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Processo : 2013/2547(RSP)
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Ciclos relativos aos documentos :

Textos apresentados :

O-000048/2013 (B7-0210/2013)

Debates :

PV 03/07/2013 - 22
CRE 03/07/2013 - 22

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Textos aprovados :


Debates
Quarta-feira, 3 de Julho de 2013 - Estrasburgo Edição revista

22. Aumento dos direitos aduaneiros noruegueses sobre os produtos agrícolas (debate)
Vídeo das intervenções
PV
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  La Présidente. - L'ordre du jour appelle le débat sur la question orale à la Commission sur l'importante augmentation des droits norvégiens frappant les produits agricoles, de Vital Moreira, au nom de la commission du commerce international (O-000048/2013 - B7-0210/2013) (2013/2547(RSP)).

 
  
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  Vital Moreira, Autor. − Senhora Presidente, Senhor Comissário, esta pergunta foi aprovada pela Comissão do Comércio Internacional, a que presido, e é nessa condição que me torno porta-voz da pergunta. Também em nome do Deputado Christofer Fjellner, que é coautor do texto. O texto tem a ver com o facto de que, desde 1 de janeiro do corrente ano, os exportadores europeus de determinados tipos de queijo, de carne de borrego e de bovino terem sido confrontados com direitos aduaneiros ad valorem de 277 %, 429 % e 334 % no mercado norueguês. E, portanto, o que se pergunta à Comissão é, primeiro, se foi consultada sobre estas medidas protecionistas da Noruega. Quais são as consequências destas medidas sobre os fluxos de exportações da União para a Noruega naqueles produtos? Considera a Comissão que há aqui infração das obrigações da Noruega face ao acordo do espaço económico europeu e do Acordo da Noruega relativo à concessão de preferências comerciais suplementares para os produtos agrícolas, que está em vigor desde janeiro de 2012? Que medidas pretende ou decidiu tomar a Comissão caso não se verifiquem progressos credíveis por parte das autoridades norueguesas para resolver rapidamente a questão? Este é o texto da pergunta e, portanto, estamos muito interessados em saber as respostas da Comissão.

Permitam-me dois considerandos da minha responsabilidade: em primeiro lugar, a União Europeia está constitucionalmente obrigada a uma política de abertura comercial e denuncia regularmente as medidas de protecionismo comercial dos nossos parceiros comerciais. Isto vale por maioria de razão para os países com os quais temos tratados de parceria comercial aprofundada, como sucede com a Noruega no quadro do espaço económico europeu; em segundo lugar, segunda anotação, as relações entre a União e a Noruega são fortes, sendo a União o primeiro parceiro comercial daquele país. É importante sublinhar que a União e a Noruega comprometeram-se no acordo bilateral de 2012 a prosseguir esforços com vista a obter uma liberalização progressiva do comércio de produtos agrícolas. Ora, novas medidas protecionistas não correspondem à liberalização progressiva do comércio entre os dois países, obviamente. Urge encontrar uma solução mutuamente satisfatória e o caminho a seguir pela Noruega passa obviamente pela continuação do processo de liberalização do setor agrícola, de acordo com os seus compromissos com a União. Ficamos a aguardar as respostas da Comissão.

 
  
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  Johannes Hahn, Member of the Commission. − Madam President, first of all I would like to thank the European Parliament for its support and concerns regarding the measures taken by Norway. Parliament’s resolution is very welcome and appreciated. We consider that the measures taken by Norway are protectionist in nature and are not the type of action one would expect from our friends and neighbours.

I regret to note that Norway did not consult us before the Norwegian Government adopted a tariff increase. After the decision was taken the Commission took all available measures to counter the tariff increase. Letters were sent by the Director-General of DG AGRI and Commissioner Cioloş to oppose the new tariffs. Consultations with Norway took place at political and technical level. The issue was raised at the EAA Joint Committee. Nevertheless Norway was not willing to reconsider the measures taken.

The Commission estimates, however, that in the short to medium term the economic impact of the switch of duties will be limited. According to figures for the first five months of 2013 the export of cheese from the EU to Norway has actually increased by 1.5% under the increased duties. Yet, in the longer term, the new tariffs could limit the growth of EU exports to Norway for the products concerned.

It also needs to be underlined, as regards hortensia, EU exports have fallen from EUR 3 million in 2012 to EUR 1 million in 2013 after the customs reclassification.

In our view the measures are contrary to the objectives of Article 19 of the EEA Agreement and the latest bilateral agreement under Article 19 of the EEA Agreement, which both foresee progressive trade liberalisation. However, they are within Norway’s WTO commitments. We are considering what can be done bilaterally and will also take this into account in other areas of our relations with Norway.

 
  
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  Peter Šťastný, on behalf of the PPE Group. – Madam President, the introduction of tariffs on imports of agricultural products is a clear violation of the letter and the spirit of bilateral agreements. Steps taken by Norway can be considered protectionist and prohibitive to trade.

The decision goes against one of the fundamental principles of the EU, namely the principle of trade liberalisation. Norway, as a member of the European Economic Area, is bound to respect that principle. Furthermore, these restrictions were adopted without any previous consultation with the Commission. This is unacceptable, since Norway is a country with which the EU has very close economic and political relations.

It is also incomprehensible that a country that avoided the negative effects of the economic crisis would want to introduce such measures. We in the Committee on International Trade call on the Norwegian Government to withdraw the measures and enter into formal negotiations with the Commission to resolve the issue. On a personal note, I sincerely hope that such stratospheric tariffs – 300%, 400% and more – will never be seen again in our region, particularly with a close trading partner such as Norway.

 
  
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  Ismail Ertug, im Namen der S&D-Fraktion. – Frau Präsidentin, sehr geehrter Herr Kommissar! Auf der Weltbühne – besonders im Rahmen der Doha-Runde – wird der Ruf nach weniger Abschottung auf den Agrarmärkten immer lauter. Es leuchtet mir schon ein, dass bei Ländern mit eklatantem Entwicklungsunterschied und teilweise sehr großer wirtschaftlicher Abhängigkeit von der Landwirtschaft eine große Skepsis gegenüber der Liberalisierung an den Tag gelegt wird. Nur, Norwegen ist ein hochentwickeltes Land und mit einem in Europa vergleichsweise kleinen Agrarsektor.

Die norwegische Butterkrise im Jahr 2011 zum Beispiel, mit irrsinnig hohen Preisen für Butter auf dem Schwarzmarkt, hat Erinnerungen an längst vergessene Zeiten des innereuropäischen Schmuggels geweckt und deutlich gemacht, wie stark die norwegische Bevölkerung durch die Zölle belastet wird. Ich kann auch nachvollziehen, dass man die kleine und nicht konkurrenzfähige Landwirtschaft in Norwegen nicht dem vollen Druck des Binnenmarkts aussetzen will. Aber gerade für ein EWR-Mitglied wie Norwegen muss es andere Wege geben, als aberwitzig hohe Importzölle zu verhängen.

Daher, Herr Kommissar, hatte ich zwei Fragen. Die eine haben Sie beantwortet. Ich wollte fragen, wie die Kommission damit bislang umgegangen ist. Das haben Sie kurz erläutert. Aber die wichtige Frage ist natürlich auch: Sie sprachen davon, bilaterale Gespräche aufzunehmen. Wie kann so etwas konkret aussehen? Wie können wir letztendlich auch unsere norwegischen Partner davon überzeugen, dass sie andere Mittel nutzen müssen, um ihre Landwirte zu schützen, als das, was sie bislang an den Tag gelegt haben?

 
  
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  Richard Ashworth, on behalf of the ECR Group. – Madam President, I was the rapporteur for the opinion for Parliament’s Committee on Agriculture and Rural Development on trade in agricultural products between the European Union and the Kingdom of Norway. That opinion was incorporated into the bilateral trade agreement in 2012. In that agreement, both parties committed to continue in the spirit of Article 19 of the EEA agreement. I remind you that under that agreement both parties committed to continue efforts to achieving progressive liberalisation of agricultural trade. They went on to say that in 2014 they would hold a review of the conditions of trade with a view to exploring further possible concessions. That was an agreement, Commissioner – and both parties agreed at the time – which was ‘mutually beneficial’.

The facts are today that trade in agricultural products makes up a mere 5.9 % of Norway’s exports to the EU and just 10 % of their imports, so I am completely surprised that the Norwegians should choose at this time to act in a manner which is totally contrary to that agreement. I would urge and encourage the Commission to take action to curb these duties before a formal review takes place in 2014.

 
  
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  Bendt Bendtsen (PPE). - Fru formand! Det er nu et år siden, den norske regering ændrede toldsatsen på havehortensia fra 0 % til 72 % fra den ene dag til den anden. Det er over et halvt år siden, at den norske regering så pludselig hævede toldsatserne på gule oste til 277 % og toldsatserne på okse- og lammekød til henholdsvis 344 % og 429 %. Norge er ikke et fattigt land, men det er et land, der har et kæmpeoverskud på deres betalingsbalance hvert evige eneste år. Ændringerne strider imod både ånd og bogstav i EØS-aftalens artikel 19, og særlig i punkt 10 i den seneste bilaterale aftale om liberalisering, som trådte i kraft 1. januar 2012 – det er ikke længe siden. Her lover begge parter, og jeg vil gerne citere: "træffer forholdsregler for at sikre, at de fordele, de indrømmer hinanden, ikke bringes i fare som følge af andre importrestriktioner".

Så når Norge forhøjer toldsatserne, som de har gjort, så gør de det stik modsatte, end det vi har aftalt! Jeg er godt klar over, at handelen med landbrugsvarer mellem EU og Norge blegner i sammenligning med handelen med fisk, olie, gas og andre råstoffer. Jeg anerkender også, at det overordnede forhold mellem EU og Norge har været godt, men netop derfor er jeg så skuffet over den norske regerings arrogance, og for mig at se er det nogle vigtige principper, der er på spil.

Med Europa-Parlamentets beslutning i morgen sætter vi et stærkt signal til den norske regering om, at vi ikke finder os i protektionisme. Vi sender et stærkt signal om, at den måde, toldstigningerne blev besluttet på, uden en forudgående aftale med EU, er fuldstændig uacceptabel! EØS er ikke og må aldrig blive en gratis buffet, hvor lande bare kan vælge og vrage på det indre marked. Jeg vil derfor på det kraftigste opfordre Kommissionen til at træde i karakter og benytte lejligheden i aften til at give os et klart svar: Hvad vil Kommissionen gøre for at komme den norske protektionisme til livs? For det her kan jo ikke fortsætte, heller ikke med andre lande.

 
  
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  Esther de Lange (PPE). - Voorzitter, in Nederland hebben wij een mooi spreekwoord dat zegt 'laat je de kaas niet van het brood eten'. Sorry aan de tolken zo laat op de avond, maar het betekent in het Engels zoiets als 'stand your ground'. Dat is precies wat we nu moeten doen als EU richting Noorwegen, 'to stand our ground', ons de kaas dus niet van het brood laten eten. Want door allerlei handelsakkoorden heeft Noorwegen zich verplicht om markten te openen, ook voor landbouwproducten.

De torenhoge heffingen waar nu sprake van is, passen daar gewoonweg niet bij. Van de ene op de andere dag het land dichtgooien de facto voor Nederlandse hortensia's bijvoorbeeld, of het tweeënhalf keer zo duur maken van een kilo Goudse kaas. Dan mag de Europese Commissie wel zeggen van 'ja dat effect is niet zo groot, want het is niet onze grootste handelspartner', dat zal allemaal wel zo zijn, maar voor een individuele hortensiakweker bij mij in de regio betekent dat gewoon het einde van zijn bedrijf. Zo simpel is het.

Eén ding is ook nog simpel: als Noorwegen wil profiteren van toegang tot de Europese markt, dan dient ook Europa toegang te hebben tot de Noorse. Die Noorse handelsbarrières bestaan nu al een aantal maanden en voorlopig zie ik de Europese Commissie nog heel weinig concreets doen. Ik denk dat dat 'niets doen' een heel verkeerd signaal geeft, ook voor de toekomst. We roepen dus de Europese Commissie op om de druk op Noorwegen op te voeren, om snel concrete gesprekken te starten op hoog niveau over het afschaffen van de belemmeringen.

Indien Noorwegen daar niet aan meewerkt, zullen er dus tegenmaatregelen worden genomen. Het voorbeeld van Noorse zalm ligt dan voor de hand. Natuurlijk altijd met als doel om weer terug te komen tot de normale verhoudingen zoals die horen te zijn tussen de Europese Unie en goede vriend Noorwegen. Maar tot dat moment laten wij ons in elk geval de kaas niet van het brood eten. Dat signaal geven wij morgen als Parlement en wij roepen de Commissie op om daaraan mee te werken.

 
  
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  Johannes Hahn, Member of the Commission. − Madam President, thank you to all of the Members of the Parliament for raising this issue, for the debate, and for your strong words concerning what has been raised by Mr Ertug and also others.

A review of the conditions of trade is foreseen, as was already mentioned by another colleague, for 2013-2014, which should lead to the opening of a new round of negotiations with a view to seeking further liberalisation of trade. Once again, thank you for your political backing by adopting tomorrow a strong resolution on this issue, and I can once again reassure you that we will also take this into account in other areas in our relations and negotiations with Norway in the future.

 
  
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  La Présidente. - J'ai reçu, conformément à l'article 115, paragraphe 5, du règlement une proposition de résolution(1).

Le débat est clos.

Le vote aura lieu jeudi, le 4 juillet 2013, à 12 heures.

Déclarations écrites (article 149)

 
  
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  Béla Glattfelder (PPE), írásban. Ez év elején Norvégia előzetes konzultáció nélkül jelentősen megemelte egyes Európai Unióból származó agrártermékek vámját. Az effajta kereskedelemkorlátozó lépések sértik az európai gazdák érdekeit. A norvég kormánynak vissza kellene vonnia az egyoldalúan bevezetett, az európai termelőkre nézve hátrányos intézkedéseket. Az Európai Bizottságnak pedig most és a jövőben is minden esetben határozottan fel kell lépnie az európai termelők érdekében, bármely tagállam gazdáiról is van szó. Az Európai Unió nemcsak a világ legnagyobb élelmiszerimportőre, hanem egyben a legnagyobb mezőgazdasági exportőr is. A közös kereskedelempolitikának nemcsak az a feladata, hogy megvédje az európai termelőket és fogyasztókat az európai környezetvédelmi, állatjóléti, élelmiszerbiztonsági előírásoknak nem megfelelő, harmadik országból származó termékekkel szemben, hanem az is, hogy elősegítse az európai agrárexportot az EU-n kívüli piacokon.

 
  

(1)Voir procès-verbal.

Aviso legal - Política de privacidade