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Fuldstændigt Forhandlingsreferat
Onsdag den 22. maj 2013 - Strasbourg Revideret udgave

18. Genindførelse af Myanmars/Burmas adgang til generelle toldpræferencer - Myanmars/Burmas adgang til generelle toldpræferencer (forhandling)
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  předseda. − dalším bodem na pořadu jednání je společná rozprava o přístupu Myanmaru/Barmy k všeobecným celním preferencím:

- zpráva, kterou předkládá David Martin za Výbor pro mezinárodní obchod o Obnovení přístupu Myanmaru/Barmy k všeobecným celním preferencím, [COM(2012)0524 - C7-0297/2012 - 2012/0251(COD) a

- prohlášení Komise o přístupu Myanmaru/Barmy k všeobecným celním preferencím (2012/2929(RSP).


  David Martin, rapporteur. − Mr President, there is no doubt that we are witnessing remarkable progress in Burma. The steps that the country has taken towards democratisation and transition from military rule should be recognised by this House. But we also have to recognise that the country has started this process from an incredibly closed and repressive situation. And, while it has come a long way, it still has a long way to go in terms of opening up, and modernising and democratising the country.

The proposal we have before us tonight is to reinstate trade preferences. After such a long period of suspension, it was difficult to assess whether we should carry out this action and therefore we have had to take our guidance, as the rules anyway suggest we should, from the International Labour Organisation and the ILO has concluded that forced labour, the original reason for removing Burma’s preferences, is no longer, I quote, ‘a serious and systematic problem in Burma’. That does not mean of course that forced labour does not continue to exist in Burma – it is simply saying it is no longer serious and systematic.

If we believe in a fair rules-based trading system, and I do, then it is important to acknowledge the steps that Burma has taken and that these merit reinstatement of its preferential trading scheme.

GSP is a carrot and stick approach to trade policy. In order to continue to benefit from trade preferences, Burma will be required to maintain and improve democratisation and respect for human rights and, of course, it is our task to continue to monitor that progress.

Sanctions have been in place between the EU and Burma since 1996. Given how remarkably closed the country has been for so long and the fragile state it is now in, I think it is clear that Burma is a rather unique case, and in this respect I welcome the announcement by the High Representative Cathy Ashton in recent weeks that a Myanmar-EU task force will be established to strengthen economic cooperation.

At the same time as we have the opening of this fragile country with a precarious human rights situation, we see what can be described as almost an unseemly rush by developed countries’ industries to move into Burma.

Of course, we should welcome investment in Burma to help modernise the country, but we have to ensure that European Union industries and European companies that move into Burma respect freedom of association, encourage civil society participation and do nothing to exacerbate the ethnic conflict that exists within Burma. That is why, accompanying our approval for reinstating GSP, we have argued for strong CSR conditions, CSR policies, to be attached to the reopening of the Burmese market.

I want the European Union to ensure that it monitors the CSR situation in Burma and that it follows roughly, and I say only roughly, the guidelines that the United States has set out for its country operating within Burma.

As a Union, we have to encourage best practice by European companies operating in the Burmese economy, and we have to ensure that, when the transparency and accounting directives are passed which are being negotiated between our institutions at the present time, they are properly applied and monitored in the Burmese situation. But of course they will only apply to extractive industries, so we need wider controls.

Finally and very briefly, there are serious problems with ethnic strife in Burma, but we should not be surprised that we are now receiving reports of that. When you take the lid off a kettle, some of the steam is going to come out. That is not excusing the strife that exists there but simply saying we are now getting it reported. It is not necessarily new and we have to encourage the Burmese Government to take action to reconcile itself with the Muslim and other minority communities.


  Karel De Gucht, Member of the Commission. − Mr President, I would like to thank the Committee on International Trade, and in particular its rapporteur David Martin, for their excellent cooperation on the Commission’s proposal to reinstate preferential treatment to Myanmar/Burma. This reflects the great progress made by this country in its economic and political reforms, including in the field of labour rights. Duty and quota-free treatment will contribute to the country’s economic development, as has already been the case with other beneficiaries of this scheme.

In 1997 Myanmar/Burma’s access to our generalised scheme of preferences (GSP) was temporarily withdrawn due to serious and systematic practices of forced labour, in contravention of the International Labour Organisation’s core convention on this issue.

But since 2011 the country has been undertaking a programme of openness and reform, which has brought unprecedented positive results, and work to further raise standards continues.

On 20 April 2012 this Parliament called on the Commission to consider allowing Myanmar/Burma privileged market access to the EU. The same month the Foreign Affairs Council gave guidance recommending reinstating the country to the GSP as soon as the ILO marked progress regarding forced labour.

On the same occasion the EU suspended restrictive measures for one year, which have all now been lifted except for the arms embargo. In the meantime, in June 2012 the ILO Conference recognised the progress of Myanmar/Burma towards eradicating forced labour, and lifted restrictions which excluded the government of the country from receiving ILO technical cooperation. This allowed the Commission to reassess the legal conditions for withdrawal of preferences and to present a proposal on 17 September 2012 to reinstate GSP benefits to Myanmar/Burma.

The Commission expects that preferences will help increase exports and the income of people in Myanmar/Burma. We took the decision to apply the regulation retroactively as from 12 June 2012 to allow EU economic operators to engage early enough with the country. Judging by the interest received, we have indications that this is happening.

This brings me to an important consideration that lies at the core of the resolution this Parliament will adopt, and which rightly points to the fundamental role of the government of Myanmur/Burma in the continuation of the process of full democratisation, consolidation of the rule of law and respect for human rights and freedom in the country.

You can most certainly make a significant contribution through development aid, but this will not be enough. In addition, it is important that EU businesses actively contribute to the national effort to establish better living conditions for all. I therefore welcome the emphasis on corporate social responsibility standards in the resolution.

There have hardly been any business relations for EU operators with this south Asian nation. In this period of new engagement, sustainability of reforms and livelihoods must also be the main focus of EU business interests in the country.


  Christofer Fjellner, för PPE-gruppen. – Tack så mycket herr talman och tack herr kommissionär, och tack också David Martin. Burma har ju visat att de vill gå i demokratisk riktning, men framför allt i det här sammanhanget ska vi lyfta fram att de har velat göra upp med tvångsarbete. Detta är någonting som vi inte bara borde belöna utan som vi är bundna att faktiskt erkänna genom att åter ge dem tillträde till GSP och Everything but Arms.

Det innebär ju i realiteten att de får tullfritt tillträde till EU:s marknader och på så sätt kan öka sin tillväxt och hitta tillbaka till välstånd. För demokrati och välstånd går ju ofta hand i hand, och därför tror jag att den här åtgärden kan stärka både den ekonomiska välfärden och de demokratiska ambitionerna i landet. Självklart har Burma en väldigt lång väg kvar att gå – Burma är så att säga inte Norge, och kommer inte att bli Norge inom de närmaste åren heller.

Det finns fortfarande problem med tvångsarbete men, som ILO konstaterade, inte systematiskt, och det finns en mängd andra problem, inte minst med etniska stridigheter i Burma, som vi bör uppmärksamma. Men vi har tyckt att det är angeläget att påpeka att i det här sammanhanget, i den här resolutionen, så ska vi prata om det här verktyget och just Generalized System of Preferences och Burmas situation, snarare än att uppmärksamma alla delar av problemen i Burma.

Dessutom är det viktigt med lika behandling. Burma ska på intet sätt diskrimineras jämfört med andra länder som har tillgång till Everything but Arms bara för att Burma har valt att göra den här resan nu. T.ex. tror jag inte att Kongo på något sätt är ett mindre problematiskt område att göra affärer i, och därför vore det konstigt att ställa särskilda krav på Burma. Men med GSP sträcker vi nu ut en hand till Burma och visar att vi tror på deras utveckling.

Mr President, I also want to thank David Martin for raising the question about forced labour in Brussels, which he did in his speech. I think you address – importantly – the fact that all the socialist proposals force me to work late at night and I hope you will stop that forced labour as well. Thank you, David.


  Ismail Ertug, im Namen der S&D-Fraktion. – Herr Präsident, sehr geehrter Herr Kommissar! Myanmar ist ein Land, das sich öffnet. Das hat sich ganz deutlich gezeigt, als der Hausarrest der Friedensnobelpreisträgerin Aung San Suu Kyi im Jahr 2010 aufgehoben wurde. Und untermauert wurde die Öffnung, als die Partei der Bürgerrechtlerin letztes Jahr 43 der 45 Sitze im Parlament gewinnen konnte.

Ich gebe Ihnen recht, Herr Kommissar De Gucht, wenn Sie sagen, dass die Entwicklungen von der EU begünstigt und unterstützt werden müssen. Das Handelspräferenzsystem „Alles außer Waffen“ ist dafür das richtige Instrument. Zudem erlauben uns engere Handelsbeziehungen, gemeinsam mit den Partnern vor Ort dafür zu sorgen, dass sich die Arbeits- und Lebensbedingungen in Myanmar weiter verbessern.

Gleichzeitig ist es aber auch wichtig und richtig, dass der Entschließungsantrag des Europäischen Parlaments auf die teilweise noch immer sehr schwierige Menschenrechtssituation Bezug nimmt. Obwohl es mittlerweile in Myanmar illegal ist, besteht nach wie vor Zwangsarbeit, vor allem auf Betreiben des Militärs. Das muss definitiv unterbunden werden. Darüber hinaus darf die EU keinesfalls die schwierige Situation, wie erwähnt, der muslimischen Rohingya vergessen, denn sie gelten noch immer als die am schlimmsten unterdrückten Minderheiten der Welt. Mindestens eine Million leben als Flüchtlinge in den Nachbarländern. In Myanmar selbst sind sie als Volksgruppe nicht erkannt, was letztendlich auch zur Folge hat, dass sie keinen Anspruch auf die Staatsbürgerschaft haben.

Ich hoffe sehr, dass die Öffnung dieses Landes, Herr Kommissar, und engere Beziehungen zur EU dazu beitragen werden, auch den Rohingya endlich ihren verdienten Platz in der Gesellschaft zu schaffen, der brutalen Verfolgung ein Ende zu setzen und vor allem auch den letzten Fällen von Zwangsarbeit den Garaus zu machen.


  Niccolò Rinaldi, a nome del gruppo ALDE. – Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, signor Commissario, questa decisione è un atto di fiducia, un esercizio di ottimismo e la Birmania, che è un paese martoriato da decenni, se lo merita.

Certo, rimane un lavoro immenso da fare: molte raccomandazioni dell'OIL sono state finalmente soddisfatte, l'apertura al processo di democratizzazione è avviata, ma la minoranza rohingya continua a soffrire la discriminazione e l'adesione all'iniziativa sulla trasparenza per l'industria mineraria è annunciata, ma non ancora effettiva, mentre le violazioni dei diritti umani sono ancora tutt'altro che sporadiche.

Tuttavia molto è stato fatto: l'effettivo controllo nel quadro di una responsabilità sociale per quello che riguarda le aziende europee, una proposta legislativa per rendere trasparenti le transazioni finanziarie tra governo e industria per lo sfruttamento delle foreste, un'altra per migliorare la trasparenza industriale sul comportamento ambientale e sociale, la pubblicazione dei criteri guida per la responsabilità sociale e aziendale nei settori del petrolio e del gas.

Oggi, il reinserimento nella lista dei paesi beneficiari del sistema di tariffe preferenziali deve diventare una misura a beneficio non tanto delle aziende quanto soprattutto della popolazione. Questo è lo sforzo che richiede l'applicazione seria dei provvedimenti decisi e anche di quelli previsti. La Commissione in questo si assume una responsabilità rilevante e il Parlamento non si sottrarrà ai suoi poteri di indirizzo politico.

Questo è il paese delle magliette bianche, dei 23 milioni di iscritti alle organizzazioni del Partito unico e cambiare una cultura non sarà facile. Mi rivolgo quindi anche alle associazioni non governative, alle forze politiche birmane, al mondo dell'informazione, affinché tutti possano contribuire a un'attività tanto di controllo quanto di incoraggiamento.

George Orwell nel suo libro sulla Birmania scrisse in questo paese che tutta la vita di un uomo bianco in Birmania è una lunga lotta per non farsi ridere dietro. Bene, cerchiamo di lavorare tutti affinché quest'importante decisione non diventi, nei rigurgiti di una dittatura che sta finalmente perdendo pezzi e in un capitalismo che va regolato, una presa in giro dei nostri valori.


  Franziska Keller, on behalf of the Verts/ALE Group. – Mr President, the reform process initiated by the Burmese leadership two years ago is astonishing by many accounts. The political sphere and society at large are suddenly enjoying a degree of openness never experienced before.

This is clearly a historic opportunity for the EU to assist Burma in stepping out of the cold, and it should not be missed. But the hundreds of political prisoners still in Burmese jails and the 130 000 heavily repressed Rohingyas are unlikely to consider that the EU has shown diplomatic shrewdness in giving up whatever leverage it had to improve their fate.

The reform process in Burma is too fragile, too recent and too incomplete, and the human rights situation is still too worrisome, for a risky policy U-turn. There can be no trade rewards without strong assurances and real safeguards that the human rights reform process will continue. Launching a human rights dialogue is simply not good enough.

We have tabled amendments asking the Commission to submit to Parliament and the Council an assessment of the situation with regard to the human rights situation in Burma by the end of the year in order to confirm, or otherwise, that the situation is sufficiently acceptable for us to continue granting GSP. Human Rights Watch is supporting these amendments, and I hope you will be too in tomorrow’s vote.


  Jacek Włosowicz, w imieniu grupy EFD. – Panie Przewodniczący! Panie Komisarzu! Gdy Unia Europejska, której jesteśmy członkami, powstawała w latach pięćdziesiątych, miała za zadanie znosić bariery we wzajemnych relacjach. Na podobnej zasadzie staramy się obecnie utrzymywać relacje z innymi krajami. Niektórym krajom rozwijającym się przyznajemy szczególne preferencje, by ich gospodarki mogły zaistnieć na naszym rynku i odnotować dodatni wzrost gospodarczy. Birma, pomimo różnego rodzaju problemów, związanych przede wszystkim z pracą przymusową, takie preferencje ze strony Unii Europejskiej straciła w 1997 roku. Niemniej – jak już koleżanki i koledzy powiedzieli – od roku 2011 obserwujemy pewien postęp w tej dziedzinie i mimo różnych problemów, które Birma w dalszym ciągu napotyka, sądzę, że powinniśmy dać temu krajowi szansę i poprzeć zaproponowany wniosek.


  Paul Murphy, on behalf of the GUE/NGL Group. – Mr President, I think we have to place today’s debate in a geopolitical context. It is clear that Myanmar is rich in natural resources and situated in an extremely important strategic location. So, as David Martin suggested, the major multinationals and the world powers want to get access to these resources and to the country.

There is no question that there have been important improvements and reforms in Myanmar, but the point is that they are definitely not irreversible. The situation regarding religious and ethnic minorities, in particular the Rohingya Muslims in Kachin State, is terrifying. The forced recruitment of child soldiers has not ceased. Arbitrary arrests, forced displacements and land confiscation are still the order of the day. There are reports from the trade union movement that the riot police have used military-issue white phosphorus grenades to disperse protesters recently.

This is all worrying, and it confirms my view that it is too early to take a decision on GSP reinstatement. That is why I do not think that the European Parliament can have it both ways – that we pass, on the one hand, a strongly worded resolution expressing our strong concerns about human rights violations, but, on the other hand, agree to reinstate GSP, thereby sending the opposite signal.

(The speaker agreed to take a blue-card question under Rule 149(8).)


  Christofer Fjellner (PPE), blue-card question. – Mr Murphy, the Burmese want this. They want trade and investment. Aung San Suu Kyi specifically asked us to reinstate GSP. How did you come to the conclusion that you know better than her what is right for Burma? I therefore have to ask you: are you a neo-imperialist who thinks that you know best what is best for Burma, or are you just a simple protectionist who does not want to trade with Burma? Please make a choice.


  Paul Murphy (GUE/NGL), blue-card answer. – I reject your false choice of neo-imperialist or protectionist. I am neither. I am trying to do here what I think is in the best interests of ordinary people in Burma. Listening to ordinary people on the ground in Burma – for example the minorities who are continuing to face very extreme repression – I think we have to look at what signal we send.

I would ask you what interests you are representing here. Is it the interests of the multinationals who want to get access and are using an improvement that is real and is taking place as a pretext for pre-existing economic interests? The only interest that we should be looking at here is what is in the interests of people in Burma. In my opinion it is too soon to reinstate GSP.


  Eija-Riitta Korhola (PPE). - Arvoisa puhemies, minun mielestäni GSP-järjestelmän ajatus on EU:n parasta ulkopolitiikkaa. EU antaa epäitsekkäästi tullietuuksia kehitysmaille. AKT-valtuuskunnassa olen huomannut, että tämä on erittäin hyvä kannuste. Erityisesti "kaikki paitsi aseet" -aloite on yksi EU:n innovatiivisimmista politiikan toimista. Etuuksien palautus on upea mahdollisuus ja tunnustus Burmalle.

Pakkotyö ei kuitenkaan ole Burman/Myanmarin ainoa ongelma eikä yritysvastuu ainoa ratkaisu. Maassa on todella vakava poliittinen kriisi meneillään etenkin Rakhinen ja Kachinin osavaltioissa. Emme saa tilanteen antaa unohtua muiden edistysten nojalla. YK:n mukaan ainakin 140 000 henkeä, joista suurin osa on muslimeja, on pakotettu jättämään kotinsa ja muslimien kyliä on poltettu. Todellinen luku on varmasti paljon suurempi, sillä niin sanottuja rohingya-muslimeja ei usein rekisteröidä sisäisiksi pakolaisiksi, koska heitä ei pidetä maan kansalaisina. Ongelma on pakolaiskriisiä paljon systemaattisempi, sillä muslimit eivät pääse Rakhinen osavaltiossa kouluihin eivätkä he saa matkustaa muualle maahan. Sisäisten pakolaisten tilannetta on kuitenkin parannettava heti.

Ihmisoikeusraporttien mukaan muslimeja on pakotettu väliaikaisille leireille, jotka sijaitsevat rannikoiden pahimmilla syklonialueilla. Kaikki ymmärtävät, mikä hankkeen tarkoitus on. Toukokuun Mahasen-sykloni on osoittanut, että riski on todellinen. Myös terveydenhoito on suuri ongelma leireillä ja tässäkin kuussa ripuli on vienyt monen lapsen hengen eikä synnyttäville ole klinikoita.

Toivonkin että EU lunastaa lupauksensa Burman/Myanmarin suhteen ja ryhtyy tositoimiin Rakhinen kriisin ratkaisemiseksi ja sen varmistamiseksi, että etniset rikokset tutkitaan kunnolla. Kannatankin esittelijän ehdotusta poliittisen viestin sisällyttämisestä komission GSP-päätökseen.


  Elisabeth Jeggle (PPE). - Herr Präsident! Als EVP-Berichterstatterin des EU-ASEAN-Berichtes möchte ich mich auch in die Debatte über das ASEAN-Mitglied Myanmar einbringen.

Ich war vor wenigen Wochen mit dem Unterausschuss Menschenrechte in Myanmar, und ich unterstützte entschieden die Wiedereinführung der allgemeinen Zollpräferenzen für Waren aus Myanmar.

Es ist von größter Bedeutung, dass die EU Myanmar in seinem demokratischen Umbruch als engagierter Partner zur Seite steht. Aus diesem Grund müssen wir sowohl im politischen als auch im wirtschaftlich-sozialen Bereich die Beziehungen intensivieren und den Reformprozess unterstützen. Demokratische und wirtschaftliche Entwicklung gehen auch in Myanmar Hand in Hand.

Oberstes Ziel dessen muss ein größtmöglicher Nutzen für die Bevölkerung sein. Europas Politiker und Unternehmer stehen in der Pflicht, einen nachhaltigen und sozialen Ausbau der Beziehungen zu ermöglichen. In gleicher Weise muss Myanmars Regierung, aber auch die Opposition zukunftsweisende Strategien für ihre Menschen erarbeiten. Beachtliche Fortschritte bei der Einhaltung der Grundfreiheiten und der Menschenrechte sind bereits erreicht worden. Dennoch bleibt gerade hinsichtlich der maroden Wirtschaftsstrukturen und des Religions- und Minderheitenschutzes noch viel zu tun.

Zum Beispiel die Lösung des Konflikts zwischen den eher christlichen Kachin und der Armee sowie der religiös-ethnischen Konflikte zwischen muslimischen Rohingya und buddhistischen Rakhine. Hier gilt zu beachten, dass die langjährigen gesellschaftlichen, politischen und wirtschaftlichen Versäumnisse durch die alte Militärherrschaft nicht von heute auf morgen durch die aktuelle Regierung aufgeholt werden können. Nur langfristig und kontinuierlich angelegte Reformprozesse werden zählbare Erfolge aufweisen.

Diesen Weg gilt es für uns zu begleiten überall dort, wo wir eine gute Möglichkeit haben dies zu tun.


Zahájení vystoupení na základě přihlášení se zvednutím ruky.


  Elena Băsescu (PPE). - Reinstaurarea preferinţelor tarifare pentru Myanmar era un pas firesc în condiţiile în care au fost demarate o serie de reforme ample.

Eliberarea din arestul la domiciliu în 2010 a activistei Aung San Suu Kyi, lucru pentru care am militat şi eu în nenumărate rânduri, dar şi organizarea unor alegeri parţiale libere în 2012, reprezintă paşi mici însă importanţi înspre o reală democratizare. Mai mult, în urma întâlnirii dintre preşedintele Barosso şi liderul din Myanmar, s-a convenit să se studieze posibilitatea încheierii unui acord bilateral de investiţii.

Aş dori însă să atrag atenţia asupra unor probleme care încă persistă în Myanmar: practicile legate de munca forţată neplătită, utilizată cu precădere de către forţele militare, sunt încă răspândite în mai multe regiuni.


(Konec vystoupení na základě přihlášení se zvednutím ruky.)


  Karel De Gucht, Member of the Commission. − Mr President, dear colleagues, I will be brief. I believe it is the right moment to reinstate everything but arms for Myanmar, because it will help them to grow and to have more jobs. But, on the other hand, we should be aware that this is a very fragile country, and we should look very closely at the balance between what it can bring them and the risks.

The reason I am saying this is that we have learned, in Bangladesh for instance, that this kind of scheme, which of course attracts a lot of investment, can also result in socially unacceptable working conditions. This is presently the case in Bangladesh, and we are going to discuss that tomorrow. I believe that this Parliament, once everything but arms is reinstated, should keep a very close eye – as the rapporteur said – on corporate social responsibility.

We also have a responsibility for making sure that those who benefit from everything but arms are the local people – those who are living in poverty – and that reinstating this kind of preference will perhaps enable them to have a better life.


  David Martin, rapporteur. − Mr President, there is agreement in this Chamber that Burma is at least on the road to reform. It is not part of my argument to suggest that Burma no longer has any problems. I believe that it still has problems with forced labour and with human rights abuses, and there is still an unacceptable level of violence against the Rohingyas.

The question is whether reinstating GSP will help Burma on the road to reform or hinder it. In my view, this reinstatement will help Burma on the right path, but our responsibility does not end there. We have to demand three things. We have to demand that the Burmese Government continues on that path to reform. Secondly, we have to ensure that European Union companies operating in Burma act responsibly, and we have to keep some sort of check here in the European Union on how they are behaving. Finally, we have a duty as a Commission, as Member States and as a European Parliament to continue to monitor the situation there. If the situation deteriorates or if the reforms go into reverse, we can always remove GSP from the Burmese. That is what we should do if they do not continue down the path of reform.


  President. − I have received one motion for resolution(1) tabled in accordance with Rule 110(2) of the Rules of Procedure.

The debate is closed.

The vote will take place on Thursday, 23 May 2013.

Written statements (Rule 149)


  Elisabeth Köstinger (PPE), schriftlich. 1997 wurden die APS-Zollpräferenzen für Myanmar/Birma mit der Verordnung des Rates vorübergehend zurückgenommen, da allgemein verbreitete Zwangsarbeit systematisch vorkam. Bestätigt wurde dies von der Internationalen Arbeitsorganisation (IAO). Da es in den letzten Jahren wesentliche Fortschritte in dem Bereich gab, schlug die Kommission vor, diese Verordnung des Rates aufzuheben und die Präferenzen rückwirkend zum 13. Juni 2012 wieder zu gewähren. Die Wiedergewährung dieser allgemeinen Präferenzen dürfte Myanmar/Birma die Möglichkeit geben, die Sondervergünstigungen der Initiative „Alles außer Waffen“ im APS für die am wenigsten entwickelten Länder zu nutzen und seine Ausfuhren in die EU deutlich zu steigern, weshalb ich für diesen Bericht gestimmt habe. Hauptsächlich betroffen von dieser Präferenz sind Bekleidung und Bekleidungszubehör. Auch ein wichtiger Punkt ist, dass Myanmar/Birma nach 38 Jahren Militärdiktatur tatsächlich wichtige und beachtliche Schritte in Richtung Demokratisierung unternommen hat.


(1)See Minutes.

Juridisk meddelelse - Databeskyttelsespolitik