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Utorok, 10. septembra 2013 - Štrasburg Revidované vydanie

21. Stratégia kybernetickej bezpečnosti EÚ: otvorený, bezpečný a chránený kybernetický priestor - Digitálna agenda pre rast, mobilitu a zamestnanosť (rozprava)
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  Der Präsident. − Als nächster Punkt der Tagesordnung folgt die gemeinsame Aussprache über

– die Erklärung der Kommission über die Internetsicherheitsstrategie der EU – ein offener, sicherer und geschützter Cyberraum (2013/2606(RSP)),

– die Anfrage zur mündlichen Beantwortung an den Rat über die Digitale Agenda für Wachstum, Mobilität und Beschäftigung von Jens Rohde im Namen des Ausschusses für Industrie, Forschung und Energie (O-000085/2013 – B7-0219/2013) (2013/2593(RSP)) und

– die Anfrage zur mündlichen Beantwortung an die Kommission über die Digitale Agenda für Wachstum, Mobilität und Beschäftigung von Jens Rohde im Namen des Ausschusses für Industrie, Forschung und Energie (O-000086/2013 – B7-0220/2013) (2013/2593(RSP)).

 
  
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  Jens Rohde, author. − Mr President, as you all know, tomorrow we will vote on the resolution on the Digital Agenda. First of all, I would like to thank all my colleagues in the Committee on Industry, Research and Energy for their tremendous cooperation. I also want to thank the Commissioner for her cooperation, both in the run-up to the voting on tomorrow’s resolution and the presentation of the telecom package tomorrow.

I am glad that we share the same goals and values and that Commissioner Kroes dares to be ambitious. I want to acknowledge that, Madam Commissioner. I am happy to tell you that today you see before you a European Parliament which is unanimous. For the first time we made a resolution that went through the Committee on Industry, Research and Energy with a single vote and all parties are on board. That means that you have the best support you can ever get for your telecom package being presented tomorrow.

We expect you to use this support at the summit in October and in the forthcoming negotiations with our Member States. It is a crucial moment for Europe, because we need a European internal market and we need it urgently. It is impossible to explain to European citizens that we have an internal market in which the noise from lawnmowers is regulated, that we have rules on what a banana should look like, and that we are all so happy to have an internal market on almost everything, but that at the same time we are not able to find a solution for creating a genuine European internal market for telecommunications.

We have 500 million consumers in Europe, of whom more and more own a smartphone or a tablet which they often have to switch off when they travel abroad to avoid high roaming fees. Over the last two decades we have lost ground. The world envied Europe as we pioneered the global mobile industry in the early 1990s, but today our industry can barely sell to a continent lacking in 4G and consumers miss out on the latest technological and device improvements.

I am happy to tell you that in the resolution being voted tomorrow the European Parliament declares that this situation has to stop. We want to put an end to this fragmented market which is not fit for global competition. Only a single telecom market will allow the whole digital ecosystem to recapture a leading global role.

So we urge the Council to be more ambitious and to step over its own shadow and help the Commission and, in particular, Commissioner Neelie Kroes. Her proposals will get rid of red tape, make it easier to invest in networks, foster competition by breaking up the 28 telecom markets and will allow telecom operators to offer their services in the whole European Union.

These Commission proposals and the Parliament’s resolution will form the most ambitious package in years. It will help us build a connected, competitive continent with sustainable digital jobs and industries. It will make life better by enabling consumers to enjoy the digital devices and services that they love. Last but not least, it will make it easier for businesses and entrepreneurs to create jobs for the future. I call on the Council, the Commission, and of course my colleagues here in the European Parliament, to work together to make these ambitions a reality.

 
  
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  Linas Antanas Linkevičius, President-in-Office of the Council. − Mr President, the oral question tabled by Mr Rohde covers most of the topics relevant to our current reflections on the Digital Agenda, and it states at the outset that the digitisation of the EU economy has the potential to boost growth and create jobs. This is something that the Council fully agrees with.

The Internet and new information society applications are changing our lives at a rapid pace. Digital technologies have the potential to provide Europeans with a better quality of life through, for example, better healthcare, safer transport, efficient energy distribution, consumption, new media opportunities and easier cross-border access to goods and services. The growth of the telecoms sector also helps increase productivity, competitiveness and employment opportunities in other sectors.

The honourable Member questions whether the EU’s fixed and mobile communications broadband networks have sufficient capacity to deal with the expected growth in global data traffic and whether the level of investment in these networks is sufficient. This is a concern which the Council fully shares.

Let me also assure you, on behalf of the Lithuanian Presidency, that the Digital Agenda for Europe is at the top of our agenda and, speaking frankly, let me use this opportunity to mention that the biggest event during our presidency will be the ICT 2013 Conference which will take place in Vilnius on 6-8 November 2013. We are expecting about 4 000 participants, and all interested Members of the European Parliament are obviously most welcome. I mention it simply to emphasise that this really is our top priority issue.

Last December the Telecoms Council broadly endorsed seven transformative actions launched by the Commission: completing the digital single market for content and services; speeding up public sector innovation; establishing high-speed broadband connections; cloud computing; trust and security linked to the proposal for e-identification and to the cybersecurity strategy; digital jobs and skills; and the industrial agenda for key enabling technologies.

At the June Telecoms Council, ministers expressed broad support for the aim of achieving a single telecoms market where operators could deliver services throughout the EU and where users could access such added-value digital services whenever and wherever they wished. The honourable Member asks whether the current proposals will help address the challenge of achieving a single digital market. There is no doubt that these proposals will make a significant contribution to the expansion of broadband networks and ensure that electronic transactions can be carried out securely.

We are committed to making rapid progress on the issues to which I have referred and we look forward to close cooperation with Parliament to assist us in this goal.

The honourable Member also asks for the Council’s views on the proposal which is expected to be adopted by the Commission tomorrow on the completion of the European single market for electronic communications. In the light of a possible review of the regulatory framework, you will appreciate that I cannot comment on a proposal which has not yet been issued. I appreciate, however, that underlying the question is a concern that, despite major efforts and the adoption of important pieces of legislation, we may not be on track to achieve the single telecoms market.

The Council would expect any review to be comprehensive and to ensure proper balance between the supply and demand sides of the digital market. This means that operators should be able to grow to a point where they can compete effectively and invest sufficiently in the required networks, and at the same time consumers need to be adequately protected and citizens’ rights must be guaranteed: that is also very important. This should mean, inter alia, data protection for all operators and ensuring reliable access to the internet.

Our aim is to ensure that the digital economy gets the broadband networks it needs, whether fixed or mobile. For this, investment in broadband networks is needed and sufficient radio spectrum has to be made available, particularly with a view to accelerating the transition to fourth generation mobile communications.

The role of national regulators also needs to be reviewed and could include ensuring closer coordination on the management of radio spectrum and more generally providing an appropriate level of market competition to support a single telecoms market in which EU-based operators, and not companies from third countries, are the key players.

Next month’s European Council will consider the Commission’s report on progress in completing the digital single market. We hope that this report will support the preferred approach with adequate evidence and that this approach will be based on a comprehensive review of the whole sector, taking full account of the interests of all parties.

 
  
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  Neelie Kroes, Vice-President of the Commission. − Mr President, Minister, honourable Members, and especially the rapporteur, Mr Rohde, I am grateful for the debate tonight and for the very timely remarks that Mr Rohde has made. I was just thinking today that every Member State has a ‘digital champion’ but I would love to have a couple of digital champions from the European Parliament too, and I sincerely hope, Mr Rohde, that you would be one of the candidates for that job.

Today I want to set out how we are building a digital Europe with networks that are fast, reliable and resilient and digital businesses that can grow and prosper in the global marketplace.

Once, Europe led the world with the latest digital technology. With GSM (the Global System for Mobile Communications), Europe developed a new technology standard that took over, and many of the devices that used it were also made by European companies. Well, we have lost our lead. We have just 6% of the world’s 4G, and last week Nokia sold much of its business to Microsoft. There are many reasons why a particular company can prosper or stumble, but the fact remains that ICT is a key sector, increasingly underpinning many others and increasingly indispensable to our citizens.

So look at the big picture and ask yourself this: how much space are we giving companies to expand and grow? Are we giving them the ingredients for global success? Are we giving ourselves the tools to compete in a digital era?

I worry that the answer is no and, having read the resolution from the Committee on Industry, Research and Energy, I think that you and your committee agree. I would like to thank you again, Mr Rohde, for that report. We need to do more to support digital businesses. We need to do more to give them a home market which is digital, dynamic and unified and to give them, and every European, the connectivity they crave.

We must address the challenge of building a connected continent, and we are doing so. Our cybersecurity strategy is an important step towards ensuring resilient, secure networks for a competitive economy. The consequences of a major incident could be devastating and no European wants to be hacked, attacked, or spied on. So I am pleased to have Parliament’s position on this issue – many thanks to Mr Schwab and his colleagues – and you will be aware that the Council, too, has reached a positive conclusion on it.

I agree with you that we should integrate cyber issues into our external action and I also agree that Europe needs minimum cybersecurity requirements. Our proposed legislation would put these in place, together with risk management and flexible information flows. We rely increasingly on this infrastructure for everything, and protecting it should be every politician’s top priority.

I therefore urge Parliament and the Council to act accordingly: to agree this legislation as quickly as possible within the current parliamentary term.

We are also advancing on other fronts towards building a digital Europe. This week I hope the College of Commissioners will formally approve a new approach to costing and discrimination in telecoms networks, giving operators the stable framework they need for investment in high-speed broadband, rightly mentioned by Mr Rohde. Hopefully that approval will come tomorrow.

We have put forward legislation to cut the cost of broadband roll-out, streamlining the process to save EUR 40-60 billion. There are proposals on e-identification to build trust and stimulate the online marketplace; rules on web accessibility so that more and more people can access essential websites; and a digital Connecting Europe facility, which could provide the building blocks for further quality online European services.

As you know, our job is limited to proposing legislation. These valuable proposals now rest in the hands of the legislator. All the proposals are important. They will help us to build the kind of vibrant online Europe that we all want, and they need to be agreed – urgently please – but it is becoming clear to me that they are still not enough. I do not propose to change our focus or our goals but I want to use the tools readily to hand and to support every part of the ecosystem.

The single market is our crown jewel. It is time we brought that boost to this most fundamental part of our economy – the digital networks on which our daily lives depend so deeply. In his State of the Union speech tomorrow, President Barroso will set out new Commission plans for how to build that connected continent.

There is one more point I want to discuss today. The resolution from your Committee on Industry, Research and Energy underlines how important entrepreneurs are: they represent an alternative career path in a time of unemployment and they are a necessary source of stimulus in a time of low growth. I agree completely, and if you are as passionate as I am about this cause – and I am certain you are – let me offer you a way to channel that passion ...

I gathered together some of Europe’s top entrepreneurs – some of the guys and girls who have made it, so to speak – and I asked them to give me their suggestions on how to make Europe a better place for innovators. Give us a better chance that the next Facebook will come from here in Europe, they replied; give us a better chance of stimulating quality jobs in a digital economy. When I asked them, ‘If you were me, in my job’ – and I hastened to add that there was no vacancy – ‘tell me what you would think?’ they wrote a whole manifesto – a manifesto for a stronger, more dynamic EU, better at supporting web innovators. More than 2 000 people have already signed up to show they agree with that manifesto, and it would be great if you too would sign it.

It is the sort of manifesto capable of creating a positive tsunami: that is, a wake-up call for everybody. Supporting it means making a great effort – and taking a big step forward for our connected continent.

 
  
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  Salvatore Iacolino, a nome del gruppo PPE. – Signor Presidente, signora Commissario, un'agenda digitale credibile e concreta deve sviluppare una politica di crescita e sviluppo in un mercato unico nel quale il settore industriale, al pari di quello TIC è essenziale. Un quadro legislativo omogeneo e coerente a livello europeo appare in questo momento essenziale per assicurare ai cittadini europei quelle risposte alle richieste di trasparenza e limpidezza che al riguardo gli stessi pongono.

In questa direzione, le tecnologie dell'informazione e della comunicazione rappresentano ormai un settore nevralgico dell'economia. In questo quadro, peraltro, la crescita di internet e le crescenti transazioni elettroniche che ivi si sviluppano hanno provocato una vera e propria rivoluzione di massa, che vede i cittadini e le imprese aperti a queste nuove realtà. L'economia lecita, al pari dei nostri consumatori, ha bisogno della cyber sicurezza, di protezione e fiducia. Quale relatore sul crimine organizzato mi sono occupato concretamente delle frequenti violazioni ai sistemi informatici, così come se ne è occupato recentemente anche il Parlamento attraverso il dossier Hohlmeier.

Abbiamo pertanto bisogno di un contrasto efficace e di una cooperazione giudiziaria e di polizia basata sulla fiducia fra gli Stati membri, per contrastare un crimine che altrimenti minerebbe la fiducia dei cittadini nei confronti di questo mercato. 110 miliardi di euro è il costo del cybercrime in Europa, ci sono 556 milioni di vittime all'anno nel mondo in seguito ad attacchi informatici, una ogni 18 secondi. Vi è dunque necessità di crescita, di investimenti, di conoscenza, abbiamo bisogno di tutelare i diritti fondamentali e di ridurre l'analfabetismo digitale e infine, signor Presidente e concludo, abbiamo bisogno di completare questo mercato unico digitale restituendo fiducia, sicurezza e trasparenza ai cittadini e alle imprese.

 
  
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  Vicente Miguel Garcés Ramón, en nombre del Grupo S&D. – Señor Presidente, la estrategia europea de ciberseguridad es central para las políticas de seguridad y defensa de la Unión Europea y sus miembros. Debe proporcionar un entorno digital seguro y fiable, garantizando los derechos y valores fundamentales de la Unión, incluidos el derecho a la intimidad y a la protección de datos, el derecho universal a las telecomunicaciones y a todos sus servicios y la neutralidad de la red. Esta estrategia incluirá el desarrollo del mercado interior de productos y servicios de seguridad cibernética y de inversión en I+D+I y la educación de sus consumidores.

Saludamos la iniciativa de nuestro Parlamento de investigar el espionaje masivo de los Estados Unidos de América sobre ciudadanos, gobiernos e instituciones europeas. La negociación de la Asociación Transatlántica de Comercio e Inversión debe salvaguardar los derechos de la ciudadanía, la independencia de las Instituciones de la Unión y su soberanía.

 
  
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  Toine Manders, namens de ALDE-Fractie. – Ik dank iedereen die zich hiermee heeft bezig gehouden, maar ik dank vooral de commissaris, want wat zij zei is waar. Ik heb het gevoel dat zij een van de weinigen in Europa is die iets zegt over de digitale agenda, die er iets aan wil doen en ook daden stelt. Het valt mij wel op dat wij binnen de lidstaten nog steeds heel veel woorden hebben, maar weinig daadkracht en dat betreur ik enorm.

Als ik het even op een rijtje zet, dan blijkt dat wij met onze digitale agenda volledig afhankelijk zijn van Amerikaanse bedrijven. Dan hebben wij het over privacy. In Amerika doen ze wat ze willen en wij kunnen alleen maar roepen, terwijl onze hele economie op dit moment afhankelijk is van internet: internetbankieren, ons telefoongebruik, belasting betalen, en allerlei andere zaken die gaan via internet. En wij hebben er als Europeanen nauwelijks zeggenschap over, over het verkeer en over de logistiek. Dus ik denk dat het heel snel tijd wordt dat er één interne markt komt voor de digitale agenda.

Welnu, hoe kun je nu die economie creëren waar iedereen om roept? Door vertrouwen te scheppen bij de consumenten. En als je vertrouwen wil creëren bij consumenten, betekent dat dat je moet weten met wie je te doen hebt. Er is te veel anonimiteit op internet, waardoor je niet weet wat er gebeurt. Er wordt heel veel phishing gepleegd, enzovoort. Dat vertrouwen hebben wij nodig, maar dat staat altijd op een spanningsveld met privacy.

Ik hoop dat wij een goede ontwikkeling doormaken de komende jaren en dat wij ook Europese bedrijven krijgen die hier zeggenschap in hebben.

 
  
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  Carl Schlyter, för Verts/ALE-gruppen. – Herr talman! Cybersäkerhet är en civil fråga och det är viktigt att vi fokuserar på den civila biten och bygger upp resiliens. Ett exempel från mitt land är att det blev översvämning i en källare, varpå tågtrafiken slogs ut i tre dagar för att styrsystemen var utslagna.

Det är inte kriminella eller andra regeringar som kommer att orsaka de flesta funktionsstörningarna. Det är olyckshändelser och inkompetens. Det är det vi måste planera för. Vi får inte spara pengar så att vi slår ut viktiga system vid minsta lilla störning. Det hoppas jag att vårt cybersäkerhetsarbete kommer att fokusera på.

Kommissionären sa mycket riktigt att européer inte vill bli övervakade. Här är ju verkligenheten dock en helt annan och vi måste – både kommissionen och vi själva – ta initiativ på lagstiftningsområdet så att cybersäkerhet också innebär säkerhet från att bli övervakad, säkerhet att säkra vår integritet.

Med de förutsättningarna har vi all framgång och kan lyckas. Slutligen behöver vi också ökade krav på ansvar för mjukvarutillverkare att hantera säkerhetsbrister. Det blir inte så att man alltid måste klicka ”acceptera villkoren” och de alltid kan smita undan från allt ansvar för dålig programmering. Det är inte ett starkt konsumentskydd.

 
  
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  Evžen Tošenovský, za skupinu ECR. – Pane předsedající, dovolte, abych na úvod v prvé řadě poděkoval zpravodaji panu Rohdemu za výbornou práci při přípravě rezoluce. Souhlasím s tím, že se i ve spolupráci s ostatními stínovými zpravodaji podařilo najít vyvážený kompromis a že naše rezoluce obsahuje řadu důležitých bodů spojených s „Digitální agendou“, které by měla Evropská rada vzít v potaz. Společná práce na této rezoluci jen ukazuje, jaký význam všichni přikládáme rozvoji informačních technologií pro zvýšení růstu ekonomiky v Evropě. Informační technologie dnes skutečně určují úspěšnost ve světové konkurenci.

Jakožto zpravodaj telekomunikační části CEFU bych se chtěl zaměřit především na otázku vysokorychlostního internetu. Nebezpečí, že by Evropa mohla zůstat daleko za světem, je zjevné. Proto potřebujeme další zrychlení rozvoje ICT a zvýšení investic do této oblasti. K tomu bude potřeba vzhledem k omezenému rozpočtu v rámci CEF mobilizovat i jiné veřejné zdroje. CEF by zde měl přitom sehrát důležitou roli díky nastavenému mechanismu výběru podporovaných projektů.

Těžiště investic do rychlých a superrychlých sítí musí nicméně zůstat na soukromém sektoru. Naším úkolem je vytvářet předvídatelné regulatorní prostředí zde. Zdá se, že v zájmu zpružnění telekomunikačního trhu je potřeba udělat některé kroky, které ale musí přitom našlapovat velmi opatrně, regulovat tam, kde je to nezbytné a ku prospěchu věci.

 
  
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  Marie-Christine Vergiat, au nom du groupe GUE/NGL. – Monsieur le Président, nous vivons, dans ce Parlement, quelques moments hallucinants. Nous sommes sur le point d'enchaîner deux débats totalement déconnectés.

L'un porte sur l'agenda numérique et la cybersécurité. Il sera accompagné d'une résolution dans laquelle nous demandons des mesures de sécurité renforcées des réseaux et de l'information, davantage de coopération, notamment policière, entre les États, y compris avec les États-Unis.

L'autre porte sur les mesures d'intimidation dont ont été victimes les journalistes qui ont révélé au monde entier les turpitudes, notamment étasuniennes mais aussi britanniques et françaises. Le manque de confiance de nos concitoyens dans l'internet s'est largement aggravé ces dernières semaines avec ces affaires d'espionnage généralisées; Big Brother devient de plus en plus crédible.

Oui, les potentiels du numérique sont extraordinaires. Les entreprises, les consommateurs ont droit à la cybersécurité mais, Madame la commissaire – vous nous l'avez dit –, aucun citoyen ne doit être victime d'espionnage. Les gouvernements et les services qui leur sont rattachés doivent montrer l'exemple sinon rien n'est crédible.

 
  
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  Jaroslav Paška, za skupinu EFD Aj keď si Európska únia v Lisabonskej stratégii pred takmer 10 rokmi vytýčila cieľ, že do prelomu milénia sa stane najrýchlejšie sa rozvíjajúcou vzdelanostnou ekonomikou sveta, život nám dokázal, že medzi politickými deklaráciami a realitou bývajú veľké rozdiely. Skutočnosť je taká, že dnes Únia v oblasti digitálnych technológií výrazne zaostáva, čo sa prejavuje aj v zníženej hospodárskej konkurencii Európy.

Preto musíme rýchlo urobiť oveľa viac efektívnych opatrení pre čo najrýchlejší rozvoj digitálneho hospodárstva v Únii, aby ciele našej digitálnej agendy zodpovedali potrebám modernej rozvíjajúcej sa ekonomiky, ktorá očakáva až desaťnásobný nárast prenosu dát cez digitálne siete do roku 2018.

Veľký dôraz musíme dať aj na podporu efektívnej ochrany informácií prenášaných digitálnymi sieťami, pretože tie technológie, ktoré v súčasnosti využíva americká NSA, či iné spravodajské služby sa môžu čoskoro stať dostupnými aj pre rozličné privátne, súkromné, záujmové subjekty.

 
  
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  Gunnar Hökmark (PPE). - Mr President, thanks to the rapporteur. It is all very simple. If we want to be the leading global economy, we need to be leading regarding the Digital Agenda. If we want to regain our leadership, we need to secure that the Nokias can buy the Microsofts and that the new Googles, the new Yahoos and the new Apples emerge in Europe.

That is how simple it is. But the difficult thing is that we now need to do the reforms that are needed for that. We need to secure that we have the highest and the best capacities for broadband and Internet, because is the pre-condition in order to secure that European citizens can have the best opportunities and we can develop the best services here. We also need to be able to ensure fourth generation take-up, where Member States need to implement decisions on the 800 megahertz band, and we need to secure that we can get the transnational investment making the European Union the most attractive part of the global economy regarding investment.

We need to allocate the frequencies needed to have the mobile data traffic that a leading global economy needs to have. That means the 700 megahertz band, which this Parliament has already supported, but that also means to secure that we in this part of the world can have all the new leading services. It is very simple, Madam Commissioner, Mr Minister: we need to do the difficult things and if we do not to do the difficult things, we will not regain the leadership that we would have.

 
  
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  Evelyne Gebhardt (S&D). - Herr Präsident! Datensicherheit, Datenschutz sind Begriffe, die für uns von äußerster Wichtigkeit sind, an denen wir am ehesten arbeiten sollten. Wenn ich höre, meine Kolleginnen und meine Kollegen, dass wir Spitze werden sollten, dann sollten wir gerade in diesen Bereichen der Technologie Spitze werden und mehr in Innovation, in Kreativität, in Forschung hineingehen, damit wir dies auch wirklich im Interesse der Bürgerinnen und Bürger schaffen können. Ja, wir brauchen mehr Arbeit! Ja, wir müssen dafür sorgen, dass hier etwas geschieht! Aber das geht nicht, indem man nur viel redet, wir müssen auch etwas tun.

Ein zweiter Punkt, den ich in diesem Zusammenhang ansprechen möchte: Wir müssen dafür sorgen, dass die Sicherheit unserer Bürger auch durch die Netzneutralität gewährleistet wird. Nur so können wir dafür sorgen, dass nicht die einen übervorteilt werden durch andere, die mehr Geld haben als zum Beispiel die kleinen und mittleren Unternehmen. Auch da müssen wir Spitze werden in der Entwicklung der Möglichkeiten, die wir in diesen Bereichen haben.

 
  
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  Marietje Schaake (ALDE). - Mr President, cybersecurity certainly has a different connotation after the NSA revelations, and the EU must take the lead in ensuring that our freedoms are not eroded in the name of security. It should not be zero-sum.

The NSA and Internet companies’ practice of deliberately degrading encryption is a case in point, and we know technologies cannot be contained in a globally connected world.

Syria and the United States do not have much in common these days except for their use of surveillance, hacking, tracking, tracing and monitoring technologies. And far too many of those systems are made in Europe. We cannot talk about cybersecurity in Europe while being digital arms traders. We must end the export and proliferation of digital arms now. We have to close the regulatory vacuum, and that includes curbing the trade in zero-day exploits. We must do so to advance human rights and our own security at home and in the rest of the world.

 
  
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  Jan Philipp Albrecht (Verts/ALE). - Mr President, the European digital market will only grow with the trust of citizens and consumers and I think that is what we have to debate right now when we talk about data protection, when we talk about cybersecurity, when we talk about net neutrality. We really need to care about those rules now, to create the single digital market and to create high-level standards for consumers and citizens.

Dear Commissioner, I missed a bit the perspective of citizens’ and consumers’ rights in your words and I would like to ask you to keep that in mind also, that it is their view which counts when it is about trust in this market, about really building the capacities for making a difference. We do not need to have a European Facebook which is infringing data protection rules, like Facebook did. We do not need to have the same situations as on other markets. We need our standards on the European market, thereby building a competitive advantage, especially, for example, when it comes to net neutrality. There I really have to say: please take into account that it is not only about investors and entrepreneurs, but it is about the citizens and consumers out there. They have their rights and they want to take part in this digital economy, as do smaller enterprises which are disadvantaged in the actual market, and we need efficient rules on that.

 
  
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  Monika Hohlmeier (PPE). - Herr Präsident, liebe Kolleginnen und Kollegen! Wie in der vorliegenden Entschließung richtig dargestellt, werden Bedrohungen und Angriffe aus dem Cyberraum täglich mehr und stellen die EU vor neue Herausforderungen.

Allein sechs der schwersten Cyberattacken haben die europäischen Bürgerinnen und Bürger im vergangenen Jahr für 30 000 Stunden vom Internet getrennt. Dabei setzen wir uns den Kriminellen durch eine Multiplikation von digitalen Anwendungen und Geräten immer stärker aus.

50 % aller Angriffe im vergangenen Jahr betrafen mobile Endgeräte und Netze. Berichte über sogenannte Schwachstellen in netzwerkgestützten Anwendungen, sogenannten smart grids, auf denen die Versorgungs- und Verkehrsinfrastruktur sowie weitere kritische Infrastrukturen beruhen, mehren sich.

In diesem Sinne dürfen wir nicht länger zögern, hohe und nachhaltige Standards für die Sicherheit unserer Netze durchzusetzen. Die Informationssicherheit unserer Bürger sowie unserer Unternehmen darf nicht aufs Spiel gesetzt werden. Angesichts der vielfältigen Herausforderungen wie Schwerkriminalität, Wirtschaftsspionage – auch Staatsspionage – und militärische Spionage ist es dringend notwendig, den Industriestandort EU im Hinblick auf die IT-Sicherheitsstandort strategisch zu fördern.

Frau Kommissarin, ich halte Ihre Initiative in dieser Hinsicht für hundertprozentig richtig. Wir dürfen bei bestimmten sensiblen Bereichen sein ausschließlich auf Produkte aus China, Asien oder den Vereinigten Staaten nicht angewiesen. Es muss einen eigenen EU-Industriestandort in diesem Zusammenhang geben. Wir müssen Forschungs- und Implementierungsstrategien stärken und auch finanziell unterstützen.

Die Besten der Besten im IT-Bereich müssen in der EU eine Perspektive haben und nicht ausschließlich außerhalb der EU. Dabei vergessen Sie bitte nicht das Personal bei ENISA und Europol, denn man kann viele Forderungen stellen, aber wir müssen auch die Fachleute haben, die letztendlich bewerkstelligen können, was wir ihnen an Forderungen und Aufgaben übertragen.

 
  
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  Josef Weidenholzer (S&D). - Herr Präsident! Eine wichtige Voraussetzung für das Wachstum im digitalen Binnenmarkt ist die Netzneutralität, also das klare Gebot, Datenpakete im Internet ohne Rücksicht auf ihren Inhalt, ihre Herkunft und die Art des Dienstes gleich zu behandeln. Indem neue Dienste ohne große Hürden angeboten und von Nutzern gefunden werden können, wird der Innovationsmotor Internet gestärkt. Es darf kein Zwei-Klassen-Internet etabliert werden, bei dem einige wenige Netzbetreiber darüber entscheiden, welche Inhalte wann beim Nutzer ankommen.

Ein klares Bekenntnis zur Netzneutralität schafft die nötige Voraussetzung für einen florierenden Binnenmarkt. Die Kommission setzt daher an der falschen Stelle an, wenn sie sich bloß auf die Herstellung von Transparenz beschränkt, weil sie damit solche Eingriffe per se nicht ausschließt. Es ist Zeit, dass Frau Kroes das verwirklicht, was wir seit mehr als zwei Jahren offensiv im Parlament fordern, und einen Vorschlag zur Verankerung der Netzneutralität auf europäischer Ebene vorlegt!

 
  
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  Norica Nicolai (ALDE). - Mr President, the truth about cybersecurity is that we are always one step behind technology and its users. It is time now to adapt and we must do so quickly.

The most important thing is to be balanced. We need secure cyberspace, with rules and a degree of control, but we need also to protect openness and the free flow of information and communication.

Some Member States understand cybersecurity only as the prosecution of hackers, but it is much more than that. It is the regulation of an ever-changing environment. We need to identify its vulnerability – on the one hand financial and in terms of infrastructure systems and, on the other, in terms of vulnerable users, such as children, who need to be protected. But we also need to draw the line there.

We also need to change our mindset and to have the issue of cybersecurity in every single document we publish or work with. We need the Member States to adopt national cyber-defence strategies. There is a lot of pressure involved in this but we must continue.

 
  
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  Christian Engström (Verts/ALE). - Herr talman! Vi är alla överens om att den digitala agendan är någonting som Europa skulle kunna ha stor hjälp av när det gäller att få fart på ekonomin och så vidare. Vi har sett stora förhoppningar kring molntjänster osv, men tyvärr har det dykt upp ett mycket stort problem den senaste veckan och den senaste tiden med avslöjandena om vad USA:s spionorganisation NSA håller på med.

För det första så inser vi nu att om ett företag eller en privatperson lägger sina data i molnet, ja, då hamnar de i USA. Och om datorerna står i USA, då har den amerikanska säkerhetstjänster fullständig tillgång till alla data och sparar och lagrar dem.

Men det är ännu värre än så. Vi har också fått veta att USA medvetet saboterar vår infrastruktur. De har medvetet byggt in svagheter så att krypteringen går lättare att bryta. Det gör de för att de själva ska kunna spionera på oss, men eftersom de här bakdörrarna finns kan terrorister och skurkar också utnyttja dem. Vi måste se till att utvärdera vad som har hänt och försöka rädda vårt internet.

 
  
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  Tunne Kelam (PPE). - Mr President, we need to become a leading world economy and that means taking the lead on the digital agenda, as my colleague Mr Hökmark has said. It means not only using cyberspace more efficiently and openly, but also making it safer and more secure. Sometimes this almost seems to be a mission impossible, but I would like to present some points on how to make progress in this field.

The key words are, of course, trust and cooperation. To generate trust, all interested parties need to base their action on the same principles. This is still the EU’s weakest point because more than half of the Member States have yet to complete their national cybersecurity strategies.

Secondly, cooperation is needed at all levels and between all players. To ensure reliable cybersecurity, exchange of relevant information needs to become the norm. Thirdly, I would draw special attention to basic training on cybersecurity: staff in both the public and private sectors need systematic training on basic cybersecurity. This should also be introduced in schools. Fourthly, cybersecurity needs to become an integral part of crisis and risk management at all levels.

In conclusion, examples were presented today, in relation to the EU solidarity clause, demonstrating that the EU must keep in mind the possibility of a full-scale cyber attack against a Member State and must ensure that such an event would be reliably covered by our solidarity clause.

 
  
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  Francesco De Angelis (S&D). - Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, il dibattito di oggi e il voto sono un passaggio niente affatto scontato nel percorso di revisione e di lancio degli obiettivi dell'agenda digitale, che è una proposta che può contare oggi sul sostegno unanime della Commissione.

Le tecnologie digitali sono un prezioso strumento di crescita, di sviluppo e di lavoro e questo Parlamento è al fianco della Commissaria Kroes anche nella battaglia di abbattimento di tutti i costi di roaming. Questa è una battaglia che il gruppo dei socialisti e democratici sostiene fin dal 2011.

Allora mi sia concesso, signora Commissaria, di osservare quanto segue: non capisco come sia possibile conciliare quei propositi con una proposta di regolamento sul mercato digitale che va di fatto in direzione opposta. Cioè in sostanza da una parte diciamo una cosa giusta, sacrosanta, abbattere il roaming per realizzare finalmente e definitivamente il mercato unico per gli utenti di telecomunicazioni, dall'altra però la proposta di tariffe all'ingrosso sul roaming riviste al rialzo allontana l'obiettivo del superamento del roaming.

Credo che lo sviluppo dell'agenda digitale passi anche attraverso il rilancio dei principi di apertura, di concorrenza dei mercati europei, secondo il criterio della net neutrality. Capisco e condivido la visione di chi vuole favorire un consolidamento tra operatori del settore a livello europeo, per renderci più forti rispetto alla concorrenza extraeuropea, però tutto ciò non può avvenire a detrimento dei criteri di concorrenza, che spesso tendono a favorire prevalentemente alcuni operatori, i grandi, a svantaggio di altri che sono i più piccoli.

Credo che sia il tempo della coerenza e per questo le rivolgo un invito affinché questo dibattito e la risoluzione non siano un mero esercizio di politichese, ma trovino conferma nelle proposte legislative: cancellare il roaming per realizzare un mercato unico e tutelare gli interessi di tutti gli utenti dell'Unione!

 
  
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  Amelia Andersdotter (Verts/ALE). - Mr President, the digital single market is a good objective. Copyright reform seems inevitable for this goal, but unfortunately the Commission has not even managed an evaluation of the directive from 2001. I would be delighted to have an explanation as to why that is not happening. At the same time, one wonders whether overhauling all of the existing telecommunications legislation without proper evaluation would be the right way forward. We have many urgent problems that are well assessed. One of them is ‘notice and action’: how to ensure a due process for protecting freedom of speech online. But here the Commission has so far been unwilling to let Parliament have a say. Parliament should clarify a clearly dangerous legal uncertainty which the Commission has itself established.

Young people in Europe do not trust in the European Union and they do not vote in the elections. And why should they? The digital single market needs to be founded on respect for fundamental rights, legal certainty, trust, privacy and resilience. I would be very happy to work with the Commission to achieve these goals and to hear the Commission’s comments on how to ensure they are achieved.

 
  
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  Lara Comi (PPE). - Signor Presidente, molti colleghi hanno parlato ampiamente della cirbersicurezza, che è un tema molto sensibile – che stiamo affrontando anche nel regolamento della protezione dei dati con alcuni colleghi qui presenti. Vorrei invece focalizzarmi sull'agenda digitale, che implica quindi la crescita, la mobilità e l'occupazione.

Il settore digitale crea molti più posti di lavoro di quanti ne distrugga – se vogliamo quindi paragonarlo tra un bicchiere mezzo pieno o mezzo vuoto. Non intendo dilungarmi sulle spiegazioni sociologiche e sull'analisi di questo dato, vorrei però portare all'attenzione della Commissione europea e dei colleghi deputati sulle due priorità politiche che esso comporta.

La prima, innanzitutto bisogna sfruttare questo potenziale e fare in modo che effettivamente questa creazione di posti di lavoro avvenga e si realizzi: ce lo chiedono i cittadini, ne ha bisogno l'economia europea, per competere nei mercati internazionali è nostro obbligo morale creare le condizioni perché la nostra società, progredisca, diventi sempre più efficiente.

Il secondo aspetto è quello dell'organizzazione, per poter destinare parte delle risorse derivanti da questo incremento di produttività generale a coloro il cui lavoro viene reso obsoleto o inefficiente dall'innovazione tecnologica. Di solito si tratta di lavoratori le cui competenze sono difficilmente ricollocabili e pertanto – pur essendo io appassionata di tecnologia – non vorrei che questa gente risultasse punita perché si trova dal lato sbagliato della storia.

Si tratta invece di gente che ha svolto il suo ruolo nella società e l'eliminazione di quel ruolo deve prevedere un percorso di reinserimento nel mercato del lavoro. Sono contenta del ruolo che il Parlamento europeo sta avendo nell'incalzare le altre istituzioni e lo sviluppo dell'agenda digitale non può subire ulteriori ritardi, non ce lo possiamo permettere né noi né i cittadini europei.

 
  
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  Ivailo Kalfin (S&D). - Mr President, I would like to congratulate the Commission and in particular Vice-President Kroes for having the vision and the courage to address this important issue of cybersecurity. This issue has been undervalued for a long time. It is not necessary for us to speak about IT, about the digital agenda, about cloud computing, about 4G, 5G, without having a resilient infrastructure.

We should be clear that the mere strategy will not guarantee the safety of the internet by itself. But the strategy will change the mindset, create a sensitivity and public knowledge and create an appropriate context for the legislation and the measures to stimulate further IT development.

I would like to see a more ambitious strategy, better coordination and even a new coordinator and more links to privacy, but we have to express our congratulations on the fact that the Commission has moved from reaction to action and to impact on this important issue.

Security does not come with our regulation. Security is about the ability to react and to be resilient. Now, with the strategy, the Commission should put pressure on the national governments and on the European institutions to enforce all the provisions that are in the strategy.

 
  
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  Pilar del Castillo Vera (PPE). - Señor Presidente, Vicepresidenta de la Comisión, Consejo, en primer lugar quiero agradecer al ponente de esta propuesta de Resolución, al señor Rohde, el trabajo que ha desarrollado. Yo he sido ponente de mi grupo parlamentario, por tanto puedo dar buena fe de la capacidad del señor Rohde para potenciar este acuerdo que adoptó la Comisión de Industria, Investigación y Energía y que se votará mañana en el Pleno.

Esta Resolución tiene un título que no se ha leído al completo. Primero dice: «Agenda digital para el crecimiento, la movilidad y el empleo». Pero no acaba ahí, tras dos puntos se añade: «Ha llegado la hora de pisar el acelerador».

Y «ha llegado la hora de pisar el acelerador» significa varias cosas. «Ha llegado la hora de pisar el acelerador» significa que hay que poner en práctica, implementar allí donde no se ha hecho, lo que decía la Agenda digital, lo que dice la Agenda digital; «ha llegado la hora de pisar el acelerador» significa lo que la Comisión va a proponer mañana con nuevas medidas para impulsar el desarrollo del mercado único de las comunicaciones electrónicas.

Y «ha llegado la hora de pisar el acelerador», y me refiero al Consejo ―me interesa mucho que atienda porque creo que es fundamental también para la cumbre de octubre―, significa que el sector público, que la administración pública, desarrolle el papel de liderazgo que todavía no está desarrollando. La plena digitalización del sector público ―habida cuenta del extraordinario peso que tiene en todos los países europeos― es fundamental. Será una palanca digital que permitirá, como pocos otros instrumentos, el verdadero desarrollo de un mercado digital único, de un mercado único de las comunicaciones electrónicas.

«Ha llegado la hora de pisar el acelerador» también para el sector público.

 
  
  

ELNÖKÖL: SURJÁN LÁSZLÓ
alelnök

 
  
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  Zigmantas Balčytis (S&D). - Noriu padėkoti pranešėjui, gerbiamai Komisijos narei ir pirmininkaujančios Lietuvos ministrui už šio svarbaus klausimo išsamų pristatymą. Galima pasidžiaugti, kad Kibernetinio saugumo strategija ir joje numatyti konkretūs veiksmai jau materializuojasi. Noriu pabrėžti ypatingai svarbų ENISA agentūros vaidmenį bei jos kompetencijos išplėtimą ir galių stiprinimą, kad Europos Sąjungos lygmeniu būtų užtikrinama saugi internetinė aplinka. Nuo to, kaip sėkmingai sugebėsime užtikrinti kibernetinį saugumą, tiesiogiai priklausys Europos Sąjungos skaitmeninės darbotvarkės įgyvendinimas bei skaitmeninės rinkos sukūrimas. Per ateinančius septynerius metus Sąjunga investuos per 1 mlrd. eurų informacinių technologijų tobulinimui bei vystymui, todėl kibernetinis saugumas turi tapti šios darbotvarkės dalimi, kad galėtume apginti savo ekonominius ir politinius interesus. Džiaugiuosi, kad Lietuva pirmininkavimo laikotarpiu ketina skirti didelį dėmesį šiam klausimui.

 
  
 

„Catch the eye” eljárás.

 
  
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  Davor Ivo Stier (PPE). - Hvala gospodine Predsjedniče.

Ova točka dnevnog reda je važan dio odgovora na prijašnju raspravu o nezaposlenosti u Europi. Investicije u širokopojasni pristup i pogotovo obrazovanje za funkcioniranje u uvjetima globalne ekonomije predstavljaju ključne pretpostavke za novi ciklus rasta u Europi. U zemljama poput Hrvatske, gdje je na primjer naglašena turistička aktivnost, razvoj europske Digitalne agende je od presudne važnosti jer je iznimno bitno za razvoj te industrije da europski građani u zapadnoj ili u srednjoj Europi, u Skandinaviji ili u južnoj Europi mogu podjednako brzo i efikasno iz svog doma pronaći sve informacije o željenom mjestu za odmor i onda sigurno izvršiti rezervaciju. Ovdje su, naravno, potrebne daljnje investicije u razvoj novih tehnologija, kao što ja na primjer TeraStream, koji je nedavno premijerno predstavljen u Zagrebu, dakle u Europi, a koja diže brzinu pristupne mereže za oko 50 puta. Sve to, naravno, na kraju može i mora rezultirati otvaranjem novih radnih mjesta i povećanjem gospodarske aktivnosti. I upravo zbog toga ovu temu ne možemo gledati samo iz aspekta straha od špijunaže – najveći strah koji moramo imati je taj da ne izgubimo trend u digitalnoj ekonomiji. Hvala.

 
  
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  Janusz Władysław Zemke (S&D). - Panie Przewodniczący! Chciałbym zwrócić uwagę na następujący, moim zdaniem istotny, aspekt. Dzisiejsza dyskusja dotyczy przede wszystkim aspektów technicznych i ekonomicznych rozwoju rynku telekomunikacyjnego, dotyczy tworzenia w Europie jednego rynku, rozszerzenia internetu szerokopasmowego i dotyczy obniżenia opłat za korzystanie z tego rynku. Inaczej mówiąc, ta dyskusja dotyczy przede wszystkim poszerzenia dostępności do cyfrowego świata. Moim zdaniem nie doceniamy jednak zupełnie aspektu społecznego, czyli przygotowania obywateli Unii do mądrego korzystania z dobrodziejstw cyfrowych. Sądzę także, że należałoby odrębnie potraktować ludzi starszych, których przecież mamy w Europie ponad 150 milionów. Trzeba by dla tych ludzi przygotować odrębny program edukacji, bo co z tego, że dostępność będzie szersza, kiedy duża część obywateli Unii z internetu korzystać nie potrafi.

 
  
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  Malcolm Harbour (ECR). - Mr President, it is a special pleasure on behalf of the Committee on the Internal Market and Consumer Protection, as its chairman, to make some comments on both these resolutions, because we have been involved in both of them, and because the clear context for this is our resolution on the digital single market passed by a very large majority in this House in July, where we put the whole emphasis on the need to give citizens and consumers trust and confidence in the whole of their interactions with the Internet.

A number of people made those points today, not just in the context of network security, which is crucial not just for citizens in terms of developing the market but in delivery of those crucial infrastructure services as well, and we had to get all Member States to raise their game, as my colleague Tunne Kelam – who was a joint signatory to this resolution with me – pointed out so eloquently. But we need to address the question of trust and confidence in buying those digital services, and the issues of net neutrality that so many of you mentioned. We know, Commissioner, that you are working on that and so the point I would make from my committee is that we will do our very best to reinforce our previous work on users’ rights in this area. If I may say, it is really good to have the Lithuanian Presidency here because we need it to move this forward in Council as soon as possible.

I would also like to make an important point of order, Mr President, which is that I am disappointed that my committee – which was responsible for this resolution on cybersecurity, signed by members of my committee – was not allowed the five minutes’ speaking time that my colleague Mr Rohde used so elegantly in presenting the resolution by the Committee on Industry, Research and Energy. I think it is a breach of protocol in this House that my committee has been denied this opportunity, and I hope that you will take this up with the Presidency.

 
  
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  Roberta Metsola (PPE). - Grazzi sinjura Kummissarju. Nixtieq ningħaqad mal-kollegi tiegħi u nirringrazzjak tax-xogħol siewi li qiegħda tagħmel f’dan il-qasam. Nixtieq nagħmillek mistoqsija. F’dawn l-aħħar jiem, kien hemm diversi rapporti fil-media internazzjonali dwar il-proposta tal-Kummissjoni fuq is-suq wieħed fil-qasam tat-telekomunikazzjoni. Għadek bl-intenzjoni li tneħħi darba għal dejjem it-tariffi tar-roaming fl-Unjoni Ewropea? Jekk dan huwa veru, jiena nixtieq ngħidlek li se nappoġġjak u li se nappoġġja kull inizjattiva tiegħek f’dan ir-rigward.

 
  
 

A „catch the eye” eljárás vége.

 
  
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  Neelie Kroes, Vice-President of the Commission. − Mr President, allow me to thank all the honourable Members that are involved in the two committees and those who are interested in those issues, of leadership, so to say. The debate has shown me again just how important the online world is, not only to the Commission but to all of us and how many facets of our lives it touches, and how many approaches there are to it.

This is about all parts of the digital ecosystem. It is about the operators who run digital networks. It is about device and equipment makers. It is about the many entrepreneurs and content creators, like those innovating in Europe’s EUR 10 billion app economy. But actually it is about more than that. It is about every business, it is about every business of every size in every sector. Businesses that need to communicate to stay competitive – whether it is mobiles for their staff or the cloud for their data – to communicate securely and effectively. But too many of them cannot find those suppliers. And more and more products and services are going online, from cars to healthcare. That is going to become more of a problem. That is why it is not just about one sector: it is about our whole economic future.

I know there are those who dream of a perfect single telecoms market, and I understand that. But I am also pragmatic. And I am conscious that time is not on our side – in terms of parliamentary time, in terms of the rate of technological change, in terms of the urgent need to restore competitiveness and create some jobs. That is why, for the time being, I am putting forward not the perfect, first-principles solution, but a series of targeted measures identifying the most important barriers to our single market and knocking them down.

Like you, I am determined. I am determined to bring roaming to an end. And we will do that: it will be a big part of our proposals. But please remember: roaming is a particularly irritating single market barrier, but it is just one barrier. Let us bring them all down. In a true single market, roaming does not exist. Think what this would mean. It means helping our citizens, and getting rid of all those unfair irritants. No more shocking bill rip-offs, no more switching off your phone for your whole time on holiday, no more struggling to find a mobile signal and no more finding out your network is blocking Skype. No more slow connections when you were promised a fast one.

But it also means helping operators: helping them to smash barriers and think big, with a framework applied consistently from Dublin to Dubrovnik; more predictable and consistent access to spectrum, able to build a new large-scale services based on end-to-end quality. And helping them to plan the cross-European digital networks that underpin cross-European services. I think that is something we all want to see.

So let us deliver that connected continent. Let us deliver growth for our economy. It means fairness for our citizens and leadership for Europe in a key sector – in telecoms, ICT and every sector that depends on them. Let us bring down roaming, and other barriers besides. Then I think we could show the world how Europe is relevant to their lives, to their needs and to their future.

 
  
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  Linas Antanas Linkevičius, President-in-Office of the Council. − Mr President, I really find like-mindedness in this meeting on almost everything. All the problems which have been mentioned here – the shortcomings, even criticism with regard to speed – really are shared by the Council.

I am really grateful for all the comments and proposals. They are very valuable insights. We also share – as I said at the beginning – a belief in the importance of the Digital Agenda. This is not just words, it really is on our list of priorities and we really will try to deliver and make a difference on this issue.

There are areas which are directly related to the Digital Agenda. Some are implicitly so, which is also logical, and they should not be overlooked. So, Commissioner, when you referred in your comments to the importance of CSDP for instance, or cyber-defence, many Members of Parliament mentioned this as part of our social tasks as well. The main issue is definitely growth in jobs and employment, and this is directly linked with these issues, which should all be addressed.

I would say that we really do need additional efforts and – as Mr Manders, for instance said, additional deeds. I agree with that. Let us do it on time but also establishing good quality, which is no less important.

During my opening remarks I did not say anything on roaming, which was mentioned by the Commissioner. Definitely this is something very important to be mentioned and addressed. The Roaming III Regulation is still, as we all know, in the process of being implemented, but the main structural measures are due to come into force by the middle of next year. Our priority must be rapid and correct implementation of this regulation rather than seeking now to change the rules, which is something that could have negative consequences on operators’ investment decisions.

Everything has to do with the citizens and their needs. Again, this reflects what has been said in many of the presentations so far. We do share a common goal: to bring roaming tariffs into line with domestic prices by 2015. It is not easy, but it is really realistic and doable and we have to do it.

In closing, I really would like to congratulate Mr Rohde, first of all for the unanimous vote on this report. This means there is unity of views among the Members of the European Parliament. Those views really are shared by the Council and I see that they are also backed by the Commission. This means we really can move forward this agenda and try to implement it on time, and sooner rather than later.

 
  
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  Elnök. − A közös vitát lezárom.

A szavazásra 2013. szeptember 12-én, csütörtökön kerül sor.

 
Právne upozornenie - Politika ochrany súkromia