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Processo : 2013/2128(INI)
Ciclo de vida em sessão
Ciclo relativo ao documento : A7-0019/2014

Textos apresentados :

A7-0019/2014

Debates :

PV 03/02/2014 - 20
CRE 03/02/2014 - 20

Votação :

PV 04/02/2014 - 8.4
Declarações de voto

Textos aprovados :

P7_TA(2014)0065

Debates
Segunda-feira, 3 de Fevereiro de 2014 - Estrasburgo Edição revista

20. Consequências locais e regionais do desenvolvimento de redes inteligentes (breve apresentação)
Vídeo das intervenções
PV
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  Presidente. - L'ordine del giorno reca la relazione di Elisabeth Schroedter, a nome della commissione per lo sviluppo regionale, sulle conseguenze locali e regionali dello sviluppo di reti intelligenti (2013/2128(INI)) (A7-0019/2014).

 
  
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  Elisabeth Schroedter, Berichterstatterin. - Frau Präsidentin, liebe Kolleginnen, liebe Kollegen, sehr geehrter Herr Kommissar! In Zeiten steigender Energiepreise, in Zeiten des Klimawandels und der sozioökonomischen Herausforderungen suchen alle Regionen nach Wegen für eine zuverlässige Energieversorgung. Eine, die für die Bürger bezahlbar ist. Der Regionalausschuss gab in dieser Sache eine Studie in Auftrag. Diese brachte erstaunliche Erfolgsstories zutage. Einige Regionen – zu denen gehören auch strukturschwache Regionen – haben unabhängig von dem Zickzack-Kurs der Kommission in der Energiewende ihre erneuerbaren Energiequellen entdeckt. Sie bauten sie aus und haben sich inzwischen von Energieabnehmern zu Energieversorgern entwickelt. Inseln konnten sich auf diese Weise von der Versorgungsabhängigkeit vom Festland befreien, bieten ihren Bürgerinnen und Bürgern stabile Energiepreise und beliefern inzwischen das Festland mit ihrer Energie.

Diese Regionen entwickelten intelligente Systeme des Energieverbrauchs und der Energieeinsparung. Diese Konzepte sind von Region zu Region völlig unterschiedlich. Aber sie haben einige gemeinsame Grundsätze. Der Erfolg gründet sich auf Transparenz und Zusammenarbeit zwischen lokalen Behörden, Unternehmen der Industrie, den Bürgerinnen und Bürgern. An den Planungen werden alle beteiligt. Die Eigeninitiativen der Bürger und Bürgerinnen werden gefördert. Energiegenossenschaften und Bürger-Solaranlagen werden unterstützt. Und diese Konzepte gewannen dadurch, dass sie sektorenübergreifend waren, zum Beispiel waren der Verkehr und das Wohnungswesen miteinbezogen.

Allerdings mussten diese Konzepte in der Praxis enorme Hürden überwinden, und das war wirklich nicht einfach. Wo Energieerzeugung, -verbrauch und -speicherung am gleichen Ort passieren, muss der elektrische Strom in beide Richtungen fließen können. Der Investitionsbedarf in solche intelligenten Systeme ist enorm. Oder: Wenn ein intelligentes Energiesystem auf der Grundlage von Endverbraucherdaten geschaffen wird, müssen Datenschutz und Privatsphäre wirklich geschützt werden, und das muss gegenüber den Bürgern und Bürgerinnen sichergestellt werden.

Deswegen ist eine ganz wichtige Schlussfolgerung dieses Beschlusses: Energieeinsparung und Datenschutz dürfen hier nicht gegeneinander ausgespielt werden. Das Grundrecht der Bürger und Bürgerinnen auf Schutz ihrer persönlichen Daten geht vor. Also müssen die Bürger und Bürgerinnen von sich aus entscheiden, ob sie sich am System beteiligen oder nicht, und ihre Daten freigeben. Und sie müssen sicher sein, dass diese Daten nicht missbraucht werden oder an Dritte weitergegeben werden. Nur dann haben solche intelligenten Energiesysteme Erfolg.

Wir müssen auch feststellen, dass die Kommission mit ihren Entscheidungen in der letzten Zeit solchen Zukunftskonzepten lokaler und regionaler Entwicklung eher hinderlich ist. Es gibt zum Beispiel keine Zukunftsstrategien für die Förderung erneuerbarer Energie in der Kommission. Der Rückfall der Kommission in das fossile Zeitalter behindert die Regionen, um das notwendige Investitionsklima zu schaffen. Oder die strikte und einseitig ausgerichtete Sektorenpolitik der Kommission in den Beihilfeverfahren erstickt sektorenübergreifende Ansätze im Keim. Aus meiner Sicht braucht es hier dringend einen Kurswechsel, und es müssen intelligente Energiesysteme gefördert werden, denn sie spielen eine Schlüsselrolle in der modernen Klimapolitik. Wer hier auf der Bremse sitzt, nimmt den Regionen ihre Zukunft in der Energieunabhängigkeit und nimmt den Regionen ihre Energiesicherheit.

Ich hoffe, dass dieser Bericht dazu beiträgt, dass die Kommission endlich den notwendigen Kurswechsel vollzieht!

 
  
 

Procedura "catch-the eye"

 
  
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  Andrej Plenković (PPE). - Gospođo predsjednice, podržavam izvješće kolegice Schroedter o lokalnim i regionalnim posljedicama razvoja inteligentnih mreža kako bi se omogućio sve veći prihvat obnovljivih izvora energije u elektroenergetske sustave zemalja članica i regija. Polazište izvješća je poticaj promjeni paradigme regija u pogledu načina proizvodnje i potrošnje energije prelaskom s konvencionalnog modela na promjenjivu, decentraliziranu i lokalnu proizvodnju koja objedinjuje velik dio obnovljivih izvora energije iz male proizvodnje. Mnoge države članice neće biti u mogućnosti ostvariti svoje ambiciozne ciljeve za smanjenje ugljičnog otiska iza 2020. bez značajnijeg napretka u razvoju pametnih mreža koje trebaju integrirati obnovljive izvore u elektroenergetske sustave. Ostvarenjem ciljeva za obnovljive izvore energije otvorit će se 2,8 milijuna novih radnih mjesta do 2020. što je veliki udio u gospodarstvu Europske unije. Prilika je zemalja članica, a posebice regija da razvijaju pametne sustave manjih dimenzija kroz europske strukturne i investicijske fondove koristeći svoje geografske i regionalne potencijale. Siguran sam da će i Hrvatska to iskoristiti u razdoblju koje je pred nama.

 
  
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  Miroslav Mikolášik (PPE) - Inteligentné energetické systémy prinášajú príležitosti pre regióny. Predovšetkým pre tie okrajové a znevýhodnené, aby nielen znížili svoje náklady na energiu, ale aby sa stali aj jej výrobcami a vývozcami. Plne preto podporujem decentralizované vykonávanie stratégií využívania zdrojov energie s aktívnou podporou zo štrukturálnych fondov a pri plnom využívaní verejno-súkromných partnerstiev. Lokálne inovácie totiž zohľadňujú miestne ekologické a ekonomické špecifiká, prinášajú zamestnanosť do regiónu a zvyšujú jeho konkurencieschopnosť. Výzvou však zostáva skladovanie, distribúcia, interoperabilita technológií a existujúcich sietí a výmena so susednými krajinami. Členské štáty by mali totiž zohľadniť výhody takejto cezhraničnej spolupráce predovšetkým tým, že priaznivo nastavia platnú legislatívu, čím uľahčia prístup svojim regiónom ku vzájomne výhodným partnerstvám v oblasti energií.

 
  
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  Jan Březina (PPE). - Paní předsedající, frekvence užívání slovního spojení chytré sítě (smart grids) vyvolává bohužel klamný dojem, že koncepce smart grids je již prakticky vyřešena. Rád bych zdůraznil, že aby tento koncept byl plně realizován, vyžadovalo by to vyřešit základ, tj. ukládání elektrické energie, a investovat obrovské finanční prostředky do fyzické realizace takových sítí.

Zpráva paní zpravodajky je zprávou, kterou bych spíše nazval „Chytré regionální využití místních obnovitelných zdrojů“. Nicméně i tak je nutno ocenit úsilí paní zpravodajky o ochranu osobních údajů o spotřebě zákazníků, což je velmi citlivý údaj, a snahu o transparentnost všech údajů. Nesouhlasím ale s paní zpravodajkou u té části zprávy, kde požaduje ambicióznější cíle v ochraně klimatu.

O koncepci smart grids by se mělo mluvit především v souvislosti s výzkumem dosud nehotové části této koncepce týkající se ukládání a v souvislosti s obrovskými prostředky nutnými pro investice.

 
  
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  Ivana Maletić (PPE). - Gospođo predsjednice, pametne mreže ključne su za razvoj i korištenje obnovljivih izvora energije. Europska unija je u strategiji 2020 postavila cilj od najmanje 20% udjela obnovljivih izvora energije u ukupnoj proizvodnji električne energije.

Republika Hrvatska ima priliku koristiti europske fondove za razvoj pametnih mreža i povećanje razine korištenja ovih jeftinih izvora energije za kućanstva i proizvodnju te tako smanjiti ulazne troškove i povećati konkurentnost. Studije pokazuju da korištenje obnovljivih izvora energije stvara i nova radna mjesta.

Pametne mreže put su ispunjavanja europskih ciljeva: Energetski neovisna i konkurentna europska unija sa što većim brojem radnih mjesta.

 
  
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  António Fernando Correia de Campos (S&D). - As redes inteligentes começaram bem mas estão a arrefecer o seu desenvolvimento. Elas são um bom instrumento para a utilização eficiente da energia elétrica. Não só contribuem para a integração das renováveis como promovem a eletrificação do transporte rodoviário, conferindo ao consumidor a capacidade de adaptar o seu consumo em função dos picos de procura e oferta, baixando a sua fatura elétrica.

As redes inteligentes oferecem uma oportunidade para estimular a inovação e a investigação a nível das PME, com reforço da competitividade e criação de emprego qualificado.

É necessário um quadro político europeu estável, com metas ambiciosas de eficiência energética e de renováveis para 2030. É ainda necessário remover barreiras ao investimento, permitindo a alavancagem de fundos e instrumentos financeiros e a aprovação de normas técnicas de interoperabilidade e de um quadro regulamentar próprio. Só assim recuperaremos o entusiasmo inicial.

 
  
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  Sandra Petrović Jakovina (S&D). - Gospođo predsjednice, dozvolite mi da ovim putem iskažem podršku ovom izvješću za koje smatram da nudi nove mogućnosti za regionalno gospodarstvo te pozitivne učinke na lokalno zapošljavanje, dakle na socio-ekonomski status regija, ali i na klimatske promjene. Nužno je da promičemo nove modele proizvodnje i potrošnje energije, gdje lokalne zajednice i građani mogu postati proizvođači i potrošači.

Prijelaz na promjenjivu, decentraliziranu i lokalnu proizvodnju podrazumijeva ulaganje u pametne energetske mreže, ali i povezivanje energetskog sektora s drugim sektorima kako bi se povećale gospodarske pogodnosti te uskladile regionalna opskrba i potražnja energije. Lokalne i regionalne vlasti bi trebale prepoznati da je ulaganje u pametne energetske sustave zapravo ulaganje u tehnološki, ali i gospodarski razvoj Europske unije, a za potpuno uspješne pametne energetske sustave smatram da je potrebno još poraditi i na zaštiti privatnosti podataka kada su u pitanju pametna brojila, kao i na uključenosti građana, što znamo iz primjera dobre prakse, te na smanjenju prepreka ulaganju kao i financiranju na više teritorijalnih razina, što bi omogućilo uspješniju provedbu.

 
  
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  Silvia-Adriana Ţicău (S&D). - Rețelele inteligente contribuie la reducerea emisiilor de gaze cu efect de seră, la creșterea ponderii energiei din surse regenerabile și la asigurarea securității aprovizionării pentru gospodării.

Încurajez regiunile și autoritățile locale să investească în sisteme energetice inteligente, ca potențială sursă pentru locuri de muncă durabile și ecologice la nivel local. Industria construcțiilor reprezintă unul dintre principalele domenii în care vor fi create locuri de muncă atât prin investiții directe în rețelele energetice inteligente, cât și prin stimularea dezvoltării tehnologiei în Uniunea Europeană, a inovării și a competitivității IMM-urilor, prin investiții în măsuri de eficiență energetică și renovare, de exemplu, în sectorul locuințelor.

Datele cu caracter personal colectate în legătură cu exploatarea sistemelor energetice inteligente sunt foarte sensibile, deoarece pot fi folosite pentru a dobândi informații despre comportamentul consumatorilor și, prin urmare, trebuie garantată o protecție specială a acestor date. Vă mulțumesc.

 
  
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  Tonino Picula (S&D). - Gospođo predsjednice, od definiranja termina pametnih mreža u 2005. godini do danas postignut je značajan napredak pa primjere dobre prakse u uvođenju pametnih mreža možemo pronaći diljem Europe te primijetiti naglašenu potrebu za dugoročnim usmjeravanjem znanstvenih istraživanja u smjeru energetske učinkovitosti. Republika Hrvatska je u skladu s preuzetim obvezama uskladila zakonodavstvo s pravnom stečevinom Europske unije u području energetike.

U domaći zakonodavni okvir ugrađene su odrednice iz Direktive o poticanju proizvodnje energije iz obnovljivih izvora, kao i one vezane uz djelotvornu potrošnju energije u neposrednoj potrošnji. Trenutno je u Hrvatskoj u tijeku izrada strateških dokumenta za razdoblje do 2020. godine, u okviru kojih je naglašeno financiranje projekata koji se odnose na razvoj pametnih mreža u Hrvatskoj. Također, pojednostavljenjem procedure za povlaštene otkupne cijene, novim zakonom o energiji očekuje se realizacija tisuća malih integriranih sunčanih elektrana u ukupnoj vrijednosti od 400 milijuna kuna te posljedično značajan zamah za lokalne poduzetničke inicijative.

 
  
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  Graham Watson (ALDE). - Madam President, we need to make the switch from fossil fuels to green energy, because power generation accounts for 25% of greenhouse gas emissions. The problem with renewables, of course, is their variability, and one of the solutions – as the rapporteur points out – is local smart grids encouraging people to use less when supply is less and letting people sell their own production back to the grid.

The real challenge is moving thinking from the traditional inflexible base-load model to the variable decentralised local production model using electricity grids that use data and ICT technology to make electricity distribution smarter. Smart metering and the demand-response idea allow us to adapt consumption to prices and supply. We can bring down electricity bills, we can distribute energy generation and, with EU-wide standards for interoperability, we can ensure that the Connecting Europe Facility is promoting these smart energy projects.

 
  
 

(Fine della procedura "catch-the-eye")

 
  
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  László Andor, Member of the Commission. - President, honourable Members, I would like to thank the rapporteurs, Ms Schroedter and also Ms Ulvskog, for the very thorough work on this report and the suggestions on cohesion policy investment in smart grids. The Commission is already working along the lines of several of the main recommendations of the report. Going beyond the 20-20-20 target poses a serious challenge which will require further transformation of the energy system, continuous research and innovation and radically novel solutions.

As you know, the new cohesion policy period just starting now is more result-oriented and follows a more targeted approach, focusing on fewer priorities and translating the Euro 2020 strategy into concrete investment in Member States and regions.

In this context, cohesion policy is placing even further emphasis on supporting investment linked to the energy targets of the EU. For the period 2014-2020, there will be a significant concentration of efforts on supporting the shift towards a low-carbon economy in all sectors – that is a large focus in renewable energy, energy efficiency and smart grids at the distribution level, as well as sustainable urban mobility and research and innovation in these areas. This will lead to significantly increased amounts for cohesion policy, sustainable energy investments over 2014-2020, representing more than a doubling of the current amount.

One investment area will be smart grids, which will be the backbone of the future decarbonised power system. They will enable improved energy efficiency and the integration of vast amounts of renewable energy.

The EU is still in the early stages of the actual deployment of smart grids. Despite a couple of good examples, there is a considerable gap between actual and optimal investments in Europe, which can only be partly explained by the current economic downturn. Investors are still struggling to find the optimum model for sharing costs and benefits along the value chain.

There are also still some uncertainties regarding whether consumers will embrace these new technologies, how to choose cost-effective technologies and which technical standards should apply to smart grids in the future.

Public investments in local and regional smart grid pilot projects will substantially help to remove existing technical and non-technical uncertainties associated with the full deployment at national and EU level. In this context, the development of urban sustainable energy action plans and mobility action plans should be encouraged and supported as part of broader low-carbon and urban development strategies.

Together with the other actors and stakeholders, regions and cities can work to find local tailored solutions, as the Covenant of Mayors has clearly illustrated.

The use of financial instruments for sustainable energy investments, in particular in the urban context, will be further encouraged. They represent a resource-efficient way of deploying cohesion policy resources in the pursuit of the Europe 2020 objectives.

In addition to cohesion policy investment in smart grids – which we will thus focus on the distribution level – smart grids may also have access to financial support from the Connecting Europe Facility under which an amount of almost EUR 6 billion will be made available for improving the trans-European energy infrastructure for the period 2014-2020.

In 2012, the Commission started the process of identification of potential smart grid projects of common interest in the context of the Smart Grids Task Force. Such projects need to involve at least two Member States. The assessment of two Smart Grid projects, Green-Me, which is France and Italy, and the North Atlantic Green Zone, UK and Ireland, has been concluded positively. Both projects are now on the list of projects of common interest and could potentially benefit from support from the Connecting Europe Facility.

To maximise European added value, Member States and the Commission have to ensure that cohesion policy interventions are planned in close cooperation with the support provided from the Connecting Europe Facility, so as to ensure complementarity, avoid duplication of efforts and ensure the optimal linkage of different types of infrastructure at local, regional and national level, as well as across the Union.

The Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Programme also includes activities to facilitate the development of smart grids. The report mentions several challenges which must be addressed in order to achieve a smarter energy system in the EU regions, and in particular regulatory and legal challenges and challenges linked to data protection and privacy.

The Commission agrees on the need for consumers to have access and power of decision over the use of their metering and personal data, and for lifting any concerns for data protection and privacy in smart grid environments. In this respect, the Commission has already given due attention to the subject in its Recommendation on preparations for the roll-out of smart metering systems, setting clear guidelines for Member States on data protection, privacy and security on the preparation for the smart metering roll-out. Moreover, the Commission is currently working with smart grid stakeholders on the development of a Data Protection Impact Assessment template and on best available techniques for smart metering and appropriate security measures for the smart grid. The Commission has also proposed the reform of the existing data protection legislation, striving to achieve maximum protection with minimum red tape.

The roll-out of smart metering and smart grid systems indeed has regulatory implications, for both energy and telecommunications sectors, and calls for a reflection on viable market options. The respective discussion was initiated in the 2012 Internal Energy Market Communication, and this will be a focus area for the Commission in the next months.

In shaping this new open, competitive and transparent retail market, we need to incentivise network operators to invest in new technologies and lay out clear roles and responsibilities for market actors; facilitate the access for new entrants and new business opportunities.

Finally, the Commission recognises that timely development of standards is crucial for the market uptake of smart grid-related technology and has therefore issued specific mandates in recent years to all three European Standardisation Organisations. The Commission has been closely following and coordinating the related activities via the Smart Grid Task Force.

The report on local and regional consequences of smart grids is indeed very timely. It stresses the importance of networking between regions and smart energy systems and the importance of sharing knowledge in this area. The Commission will continue to facilitate cooperation between regions and to support the exchange of experience and good practices in the area of sustainable energy.

 
  
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  Presidente. - La discussione è chiusa.

La votazione si svolgerà martedì 4 febbraio 2014.

Dichiarazioni scritte (articolo 149)

 
  
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  Iosif Matula (PPE), în scris. – Sectorul energetic european se confruntă cu provocări precum creșterea continuă a cererii de electricitate, nevoia de liberalizare a pieței de energie, implementarea tehnologiilor de stocare, precum și adaptarea pieței trans-europene de electricitate la tendințele din domeniul energiilor durabile. Rețelele inteligente contribuie la creșterea capacității de inovare, sprijină dezvoltarea la nivel regional și, implicit, consolidează competitivitatea industriei europene, prin exploatarea potențialului oferit de IMM-uri. Regiunile au oportunitatea de a investi în rețelele inteligente în vederea reducerii costurilor energetice suportate și prin realizarea unui sistem bidirecțional de producere și distribuție a energiei electrice.

Sprijinul financiar acordat proiectelor energetice regionale trebuie să vizeze investiții în tehnologii regenerabile la nivelul gospodăriilor. Avem nevoie de o abordare integrată, care să cuprindă factori de natură comercială, tehnică și de reglementare în raport cu nevoile specifice de dezvoltare. Finanțările prevăzute în programele de cercetare și inovare (PC) cuprind acțiuni ce urmăresc schimbul de informații, implementarea soluțiilor inovatoare și coordonarea standardizată a investițiilor. Sistemele energetice inteligente pot fi puse în practică printr-o strategie destinată regiunilor și comunităților locale, prin alocarea a 20% din sprijinul FEDER în investiții destinate tranziției energetice.

 
  
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  Γεώργιος Σταυρακάκης (S&D), γραπτώς. – Tα ευφυή δίκτυα είναι εκσυγχρονισμένα ηλεκτρικά δίκτυα που χρησιμοποιούν την αναλογική ή ψηφιακή τεχνολογία και την πληροφορία της επικοινωνίας για να συγκεντρώσουν πληροφορίες και να δράσουν με αυτοματοποιημένο τρόπο για την βελτίωση της αποτελεσματικότητας, της αξιοπιστίας, της οικονομίας και της βιωσιμότητας της παραγωγής και διανομής ηλεκτρικής ενέργειας. H ανάπτυξη των ευφυών δικτύων απαιτεί ένα σταθερό και μακροπρόθεσμο πλαίσιο πολιτικής. Για τον λόγο αυτό, τα κράτη μέλη και οι περιφέρειες καλούνται να επενδύσουν όσο το δυνατόν νωρίτερα στα τοπικά ευφυή δίκτυα, κάνοντας χρήση των Ευρωπαϊκών Διαρθρωτικών και Επενδυτικών Ταμείων. Επίσης, είναι σημαντικό να συμμετέχουν οι τοπικές και οι περιφερειακές αρχές αλλά και οι πολίτες σε όλες τις φάσεις του σχεδιασμού, υλοποίησης και μετατροπής των δικτύων ενέργειας. Επιπλέον, είναι αναγκαία η ενεργή συμμετοχή των διαχειριστών υπηρεσιών διανομής και των παρόχων των τεχνολογιών για τα ευφυή δίκτυα. Για ένα μέλλον περισσότερο προσανατολισμένο στην ενεργειακή αποδοτικότητα, οι περιφέρειες της Ευρώπης θα πρέπει να προσπαθήσουν να γίνουν παραγωγοί ενέργειας και να μην περιορίζονται στον ρόλο του καταναλωτή. Aυτό θα είναι επωφελές για όλους τους στρατηγικούς στόχους της ΕΕ, συμπεριλαμβανομένων αυτών που συνδέονται με τη δημιουργία και την διατήρηση θέσεων απασχόλησης και την προστασία του περιβάλλοντος.

 
  
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  Владимир Уручев (PPE), в писмена форма. Г-н Председател, едва ли има съмнения в бъдещето на възобновяемата енергия. За съжаление съществуващата енергийна инфраструктура предполага развитието на концентрирани големи възобновяеми източници на енергия, което поражда проблеми с регулирането и сигурността на системата, както и необходимост от бързоманеврени заместващи мощности. От друга страна на сектора на възобновяемите енергийни източници (ВЕИ) е присъщо децентрализираното производство, което изисква интелигентни мрежи и управление. Днес развитието на интелигентните мрежи се нуждае от адекватно насърчаване. По-нататъшното развитие и интеграцията на разпределеното производство от ВЕИ са възможни главно чрез изграждането на местни и регионални интелигентни разпределителни мрежи за електричество.

Необходимо е в най-скоро време Комисията да съсредоточи вниманието си върху намаляване на пречките в развитието на интелигентните мрежи, стимулиране на инвестициите и предоставяне на финансови стимули чрез подходяща регулаторна рамка, разработване на технически стандарти и подкрепа за иновациите в технологиите и системите, гарантиране на конкурентоспособен пазар на дребно в интерес на потребителите. Подкрепям определянето на минимален дял 20% от Европейския Фонд за регионално развитие, предназначен за инвестиции в енергийния преход, включително за интелигентни мрежи, производство и разпределение на енергия от ВЕИ, енергийна ефективност и икономия на енергия. Особено важно е да продължи сътрудничеството и обмена на най-добри практики между държавите членки, включително последователни действия за популяризиране на интелигентните мрежи.

 
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