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Processo : 2013/0081(COD)
Ciclo de vida em sessão
Ciclo relativo ao documento : A7-0377/2013

Textos apresentados :

A7-0377/2013

Debates :

PV 24/02/2014 - 21
CRE 24/02/2014 - 21

Votação :

PV 25/02/2014 - 5.13
Declarações de voto

Textos aprovados :

P7_TA(2014)0122

Debates
Segunda-feira, 24 de Fevereiro de 2014 - Estrasburgo Edição revista

21. Condições de entrada e de residência de nacionais de países terceiros (debate)
Vídeo das intervenções
PV
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  Elnök. - A következő napirendi pont a által az Állampolgári Jogi, Bel- és Igazságügyi Bizottság nevében készített, a harmadik országbeli állampolgárok beutazásának és tartózkodásának feltételeiről szóló jelentésről folytatott vita (COM(2013)0151 - C7-0080/2013- 2013/0081(COD)) (A7-0377/2013)

 
  
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  Cecilia Wikström, föredragande. - Herr talman! Ja, om detta direktiv antas så kommer det att skapa förbättrade regler för tredjelandsmedborgare som kommer till EU för att här studera, forska eller bedriva avlönad eller oavlönad praktik eller volontärarbete, eller rent av arbeta som au-pairer.

Målet är så klart att göra EU till ett världscenter för studier och forskning, och vi ska komma ihåg att de som idag är au-pairer, de är morgondagens forskare.

Trots den ekonomiska nedgången i många medlemsländer och trots höga nivåer av arbetslöshet, så är det faktiskt fortfarande så att många företag har svårt att rekrytera kompetent arbetskraft.

Vi står också i EU inför en svår demografisk utmaning med en åldrande befolkning, och vi kan konstatera att vi har varit en attraktiv arbetsmarknad för kompetenta människor från olika delar av världen, men det har förändrats och andra länder i andra delar av världen lyckas bättre än vi med att locka till sig kompetent arbetskraft, medan vår ibland komplicerade byråkrati och tilltagande skepsis i många medlemsländer gentemot immigranter kan skrämma bort människor.

Det är viktigt att vi nu förbättrar situationen och ger tydliga, enkla regler för att öka EU:s attraktivitet. Fler utländska studenter, forskare och internationella utbyten kommer att leda till ekonomisk tillväxt och främja innovation, skapa fler jobb på sikt och i allt bidra till en ökad konkurrenskraft för våra medlemsländer.

Kommissionens förslag slår samman två direktiv, direktivet för forskare och direktivet för studenter, och introducerar en lång rad förbättringar som har visat sig nödvändiga efter att man utvärderat situationen i gällande regelverk, där många regler och villkor är otydliga och variationerna stora mellan länderna.

I arbetet med betänkandet i utskottet för medborgerliga fri- och rättigheter har vi ytterligare förbättrat detta direktiv, och det är jag stolt över. Vi vill få harmoniserade regler mellan medlemsländerna vad gäller inresevillkor och krav, och tydliga regler och möjligheter samt en intra-EU-mobilitet där man tillåter cirkulation av människor mellan våra medlemsländer baserat på den initiala auktoriseringen. De nuvarande reglerna är svaga, särskilt när det gäller studenter, och är det något som är fint i EU och som vi verkligen måste uppmärksamma och erbjuda andra så är det detta med mobilitet.

Vi inför tidsfrister: vi säger 30 dagar för medlemsländernas myndigheter att fatta beslut om en ansökan och tillägg av en tidsfrist i de fall man har överklagat.

Vi vill också se ökat tillträde till arbetsmarknaden där studenterna ska få rätt att arbeta minst 20 timmar per vecka, och efter examen eller avslutad forskning ska studenter och forskare kunna få stanna i arton månader i det aktuella landet för att söka jobb, starta företag eller på annat sätt etablera sig i landet.

Bestämmelsen för forskarnas familjemedlemmar ska också gälla för studenters familjemedlemmar, eftersom studenter idag generell är äldre när de avslutar sina högre studier. Det är inte helt osannolikt att de också skaffat familj. Bestämmelserna för auktorisering ska också vara frivillig och inte obligatorisk.

Förhandlingarna, tvingas jag konstatera, har inte gått så bra, och ännu har man i rådet inte funnit en gemensam hållning. Det innebär att det inte kommer att vara möjligt att nå en överenskommelse innan mandatperioden är över. Därför har jag med skuggföredragandenas stöd beslutat att ta betänkandet till votering i plenum för att anta parlamentets förhandlingsposition och möjliggöra att förhandlingar kan inledas så snart som möjligt under nästa mandatperiod.

Med detta vill jag tacka alla skuggföredraganden för det fina arbete vi gemensam har gjort och för det synnerligen goda resultat vi har åstadkommit.

 
  
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  Cecilia Malmström, Member of the Commission. - Mr President, if a talented student from India or a senior researcher from the US, or any other country outside the EU, wants to come to the European Union today, he or she has to do so on the basis of outdated rules that are more than ten years old.

Under these rules, an applicant does not even know how long it will take him or her to get a decision on an application for a permit. An applicant may fulfil the criteria to get a permit, and even receive funding through Erasmus or Marie Curie, but not get an entry visa, or a successful applicant may be able to study in only one country and find it difficult to get to other Member States to carry out part of his or her studies there.

This is not how we should treat people who can make important contributions to our innovative capacity, competitiveness, economy and society as a whole. This is also not in line with our ambition to increase possibilities for cultural exchanges, learning and people-to-people contact.

But for volunteers, school pupils and remunerated trainees, there are only optional rules at EU level and this is the fragmentation of different approaches. For remunerated trainees and au pairs there are no EU rules at all, although they could benefit considerably from the more transparent and protective sets of rules on their mission and stay here.

This is why, a year ago, we proposed an overhaul of the EU immigration rules for these groups. Our proposal is ambitious and I want it to remain ambitious. For the moment, the EU accounts for the largest share of internationally mobile students – we can be proud of this – but it is in decline. There is growing international competition and we can no longer rely on automatically attracting the brightest.

In order to remain an attractive and credible choice for talent, we have to make sure that our immigration rules are up to date. That was the main rationale for the Commission proposal and I would like to thank the rapporteur, Cecilia Wikström, and the Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs, which has given us its full support, as well as the rapporteurs of the Committee on Employment and Social Affairs and the Committee on Legal Affairs. Mrs Papadopoulou and Mr Stoyanov have provided the Civil Liberties Committee with very important contributions and we would like to thank them as well.

The Civil Liberties Committee has not only given the Commission proposal its full support but has gone a step further. Let me mention a few of the most important amendments. Regarding equal treatment, yes, it is a good idea to tighten up the proposal in order to make sure that equal treatment rights apply not only to those holding a permit, but also those who have a long-term visa. It also makes sense that students can benefit from the same equal treatment provisions as researchers, in conjunction with family reunification provisions for students’ family members. Some Member States already offer family reunification possibilities and I would like to support this being extended across the EU.

The same goes for extending intra-EU mobility provisions for unremunerated trainees and volunteers. Learning and volunteering should not be limited to one Member State so we should indeed open up possibilities for these groups to move to other Member States. I also support extending this possibility to job-seeking and the setting-up of businesses for students who finish their studies and researchers who finish their research. Let me recall that our proposal makes it clear that this does not amount to a right to enter the labour market. It is up to the Member States to decide.

Furthermore, I support the proposal to shorten the time limits for national authorities to decide on applications and appeals. Given that most groups concerned will only stay in the EU for short periods, 30 days should indeed be sufficient to come back with a decision.

There is only one area where I would like to sound a note of caution. This concerns the so-called more favourable conditions. We are not against this at all –in the area of equal treatment rights, for instance – but, at the same time if the list of articles for which Member States can have a more favourable provision becomes too long, it risks ending up in a fragmented approach. For the sake of transparency and clarity, we should have as many rules in common between the Member States as possible, ideally with the common rules moving to a higher level of ambition.

Ambition has been the principle that has guided the Commission in the negotiations. We have made ambitious proposals and I am very pleased to see that the Civil Liberties Committee has not only fully subscribed to this, but has even taken it a step further in some areas. This is incentive enough for us to defend our level of ambition and I would like to thank you for that.

Let us make sure that the EU stays an attractive place for young and talented third-country nationals. Let us make sure that, while having in place safeguards to avoid misuse, we offer fair admission conditions. Let us make sure that the rights of the relevant groups are, as far as possible, in alignment with those of EU citizens.

The Civil Liberties Committee report has confirmed that our reports make the right adjustments to the current rules. It clarifies the rules, it improves the conditions for entry and length of stay and makes us ready to face international competition.

The discussions in the Council have not yet led to a common position between Member States. We will, of course, do our utmost in the Commission to advance negotiations in the Council and maintain a high level of ambition. I very much hope that the institutions will be able to conclude a decision on this very important directive this autumn.

 
  
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  Αντιγόνη Παπαδοπούλου, Εισηγήτρια της γνωμοδότησης της Επιτροπής Απασχόλησης και Κοινωνικών Υποθέσεων. - Κυρία Επίτροπε, χαιρετίζω την αναδιατυπωμένη πρόταση της Επιτροπής και κατανοώ πλήρως την πολυπλοκότητα να δημιουργηθεί ένα συνεκτικό νομικό πλαίσιο που να καλύπτει ερευνητές, σπουδαστές, μαθητές, άμισθους ασκούμενους και εθελοντές τρίτων χωρών που έρχονται στην Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωση, συμπεριλαμβανομένων και των έμμισθων ασκούμενων και εσωτερικών άμισθων βοηθών για τους οποίους δεν υπάρχει ακόμη νομικά αποδεκτή κοινή ρύθμιση.

Παρά την πολυπλοκότητα, επιδιώξαμε να αντιμετωπίσουμε τους υπάρχοντες κινδύνους εκμετάλλευσης, άνισης μεταχείρισης αλλά και αθέμιτου ανταγωνισμού, ενισχύοντας, αφενός, την πρόταση στα θέματα κοινωνικών δικαιωμάτων, κατώτατων ορίων μισθών, συλλογικών συμβάσεων εργασίας, πρόσβασης σπουδαστών στην αγορά εργασίας, και δημιουργώντας, αφετέρου, ένα εναρμονισμένο ειδικό καθεστώς για εσωτερικούς άμισθους βοηθούς.

Το ρυθμιστικό πλαίσιο που έχουμε τελικά ενώπιόν μας προστατεύει τη νόμιμη μετανάστευση και απασχόληση στην Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωση κάτι που θα βοηθήσει σίγουρα την Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωση να προσελκύσει καταρτισμένο ανθρώπινο δυναμικό υψηλής ειδίκευσης, ικανοποιώντας την επείγουσα ανάγκη για καινοτομία και τόνωση της ανταγωνιστικότητας.

Λυπάμαι διότι κάποιες τροπολογίες μας, οι οποίες θα βελτίωναν ακόμη περισσότερο το κείμενο, δεν ενσωματώθηκαν.

 
  
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  Димитър Стоянов, докладчик по становището на комисията по правни въпроси. - Г-н Председател, много интересно: веднъж да получа благодарност от страна на Комисията и да се окаже, че тя е нежелана. Защото за съжаление комисията по свободите жестоко окастри доклада, в който е становището, което беше изготвено от правната комисия, и го направи по един изключително едностранчив начин.

И аз мисля, че тази позиция до известна степен ни прави лицемери, колеги. Защото утре ще имаме дебат, на който отново ще обсъждаме проблемите с безработицата в Европейския съюз, ще обсъждаме основно отново проблемите с младежката безработица.

Аз работих конструктивно в правната комисия, работих компромисно. Предложих изменения, които както да подобрят направеното от Комисията предложение от гледна точка на по-лесното третиране на научните работници, така и такива, които да вземат предвид все пак много деликатния характер на тази тема, именно от гледна точка на младежката безработица.

И Вие го казахте, г-жо Комисар. Не се чудете утре, както Ви обясних преди малко в предишния дебат, когато Съветът възрази, каква е причината за това.

 
  
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  Anna Maria Corazza Bildt, on behalf of the PPE Group. – Mr President, Europe badly needs to attract talent. We need to win the challenge of global competition and attractiveness is a global race. I have therefore been responsible within the PPE – and I am proud and glad of this – for trying to actively engage in finding a solution to attract, train, develop and keep talent in Europe to match the needs of our companies.

Our target has been to have a directive which has the right balance between facilitating and simplifying, and at the same time preventing abuse. I would like here to thank sincerely the rapporteur and Commissioner Malmström for their excellent cooperation. We have succeeded in overcoming fragmentation between Member States, in overcoming the cumbersome, long procedures for admission and entry, and now we have a common, clear and easier rule that gives legal certainty and helps to prevent abuse.

I would like to be clear here – this partly in response to my colleague Mr[nbsp ]Stoyanov – that we need to attract talent, competence and skills to Europe. That will help growth and jobs in Europe, not decrease them. We need to have cross-fertilisation, people-to-people contact. Innovation and research needs to have new people, more people, including from third countries, but we also need clear rules.

That is why in the PPE we have insisted that Member States should continue to decide how many entry permits are granted. The national labour laws would apply – this directive will not prejudice the labour markets. So students and researchers would be granted the possibility to work but the rules of the labour market will remain national. They will also have to clearly show that they are able to support themselves and that they will not live on social benefits from Member States.

I hope that the next Parliament will negotiate fast with the Member States to be able to implement this directive which is very important for the European economy.

(The speaker agreed to take a blue-card question under Rule 149(8))

 
  
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  Димитър Стоянов (NI), въпрос, зададен чрез вдигане на синя карта. – Г-жо Кораца Билд, аз съм до голяма степен съгласен с това, което казахте. Знаем, че Съединените щати са постигнали много, привличайки външни образовани хора. Но моят голям проблем с тази директива е какви мерки ние ще заложим, за да предотвратим злоупотребите. Всички знаете, че в момента в България има голям прилив на сирийски бежанци. И много интересно се оказа, че 90% от тези бежанци се представят като студенти. Моят въпрос е: Как ще предотвратим злоупотребите с този нов облекчен статут?

 
  
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  Anna Maria Corazza Bildt (PPE), blue-card answer. – I very much agree with you and this has also been the PPE’s line: that by facilitating and simplifying, we want to prevent abuse, and also exploitation. It is also very important that those coming to our countries are treated fairly and in a dignified way. All the statistics, studies and documents show that we need more people from other countries because we have a competence and knowledge-based economy. We need innovation and research and we need cross-fertilisation from other countries.

It is precisely for this reason that we have put forward this directive: to prevent abuse. We now have a very clear framework with very clear rules and procedures on what the migrants coming to our countries need to show and to do in order to be admitted. We did not have this before. It is a step forward.

 
  
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  Tanja Fajon, v imenu skupine S&D. – Hvala poročevalki za izvrstno sodelovanje, imamo široko podporo vseh političnih skupin.

Verjamem, da bomo na podlagi tega besedila vrata Unije odprli marsikateremu mlademu študentu, praktikantki, prostovoljcu, raziskovalki. Nujno je, da tem talentom zagotovimo pravno, socialno in zdravstveno varnost in nujno je, da ustavimo izkoriščanje. Nujno moramo skrajšati birokratske postopke za pridobivanje vizumov in dovoljenj ter postopke prijav, pristojbine zanje pa morajo biti čim nižje oziroma jih moramo odpraviti.

Naša Evropa, ki se stara, mora biti privlačna in varna za številne nadarjene mlade. To je še en ukrep za spopad s krizo, ki bo spodbujal kulturne, socialne in druge vezi.

Parlament znova dokazuje, da je bolj ambiciozen od Sveta, ki je še daleč od sprejetja svojega stališča.

Spoštovane kolegice in kolegi, ne bomo kos svetovnim izzivom, če bomo svoje meje neprodušno zapirali, zlasti za mlade, zato upam, da bomo na jutrišnjem glasovanju z veliko večino podprli predlog odbora LIBE.

 
  
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  Nils Torvalds, för ALDE-gruppen. – Herr talman! Att garantera bättre omständigheter för tredjelandsstuderande och forskare som verkar i EU:s medlemsländer är en målsättning som vi måste jobba för.

Enligt alla uppskattningar, bl.a. också från Europeiska kommissionen, använder man i Europa betydligt mindre resurser för forskning och utveckling än vad man gör t.ex. i USA eller Japan.

Samtidigt flyttar många studerande och forskare utomlands på grund av bättre förhållanden och möjligheter. Mitt äldsta barn flyttade till USA, eftersom varken Finland eller Europa då förstod sig på programmet Linux.

Vi kan inte undgå det faktum att Europa idag har en åldrande befolkning och att vi står inför en demografisk utmaning. För att klara av att upprätthålla dagens välfärdsnivå och för att kunna besvara framtidens utmaningar behöver vi därför mera kunskap, innovation och arbetskraft.

Vi måste alltså bli, som Anna Maria Corazza Bildt också sa, bättre på att attrahera och att behålla de studerande och forskare som verkar inom EU. Det här är någonting som är speciellt viktigt i tider då den rapporterade skepsisen gentemot invandrare och hotet mot en fri rörlighet kan avskräcka människor i allt högre grad.

Bl.a. måste ansökningsprocesserna därför bli lättare och snabbare, samtidigt som stödet till dem som kommer till EU också borde vara starkt under hela processens gång. Över lag borde EU:s invandringsbestämmelser och våra unionsprogram med rörlighetsåtgärder i större utsträckning komplettera varandra.

Studenter och forskare ska ha möjlighet att stanna i EU, också efter en avslutad utbildning. På det här sättet kan vi bättre ta vara på den talang, den expertis och den kreativitet som de här studerandena har och som alla EU:s medlemsländer nu verkligen kommer att behöva.

Att underlätta för studenter och forskare att söka jobb och arbeta inom EU, såväl under som efter studietiden eller forskarutbytet, är någonting jag tror att vi endast har att vinna på. Vi har inte råd att slösa bort den kompetens som kan leda till tillväxt, till välstånd och i förlängningen till nya jobb. Det som vi just är i desperat behov av.

 
  
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  Jean Lambert, on behalf of the Verts/ALE Group. – Mr President, I should like to say on behalf of my group that we very much welcome the proposals in Parliament’s response on this particular issue. I think a number of us will have met or heard from students, from researchers, who have been hit by the current difficulties, who do not get a reply on time to their applications where the research grant is running out and who will then find themselves in a situation where they cannot take up the offer, which is a problem for them and their working lives.

It is also a problem, of course, for the research institutes, the research bodies that thought this was the best person to come in and help their research. We also very much welcome the introduction of the cross-border element in this. We are seeing more and more research being conducted in the European Union across borders. It seems only right that those people conducting that research should also be able to move in order to make the most of the possibilities of what it is they have come to do.

We were concerned that we did not, in this proposal, go back over some of the rights which are already there, for example in terms of family reunification for researchers, and we very much welcome the extension of this to students. We are also pleased to see the increased possibilities for volunteering. I think we need to see this as part of a lifelong learning experience, an experience in terms of capacity-building and indeed in terms of learning from those coming to us for those opportunities; the greater clarity and protection for au pairs is something we also welcome in this proposal.

 
  
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  Marek Henryk Migalski, w imieniu grupy ECR. – Panie Przewodniczący! Wiele mówiliśmy tu o tym, żeby być konkurencyjnym wobec nauki w Stanach Zjednoczonych, wobec badań w Stanach Zjednoczonych, ale również wobec gospodarki, ekonomii w Stanach Zjednoczonych. My musimy się otwierać, musimy dopuszczać konkurencję również u nas na naszych uniwersytetach, w naszych instytutach badawczych i ten kierunek jest absolutnie wskazany. Mówię to również jako naukowiec, jako pracownik uniwersytetu. Uniwersytet powinien być miejscem konkurencji, a tym ludziom, którzy do nas przyjeżdżają, bardzo często się bardziej chce niż Europejczykom, którzy uważają, że mają to po prostu dane.

Drugą ważną rzeczą jest to, że w ten sposób trochę rozwiązujemy problem bomby demograficznej, tzn. tego, że w Europie jest nas coraz mniej. Oby tacy ludzie do nas przyjeżdżali, oby tacy ludzie dobrze wyedukowani do nas ściągali swoje rodziny i osiedlali się tutaj. To, co budzi niepokój, to zawarty w tym sprawozdaniu element zbyt rozbudowanej kwestii socjalnej, która powinna być jednak regulowana przez państwa narodowe, a nie odgórnymi dyrektywami Parlamentu Europejskiego.

(Mówca zgodził się odpowiedzieć na pytanie zadane przez podniesienie niebieskiej kartki (art. 149 ust. 8 Regulaminu))

 
  
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  William (The Earl of) Dartmouth (EFD), blue-card question. – Thank you for taking the intervention. I did not quite understand from your speech: is it your view that all researchers should thereby have a right of permanent settlement?

 
  
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  Marek Henryk Migalski (ECR), odpowiedź na pytanie zadane przez podniesienie niebieskiej kartki. W moim przemówieniu wskazywałem na kierunek, na to, że tego typu otwarcie rynku pracy, ale również tego typu otwarcie naszych uniwersytetów, instytutów badawczych jest czymś, w co powinniśmy inwestować, ponieważ to się nam zwraca. Nam, jako Europejczykom. To jest dobre dla tych, którzy do nas przyjeżdżają, ale również dla nas, którzy otwieramy się. Myślę, że jako mieszkaniec Wysp powinien Pan to popierać. To, co jest niepokojące, to jest to, że oddaje się dużą część wolności czy praw, które powinny być regulowane przez państwa narodowe, przez ich parlamenty we władanie instytucji unijnych i tu, rozumiem, Pan też powinien być zadowolony z mojej odpowiedzi.

 
  
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  Κυριάκος Τριανταφυλλίδης, εξ ονόματος της ομάδας GUE/NGL. – Κύριε Πρόεδρε, η έκθεση αυτή είναι σημαντική, καθώς βελτίωσε την αρχική πρόταση της Επιτροπής, και θεωρούμε πως εμπεριέχει αρκετά θετικά στοιχεία. Καλωσορίζουμε, ιδιαίτερα, την ένταξη των νέων κατηγοριών στο πεδίο εφαρμογής της παρούσας οδηγίας, τη μετατροπή κάποιων προαιρετικών διατάξεων σε υποχρεωτικές, την παράταση του χρόνου κατά τον οποίο θα μπορεί να μένει κάποιος στην Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωση για να αναζητήσει εργασία, την απλοποίηση της κινητικότητας εντός της Ευρωπαϊκής Ένωσης, και τις βελτιώσεις που ξεκαθαρίζουν και διευκολύνουν τις διαδικασίες.

Παρόλα αυτά, η έκθεση δεν πάει όσο θα έπρεπε μακριά, και δεν αναιρεί τη φιλοσοφία που αντιμετωπίζει τη μετανάστευση, είτε, υπό όρους ασφάλειας και ενδεχόμενης κατάχρησης δικαιωμάτων εκ μέρους των μεταναστών, είτε, υπό όρους ωφελιμιστικούς για αύξηση της ανταγωνιστικότητας της Ευρωπαϊκής Ένωσης ή κάλυψη δημογραφικών κενών.

Επίσης, αποτελεί άλλο ένα δείγμα του κατακερματισμού της νομοθεσίας για τη μετανάστευση που μας απομακρύνει όλο και περισσότερο από τον σκοπό του, να θεσπιστεί ένα ενιαίο πλαίσιο χωρίς διακρίσεις και με υψηλό βαθμό προστασίας δικαιωμάτων. Έχουμε πλήθος διαφορετικών νομοθεσιών με υποκατηγορίες που δημιουργούν σύγχυση, έδαφος για εκμετάλλευση, και πλήττουν την αρχή της ίσης μεταχείρισης.

Είναι πολύ σημαντικό να πάψουμε να βλέπουμε τους μετανάστες με καχυποψία και σαν απλές μεταβλητές των οικονομικών αναγκών της Ευρωπαϊκής Ένωσης, αλλά να τολμήσουμε να τους εξισώσουμε έμπρακτα και όχι μόνο στα λόγια και για αυτό χρειάζεται να γίνουν ακόμη ουσιαστικά βήματα.

 
  
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  Hans-Peter Martin (NI). - Herr Präsident! Die Aussprache heute Abend ist, wie ich denke, wesentlich ehrlicher als der vorliegende Bericht. Es herrscht hier ja weitestgehend Übereinstimmung, dass wir gerne die besten Leute hier herbringen wollen, sie einladen wollen, gerade um das demografische Defizit auszugleichen in diesen Bereichen, aber im Bericht lese ich dann, diese Maßnahmen sollten die Verbreitung von Wissen – brain circulation – fördern, damit beide Parteien davon profitieren und nicht die fähigsten Köpfe aus den Herkunftsdrittstaaten abwandern. Das ist heuchlerisch! Aber das Problem dabei ist natürlich, dass man einerseits nach draußen so tut, als ob man niemanden hereinholen will, unter Berufung auf entsprechende elitäre Qualifikationen, nach innen aber – und davor möchte ich Sie ausdrücklich warnen, werte Kolleginnen und Kollegen – so tut, als ob sowieso jeder willkommen sei.

Das birgt genau die Gefahr, dass diese im Prinzip sinnvollen Maßnahmen missverstanden werden als neues Einfallstor für unkontrollierte Einwanderung. Das öffnet wieder noch mehr Platz für diejenigen, von denen wir immer sagen, die spielen mit den Gefahren und den Ängsten. Und statt da klare Regeln festzulegen, damit es gerade beim Zuzug von Studenten mit Familienangehörigen nicht zu Lohndumping, nicht zu versteckter und nicht gewünschter Einwanderung kommt, machen wir hier scheinbar die Türen viel zu weit auf.

Das ist unter dem Strich ein gefährlicher Bericht!

 
  
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  Sari Essayah (PPE). - Arvoisa puhemies, hyvä komission jäsen, haluan aluksi ilmaista sen, että lähtökohtaisesti kolmansista maista tulevien tutkijoiden ja opiskelijoiden maahantulon ja oleskelun edellytysten selvittämiseen liittyvän direktiivin uudistaminen ja ajantasaistaminen on paikallaan.

Sääntelyyn on otettu mukaan uusia ihmisryhmiä: palkalliset ja palkattomat harjoittelijat, vapaaehtoistyötä tekevät sekä au pairina työskentelevät. Työllisyysvaliokunnassa olisimme halunneet näiden uusien ihmisryhmien kohdalla jopa tiukempaa sääntelyä ja parempaa suojelua erityisesti, kun on kyseessä työsuhteen tunnuspiirteet täyttävä palkallinen tai palkaton harjoittelu. Mielestämme ei pidä luoda uutta väylää sosiaalidumppaukseen ja vältettävä sitä, että oleskelun kustannukset loppujen lopuksi kaatuvat jäsenvaltioiden sosiaaliturvajärjestelmien kannettavaksi.

Siksi LIBE-valiokunta on mielestäni tehnyt virheen, kun se ei 21 artiklassa hyväksynyt EMPL-valiokunnan näkemystä, että yhdenvertainen kohtelu sosiaaliturvan, esimerkiksi perhe-etuuksien, osalta edellyttää työsuhdetta. Komission esitys takaisi yhdenvertaisen kohtelun tutkijoille, mutta LIBE-valiokunta haluaa sen myös opiskelijoille.

Tähän mennessä kolmansista maista tulevien on pitänyt olla eripituinen minimiaika työsuhteessa, mutta nyt LIBE-valiokunta avaa sosiaaliturvan opiskelijastatuksella oleville. EU:n sisältäkin tulevalta on edellytetty työsuhdetta perhe-etuuksien saamiseksi, mutta nyt nämä sosiaalietuudet avataan kolmansista maista tuleville opiskelijoille. Toivon, että neuvosto pystyy korjaamaan tämän virheen.

 
  
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  Claude Moraes (S&D). - Mr President, I congratulate both the rapporteur and the shadows, and I think this report attempted to deal with a very sensitive issue in a very well-managed way.

Of course many colleagues have talked about these being sensible measures and I think that is the case. We have dealt here with research studies, people exchange, voluntary service, au-pairing. What we are doing, as we did with the directive on seasonal workers, is to talk about managed migration, sensible measures across the EU dealt with by Members of Parliament, understanding that these are very sensitive areas, but understanding too that we should manage them well. I think some of the sensitive and progressive measures that we have taken on board – for example, allowing people to work and pay taxes while they are also contributing to our Member States – are very sensible indeed, but they need to be managed. It is a very positive step forward that the European Union is dealing with these matters rather than just talking about them, and I think MEPs have done a good job here and it is a very positive step forward.

 
  
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  Janusz Wojciechowski (ECR). - Panie Przewodniczący! Zaskoczyła mnie w uzasadnieniu projektu Komisji taka fraza, którą zacytuję: „Europa będzie w coraz większym stopniu opierać się na imigracji, aby zapełnić wolne miejsca pracy i zapewnić wzrost gospodarczy. Dobrze zarządzana imigracja mogłaby rozwiązać problem starzenia się społeczeństwa”. Całkowicie się z tym nie zgadzam. Nie wiem, jaką Europę znają autorzy projektu, bo ja znam Europę, w której miliony wykształconych, wykwalifikowanych młodych ludzi nie znajduje żadnej pracy albo wykonuje pracę poniżej ich kwalifikacji i aspiracji. Z Polski wyjechało ponad 2 miliony młodych ludzi, w większości dobrze wykształconych. Duża ich część zmywa naczynia w bogatszej części Europy.

Nie chcę, żeby Europa się zamykała, ale powinniśmy myśleć najpierw o naszych obywatelach. Wzrost gospodarczy Europy zapewni nie imigracja, tylko mądra polityka zatrudnienia, a przed starzeniem się społeczeństwa ochroni nas mądra polityka prorodzinna, której Unia Europejska w ogóle nie prowadzi.

 
  
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  Seán Kelly (PPE). - A Uachtaráin, tá áthas orm tacaíocht a thabhairt don díospóireacht seo agus go háirithe fáiltím roimh na Feisirí ó gach taobh den urlár ag moladh na tuarascála agus á rá go bhfuil jab maith déanta ag an gCoimisiún agus ag na Feisirí a bhí ag déileáil leis.

One word we have been talking about constantly here is ‘competitiveness’. Europe has lost it, and we are now trying to regain it. Programmes such as Horizon 2020 are geared towards identifying the weaknesses, particularly in areas of research and development, and that is very important. We have of course the Innovation Union and we have the European Research Area; but while you can put money into things you also have to have people, and that is one of the areas in which we have been lacking. We need to attract the best into Europe and remove the obstacles, so that we can have projects that will benefit society.

Last year here in Parliament I hosted ‘EU Science: Global Challenges & Global Collaboration’ with a view to getting those projects together. I think we now have the opportunity to remove the obstacles so that people will be coming here rather than going to the USA. For years we have had a brain drain out of Europe. Now we have an opportunity to have a brain gain.

 
  
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  Ruža Tomašić (ECR). - Gospodine predsjedniče, kao zastupnica iz države u kojoj nezaposlenost mladih doseže frapantnih 52% ne mogu podržati prijedlog kojim se naše tržište rada otvara novim useljeničkim valovima dok mladi Europljani gube svaku perspektivu.

Držim da Unija ne smije zatvoriti vrata znanstvenom potencijalu koji leži u ostatku svijeta i koji može oplemeniti našu akademsku zajednicu, ali isto tako smatram da mora postojati ravnoteža između privlačenja svjetskog znanja u EU s jedne i ekonomske realnosti s druge strane. Dok hrvati kao građani Europske unije nemaju pravo na rad u svim državama članicama ova direktiva to pravo želi dati državljanima trećih zemalja koji su u Europsku uniju došli potpuno drugim povodom, školovati se i znanstveno usavršavati.

Bojim se da se ovakva politika kroji bez razumijevanja za stanje u mnogim državama članicama te stoga držim da bi bilo najbolje da same članice preuzmu brigu o dostupnosti svog obrazovnog i socijalnog sustava te nacionalnog tržišta rada državljanima trećih zemalja.

 
  
 

Catch the eye”

 
  
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  Dubravka Šuica (PPE). - Gospodine predsjedniče, ja podržavam ovu raspravu. Referendum koji je nedavno održan u Švicarskoj pokazao je da je pitanje mobilnosti trenutno vruće pitanje u Europskoj uniji, ali ukoliko Unija želi ostati konkurentna, mora razvijati programe razmjene koji bi obuhvaćali i državljane trećih zemalja.

Bez obzira radi li se o istraživanju, studiranju, običnoj razmjeni učenika, usavršavanju, volontiranju ili obavljanju posla za hranu i stan sa svrhom učenja jezika, smatram da će usvajanje ove direktive doprinijeti smanjenju izrabljivanja i rada na crno, ali isto tako da će smanjiti zloporabe socijalnih prava. Ovom direktivom Europska unija bi se promicala kao privlačno mjesto za istraživanje i inovacije, čime bi se unaprijedio položaj Unije, a došlo bi i do povećanja ukupne konkurentnosti i rasta uz istovremeno stvaranje novih radnih mjesta koja su ključna za rast bruto društvenog proizvoda.

 
  
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  Tonino Picula (S&D). - Gospodine predsjedniče, podržavam ovu direktivu jer smatram da Europska unija treba paket mjera koji će biti dodatne smjernice njenoj imigracijskoj politici, pogotovo ako se radi o državljanima trećih zemalja koji dolaze zbog istraživanja, studiranja, plaćenog i neplaćenig usavršavanja, ako se radi o razmjeni učenika ili sličnim aktivnostima.

Ova bi se direktiva trebala primjenjivati na primjer, zajedno s direktivom o uvjetima za ulazak i boravak državljana trećih zemalja radi sezonskog zapošljavanja. Tako bi se osigurao jednak i pošten tretman za sve građanke i građane trećih zemalja. Državljani trećih zemalja koji mogu doprinijeti Europskoj uniji svojim vještinama i znanjima trebaju dobiti priliku da to i učine. Time ujedno nakon povratka mogu nastojiti doprinositi napretku matičnih zemalja i razvoju njihovih ekonomija.

U vremenu kada se Europska unija suočava sa strukturnim izazovima demografske i ekonomske prirode, smanjivanjem radne populacije i nedostatkom inovacija, ne smijemo dopustiti da Europa postane tvrđava u bilo kojem smislu; nepropusna za istraživanja, kreativnost i ljudske tokove koji ih jedini donose.

 
  
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  Andrew Henry William Brons (NI). - Mr President, this report starts innocently enough by referring to conditions of entry for ostensibly short-term visitors, such as exchange pupils or au[nbsp ]pairs. Then the pretences are cast aside and it admits that it is just a prelude to large-scale permanent immigration, eleven million in the current decade. Why?

The pretext is Europe’s ageing population caused, in part, by women’s enslavement to economic forces and subservience to anti-family propaganda. The report envisages ‘third-country’, for which you can often read Third World, immigrants with their large families becoming replacement Europeans. Well, they won’t. They will continue to turn more and more parts of Europe into the Third World. You cannot change a person’s identity by changing his or her country or continent of residence. Furthermore, you do not help poorer countries by robbing them of their most skilled and able workers.

(The speaker agreed to take a blue-card question under Rule 149(8))

 
  
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  Jean Lambert (Verts/ALE), blue-card question. – I sometimes wonder if people have read the report. The Third World was referred to, and I am sure the Member will know the major countries that actually supply researchers and university students to the European Union at the moment. So I am sure that Mr Brons will inform us as to which of the countries are sending the largest number of students and researchers at the moment.

 
  
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  Andrew Henry William Brons (NI), blue-card answer. – (first few words missing as microphone not switched on) ... long list of occupations here, they are not just students and researchers, but in fact the following paragraph mentions quite separately that Europe today has an ageing population and needs immigration. So in other words it goes well beyond the bounds of this report. It is simply looking for an excuse to bring more and more immigrants into Europe.

 
  
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  Rareş-Lucian Niculescu (PPE). - Acest raport constituie un exemplu excelent despre ceea ce înseamnă politică responsabilă, conștientă și orientată către progres economic. Atât propunerea Comisiei, cât și raportul în dezbatere sunt redactate în același spirit. Trebuie să recunoaștem faptul că Uniunea Europeană are o populație îmbătrânită, are un deficit de forță de muncă calificată, că avem nevoie de imigranți calificați din țări terțe, că trebuie să renunțăm la birocrație și, mai ales, să combatem scepticismul față de imigranți. Avem datoria de a promova aceeași atitudine, nu numai față de cetățenii statelor terțe, ci mai ales față de cetățenii europeni. Mai ales cetățenii proveniți din noile state membre se confruntă adesea cu atitudini ostile, nepermise, în urma unor campanii populiste și politicianiste. Cei care duc astfel de campanii ar avea multe de învățat din această dezbatere.

 
  
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  Biljana Borzan (S&D). - Gospodine predsjedniče, više od 200.000 studenata i znanstvenika iz takozvanih trećih zemalja koje nisu članice Europske unije svake godine dolazi na usavršavanje u Europsku uniju. U situaciji gospodarske krize Europska unija mora ostati globalno atraktivna za talentirane studente, doktorande i znanstvenike iz trećih zemalja kojima se mora omogućiti nesmetan dolazak kako bi Europska unija zadržala razvojni kapital.

Trenutno svaka članica Europske unije ima svoje uvjete za izdavanje viza. Ovo izvješće poziva na jedinstvenu praksu, jednake pojednostavljene postupke izdavanja dozvola i viza te dodatne mogućnosti u smislu duljeg ostanka nakon studija, rada uz studij i slično.

Istraživanje, inovacije i znanje su komparativne prednosti Europske unije kao zajednice država u odnosu na druge globalne aktere. Moramo podržati ovo izvješće jer je kvalitetno obrazovanje kroz razmjenu ideja i multikulturalni pristup ključni preduvjet gospodarskog uspjeha.

 
  
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  Andrej Plenković (PPE). - Gospodine predsjedniče, smatram da je i današnja rasprava pokazala koliko je osjetljivo pitanje migracija, pitanje uopće slike Europske unije kakvu želimo projecirati na globalnoj razini. Smatram da je naš politički projekt Europe bio otvoreni projekt koji je dao šansu svima na našem kontinentu da steknu iskustva, razviju se, obrazuju, budu poduzetni i kroz najbolje prakse postanu globalno konkurentni.

Signal koji šaljemo ovim izvješćem, koje je pripremila kolegica Wikström, prema onima iz trećih zemalja koji nemaju sve one privilegije europskog projekta, a dajemo im šansu ako su studenti, znanstvenici, ako su oni koji žele iskoristiti kraći boravak u okviru Europske unije da steknu nova znanja koja mogu ne samo primijeniti u našim državama članicama, nego ih odnijeti kao dodanu vrijednost u svoje zemlje - smatram da im pružamo šansu koja je u biti utjelovljenje glavnog načela koje je stvorilo Europsku uniju, a to je načelo solidarnosti. Zato podržavam ovo izvješće.

 
  
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  João Ferreira (GUE/NGL). - Senhor Presidente, defendemos, evidentemente, a possibilidade de residentes de países terceiros poderem entrar, residir e trabalhar na União Europeia. Defendemos que o possam fazer com condições de dignidade, que hoje são negadas a muitos deles. Mas esta proposta relativa às condições de entrada e de residência para efeitos de investigação e de estudos é bem reveladora do caráter seletivo das políticas de imigração da União Europeia.

Fica bem patente qual o seu objetivo: compensar a escassez e a fuga de cérebros que atinge vários países, inseparável da desqualificação das condições de prestação de trabalho científico e dos obstáculos crescentes no acesso ao conhecimento e à formação avançada; compensar esta fuga com a atração de cérebros de países terceiros; atrair força de trabalho qualificada, de acordo com as necessidades de algumas das principais potências, compensando a fuga com uma fuga de sentido inverso à qual estão associadas as mesmíssimas consequências perniciosas. Entretanto, para os outros, continua a vigorar a Europa Fortaleza, que criminaliza a imigração e os migrantes.

 
  
  

PRÉSIDENCE DE MME ISABELLE DURANT
Vice-présidente

 
  
 

(Fin des interventions à la demande)

 
  
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  Mairead McGuinness (PPE). - Madam President, I think it would be helpful, particularly for those of us who rise at 4.30 a.m. to get to Strasbourg, if the chairing President could indicate earlier in the debate how many people will speak in the catch-the-eye section. It is a matter of deep regret that many Members who are listed to speak actually leave the Chamber. They come to speak and then they leave, while those of us who are here do not get an opportunity to speak. I will, however, write an explanation.

 
  
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  La Présidente. - Je prends bonne note de votre remarque.

 
  
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  Franz Obermayr (NI). - Frau Präsidentin! Ich kann mich nur der Vorrednerin anschließen. Ich verstehe es auch nicht. Und es wurde wiederholt von uns auch gebeten. Wenn man hier sitzt, diskutieren will, die Diskussion verfolgt, man meldet sich dann auch zu Wort, dann gibt es einen Wechsel im Sitzungspräsidium, es wird vorher auch noch annonciert, dass der Name offensichtlich bekannt ist und aufgeschrieben wird, und dann plötzlich kommt man nicht dran, weil offensichtlich das Präsidium wechselt. Das finde ich nicht korrekt und ich bitte, dass man das abstellt. Sagen Sie klipp und klar, wer drankommt, dann braucht man nicht rumsitzen. Aber es wäre auch ein Gebot der Höflichkeit und der Fairness, dass die Leute, die sich zu Wort melden, dann auch aufgerufen werden, wenn das Präsidium wechselt.

 
  
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  La Présidente. - Je prends note de vos remarques aussi, mais comme vous venez d'arriver, c'est un peu difficile.

 
  
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  Cecilia Malmström, Member of the Commission. - Madam President, the proposal we have here in front of us is indeed to update the very old-fashioned rules which we have on this. It is to facilitate and to make clearer coherent rules for young people who want to come to Europe for a short term to study or do research.

Today, if a qualified researcher who has a specific competence gets a stipend to come to Europe to help build up a successful research environment – thereby contributing to growth, innovation and in addition, of course, cultural exchange – he or she is, in many countries, asked at present to leave the very day after his stipend runs out. He or she cannot stay for another couple of months to consolidate that research environment. It makes no sense really and we are facing global competition for skills in the world.

Yes, it is a paradox that we are facing huge youth unemployment in Europe today. It is a tragedy and we need to fight this, but we need to be able to have two thoughts in our heads at the same time.

Yes, we need to fight unemployment and, of course, migration is not the solution to that. But it is actually a contribution because we are at the same time facing a lack of skills in certain environments where businesses and companies come daily to me and say, we cannot find these people in Europe so we need to be able to attract a few of them.

Yes, we do have an ageing population; it will be difficult to supply for a generation that is getting older, which is a good thing in a way, but we need to be able to think on a long-term basis as well.

These proposals are modern rules, fair conditions and we will also have safeguards in place to avoid abuse. I think Parliament and the Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs have made a very important contribution to improve further the Commission’s proposal and I hope that the Council will also be able to agree on their position on this so that, very soon, when the new Parliament resumes, we can have an agreement between the two co-legislators.

 
  
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  Cecilia Wikström, föredragande. - Fru talman! Ibland tycker jag att man kan höra mellan raderna frågan om vi har råd att ta emot forskare och studenter från tredjeland. Min motfråga är: har vi råd att inte ta emot dem? Har vi råd att inte se till att de etablerar sig i EU genomgången forskning eller utbildning? Kom ihåg att en av de här personerna kommer att vara med i forskarlag som löser framtidens energiutmaning. En av dem kommer att vara med att lösa frågan som handlar om en cancer som vi hittills inte har hittat botemedel för.

Fram till idag har många, många, hundratals och tusentals forskare varje år fått sin utbildning i EU vid ett högt stående universitet. De har vid avslutningen av forskningen köpt en enkel biljett och åkt till USA, till Kanada, till Australien, till Indien ser vi nu, också till Kina händer det. Vi har inte råd att fortsätta att tillhandahålla högsta nivå av utbildning och forskning och sedan bara låta dem ge sig iväg. Vi måste välkomna dem att stanna kvar här, etablera sig här och tillsammans med oss alla verka för tillväxt, utveckling och stabilitet i Europa, för vi lever i en global värld och vi har bara att rätta oss efter det. Detta kommer att vara en nyckel till framgång i EU under dagar som kommer.

Igen vill jag tacka för vårt samarbete som har varit fint, med kommissionen, med mina skuggföredraganden, och jag ser fram emot morgondagens omröstning. Jag hoppas att alla ska rösta genom att trycka plus på de split votes och separate votes som ligger, så får vi ett lika fint betänkande som det näst intill enhetligt antagna i LIBE-utskottet för bara ett par månader sen.

 
  
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  La Présidente. - Le débat est clos.

Le vote aura lieu mardi, le 25 février 2014, à 12 heures.

 
Aviso legal - Política de privacidade