Menetlus : 2012/2844(RSP)
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PV 26/10/2012 - 4.3
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PV 26/10/2012 - 6.3

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Reede, 26. oktoober 2012 - Strasbourg Uuendatud versioon

4.3. Olukord Kambodžas
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  El Presidente. − El punto siguiente es el debate sobre seis propuestas de resolución relativas a la situación en Camboya.


  Ana Gomes, author. − Mr President, the problem of land grabbing in the developing world is clearly illustrated in Cambodia, where about 400 000 people have been displaced and dispossessed of their land and homes by local and national authorities and corporate businesses. This policy, which was not properly addressed in the last review of the Land Concession Law, prevents national reconciliation and lasting stability, increases inequality, harms sustainable development and calls into question the legitimacy of the government. The situation is only made worse by the use of excessive force against activists and protesters, for which no one is held accountable.

Thus, we urge the Cambodian Government to cease forced evictions and put in place a transparent and accountable legal framework in cooperation with civil society and in compliance with international standards, namely granting those evicted compensation and adequate accommodation.

Finally, I urge the High Representative and the Commission to closely monitor European companies’ activities in Cambodia and ensure that they are not compliant with these abuses.


  Cristian Dan Preda, Autor. − Regret, la rândul meu, situaţia din Cambodgia. Aşa cum se ştie, patru militanţi ai drepturilor omului au fost acuzaţi de crime împotriva statului. La 1 octombrie 2012 au fost condamnaţi de Tribunalul Municipal din Phnom Penh. E vorba de o staţie de radio, care e acuzată de a unelti împotriva statului, deşi nu face altceva decât să difuzeze şi opinii critice la adresa guvernului. Numai că – iarăşi, cum probabil se ştie – în Cambodgia undele sunt controlate de guvern sau raliate guvernului. Asta e o situaţie alarmantă, mai ales în perspectiva alegerilor parlamentare de la anul, din 2013.

Cer, de altfel, Comisiei să facă diligenţele necesare pentru a trimite o misiune de observare electorală. De altfel, cea precedentă a făcut observaţii numeroase de ameliorare a sistemului. Cred că e bine să facem o analiză a felului în care aceste observaţii au fost puse în operă.


  Charles Tannock, author. − Mr President, Cambodia has come a long way from the murderous tyranny of the Khmer Rouge and the Killing Fields, but recent events demonstrate there is still much work to be done.

This House has been particularly alarmed by the deaths of political prisoners at the hands of security forces recently, the eviction and dispossession of hundreds of thousands of people by way of the economic land commission policy, the lack of electoral transparency and the intimidation of opposition activists.

In the ECR Group, we wholeheartedly endorse the EU’s efforts to promote democracy and respect for fundamental human rights in Cambodia, so that its people are able to protest without fear, vote as they choose and live in stable communities unthreatened by the prospect of forcible removal.


  Jiří Maštálka, autor. − Chtěl bych vyjádřit svoji podporu těm doporučením naší skupiny GUE/NGL, která naznačují komplexní chápání lidských práv v neoddělitelné spojitosti se sociálními a politickými právy.

Podle dostupných zdrojů OSN je z hlediska Indexu lidského rozvoje (Human Development Index), který započítává vedle ekonomických dat i školství a zdravotnictví, Kambodža na 139. místě ve světě, zatímco například Belgie na 18. místě. HDP per capita činí v Kambodži přibližne 1,7 tisíc dolarů, v Belgii je to 33 tisíc dolarů. V Kambodži umírá do pěti let po svém narození 88 dětí, v Belgii je to 5 dětí. A tak bych mohl pokračovat.

Kladu si otázku, co praktického udělal Evropský parlament pro to, aby se podmínky pro neoddělitelné dodržování práv na důstojný život, svobodu a úsilí o štěstí v Kambodži zlepšily? Obávám se, že politické rezoluce v daném případě nestačí.


  Barbara Lochbihler, Verfasserin. − Herr Präsident! Die Politik der Landverteilung in Kambodscha ist von Ungerechtigkeit und Willkür geprägt. In den letzten zehn Jahren haben dabei mindestens 400 000 Menschen das Land, auf dem sie leben, verloren oder sind von dort vertrieben worden. Premierminister Hun Sen hat in diesem Jahr angekündigt, diese ungerechte Landverteilung zu ändern, doch es fehlt das Vertrauen in die Regierung, dass sie auch entsprechend handelt. Es gibt schon neue Missbrauchsfälle, und die alten, problematischen Enteignungsfälle laufen weiter.

Wir fordern die Regierung Kambodschas auf, diese ungerechte Landverteilungspraxis aufzuheben und insbesondere die Vergabe von Land an die über 200 Unternehmen zu überprüfen und gegebenenfalls zurückzunehmen. Wer von seinem Land vertrieben wird oder seine Lebensgrundlagen verliert, der kämpft für sein Recht und wird deshalb verfolgt. Wir fordern die sofortige Freilassung aller Landrechtsaktivisten in Kambodscha!

Auch agroindustrielle Betriebe, die von dieser zutiefst ungerechten Landvergabepolitik profitiert haben, verkaufen ihre Güter in die EU. Hier ist die Kommission dringend gefordert, alle Menschenrechtsverletzungen, die damit in Verbindung stehen, unabhängig zu untersuchen und darauf zu reagieren.


  Graham Watson, author. − Mr President, Prime Minister Hun Sen has been in power in Cambodia for 27 years. He presides over a government which is authoritarian and corrupt and, as I found when I visited the country, a people which lives in fear of arbitrary government action. Though there has been some improvement – largely due to the efforts led by the European Union – the judiciary is not independent, elections are not free and fair, and just this week the Prime Minister welcomed the threats by the two main opposition parties to boycott next year’s elections. Yet any victory by his party in the event of a boycott would be as meaningless as Mr Lukashenko’s victory in Belarus last month.

Unless the conditions exist for the opposition to play a full and fair role in the elections, no international support should be provided for those elections. I welcome Baroness Ashton’s statement of concern for the situation of Mom Sonando of the Association of Democrats and his colleagues, who were convicted last month. I hope the Commission and Council will keep up pressure for the security and the welfare of opposition leader Sam Rainsy.


  Tunne Kelam, on behalf of the PPE Group. – Mr President, Cambodia has made some progress towards democracy, but we are concerned about citizens who have been standing up for human rights and are treated by the authorities as having committed anti-state crimes. Just 25 days ago, four human rights defenders were sentenced to jail by a Phnom Penh Court.

The second item of concern is the government’s handling of land concession policies. This is an internal problem, of course. However, the fact that over the past decade almost half a million people have been displaced and dispossessed of their homes and land has not only led to violent clashes but also to deepening poverty. I ask the Cambodian authorities to stop politically-motivated harassment of the opposition and civil rights activists, and we urge Cambodia to reform its election system – to bring it into harmony with international standards and the UN recommendations – and, finally, to enforce a moratorium on forced evictions of landowners.


  Josef Weidenholzer, im Namen der S&D-Fraktion. – Herr Präsident! Im heurigen Sommer habe ich mich auf Einladung der Khmer Anti-Poverty Party in Kambodscha aufgehalten. Ich konnte mich persönlich davon überzeugen, wie sehr die gesellschaftliche Ungleichheit und die grassierende Korruption zu Armut und Verelendung beitragen und die immer noch nicht aufgearbeitete Vergangenheit auf den Seelen der Menschen lastet. Kambodscha, das so etwas wie eine verlängerte Werkbank unserer westlichen Konsumgesellschaft darstellt, verdient unsere Aufmerksamkeit und unsere besondere Solidarität.

Nur wenn demokratische Verhältnisse und der Rechtsstaat wiederhergestellt sind, hat das Land eine Perspektive. Ich konnte selbst in Augenschein nehmen, wie sehr politische Initiativen administrativ behindert werden, die Rede- und Versammlungsfreiheit faktisch nicht existiert und jedwede politische Aktivität mit großen persönlichen Gefahren verbunden ist. Die kommenden Wahlen, die von Europa genau beobachtet werden müssen, können nur dann als demokratisch anerkannt werden, wenn bereits vor den Wahlen ein Mindestmaß an Rede- und Versammlungsfreiheit existiert. Nur so haben die Bewerber um politische Ämter faire Chancen.


  Niccolò Rinaldi, a nome del gruppo ALDE. – Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, signor Commissario, la lista dei drammi della Cambogia è lunghissima: crimini contro l'ambiente, corruzione stratosferica, spreco degli aiuti internazionali, aggressione degli attivisti per i diritti umani, e un dittatore molto furbo, che gioca con la democrazia per darsi una parvenza di legittimità e che è sempre lì. Oggi abbiamo anche il problema del capo dell'opposizione parlamentare che è bandito dalla Cambogia.

Credo che ci sia però anche un'altra disdetta in questo paese, che è una comunità internazionale troppo compiacente, e a volte, devo dire, anche l'Unione europea. Accompagnando Graham Watson, nella delegazione che abbiamo avuto in Cambogia, abbiamo constatato un atteggiamento non abbastanza fermo, non abbastanza energico da parte della stessa Commissione. C'è un'energia che abbiamo nel Parlamento coi vari dibattiti sulla Cambogia che vorrei ritrovare anche nelle altre istituzioni.

Tra i paletti per la cooperazione europea, credo sia importante riflettere sul caso di Sam Rainsy, che tra l'altro ha vinto ad opera del Partito popolare europeo un importante premio per i diritti umani qui in questa istituzione. Forse è la prova del nove, cercare di avere il suo ritorno prima delle elezioni.


  Julie Girling, on behalf of the ECR Group. – Mr President, the human rights situation in Cambodia has continued to deteriorate in 2012. Violations of land and housing rights are still common, along with intimidation and criminalisation of human rights defenders and political activists. The cases of Mom Sonando and Chut Wutty and others are all worrying examples of the human rights situation. There has been increased granting of agro-industrial concessions to private companies. In addition to the gross violation of the right to adequate housing, agro-industry-induced displacement in Cambodia has led to widespread violations of numerous human rights and freedoms, such as forced eviction, reduced access to farming and grazing lands and the destruction of the forests which people depend upon for their livelihoods.

The proper development of Cambodia’s land and natural resources could have a positive impact on the lives of its people if undertaken in a sustainable and equitable manner and within the framework of the human rights obligations of the government. I urge the government of Cambodia to protect the fundamental right of all persons to hold and freely express their opinions in a peaceful manner, particularly with regard to elections.


  Eduard Kukan (PPE). - Mr President, the latest intimidation of human rights defenders and the interests of big investors and the ruling political is taking over human rights and political freedoms in Cambodia.

Recently a prominent critic of the government, Mom Sonando, and other activists were sentenced to 20 years in prison. It is clear that this and many other convictions and trials are purely politically motivated. It is our duty to voice concern on the human rights situation in Cambodia and to insist on the release of the government’s critics. For the EU, as one of the biggest donors in Cambodia, the current human rights situation should serve as a wake-up call, especially in the light of the upcoming East Asia Summit, which should take place in November in that country.


  Corina Creţu (S&D). - Cred că Uniunea Europeană, ca principal donator pentru Cambodgia, trebuie să fie mai insistentă în demersurile vizând determinarea autorităţilor acestei ţări de a adopta reformele electorale solicitate în ultimii patru ani de către forurile internaţionale. Riscurile deteriorării fragilei democraţii cambodgiene se amplifică odată cu apropierea scrutinului de anul viitor. Consider că e nevoie de presiuni din partea Comisiei Europene pentru asigurarea unor alegeri corecte şi democratice, care să respecte recomandările ONU.

Trebuie în primul rând să înceteze recurgerea excesivă la forţă împotriva contestatarilor şi evacuările forţate în masă. De asemenea, solicităm eliberarea imediată şi necondiţionată a tuturor criticilor regimului şi acceptarea rolului democratic al opoziţiei, astfel încât procesul electoral să fie credibil şi legitim.


  Cecilia Wikström (ALDE). - Herr talman! För en tid sedan besökte jag min kollega och vän Moso Koa från Sam Rainsy party i Kambodja. Det jag såg runt om i landet var förfärande och bilderna kommer jag kanske för alltid att bära inom mig. Oändligt många familjer har fallit offer för konfiskering av sina hus och sin mark. Staten och stora företag har lagt beslag på den mark som familjerna har brukat under generationer. De som har drabbats har inte fått någon ersättning utan lämnats vind för våg och står nu rättslösa och hjälplösa.

EU:s program ”Everything but arms” är ett bra initiativ i grunden, men det har i verkligheten fått väldigt negativa effekter när det gäller socker och en del andra jordbruksprodukter, för de gigantiska sockerbolagen har tagit över och brukar nu jordbruksmark. Otaliga byar har jämnats med marken och tusentals familjer har blivit hemlösa för att ge plats åt sockerplantager som skor sig på det fördelaktiga avtalet med EU.

Jag välkomnar därför att avtalet innehåller en uppmaning att avbryta detta, och vädjar till Kambodja att lämna oppositionsledaren Sam Rainsy möjlighet att återvända till sitt land före valet.


Intervenciones con arreglo al procedimiento de solicitud incidental de uso de la palabra («catch the eye»)


  Csaba Sógor (PPE). - Bár Kambodzsa az utóbbi 20 évben tett előrelépéseket a jogállamiság érvényesítése, az emberi jogok védelme, és a demokratikus rendszer kiépítése felé, ki kell mondanunk, hogy a kambodzsai hatóságok utóbbi években tett intézkedései egyértelműen visszalépésnek minősíthetőek. Az emberjogi aktivisták bebörtönzése, talán az egyetlen szabad média elhallgattatása, az illegális földkisajátítások és kilakoltatások egyértelműen arra utalnak, hogy a kambodzsai vezetés számára semmit sem jelentenek a demokratikus értékek. Az EU mint Kambodzsa legnagyobb támogatója nem nézheti tétlenül, hogy az országban legdurvább módon megsértik az emberi jogokat. 2013 júliusában sorra kerülő választások demokratikus jellegének biztosítását szigorúan számon kell kérje a nemzetközi közösség, ellenkező esetben felül kell vizsgálnunk az EU–Kambodzsa együttműködési megállapodást, és az abban foglalt kereskedelmi preferenciák biztosítását.


  Monica Luisa Macovei (PPE). - Mr President, since the Paris Peace Agreements in 1991, Cambodia has made progress in improving its democracy and human rights. In recent years, however, Cambodia has taken a step backwards, away from open democracy and towards a corrupt system fuelled by intimidation and violence. As the single largest donor to Cambodia, the EU’s influence should weigh heavily upon Cambodia’s government. We must use this influence and urge Cambodia to change its election process and create an environment suitable for a free and fair election. A government that results from fraud and terror will always rule in terror and lies. Cambodia must end its practice of arbitrary arrest, detention and violence against peaceful protestors. We as a Union must ensure that Cambodia does not diverge from its path of progress.


  Lidia Joanna Geringer de Oedenberg (S&D). - Panie Przewodniczący! W 1991 r. Kambodża podpisała Porozumienie Paryskie, w którym zobowiązała się respektować i chronić prawa człowieka. 21 lat później ograniczenie wolności słowa, ataki na niezależne media i przemoc wobec obrońców praw człowieka w Kambodży są na porządku dziennym. Przykładem może być aresztowanie 13 kobiet, które w maju bieżącego roku przeprowadziły pokojowy protest przeciwko ich eksmisji w związku z nowym projektem zagospodarowania przestrzeni. Do więzienia trafił też właściciel radia i szef stowarzyszenia demokratów w Kambodży skazany na 20 lat za domniemane ujawnianie represji wobec innych działaczy opozycyjnych. Problem jawnego łamania praw człowieka przez kambodżańskie władze dotyka również kobiety, dzieci, jak i społeczności mniejszości.

W tym kontekście należy przypomnieć rządowi Kambodży o obowiązku wywiązywania się z zobowiązań międzynarodowych i implementacji rekomendacji specjalnego wysłannika ONZ w zakresie politycznych reform, w tym zapewnienia wolnych i uczciwych wyborów, w których udział wezmą wszyscy obywatele, korzystając ze swych demokratycznych swobód.


  Kristiina Ojuland (ALDE). - Mr President, Sam Rainsy is an outstanding Cambodian Liberal politician, and I fully condemn a politically motivated conviction of him as well as similar sentences and convictions against political critics, parliamentary opposition politicians, human rights defenders and land activists in Cambodia.

The Cambodian nation deserves a peaceful reconciliation that is not undermined by the persecution of opposition politicians. A lesson of compromise might at first seem difficult to learn, but it is an integral part of a truly democratic society.

A visit of Sam Rainsy to Cambodia to pay his respects to the late King-Father Norodom Sihanouk would be a litmus test of the intentions of the Cambodian authorities.


  Oldřich Vlasák (ECR). - Pane předsedající, projednávání tohoto bodu na půdě Evropského parlamentu je velmi důležité a je nutné samozřejmě i informovat o stavu společnosti a politické situaci v Kambodži.

Evropská unie je jedním z největších donátorů pomoci, a proto musíme zamezit jejímu plýtvání. Musíme donutit kambodžskou vládu, a to nejen prostřednictvím našich delegací, aby tvrdě vyžadovala plnění rezoluce o lidských právech a umožňovala lidem aktivní činnost ve veřejném životě bez následných postihů a pronásledování.


  Eija-Riitta Korhola (PPE). - Arvoisa puhemies, Kambodžassa valmistaudutaan ensi vuoden vaaleihin, ja EU suurimpana yksittäisenä kehitysavun antajana haluaa nyt muistuttaa sananvapauden ja demokratian kehittämisestä.

Viime vaalien yhteydessä vuonna 2009 EU:n vaalitarkkailijat raportoivat, etteivät Kambodžan vaalit täyttäneet kansainvälisiä kriteereitä demokraattisista vaaleista ja vetosivat hallitukseen useiden vaalikäytäntöjen uudistamiseksi. Myös YK on vastikään antanut suosituksia ja ohjeita tarvittavista uudistuksista.

Toinen suuri ongelma on, että sananvapauden rajoittaessa vahvasti myös poliittista keskustelua opositiopuolueille ei jää juuri tilaa kritisoida edes korruptiota ja maakiistojen hoitoa. Samaan aikaan viralliset tilastot ovat usein salaisia, mikä puolestaan vaikeuttaa kansalaisten osallistumista poliittiseen keskusteluun.

Kambodžan on nyt aika edistää oikeusvaltioperiaatteita, vapauttaa lokakuussa vangitut ihmisoikeusaktivistit ja puuttua ihmisoikeusjärjestöjen raportoimiin mielivaltaisiin pidätyksiin ja väkivaltaan.


  Franz Obermayr (NI). - Herr Präsident! Leider ist es immer noch so, dass die Sicherheitskräfte in Kambodscha weiterhin mit übertriebener Härte gegen Protestierende vorgehen, seien es Umweltaktivisten, Menschenrechtsaktivisten oder friedliche Demonstranten. Besonders traurig ist der Fall des 14-jährigen Mädchens Heng Chantha, das im Mai 2012 von Sicherheitskräften erschossen wurde. In der Folge gab es nicht einmal eine Untersuchung der Tatumstände. In der Region herrscht also Unterdrückung, von einem Rechtsstaat kann keine Rede sein.

Davon zeugen auch die Zwangsenteignungen. Zuckerbarone und Konzerne eignen sich das Land kambodschanischer Kleinbauern an, um Zucker anzubauen. Einer der Gründe dafür ist der enorme Profit durch den zollfreien Export nach Europa. Hier muss gehandelt und nicht nur geredet werden. Schluss mit der offenen Handelspolitik, solange Zwangsräumungen in diesem Land durchgeführt werden!


(Fin de las intervenciones con arreglo al procedimiento de solicitud incidental de uso de la palabra («catch the eye»))


  Máire Geoghegan-Quinn, Member of the Commission. − Mr President, on behalf of the High Representative, Vice-President Catherine Ashton, I would like to thank the European Parliament for organising this debate. It is timely, given developments in the human rights situation which have been replicated in the past two years in Cambodia. Intimidation of journalists, human rights activists and peaceful demonstrators is on the rise, and court trials seem to fall short of basic judicial standards. The latest example has been the sentencing of human rights activist Mam Sonando on 1 October to a twenty-year jail term. This was criticised by the High Representative’s spokesperson in a statement underlining the lack of independence of the judicial system.

The report on the human rights situation in Cambodia issued in July 2012 by UN Special rapporteur Professor Surya Subedi and his complementary report on the economic land concessions published on 24 September confirmed the seriousness of the situation. There is a narrowing space for people from civil society, including those belonging to different political parties, to express their views peacefully and without fear. This is particularly relevant in the run-up to the parliamentary elections in July 2013.

Land disputes and forced evictions lead to violence and social instability and are becoming a major political problem. The EU has raised its concerns in relation to the allocation of economic land concessions with the Cambodian authorities in a number of high-level meetings, most recently the EU-Cambodia Joint Committee in June. In April this year, Commissioner De Gucht also discussed the issue at length with his Cambodian counterpart Cham Prasidh. President Van Rompuy’s visit to Cambodia from 2 to 4 November will be an opportunity to take up these issues. He will meet with Prime Minister Hun Sen and the President of the National Assembly.

Cambodia is still recovering from its dark and violent past; positive steps are being taken towards democratisation and the economy has been growing well, but the Kingdom has still a long way to go on its path to democracy and a fair sharing of the economic growth dividend. The EU has supported, and will continue to support, Cambodia’s democratic transition, and through the EU-Cambodia Cooperation Facility for Governance and Human Rights it has committed EUR 7.5 million to support the extraordinary chambers of the courts of Cambodia and strengthen the Cambodian Human Rights Committee. 60 other projects have been funded since 2003 for a total of EUR 15.5 million under the European Instrument for Democracy and Human Rights, primarily supporting land rights and indigenous peoples’ rights, freedom of expression and prison conditions.

The EU is exploring the possibility of an election experts’ mission to follow the preparation of the parliamentary elections next July. It will continue to call on the authorities to create an environment conducive to free and fair elections where the voter, the candidate and the commentator can exert their basic political rights. The EU will continue to pay particular attention to the human rights situation linked to economic land concessions.


  El Presidente. − Se cierra el debate.

La votación tendrá lugar a continuación, tras el anuncio del ganador del Premio Sájarov.

(Se suspende la sesión durante unos instantes.)

Declaraciones por escrito (artículo 149 del Reglamento)


  Marc Tarabella (S&D), par écrit. – En 2006, j'ai eu l'occasion de conduire une mission au Cambodge pour évaluer les évolutions démocratiques dans ce pays. Lors de cette mission, nous avions entre autres pu constater que le fonctionnement de la justice était un maillon faible du système. Les citoyens cambodgiens étaient par ailleurs en attente de la création du tribunal des Khmers rouges. Ce tribunal, bien qu'en place depuis 2006, ne semble pas fonctionner de manière efficiente. En effet, le tribunal est en proie à des problèmes financiers, ce qui réduit le rythme des audiences, faute de pouvoir financer le personnel nécessaire à son fonctionnement. De plus, de nombreuses accusations d'ingérences politiques du régime de Phnom Penh ont été dénoncées par de nombreuses organisations internationales, quant à ce tribunal. Outre les cas de restriction de la liberté d'expression, je suis, en tant que membre de la commission agriculture et développement rural du Parlement, particulièrement révolté par les nombreux cas de déplacements de populations et dépossessions des terres à des fins économiques. De nombreux militants en faveur du droit à la terre ont par ailleurs déjà été incarcérés dans les prisons cambodgiennes. Il est grand temps que le Cambodge fasse preuve d'un meilleur respect des droits de l'Homme.



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