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Viták
2013. október 23., Szerda - Strasbourg Lektorált változat

16. A maldív-szigeteki helyzet (vita)
A felszólalásokról készült videofelvételek
PV
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  El Presidente. − El punto siguiente en el orden del día es el debate a partir de la declaración de la Vicepresidenta de la Comisión y Alta Representante de la Unión para Asuntos Exteriores y Política de Seguridad sobre la situación en Maldivas (2013/2895(RSP)).

Me señalan que la señora Ashton está obligada a dejarnos y que ha delegado en el señor Leškevičius, que será, por lo tanto, quien presente el tema y cierre el debate.

Además, quiero informarles a todos de que no aplicaremos el procedimiento de solicitud incidental de uso de la palabra («catch the eye») en este debate y tampoco el de la «tarjeta azul» por razones de tiempo.

 
  
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  Vytautas Leškevičius, President-in-Office of the Council, on behalf of the Vice-President of the Commission/High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy. − Mr President, the EU has followed the developing constitutional crisis in the Maldives with concern. The Maldives may not be largest of our partners, but the future of democracy there, as elsewhere in South Asia, is important to us. We actively assisted the country when it returned to democracy in 2008. Since ex-President Nasheed’s resignation in February last year, Vice-President / High Representative Ashton has issued a number of statements and declarations, most recently last Sunday, encouraging the political parties to end the stand-off which followed and allow the crisis to be resolved by democratic and constitutional means. We strongly supported efforts by the Commonwealth and the UN to forge a consensus on the way forward, but it became apparent that the elections offered not only the best but possibly the last opportunity to ensure that the Maldives can benefit from a government with a genuine popular mandate which has the credibility to address the many challenges the country faces. These range from environmental problems stemming from climate change – the main target for our assistance in recent years – to the spread of drug trafficking and addiction, especially among young people.

We are also concerned about the growth of radical Islamist sentiment in the country. This, together with a judiciary strongly influenced by Sharia law, has led to gross injustices such as the recent sentence of flogging – now fortunately rescinded – on a minor for alleged immoral relations, after she had in fact been assaulted by a family member.

That case led to an international outcry, in which we joined. But it is symptomatic of a wider problem. Weak democratic institutions and bickering among the political parties have helped to open the door to extremism. Hence the importance of these elections.

You will recall that, with our strong encouragement and that of other partners of the Maldives, including India, the US, and many Commonwealth countries, presidential elections were held on 7 September. Although ex-President Nasheed obtained 45 % of the vote, no candidate polled more than 50 %, so necessitating a second round. All the observers, including the Commonwealth Observation Mission, our own electoral experts, and the ‘Diplomatic Watch’ composed of representatives of Member States’ embassies in Colombo and New Delhi and of our Colombo Delegation, agreed that the outcome had been credible and transparent. The Election Commission was congratulated for its efficiency and impartiality.

This was not, however, the view of those candidates opposed to ex-President Nasheed. They launched two legal cases alleging that the voter registry was flawed and accusing the Election Commission of malfeasance. The result was that the seven-man Supreme Court first stopped the process and then ordered a complete re-run of the elections on 19 October. In the event the election was cancelled once again, after the political parties refused to sign the voter register and the Maldives Police Services entered the Election Commission premises to halt the preparations.

We have continued to insist that elections be held as soon as possible. On 22 October the Election Commission announced a new date – 9 November – for the new first round, but the procedure is still vulnerable to legal challenges on technical grounds and if there is a second round, the constitutional deadline will not be met. I would remind you that the EU and international observers have expressed their confidence in the Election Commission, and we have pointed out that elections cannot successfully be held if the candidates can repeatedly bring them to a halt through legal injunctions. The forces of law and order must facilitate the democratic process and not impede it.

We should continue, together with like-minded partners, to assist the country to further develop its democratic institutions. We are important to the Maldives, which depends on tourism – taken together, Europeans are still the single largest group of tourists – and on exports of fish, again mainly to the EU. What we say and do is of importance there.

We should be open to working with any new government, providing that it has been democratically elected: that is, the elections must be manifestly credible, transparent and inclusive. Only in that way can the Maldives put their recent history of political conflict and personality clashes behind them.

 
  
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  Thomas Mann, im Namen der PPE-Fraktion. – Herr Präsident, Herr Leškevičius, liebe Kolleginnen und Kollegen! Die Lage auf den Malediven ist außerordentlich kritisch. Die Außenministerien vieler Staaten warnen davor, Reisen in das Urlaubsparadies anzutreten, und wer bereits im Land ist, sollte auf Touren in die Hauptstadt Malé verzichten.

Wir stehen an der Schwelle zu ernsten Auseinandersetzungen – eine bittere Konsequenz der verhinderten Wiederholung der Präsidentschaftswahl. Am 19. Oktober hatten Polizeikräfte Wahllokale gestürmt und die Ausgabe von Stimmzetteln untersagt. Am letzten Wochenende haben Tausende von Anhängern des Kandidaten und Menschenrechtlers Mohamed Nasheed den Auto-, Bus- und Fährverkehr blockiert. Ihre Forderungen, die auch von großen Teilen Indiens unterstützt werden, heißen: erstens Neuwahlen und zweitens sofortiger Rücktritt des Amtsinhabers Waheed Hassan.

Als EVP-Fraktion sind wir bestürzt darüber, dass der noch junge demokratische Prozess so massiv behindert wurde. Wir fordern Aufklärung. Wieso haben Polizeikräfte die mit großer Sorgfalt vorbereitete Wahl verhindert? Ist Präsident Hassan eine der treibenden Kräfte, um möglicherweise den Sieg eines anderen Kandidaten zu verhindern?

Notwendig ist eine unabhängige Untersuchung der Rechtmäßigkeit der Wahlen, und zwar sowohl der Wahl von 2012 als auch der Neuwahl vom 7. September dieses Jahres. Der Oberste Gerichtshof hat im Übrigen beide Wahlen für ungültig erklärt. Der Menschenrechtler Nasheed erhielt vor einem Monat 45 % aller Stimmen. Das ist zwar nicht die Mehrheit, aber mit deutlichem Abstand war er die Nummer 1. Dieses Votum darf nicht einfach übergangen werden!

Die Malediven müssen zurückkehren zu Demokratie und Rechtsstaatlichkeit. Eine dauerhafte wirtschaftliche Bedrohung gefährdet die Existenzgrundlage der Bevölkerung. Immerhin gab es gestern einen ersten positiven Schritt: Der Wahlleiter kündigte die Wiederholung der Wahlen für November an. Möge wenigstens das stattfinden!

 
  
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  Alexander Mirsky, S&D grupas vārdā. – Priekšsēdētāja kungs! Šai problēmai ir trīs aspekti. Pirmais aspekts ir mūsu darbs ar Maldīvu valdību. Vai tas ir jaunums, ka spēka struktūras neatrodas prezidenta kontrolē? Kā varēja notikt, ka policijas šefs pēc būtības ir diktators? Mums jāizvērtē šīs darbības. Eiropas Savienībai nav jāpalīdz Maldīvu salu valdībai, ja tur nav kārtības.

Otrs aspekts: kas tas par prezidentu, kurš nevar nomainīt policijas šefu? Kādi viņam ir valsts vadības instrumenti, un kāpēc mēs to uzzinājām vēlēšanu laikā, nevis tad, kad notiek Maldīvu prezidenta oficiālās vizītes Briselē?

Trešais aspekts: ja reāli Maldīvu salās valsti vada spēka struktūras, tad sakiet, lūdzu, kāpēc mums ir jāsniedz viņām finansiāla palīdzība? Varbūt mēs īsti nezinām, kas notiek Maldīvu salās. Ja nezinām, tad tas ir mūsu komandas neprofesionāls darbs. Ja zinām, tad kāpēc mēs reaģējam tikai pēc tam, kad tur notiek politiski izkropļojumi? Ir jāmācās saukt lietas īstajos vārdos, tad nebūs tik daudz nepatīkamu ziņu no Maldīvu salām. Paldies jums par uzmanību!

 
  
  

VORSITZ: ALEXANDER ALVARO
Vizepräsident

 
  
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  Phil Bennion, on behalf of the ALDE Group. – Mr President, firstly I would just point out that one of the great political advantages for the Member States of European Union membership is the influence that we have through the European Union on these types of international issues. This is the reason why the Liberals and Democrats are the party of ‘in Europe’ and not ‘out of Europe’.

I think in Europe we can influence the world; in Europe we can defend our core liberal and democratic values – such as the clear separation of powers between the executive and the judicial institutions which we see in this case, and the fundamental right of people to democratic and fair elections.

I saw this in practice when I was an EU electoral observer in Pakistan earlier this year. This is why a European reaction to what is happening in the Maldives is important, and I welcome the fact that the Vice-President / High Representative has been vocal and has raised concerns over the halting of the work of the election commission following police intervention. The role and the credibility of the election commission is crucial in order to give confidence to citizens. In addition, the organisation of elections cannot be either the job of political parties or indeed of the police. We have to ask ourselves what the police are doing as far as stopping these elections is concerned. What on earth are they doing there?

The situation whereby lack of confidence in the Supreme Court and its judgments undermines the credibility of an election is deeply worrying. We need confidence in the separation of powers. Given that the failure to hold credible elections would be to deny Maldivian people their democratic rights – and I think we need to see these elections held as soon as possible – I would like to know what the EU is doing in terms of diplomatic dialogue. Why was there not an EU election observation mission? Are there plans for the EU to provide capacity-building with respect to judicial powers in the Maldives? Finally, is the Commission considering, as a last resort, the possibility of pressure through international trade tools?

 
  
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  Barbara Lochbihler, im Namen der Verts/ALE-Fraktion. – Herr Präsident, sehr geehrter Minister Leškevičius! Ich danke der Hohen Vertreterin für die klare Aufforderung, dass die Wahlen auf den Malediven bis zum 11. November abgehalten werden müssen, wie es die Verfassung vorsieht. Alle Kandidaten, die sich bereits in der ersten Runde im September zur Wahl gestellt haben, sollten dies jetzt auch wieder tun können.

Die Bürgerinnen und Bürger der Malediven brauchen Gewissheit, dass die Regeln der Wahlkommission von allen Kandidaten, von allen Institutionen akzeptiert und eingehalten werden. Wir haben die Begeisterung gesehen, mit der die Menschen zur Wahl gegangen sind, und es ist die Aufgabe von Parteiführungen, dies zu respektieren und die Durchführung von Wahlen jetzt mit aller Kraft zu unterstützen.

Auch andere Akteure, wie z. B. der Oberste Gerichtshof, sind aufgefordert, sich klar im Sinne der Verfassung für das Abhalten von Wahlen einzusetzen. Die Wahlkommission muss nun unter großem Zeitdruck Vorbereitungen treffen, damit faire und freie Wahlen stattfinden können. Die EU sollte deren Arbeit unterstützen.

Wir beobachten den zunehmenden Einfluss religiöser Fundamentalisten und deren Auseinandersetzungen mit den moderaten Kräften. Auch dies wirkt sich auf die Wahlen aus. Die Grenzen zwischen Gesetzen und Interpretationen der Scharia werden zunehmend verschwommen. So hat das Parlament im März ein Gesetz entworfen, das auch Hudud-Strafen vorsieht, wie z. B. Zwangsamputationen bei Diebstahl oder Auspeitschungen bei Unzucht. Ich bitte den EAD dringend, sich gegen diese menschenrechtsverletzenden Strafen einzusetzen.

 
  
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  Charles Tannock, on behalf of the ECR Group. – Mr President, 2008 saw the Maldives’ first democratic election, in which Mohamed Nasheed became President, representing a turning point for the country. We all hoped, as friends of the Maldives, for a future of multiparty politics and peaceful democratic rule in that small South Asian island paradise. It is therefore with a mixture of alarm and profound regret that we have looked on the deteriorating situation over the past 18 months, with an effective coup ousting MDP President Nasheed, followed by a political campaign waged against him for having dared to challenge sharia law in his country.

The free and fair election last month therefore represented a fresh opportunity, which was comprehensively endorsed by the international community and observers. The Supreme Court’s decision, which was highly controversial, to now annul the result of the election which would have put Mr Nasheed comfortably on the path to being re-elected as President, and the forcible prevention by the police of a further poll, to me smacks of judicial and political interference in a clear, democratic process and is unacceptable.

The people of the Maldives deserve better than this. They must have their voices heard and their decisions respected. The constitutional crisis which looms in Malé if a new president is not elected before the current president’s mandate expires could spell disaster for this small but dignified Commonwealth nation. I therefore join colleagues in the House in calling for Maldivian politicians to put the interests of their country before their own political futures and to help create a truly democratic society where it is the people, and not a small band of disfavoured elites allied to ex- President Gayoom and the Islamist parties, who determine the country’s future. We in the EU should apply maximum pressure to reverse the judicial coup.

 
  
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  Vytautas Leškevičius, President-in-Office of the Council, on behalf of the Vice-President of the Commission/High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy. − Mr President, the problem that we have is to ensure that those who participate in this young democracy put the needs of the country ahead of their own interests. The Maldives is not, of course, the only country with a tradition of ‘winner takes all’. But any parliamentary democracy includes not just a governing party but a ‘loyal opposition’ as well. We stand ready to help. And I can say, in response to what Mr Bennion was asking: if the election can at last be held, we can also consider other support, for example training for bodies like the judiciary and an effective audit organisation.

Regarding election observation, let me remind you that the EU funded the Election Expert Mission, which is still in place. The Maldives is an important beneficiary of our assistance in the field of climate change as well. We shall certainly continue scrutiny of developments affecting human rights.

In conclusion, I am grateful to Parliament for offering us the possibility to discuss the Maldives. We need to follow developments carefully. These elections have a relevance which goes beyond the borders of this small country. We should do whatever we can to stop it sliding into administrative chaos or back into dictatorship, as was the case before 2008.

 
  
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  Der Präsident. − Die Aussprache ist geschlossen.

 
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