices. The Commission and the European External Action Service systematically raise the issue of female genital mutilation in their dialogue with African, Caribbean and Pacific countries. In this framework, we underline the need for African states to ensure that female genital mutilation is legally prohibited and that legislation prohibiting female genital mutilation is effectively enforced.

We strongly support the United Nations General Assembly’s planned resolution to ban female genital mutilation. It is crucial that the countries with the highest occurrence of female genital mutilation, in particular in Africa, take ownership of this resolution. The European External Action Service is currently preparing a campaign, under the EU human rights guidelines on violence against women and girls, to draw attention to the need to step up efforts to eradicate this practice, particularly on the African continent.

Female genital mutilation is an extreme and unacceptable practice. The Commission is determined to combat it and to help empower women inside and outside the European Union through legislation, financial programmes and a range of other means, including support to grass-roots organisations.

 
  
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  Cristiana Muscardini, a nome del gruppo PPE. – Signora Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, quella contro le mutilazioni genitali è una battaglia che continua. Politica e impegno civile devono riuscire a sconfiggere una piaga sociale che segna per tutta la vita milioni di donne e occorre che l'Unione riconosca in maniera armonica questo reato con le stesse pene e la stessa drasticità.

Un risultato, anche parziale, è stato raggiunto. Le mutilazioni sono finalmente considerate un disvalore, una forma di abuso sulle minori, una violazione dei diritti umani e una violenza di genere. Bisogna riconoscere il grande merito delle donne africane per il coraggio avuto nel credere a una battaglia che spesse volte è anche densa di pericoli e minacce. Oggi sono state aggiunte modifiche strutturali nelle culture di appartenenza per ridisegnare il ruolo delle donne. Il fenomeno però non è scomparso neppure nei paesi dell'Unione e vi sono troppe azioni clandestine che continuano le tradizioni claniche.

Le istituzioni non devono rinunciare a battersi contro questo disvalore, a sconfiggere questo reato. Per questa ragione, i punti 6, 7 e 8 della risoluzione invitano la Commissione a una serie di azioni per non lasciare tregua alla battaglia contro questa piaga. Una strategia globale per combattere la violenza contro le donne deve includere azioni comuni contro le mutilazioni, comprese quelle di informazione in particolare nei programmi di formazione per le bambine, previste tanto nei paesi dell'Unione che nei paesi terzi, come abbiamo sostenuto nella risoluzione sulla lotta alle menomazioni sessuali femminili praticate nell'Unione, votata a grande maggioranza del Parlamento nel febbraio 2009. Ricordo che ero relatrice e ricordo però purtroppo che, nonostante ciò che il Commissario ha detto oggi, ancora non si è sufficientemente attivata la nostra capacità di intervento per rendere questo reato punito in maniera uguale in tutti i 27 Stati membri.

 
  
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  Ana Gomes, em nome do Grupo S&D. – Senhora Presidente, a mutilação genital feminina é expressão hedionda das relações desiguais de poder entre géneros, uma forma de violência contra as mulheres e de violação dos direitos humanos das mulheres que não pode ser tolerada por razões culturais, religiosas ou outras. É por isso fundamental incorporar a luta contra a MGF numa abordagem geral e coerente para o combate à violência com base no género e, especificamente, contra as mulheres e na luta pelo respeito universal dos direitos humanos. Através da afetação de recursos financeiros adequados, a União Europeia, Estados-Membros e parceiros podem coordenar-se para financiar programas inovadores e divulgar as melhores práticas que atendam às necessidades das raparigas em situação de vulnerabilidade, facultando-lhes acesso fácil a esses programas e serviços. É preciso também apoiar as organizações da sociedade civil e os programas de sensibilização, mobilização e formação que levam a cabo nas comunidades de risco, na Europa e noutros continentes.

Peço, assim, à Comissão e aos Estados-Membros que sigam as recomendações desta resolução do Parlamento Europeu, para que se integrem os direitos das mulheres e a emancipação das mulheres e raparigas em toda a política externa europeia de acordo com o plano de ação 2012 sobre o género, sendo fundamental envolver autoridades nacionais, regionais e locais, assim como a sociedade civil em países terceiros.

 
  
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  Izaskun Bilbao Barandica, en nombre del Grupo ALDE. – Señora Presidenta, la lacra de la mutilación genital femenina es una de las expresiones más crudas de las desigualdades entre sexos.

En algunas culturas, los hombres son propietarios de las mujeres y mantienen esa posición sobre tres pilares: el uso de la fuerza, la posición dominante que ocupan en la sociedad y las supersticiones y los mitos.

Por eso, prevenir la mutilación genital exige combatir con formación los argumentos con que los hombres justifican esta forma de violencia contra las mujeres. Este esfuerzo debe focalizarse en las víctimas.

Todas las mujeres del mundo deben aprender que la mutilación genital es inaceptable, por pura dignidad, y los hombres deben comprender que esta aberración difunde a gritos sus inseguridades y su miedo a fracasar. Por ello, debemos actuar, señor Comisario, de una manera más firme y contundente ante este fenómeno, de forma conjunta, estableciendo una regulación europea y continuando con las ayudas a la formación y la sensibilización para su erradicación.

 
  
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  Isabelle Durant, au nom du groupe Verts/ALE. – Madame la Présidente, cette résolution que, j'espère, nous voterons demain à l'unanimité, parce qu'elle est tellement évidente, s'inscrit dans une stratégie, une stratégie d'un appel international à l'interdiction des mutilations génitales, à l'échelle des Nations unies. C'est très important que nous puissions, par notre résolution, soutenir cette stratégie internationale.

Un certain nombre de femmes se sont engagées depuis des années comme, par exemple, Mme Chantal Compaoré, qui est la première dame du Burkina faso, pour lancer cet appel à l'échelle internationale. D'autres pays européens, comme on l'a dit, ont, eux, déjà souscrit à cette interdiction depuis longtemps. Il faut donc que ce dossier puisse avancer et notre résolution peut y contribuer à l'assemblée générale des Nations unies.

Surtout, il faut que nous nous rendions compte que l'interdiction est un pas extrêmement important, politiquement, en terme de signal, mais qu'elle ne nous dispense évidemment pas de travailler de toutes les manières avec les groupes de femmes, avec les femmes qui utilisent ces pratiques – parce que ce n'est pas du tout une pratique d'hommes, c'est, hélas, une pratique de femmes –, il faut que nous puissions, en prévention, en accompagnement, soutenir des programmes.

S'il y a une interdiction généralisée, reprise par les Nations unies, il y aura, comme pour d'autres dossiers, comme pour les mines antipersonnel ou d'autres, une stratégie de suivi, d'accompagnement. C'est très important si nous voulons, à terme, éradiquer ce fléau pour toutes les femmes de la planète.

 
  
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  Marina Yannakoudakis, on behalf of the ECR Group. – Madam President, I am ashamed to say that the number of cases of female genital mutilation (FGM) reported in my constituency of London is rising and that some of these procedures are in fact taking place in London itself. So I am glad we are having this debate today, because FGM is carried out on women who live here in Europe. FGM is illegal in the UK and the law extends to protect citizens even if they are taken abroad for this procedure.

All Member States must take firm action to combat this illegal practice. We need to ensure that Europe is doing all it can to safeguard girls and women, thus setting an example to the developing world.

FGM is barbaric. It is fundamentally a violation of the rights of women and girls. It is currently a taboo subject, so I hope that by talking about it openly we will raise awareness and work towards putting a stop to this terrible practice.

 
  
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  Mikael Gustafsson, för GUE/NGL-gruppen. – Fru talman! Jag är väldigt glad att vi, precis som min kollega sa, i morgon kommer att anta en gemensam resolution som ger ett uttalat stöd till FN:s arbete mot kvinnlig könsstympning och som fastlägger att det här är en fullständigt oacceptabel form av våld mot kvinnor.

Jag vill lyfta fram att kampen mot kvinnlig könsstympning, både i Europa och globalt, måste gå hand i hand med ett utökat arbete för en ökad jämställdhet mellan kvinnor och män på alla plan i samhället. Det handlar också om att stärka kvinnors sexuella och reproduktiva rättigheter och kvinnors rätt att bestämma över sin egen kropp och sin egen sexualitet.

I Europa ska vi vara noga med att inte peka ut vissa kulturer eller grupper utan i stället arbeta med att stärka flickors och kvinnors ställning inom hela samhället, både i majoritets- och minoritetsgrupper. Men riktade insatser mot kvinnlig könsstympning är också nödvändiga, i samarbete med kvinnoorganisationer och andra nyckelaktörer.

Jag vill slutligen understryka att vi i denna resolution tydligt och än en gång ber kommissionen att lägga fram ett förslag om en EU-strategi mot våld mot kvinnor, för med en sådan sammanhållen strategi är det möjligt att effektivt och med kraft vidta EU-åtgärder för att bekämpa kvinnlig könsstympning i Europa.

 
  
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  Barbara Matera (PPE). - Signora Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, esprimo con fermezza e convinzione il mio voto favorevole alla risoluzione del Parlamento europeo per contrastare la brutale pratica delle mutilazioni genitali femminili. Combattere questa pratica disumana significa non solo opporsi a un trattamento barbaro che colpisce 140 milioni di donne, e di queste 500 mila in Europa, ma anche lottare contro le pesanti discriminazioni a cui continua ad essere sottoposto il genere femminile.

Le mutilazioni genitali femminili generano delle conseguenze irreversibili per la salute fisica e mentale della donna. Infezioni, pericolo di contagio di AIDS, compromissione delle future gravidanze e conseguenze sulle nascite sono solo alcuni dei risultati di questo violento sopruso che viene realizzato attraverso strumenti rudimentali e non sterilizzati. Inoltre, se si considera che è una pratica che viene perpetrata su bambine di età inferiore ai 15 anni, bisogna ritenerla una vera e propria violazione della Convenzione ONU sui diritti dei bambini.

Concludo dicendo che è necessario un riconoscimento da parte della Commissione europea di questo reato per poter destinare risorse finanziarie volte a contrastare questo fenomeno ed è necessario l'appoggio di tutta la società civile. In questo modo, gli Stati membri potranno esprimere la loro azione congiunta e coerente contro le continue violenze contro le donne nel mondo.

 
  
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  Véronique De Keyser (S&D). - Madame la Présidente, je voudrais d'abord rendre hommage à toutes les jeunes filles, à toutes les femmes mutilées, qui ont osé témoigner de leur souffrance.

Il est important qu'on sache ce que sont vraiment les mutilations génitales. On pense toujours à l'excision du clitoris, mais il y a aussi l'infibulation. Laissez-moi vous dire: les grandes lèvres du sexe sont elles aussi retirées, la vulve est suturée avec du fil à coudre ou avec des épines d'acacia jusqu'à ce que la cicatrisation ait lieu en recouvrant le vagin et l'urètre.

Pour permettre l'évacuation de l'urine, des saignements menstruels et des sécrétions vaginales, une petite tige de roseau est introduite lors de la suture. Elle laissera un minuscule orifice à la cicatrisation. Et selon un témoignage, le pire ce sont les saignements et le fait d'uriner. Pour uriner, il faut une heure, parfois deux. Plus tard, quand ces jeunes filles auront leurs règles, elles devront introduire un petit bâton dans le vagin pour libérer un passage qui permettra d'évacuer le sang. Les fillettes s'accroupissent et contractent la vessie pour uriner. Elles se roulent sur le sol et c'est très douloureux.

J'ai rencontré des gynécologues à Bruxelles qui ont découvert des femmes en train d'accoucher alors qu'elles étaient infibulées et que le mari ne voulait qu'on permette d'enlever l'infibulation. Cela, c'est chez nous.

Cette propriété des hommes sur leur femme, et plus précisément sur leur sexe, n'est pas musulmane. C'est une coutume millénaire qui répond aussi, dans notre tradition chrétienne, à la ceinture de chasteté dont les croisés ceignaient leurs épouses avant de partir délivrer Jérusalem aux mains des infidèles.

Mais c'est encore et toujours, des siècles plus tard, le même combat des femmes pour leur liberté. Et, encore aujourd'hui, le même obscurantisme religieux dans des systèmes patriarcaux cruels pérennise, devant nos yeux, ces formes de torture sur lesquelles il faut lever tous les tabous et je remercie la Commission de se saisir de cette question.

 
  
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  Cecilia Wikström (ALDE). - Fru talman! Kvinnlig könsstympning är någonting så fasansfullt så man nästan saknar ord. Uppemot 3 miljoner kvinnor utsätts varje år. Det är över 8 000 kvinnor om dagen, 240 kvinnor varje timme eller 5 kvinnor denna minut som jag har till mitt förfogande för detta anförande.

Det är svårt att föreställa sig smärtan i detta. Statistiken är oerhört dyster. 180 000 flickor i Europa befinner sig enligt uppgift i riskzonen för att utsättas för detta barbari. Nu är det hög tid att världen verkar för ett globalt förbud mot kvinnlig könsstympning. Detta borde vara den gemensamma utrikespolitikens prioritering nummer ett inom området för mänskliga rättigheter. Det är också målet med denna resolution. Många av oss som skrivit under resolutionen var med i The Vagina Monologues som sattes upp här i Europaparlamentet tidigare i vår. Detta är ytterligare ett bevis för hur bekämpandet av detta övergrepp når över partigränser, över länder och bortom ideologier. Det är nu tid att sätta stopp för barbariet.

 
  
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  Nicole Kiil-Nielsen (Verts/ALE). - Madame la Présidente, permettez-moi de vous parler de mon expérience personnelle sur ce sujet.

Dans le cadre de la coopération décentralisée, j'ai eu l'occasion de travailler avec des associations en Afrique et de me confronter à la réalité des mutilations génitales féminines dont vient de parler Mme De Keyser.

Notre résolution insiste sur l'importance de s'appuyer sur les autorités locales et les ONG. La prise en compte des réalités de terrain est en effet un point essentiel dans le combat contre ces pratiques. Par exemple, dans tout programme de lutte contre les mutilations génitales féminines, il faut avoir à l'esprit que, pour les femmes qui les pratiquent, il s'agit d'une activité professionnelle. C'est parfois leur unique source de revenu et je sais, par expérience, que ces femmes sont, pour bon nombre d'entre elles, tout à fait prêtes à abandonner la pratique si on leur propose une réinsertion professionnelle.

Je tenais à vous faire part de ce témoignage qui correspond à mon expérience.

Par ailleurs, j'aimerais insister sur la valeur exemplaire des délégations que nous envoyons dans les pays tiers et qui doivent être paritaires car c'est la meilleure façon de porter la cause de l'égalité femmes-hommes.

 
  
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  Emma McClarkin (ECR). - Madam President, as a young woman I read with horror the story of Waris Dirie and her experience of female genital mutilation. It was not an issue that I had heard of before and it brought me to tears. Her bravery in surviving her experiences and speaking out against this brutality against women deserves all of our admiration, and also highlights the plight of millions of women throughout the world who have suffered this horrific practice.

Sadly, female genital mutilation is not a practice unknown to the UK, where it is reported that some 100 000 women undergo this brutal mutilation illegally, with some victims even as young as ten. It is right that we in this Parliament speak out for all the victims of this barbaric procedure that affects its victims not only physically, but mentally, for the rest of their lives. We must continue to raise this problem and the unspoken suffering, which not only infringes on human rights, but also violates the rights of the child. We need to do all we can to eradicate this brutal practice from the UK, Europe, and beyond, to protect young children and women from this heinous crime.

 
  
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  Sirpa Pietikäinen (PPE). - Madam President, women’s rights are human rights and they have to be respected in all fields of life, with legal protection and certainty.

They are not subject to personal beliefs, or to whether one wants to respect them or not. They are universal. They belong to all women, every woman and every child.

And they are not subject to the subsidiarity principle. It is not up to Member States or some countries to decide how they treat half of their population.

One of the most brutal crimes of hatred against women is genital mutilation. It touches the whole core of gender and sex, of being a woman.

It touches also girls: underage girls and children. It mutilates, it denies their opinion, it denies their untouched bodies and it denies their sexual existence.

Women and girls have a right to independence. They have a right to their own opinions. They have a right to decide over their own bodies and over their own minds and over their choices of life, whatever their preferences and whatever they might be.

The European Union’s institutions have to act – the Commission, Parliament – and especially the Member States, both internally in the EU and at multilateral level, in the UN General Assembly, to adopt a resolution at its 67th session with a view to ending female genital mutilation worldwide, because we have moved beyond this.

 
  
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  Sylvie Guillaume (S&D). - Madame la Présidente, avec mes collègues, je veux m'associer à l'expression d'une voix forte pour contribuer à mettre fin à ces tortures que sont les mutilations génitales.

Les discussions qui auront lieu dans le cadre de l'ONU ne doivent cependant pas nous faire oublier ce qui se passe dans nos États membres et nous devons les rappeler à leurs obligations. C'est ainsi que je m'attacherai à un aspect particulier, complémentaire à ceux qui ont été abordés par mes collègues. On estime que 500 000 femmes et filles vivant en Europe souffrent à vie des conséquences des mutilations génitales et que 180 000 d'entre elles sont à risque chaque année.

Les mutilations génitales sont reconnues comme des persécutions liées à l'âge et au sexe et, sur la base des développements jurisprudentiels récents, il est établi qu'une fille ou qu'une femme demandant l'asile parce qu'elle a subi ou est susceptible de subir une mutilation génitale peut être éligible au statut de réfugiée en vertu de la convention de 1951.

Or, certains États membres européens ont parfois une interprétation disons restrictive des motifs de demande d'asile. Les États membres doivent pourtant assumer leurs responsabilités, car il n'est pas acceptable de maintenir une fragmentation dans les approches suivies par les uns et les autres. Nous devons tous nous retrouver dans ce combat pour empêcher ces actes de cruauté, pour empêcher qu'ils restent impunis et pour protéger enfin au mieux les victimes.

 
  
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  Teresa Jiménez-Becerril Barrio (PPE). - Señora Presidenta, desde que entré en este Parlamento no he dejado de denunciar la mutilación genital femenina. Ese crimen silencioso y aceptado que sufren millones de mujeres y niñas en el mundo: 70 millones, repito, 70 millones. Una cifra insoportable para quien se para a estudiar las terribles consecuencias de estas prácticas, que se esconden bajo el disfraz de razones psicológicas, de salud, religiosas, todas ellas falsas. La verdad es que la ablación, practicada preferentemente a niñas de 14 años e incluso de un año, puede acarrear la muerte por colapso hemorrágico y, en el mejor de los casos, causar y traer fuertes secuelas psicológicas debido al trauma.

Desde Europa debemos luchar con todas nuestras fuerzas por erradicar esta violación de los derechos humanos, que vulnera el derecho a la igualdad de oportunidades y pone en peligro la salud.

Se trata, señorías, de maltrato, de crueldad, de tortura contra las niñas, y ese trato denigrante existe también en Europa. Para ello, debemos activar todos los mecanismos de prevención de que dispone nuestro sistema jurídico y animo a nuestros jueces a actuar para evitar la mutilación genital de niñas en Europa, castigando a quienes la realicen: que la ley en Europa hable con una sola voz a la hora de combatir la mutilación en nuestro suelo.

Finalmente, pido a la sociedad civil y a las ONG que se impliquen activamente en campañas de educación y prevención. Hace falta recorrer todavía mucho camino, pero somos muchos los que no vamos a parar porque se lo debemos a 70 millones de mujeres mutiladas.

 
  
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  Michael Cashman (S&D). - Madam President, I wish to associate myself with what has been said already. Female genital mutilation is an internationally recognised abuse of human rights, child rights and women’s rights, but it can only be addressed if we recognise the holistic rights of women. Those include sexual health and reproductive rights, the right of a woman to decide what to do with her own body.

I too have witnessed the physical effects on women who have been forced to undergo genital mutilation and it is abhorrent. It is barbaric, it is indefensible. No culture, no religion can defend this practice and I am pleased that the UN General Assembly will consider this vitally important subject at its 67th session.

I am also pleased that the Africa Group will be leading on this, but this is not only happening in Africa and on other continents, it is also happening here, as was said earlier, in Europe.

Some 500 000 women are living with the effects of female genital mutilation and 180 000 are still at risk. Think of that: 180 000 at risk. Women and young girls. It shames us all.

(Applause)

 
  
 

Procedura "catch the eye"

 
  
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  Eija-Riitta Korhola (PPE). - Arvoisa puhemies, saimme hyviä uutisia viime vuonna. YK:n kampanja naisten ja tyttöjen silpomista vastaan on saanut yli 6000 yhteisöä luopumaan silpomisesta.

Luvut ovat yhä edelleen kauheita, esimerkiksi Egyptissä tehtiin aikaisemmin ympärileikkaus 97 prosentille tytöistä ja edelleen luku on noin 72–91 prosenttia eri lähteistä riippuen, vaikka maan viranomaiset ovatkin yrittäneet kieltää toimintaa 90-luvun lopulta lähtien, tosin jättäen tulkinnan varaan operaatiot terveydellisistä syistä.

Etenkin Egyptin eteläosissa ongelma on valtava. Meidän on muistettava, että tapaa toteutetaan niin kristityissä, islamilaisissa kuin animistisissakin yhteisöissä ympäri Afrikkaa ja läntistä Aasiaa. Silpomisen estäminen vaatii kokonaisvaltaista yhteiskunnallista muutosta, ja EU:n on jatkettava silpomista vastaan taistelevien toimijoiden tukemista.

On tärkeää perustaa tukiryhmä uhrien tukemiseksi mutta erityisesti jatkaa kampanjointia silpomisen ennaltaehkäisemiseksi. Silpominen on rikos naista ja tyttöä kohtaan, se on törkeä pahoinpitely.

 
  
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  Karin Kadenbach (S&D). - Frau Präsidentin! Als im Jahr 1998 die „Wüstenblume“ erschien, war meine älteste Tochter 14 Jahre alt, und als ich das Buch gelesen habe, in dem Waris Dirie beschrieben hat, was ihr widerfahren ist, habe ich gedacht, dass das etwas ist, was in Wirklichkeit im Mittelalter passiert ist. Ich konnte nicht glauben, dass das in der Gegenwart passiert.

Was ich noch immer nicht glauben kann, ist, dass es mitten unter uns passiert und dass es 500 000 Frauen in Europa betrifft. Heute, 14 Jahre später, ist meine jüngste Tochter 14 Jahre alt, und ich bin froh, dass ihr diese barbarischen Praktiken erspart bleiben. Ich glaube, wir sind jetzt, wo wir wissen, was vorgeht, ganz besonders aufgerufen, hier aufzuklären. Aufzuklären, dass es nicht um religiöse Praktiken geht, sondern dass es in Wirklichkeit schwerste Verletzungen der Menschenrechte sind. Wir müssen hier eine absolute Nulltoleranz walten lassen, es geht um gesundheitliche, um psychische Belastungen dieser Frauen. Ein Auftrag, den wir heute mitnehmen müssen, ist, die Stigmatisierung dieser betroffenen Frauen zu bekämpfen. Denn nur, wenn die Opfer sprechen, haben wir eine Chance, dass dieser barbarischen Praxis ein Ende gesetzt wird.

 
  
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  Marc Tarabella (S&D). - Madame la Présidente, Monsieur le Commissaire, chers collègues, encore trop de petites filles et de femmes sont victimes de nos jours de mutilations génitales. Ce nombre est actuellement estimé à 140 millions de par le monde et environ 3 millions de filles risquent encore, tous les ans, d'être victimes de ces mutilations.

Ces mutilations, qui sont généralement effectuées sur des enfants et des adolescentes de quatre à quatorze ans, sont également pratiquées dans certains pays africains sur des nourrissons de moins d'un an.

Il est grand temps que les droits fondamentaux des femmes, tout comme ceux des enfants soient respectés dans tous les pays du monde et pas seulement en Europe, où nous sommes plus particulièrement concernés et où – comme l'a dit Michael Cashman, avant moi – environ 500 000 femmes ont subi ces mutilations. Il y va de la santé physique mais également mentale de toutes ces personnes atteintes dans leur dignité.

Aucune raison invoquée par les mutilateurs ne peut justifier une telle barbarie envers les femmes. Cela les prive de leur droit fondamental à disposer de leur corps.

Enfin, l'Europe doit, par conséquent, mettre tout en œuvre afin d'aider l'ensemble des pays à lutter contre cette forme de maltraitance et, en particulier, soutenir les efforts des associations qui luttent contre ces pratiques, dont ont parlé avant moi les collègues Nicole Kiil-Nielsen et Jiménez-Becerril Barrio.

 
  
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  Evelyn Regner (S&D). - Frau Präsidentin, sehr geehrter Herr Kommissar! Die Zahlen sind erschreckend, und man kann sich überhaupt nicht vorstellen, dass 155 Millionen Frauen weltweit von genitaler Verstümmelung betroffen sind. Wir in der Europäischen Union müssen Sorge dafür tragen, dass ein Bewusstsein dafür geschaffen wird, das das Ende dieser Praktiken herbeiführt. Insbesondere müssen wir uns dafür einsetzen, dass in Drittländern die weibliche Genitalverstümmelung verboten wird und ein Bewusstsein dafür geschaffen wird, wie menschenunwürdig diese Praktiken sind.

Wichtig ist es, dass die Opfer psychologische und ausreichende medizinische Betreuung bekommen und schließlich – das ist mir ganz besonders wichtig – darauf hinzuweisen, dass Eltern, die das ihren Kindern antun, abschreckende Haftstrafen bekommen.

 
  
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  Emer Costello (S&D). - Madam President, female genital mutilation (FGM) is a dangerous and degrading practice. It violates women’s human rights, their right to sexual and reproductive health and their dignity.

Many of the women who have suffered FGM end up being scarred both emotionally and physically.

In Ireland, we passed legislation recently, just in April, outlawing FGM. This legislation also makes it illegal to aid or abet the procurement of FGM, even outside of Ireland, so nobody can be taken outside of that country.

The campaign to enact legislation in Ireland was very much spearheaded by a young Somali woman who led a group of young women called ‘The United Youth of Ireland’ which organised fashion shows and awareness-raising programmes throughout Ireland.

In addition, the ‘End FGM European Campaign’, which is led by Amnesty in Ireland, has called for data collection, the training of health workers – which is really important, particularly in maternity hospitals – educational activities, training of police forces and training of the judiciary.

I hope that the transnational projects that have been referred to may be able to fund some of these projects into the future.

The Commissioner mentioned the directive relating to the victims of crime. I would just like to ask him whether that directive will actually contain a specific reference to the victims of FGM, because I believe that is very important.

Finally, I very much welcome the fact, Commissioner, that you have stated that the EEAS will be raising this in external countries as well as I believe that this is a very welcome development.

 
  
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  Oreste Rossi (EFD). - Signora Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, dal 2010, quando la Commissione europea aveva promesso di adottare una strategia sulla violenza contro le donne, comprese le mutilazioni genitali femminili, non vi è stato alcun tentativo coerente e strutturato di affrontare questo crimine.

Si stima che 500 mila donne e bambine residenti in Europa le abbiano subite e che oltre 180 mila siano a rischio ogni anno. Le conseguenze vanno dallo shock emorragico a quello neurogenico e le mutilazioni vengono praticate principalmente su bambine tra i 4 e i 14 anni di età, anche se in Eritrea, nel Mali e nello Yemen è comune che vengano praticate sulle neonate. Spesso le mutilazioni fatte in condizioni di scarsa igiene provocano ascessi, cisti e infezioni, e a volte anche la morte.

L'UNICEF considera le mutilazioni genitali femminili come una violazione dei diritti della donna. Io credo che si debbano invece ritenere crimini contro l'umanità e quindi, conseguentemente, chiedo che l'Unione europea proceda con ogni mezzo nei confronti di quei paesi che le accettano o le tollerano.

 
  
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  Nicole Sinclaire (NI). - Madam President, while I am opposed to this institution, I welcome any forum to discuss an issue that is so repugnant.

Worldwide, it is estimated that well over 120 million women will be subjected to female genital mutilation. The aim of the process is to ensure that the woman is faithful to her future husband. Some communities consider girls ineligible for marriage if they have not been circumcised.

How can you use religion and cultural tradition to excuse child abuse? It has been reported that girls as young as three undergo this process.

Member States must tackle, and take a lead in combating, this despicable crime. Where the crime takes place in a Member State, strong custodial sentences must be passed. When aid is provided to countries where this is prevalent, conditions must be put in place to send a clear message that this practice must stop.

Thankfully, due to health campaigns, female circumcision has been falling in some countries in the last decade. These involve a week-long programme of community education about the negative effects of female genital mutilation, culminating in a coming of age ceremony for young women. The young women are secluded for a week and undergo classes on reproduction, anatomy, hygiene, respect for adults, developing self-esteem and dealing with peer pressure.

All of us here must do whatever we can to stop this barbarism.

 
  
 

(Fine della procedura "catch the eye")

 
  
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  John Dalli, Member of the Commission. − Madam President, thank you for this discussion. In the 21st century, millions of young women are still subjected to genital mutilation every year. They risk death and, if they survive their injury, they face the prospect of disability and very risky childbirths.

The EU will continue to campaign for the rights and empowerment of women in all contexts through fighting gender-based violence and supporting relevant initiatives against harmful traditional practices, in particular female genital mutilation (FGM). By the end of July, the Foreign Affairs Council is expected to adopt the EU Action Plan for Human Rights and Democracy and the EU Strategic Framework on Human Rights and Democracy, where FGM is one of the priorities.

The Commission has been able to finance a number of important civil society-driven projects in the poorest countries. About EUR 55 million have been allocated to projects on maternal health and projects addressing youth and their special health problems and needs.

I believe my colleagues Cathy Ashton and Viviane Reding will both work with honourable Members in raising awareness about female genital mutilation.

 
  
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  Presidente. − Comunico di aver ricevuto tre proposte di risoluzione(1) conformemente all'articolo 110, paragrafo 2, del regolamento.

La discussione è chiusa.

La votazione si svolgerà giovedì 14 giugno 2012.

Dichiarazioni scritte (articolo 149)

 
  
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  Edite Estrela (S&D), por escrito. A violência contra as mulheres, de que a mutilação genital é um exemplo, é uma realidade e representa uma grave violação dos direitos humanos. As estatísticas revelam que a maior parte das mulheres irá experimentar alguma forma de violência durante a vida. É necessário reforçar a legislação comunitária, desejavelmente através de uma diretiva, para que todos os Estados-Membros da UE considerem este tipo de violência como crime público. A legislação nacional deve contemplar medidas de apoio judicial, de encaminhamento social e laboral e de acesso aos cuidados de saúde. Só conhecendo bem a realidade europeia se pode combater eficazmente este flagelo. Para isso, é indispensável a criação de um observatório sobre violência doméstica. O conhecimento do problema é essencial, para que se possam adotar as melhores estratégias de prevenção e intervenção, de proteção das vítimas e de penalização dos agressores. A prevenção é essencial. Eliminar estereótipos e mitos, alterar as representações de género e os valores que têm perpetuado a existência de relações desiguais no meio familiar, escolar e social, são os principais desafios. As ações de sensibilização e a mobilização da sociedade civil surgem como uma estratégia fulcral para alterar práticas e comportamentos.

 
  
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  Lívia Járóka (PPE), írásban. Genital mutilation if one of the most grievous and harmful forms of gender-based violence affecting more than 140 million women globally and an unacceptably high number of 500 000 women in Europe, with an estimated 180 000 girls being at the risk of this destructive practice. Intentionally damaging female genitals for non-medical reasons – performed with primitive tools and without antiseptic precaution - is an obvious violation of fundamental rights and since it mostly affects girls younger than 15, a violation of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. No religious, cultural or traditional convention may justify its serious adverse consequences on girls’ mental and physical integrity, including the irreparable damage of affected organs, painful sexual intercourse and childbirth, infection, shock, the transmission of HIV, tumours and complications after pregnancy and childbirth. Effective sanctions need to be introduced against perpetrators, enabling law enforcement officials to mobilize all available instruments for combating this practice. Taking into consideration the nature of genital mutilation, the close cooperation of national authorities and institutions with civil society, women’s rights organizations, and representatives of affected communities - such as religious and community leaders – is essential for eradicating this form of violence against women.

 
  
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  Filip Kaczmarek (PPE), na piśmie. Szanowni Państwo! Okaleczanie żeńskich narządów płciowych to straszna tradycja. Nie wszystko, co wynika z tradycji poszczególnych kultur jest dobre. Ból i cierpienie nie mogą być dobre. Szanujemy różnorodność i odmienność. Jednak są takie obszary, wyznaczone przez europejskie wartości, które zmuszają nas do stanowczego protestu i przeciwdziałania. Nie zgadzamy się na okaleczanie kobiet. Uznajemy te praktyki za szkodliwe, niebezpieczne dla zdrowia i życia oraz okrutne. Będziemy robić wszytko, co możliwe, by zjawisko to ograniczyć, a w przyszłości w ogóle wyeliminować. Nie chcemy, by dziewczęta cierpiały z powodów, których w żaden sposób nie można uznać za uzasadnione.

 
  

(1)Vedasi processo verbale.

Aviso legal - Política de privacidade