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Debates
Tuesday, 21 October 2014 - Strasbourg Revised edition

5. Outcome of the high level conference on employment in Europe (Milan, 8 October) (debate)
Video of the speeches
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  President. - The next item is the debate on the Council and Commission statements on the outcome of the high level conference on employment in Europe (Milan, 8 October) (2014/2898(RSP)).

 
  
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  Benedetto Della Vedova, Presidente in carica del Consiglio. - Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, è con piacere che desidero condividere con voi i risultati della Conferenza ad alto livello sull'occupazione. Un tema considerato di prioritaria importanza dalla Presidenza italiana, coerentemente con le conclusioni del Consiglio europeo di giugno, che ha indicato crescita ed occupazione quali temi prioritari per i lavori dell'Unione europea nei prossimi cinque anni.

Un tema che resta di notevole attualità in considerazione dei tassi di disoccupazione particolarmente elevati: 11,5% nell'area euro in agosto, con marcate differenze tra Stati membri e punti preoccupanti per quanto riguarda la disoccupazione giovanile: 23,1% nell'area euro, oltre il 50% in alcuni Stati membri.

In tale contesto, anche sulla base delle indicazioni del Consiglio europeo straordinario di agosto, la presidenza italiana ha organizzato a Milano, l'8 ottobre scorso, la Conferenza ad alto livello sull'occupazione, quale seguito delle conferenze che si sono tenute a Berlino, nel luglio 2013 e a Parigi, lo scorso novembre, focalizzate sull'occupazione giovanile.

La finalità principale dei lavori di quest'ultima edizione era una riflessione sulla necessità di fornire nuove e coordinate risposte per il rilancio di crescita ed occupazione, anche attraverso appropriate politiche di investimento.

Durante i lavori della Conferenza, alla quale hanno partecipato 16 capi di Stato e di governo, sono state esaminate le condizioni necessarie per la creazione di nuovi posti di lavoro e per migliorare la corrispondenza fra offerta e domanda di lavoro. Si è convenuto innanzitutto sulla crucialità delle riforme strutturali, considerate determinanti per far ripartire il mercato del lavoro e promuovere l'occupazione. Si è tuttavia osservato come esse siano condizioni necessarie ma non sufficienti e debbano esser complementate da interventi sull'atto della domanda. Oltre alle riforme infatti è cruciale un contesto di crescita, che passa inevitabilmente per un rilancio degli investimenti. Si è quindi discusso della necessità di fornire risposte condivise e coordinate a livello UE.

La Conferenza si è articolata in tre sessioni: una tecnica in apertura dei direttori dei servizi pubblici per l'occupazione, seguita da una colazione di lavoro dei ministri che si occupano dei temi di occupazione e nel pomeriggio dalla sessione a livello di capi di Stato e di governo. La colazione dei ministri del lavoro si è concentrata sulle misure e strumenti diretti per la promozione dell'occupazione, in particolare quella giovanile. Al riguardo, i ministri hanno portato avanti una richiesta alla Commissione di rafforzare l'iniziativa per l'occupazione giovanile, Youth Employment Initiative che dovrebbe trasformarsi in uno schema strutturale dell'Unione europea con la richiesta di incrementare in modo significativo l'importo del prefinanziamento dei fondi ad essa dedicati. È stata poi evocata la necessità di procedure più efficaci per l'attuazione della garanzia Giovani, programma che sta decollando con successo in diversi Stati membri, come illustrato dai direttori dei servizi pubblici per l'occupazione nella sessione tecnica di apertura.

Per quanto riguarda l'attuazione di programmi diretti per l'impiego è stato riconosciuto fra l'altro il contributo della Banca europea per gli investimenti, nel sottolineare l'importanza degli investimenti nel capitale umano e nella formazione. La transizione scuola lavoro e la formazione duale sono stati citati quale modello virtuoso ed è stato evocato il ruolo dei servizi per l'impiego.

Gli interventi dei capi di Stato e di governo nel sottolineare l'importanza di riforme nazionali atte ad incrementare l'efficienza e la trasparenza del mercato del lavoro, hanno rimarcato la necessità di individuare strumenti che accompagnino la crescita dell'economia reale e promuovano gli investimenti nel quadro delle norme che regolano il governo dell'economia nella zona dell'euro e nel mercato unico. Altrettanto importante risulta l'individuazione di settori strategici ad alto potenziale di crescita sui quali concentrare l'attenzione delle istituzioni. Sono stati infine citati quali prioritari settori dell'economia digitale, dei trasporti e dell'energia.

 
  
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  László Andor, Member of the Commission. - Madam President, the meeting of Heads of State and Government last week in Milan reconfirmed their determination to make the Youth Guarantee a reality. As you know, the Commission under the leadership of President Barroso has taken a number of initiatives to improve the employment situation and the life prospects of young people. The Youth Guarantee is a key structural reform of our time. Its implementation is at the core of the EU coordination of employment policies and it is therefore central to the European Semester and the country-specific recommendations.

The Youth Guarantee is a comprehensive policy which includes the modernisation of vocational training, strengthening of public employment services, greater support for apprenticeships and traineeships, as well as financial incentives for job creation and business start-ups. All these measures need to be combined in order to ensure that every young person under the age of 25 receives a good quality offer of a job, continued education, apprenticeship or traineeship within four months after leaving school or becoming unemployed. The Youth Guarantee focuses both on improving the quality of labour supply, for instance through training, and on stimulating demand for young people’s labour, for instance targeted wage or recruitment subsidies and apprenticeship grants.

The Youth Guarantee is being implemented across Europe. Some Member States have amended their legislation, others have introduced new policy instruments to scale up labour market-related measures for young people. For example, in Spain, the number of vocational education in training (VET) centres of companies involved in dual projects and of VET students has doubled since 2013. In Slovakia, hiring subsidies are proving effective in supporting long-term unemployed young people. The Youth Guarantee has already resulted in 12 000 jobs in Slovakia, mainly in SMEs, and most of them sustainable.

In parallel, vocational education is also being modernised. Just last week I visited a second-chance school in Turin, Italy, where young people are learning various crafts such as baking or brewing, and cooperative enterprises play an important role in offering them first employment.

The EU budget provides important financial support for the roll-out of the Youth Guarantee. The first instrument to be used was obviously the European Social Fund for 2007-2013 from which Member States have planned to finance human capital investment up to 2015. On top of that, we have the EUR 6.4 billion Youth Employment Initiative, whose implementation has been frontloaded to 2014-15 in terms of budgetary commitments. As I already informed you in September, we expect that operational programmes covering 85% of the Youth Employment Initiative will be adopted by the end of this year. Importantly, expenditure on Youth Employment Initiative projects has been eligible since 1 September 2013.

This means that many Member States have been spending their money from this envelope for more than a year and the expenditure will be reimbursed after the operational programmes are adopted. In addition, the Member States have proposed to allocate more than EUR 4 billion from the European Social Fund 2014-2020 to the investment priority specifically supporting young people’s labour market integration. Considerable further resources from the ESF are also being programmed for general job search support measures, entrepreneurship support or vocational training investments from which young people will also benefit.

The Youth Guarantee has a cost, but it should be considered an investment. Investing in the Youth Guarantee’s implementation here and now is crucial for preserving the EU’s future growth potential. As you know, the economic value of the Youth Guarantee has been highlighted by the OECD, the ILO and Eurofound. More recently, the G20 strongly supported it and invited countries to step up implementation.

The economic value of the Youth Guarantee is related both to building up the human capital stock and to improving the flow of this human capital into and within the labour market. In other words, it pays off to ensure that young people quickly find relevant jobs where their productive potential can be realised. For this we need not only education and training, but also active labour market policies, high-performing public employment services, as well as measures stimulating demand for labour, such as targeted hiring subsidies, all embedded together in the Youth Guarantee Schemes.

These investments and their returns are harder to measure than, for instance, infrastructure investments, but they are very important, both to strengthen the human capital stock and to improve labour market flows and transitions. That is why the Youth Guarantee expenditure should be considered as an investment. Heads of State and Government and Ministers meeting last week in Milan reconfirmed that the Youth Guarantee is – and should remain – the framework for our efforts to improve youth employment across Europe. I am therefore confident that the value of these investments will be recognised also in the EU’s future plans for investment. Some Member States still seem to be facing constraints when it comes to their ability to pre-finance the implementation of the Youth Guarantee measures from their national budgets. As you know very well, the EU structural investment funds provide only very limited pre-financing in the 2014-20 period, namely 1% in the year 2014, which can be increased to 1.5% in cases of the Youth Employment Imitative for countries that had recently been subject to a macroeconomic adjustment programme.

We may all agree that this level of pre-financing is low, but unfortunately it is closely linked to the overall design of the multiannual financial framework and in particular to the very low payment ceiling for the first couple of years. The EU budget, as you know, is suffering from a severe shortage of payment appropriations, which also means that there was no room to envisage higher pre-financing rates for the Youth Employment Initiative, at least not in the absence of a change of attitude from some Member States.

However, the European Investment Bank has been offering to Member States the possibility of bridge financing, with their investments to be later reimbursed from the Youth Employment Initiative. In this way the EIB could help to resolve this liquidity problem. A couple of Member States have already discussed with the EIB the possibilities and I am sure the bank’s doors remain open to all Member States. I reiterated the same messages last Thursday during the formal EPSCO meeting attended by the Employment and Social Affairs Ministers.

Honourable Members, the Milan Summit delivered one important message: if we want to have more employment in Europe we need to combine structural reforms with support for aggregate demand. The Youth Guarantee is a structural reform and it also helps in boosting demand for young workers. Successful delivery of the Youth Guarantee supported in a timely way by the relevant EU funds remains a priority for the Commission. I am sure that it will continue to be treated as an urgent and important issue also by the incoming Commission.

 
  
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  Elisabeth Morin-Chartier, au nom du groupe PPE. – Madame la Présidente, Monsieur le Commissaire, merci de votre intervention tout à fait éclairée et juste à plus d'un titre.

De mon côté, je voudrais rappeler au Conseil qu'il y a six commandements à retenir. Je donne la version courte, vous n'en aurez pas dix, vous n'en aurez que six. Mais rappelez-vous ces six commandements pour réussir les programmes d'intégration des jeunes sur le marché de l'emploi.

Le premier commandement est de lutter contre les sorties sans qualification des systèmes de formation. Une grande part des jeunes qui sortent de formation – 20 % pratiquement – n'ont pas de qualification et se retrouvent directement au chômage. Il s'agit du premier point sur lequel vous devez faire un véritable effort: lutter contre les sorties sans qualification.

Le deuxième commandement est de moderniser la formation en général, pas seulement la formation professionnelle. En effet, nous sommes aujourd'hui dans une situation où de jeunes ingénieurs sont aussi au chômage. C'est la formation qu'il faut moderniser, en l'accrochant de façon beaucoup plus opérationnelle au monde du travail.

Le troisième commandement est de redonner absolument leur pleine place à l'apprentissage, à l'alternance et aux stages. Les stages ont été dévoyés partout en Europe, et l'apprentissage et l'alternance, dans la plupart des pays européens, sont considérés comme des formations de moindre importance. Or, ce sont des formations essentielles et qui correspondent à une forme d'esprit pour les jeunes.

Le quatrième commandement est d'avoir une vision "nouvelles compétences, nouveaux emplois". Nous y avons travaillé et vous savez très bien que dans les années qui viennent, d'ici 2020, 15 % d'emplois de faible niveau de qualification vont encore disparaître. Il faut s'y préparer, sinon nous continuerons de courir après le temps.

Le cinquième commandement est de ne plus disposer seulement de savoirs, mais aussi de compétences et de capacités.

Enfin, le sixième commandement, à l'intention du Conseil, est de mettre en place des programmes opérationnels.

Alors que des chefs d'État ou de gouvernement voulaient absolument supprimer le FSE, je constate qu'aujourd'hui ce dernier est quand même le premier levier de la garantie pour la jeunesse.

 
  
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  Jutta Steinruck, im Namen der S&D-Fraktion. – Frau Präsidentin! Wieder einer dieser medienwirksamen Gipfel, wieder mal nichts substanziell Neues. Mit dem Hin- und Herschieben des Schwarzen Peters – wer schuld ist in Europa, dass wir mit der Bekämpfung der Jugendarbeitslosigkeit nicht vorankommen – helfen wir den jungen Menschen in Europa nicht.

Ich danke der italienischen Ratspräsidentschaft, dass sie ihren Fokus wirklich auf Wachstum und Beschäftigung gelegt hat, denn ohne Wachstum schaffen wir keine neuen Arbeitsplätze in Europa. Die Mitgliedstaaten müssen endlich dafür sorgen, dass die Jugend in Europa eine Perspektive bekommt. Wie lange muss es noch dauern, bis wir bei der Umsetzung der Jugendgarantie endlich eine wirklich nachhaltige und zusammenpassende Strategie haben? Dabei muss es auch um konkrete Änderungen gehen: Wo blockiert was, wo passt im Moment irgendwas nicht mit der Umsetzung? Es darf nicht sein, dass Gelder nicht ankommen. Da reden schon einige davon, dass wir in Zukunft gar keine Gelder mehr brauchen.

Ich appelliere an die Mitgliedstaaten: Unternehmen Sie etwas! Schaffen Sie Arbeitsplätze für die jungen Menschen! Qualifizieren Sie die jungen Menschen! Wir brauchen die Perspektive für Europa!

 
  
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  Hans-Olaf Henkel, im Namen der ECR-Fraktion. – Frau Präsidentin, meine Damen und Herren! Wir müssen einmal aufhören, uns hier nur über die Symptome der Jugendarbeitslosigkeit zu unterhalten, sondern sollten beginnen, uns mit den Ursachen auseinanderzusetzen.

Meine Botschaft ist hier heute: Die Eurozone siecht dahin. Statt die Wirtschaft zu kurieren, bemühen sich die Staats- und Regierungschefs und die Europäische Kommission, den Euro zu retten. Inzwischen wird auch mein Land, Deutschland, von dieser Krankheit angesteckt.

In allen Anhörungen, an denen ich teilgenommen habe, als es um die Kommissare ging, habe ich festgestellt, dass überall darauf hingewiesen wurde, dass die Wiederherstellung der Wettbewerbsfähigkeit in der Eurozone die große Priorität ist. Um den Euro zu retten, passiert nun genau das Gegenteil: Statt sich für Subsidiarität in Europa einzusetzen, wird jetzt Zentralismus gepredigt – ist auch nötig, um den Euro zu retten. Statt die Eigenverantwortung für Staats- und Bankschulden in einem Land zu halten, wird diese Verantwortung jetzt sozialisiert. Mit anderen Worten: Wenn alle verantwortlich sind, dann ist am Schluss niemand mehr verantwortlich.

Statt für Wettbewerb in Europa zu sorgen, ist jetzt das Gegenteil angesagt. Insbesondere Kommissar Andor hat sich hier hervorgetan durch Vorschläge der Sozialisierung der Sozialversicherungssysteme. Ein Wirtschaftssystem, das auf Zentralismus, Harmonisierung und auf Sozialisierung der Schulden basiert, wird nicht wettbewerbsfähig bleiben können.

 
  
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  Marian Harkin, on behalf of the ALDE Group. – Madam President, progress on the Youth Guarantee and on the Youth Employment Initiative is, at best, uneven. It is much too slow. Yes, we know that six or nine billion – whatever it is – is not enough; it is not nearly enough for the youth guarantee. On this point I agree with Angela Merkel: spend the money before you look for more. But at another level, we all know the inflexibility of some Member States when it comes to ensuring that the EU budget is fit for purpose.

I suppose for many Member States the real question is: do they have the resources or the freedom to use those resources for job creation? You yourself referred to this, Commissioner. In that context I am more inclined to agree with Prime Minister Renzi, who said that the current rules were designed for the Europe of many years ago, as he said, for another world. Our governments must have the ability to respond to change. To be stuck in a moment, to believe that one size fits all, to believe that there is one and only one solution to the on-going crisis, that is budget consolidation, that is a negation of what Europe is about. We say time and time again Europe must respond to change. Yet history, fear and, in some cases, distrust keeps us stuck in the same rut. Just before the job summit, the IMF warned the EU to beef up its investments in public infrastructure, which will boost demand in the short-term and help potential output in the medium-term. In Europe, those countries who want to spend are not allowed to and those countries who can spend have decided not to. It is a recipe for stagnation, deflation, flat growth and, sadly, for an erosion in citizens’ belief that the EU can work effectively to tackle its problems.

Finally, what structural changes do we need? Yes, we need to align skills and training with market opportunities and we need to invest in sustainable technologies, eliminate red tape, etc. But structural reform cannot be a code word for an opportunity just to provide cheap labour. At a seminar at Parliament last week, a young unemployed Portuguese person said that firing parents to employ their sons and daughters at half their wages is no solution. And yes, while we all need to serve our internships and our apprenticeships, the Youth Guarantee cannot be an opportunity to use and abuse young people. I agree with the Swedish Prime Minister: we need decent jobs.

 
  
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  Inês Cristina Zuber, em nome do Grupo GUE/NGL. – Senhora Presidente, talvez os resultados desta conferência tenham sido teoricamente interessantes, uma vez que daí resultaram, como sabemos, várias proclamações acerca da boa vontade, dos esforços que todos têm feito para melhorar esta situação catastrófica. Aliás, afirmaram – o Presidente Barroso e o Sr. Comissário – que existe um problema grave, um problema que também tem que se resolver, que é a importância de criar empregos de qualidade.

Muito bem, todos estamos de acordo. Agora passemos para a outra parte, para a realidade do impacto da ação da Comissão Europeia. Por via das troicas – de que, segundo sabemos, há duas instituições europeias que fazem parte – é encetada uma luta implacável contra aquilo que consideram os senhores ser os modelos rígidos do mercado de trabalho. Leia-se, o que entendemos nós, direitos dos trabalhadores e salários dignos.

Por exemplo, recentemente no meu país, em Portugal, o governo decidiu aumentar o salário mínimo de uns míseros 485 euros para outros míseros 505 euros. Afinal, vinte euros de aumento de salário mínimo. Mas logo, passados alguns dias, a Comissão Europeia ou o seu alter ego demonstraram enorme preocupação e descontentamento com esta medida.

Como é que é possível explicar aos senhores que o emprego de qualidade significa direitos e salários dignos para os trabalhadores? Ou como é que pensam os senhores que há cada vez mais trabalhadores, pessoas empregadas, que são simultaneamente pobres – aliás, como os últimos dados, na última sexta-feira, revelaram?

Ou será que os senhores sabem exatamente isso e fazem-se de desentendidos? Pois saibam que os trabalhadores resistem, lutam e não se deixam enganar.

 
  
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  Terry Reintke, on behalf of the Verts/ALE Group. – Madam President, let me frank: I am one of the youngest Members of this Parliament, and in the election campaign I went around telling young people that I wanted to fight so that young people in Europe would have a voice in this Parliament and so that their needs would be put first in the European Union.

Now, after the Council two weeks ago in Milan I could go back to my constituency – to Gelsenkirchen, a city with a long history of unemployment – and tell the young people there that we are doing a lot here, that even the Council Presidency is calling one youth summit after another, and that we are really fighting to solve this problem. I am not going to say that to the young people that I am representing. I am not going to say that because this summit is not what needs to be done at the moment in the European Union. This summit should have been a wake-up call; it should have been a very clear message to change the way that we are dealing with the crisis and with the problem of youth unemployment at the moment. Instead, over and over again, we see people shaking hands and hear flowery speeches by Ministers telling us how important this problem is, but not showing commitment to really solving this problem at a European level.

Young people do not need important powerful men and women at press conferences with photo opportunities. They need a change. They need a very clear end to business as usual. They need Jyrki Katainen to be a real investment Commissioner. They need Valdis Dombrovskis to realise that the new liberal agenda of recent years has fuelled inequality all over Europe. They need Jean-Claude Juncker to stop the blind and antisocial austerity measures that have been implemented in the crisis countries in recent years. This is what we, as young people in Europe, need in order to have a future.

 
  
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  Dominique Martin (NI). - Madame la Présidente, chers collègues, un sommet sur l'emploi en Europe, oui, mais pour faire quoi? Après Berlin et Paris, le sommet de Milan, pour admettre cette évidence que l'emploi des jeunes doit être la priorité de l'Europe, au risque que ces derniers se détournent de l'Union européenne. Un sommet de plus pour enfoncer des portes ouvertes mais surtout pour casser toujours et encore notre économie avec des mesures mortifères pour l'emploi des jeunes, comme la baisse du coût du travail ou la libéralisation du marché.

L'Europe continue inlassablement de traiter les effets du chômage plutôt que de s'attaquer aux causes de ce chômage endémique qui touche toutes les couches de notre société, les plus jeunes en particulier. Pour sauver l'emploi en Europe, il faudrait plutôt se protéger de la mondialisation, du libre-échange, du libéralisme débridé; se protéger des produits à prix cassés venus de la terre entière et qui ruinent nos productions agro-alimentaires et industrielles; repenser les accords de Schengen et mettre fin au système aberrant des travailleurs détachés; aider nos entreprises, particulièrement les PMI, PME et TPE, qui représentent 80 à 90 % des emplois salariés.

Pour l'emploi des jeunes, plus particulièrement, il faudrait revaloriser le travail manuel, réinstaller l'apprentissage comme le moyen sûr d'obtenir une qualification, réformer la formation professionnelle, utiliser le tutorat au sein de nos entreprises.

Chers collègues, je vous le dis solennellement: l'Europe n'est déjà plus une chance pour la jeunesse, qui fuit vers d'autres continents.

 
  
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  Siegfried Mureşan (PPE). - Madam President, it is obvious that young people have been a victim of the economic crisis of the past years without having caused that crisis, and that is why it falls upon us to look at the problem of youth unemployment and creating employment opportunities for youth as an utmost priority.

So what shall we do to improve the situation of youth and bring youth back to the labour market? My first answer is labour market reform. All of those countries which have dared to make labour market reforms, even if difficult, even if unpopular ten years ago, their economies are stronger and more resilient and more competitive now. All of the countries which have postponed labour market reforms are in a more difficult situation. Too often youth is the victim of a rigid labour market which protects those who are already employed but takes away the opportunities for young people to enter the labour market.

My second answer is that we need to provide a framework in which the private sectors feel confident to invest, through competitiveness, innovation, research, solid public budgets and most notably structural reforms, because it is the private sector which mainly creates the jobs.

Thirdly, Commissioner, I am a supporter of the Youth Guarantee Scheme because I think unemployment levels are so high in Europe that every measure which leads to bringing youth unemployment down is good. But we need to improve the Youth Guarantee Scheme. We need to tailor it to Member States, because we have it now in practice, and we have been talking about it for one, almost two years but we see that young people in Europe are not really finding many more jobs. What I would like to ask you is to make sure that you get the public employment services which are already meeting at European level more involved in tailoring the Youth Guarantee Scheme so that it responds to the needs of the people in various EU Member States.

(The speaker agreed to take a blue-card question under Rule 162(8))

 
  
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  Victor Negrescu (S&D), Întrebare adresată conform procedurii „cartonaşului albastru”. – Domnule Mureșan, vorbiți foarte frumos! Întrebarea mea către dumneavoastră este: dacă ați creat vreodată un loc de muncă și dacă știți cum se creează un loc de muncă în mediul privat?

 
  
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  Siegfried Mureşan (PPE), blue-card answer. – The distinguished MEP is asking me whether I know how the private sector creates jobs. My true belief is that it is not the public sector which creates the jobs of the future; it is indeed mainly the private sector and mainly the SMEs. Our duty is to put at their disposal an economic framework in which they feel confident to invest – so economic reform, a competitive and economic framework in which public money is managed with care, and not what basically your political family is advocating, which is spending more of people’s money and putting more public debt on their shoulders.

 
  
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  Maria João Rodrigues (S&D). - Senhora Presidente, mais uma cimeira, mais um ato falhado. É preciso perceber de vez qual é a escala do problema e a natureza do problema. Nós hoje temos Estados-Membros na União Europeia com uma taxa de desemprego superior a 40 %. E o que está por trás disto é que o motor da criação de empregos deixou de funcionar. Essa é a verdadeira natureza do problema.

Portanto, isto não se resolve apenas com uma melhoria da inserção profissional dos jovens ou com uma melhoria do sistrema educativo e formativo, por mais importante que isso seja. Isto requer investimento em muito maior escala. Isto requer a criação dos postos de trabalho que faltam.

E, portanto, nós precisamos de ter muito mais acesso ao crédito por parte das pequenas e médias empresas, mais tempo para reduzir o défice público, fundos estruturais com acesso mais rápido, e temos que encarar a necessidade de construir um verdadeiro fundo de apoio europeu ao investimento do futuro.

É disso que depende uma verdadeira resolução do problema do desemprego jovem. Não brinquem com o termo ambicioso, a promessa importante da Garantia Jovem.

(A oradora aceita responder a uma pergunta segundo o procedimento "cartão azul", nos termos do artigo 162.º, n.º 8, do Regimento.)

 
  
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  Maria Grapini (S&D), Întrebare adresată conform procedurii „cartonaşului albastru”. – Sunt de acord cu tot ce a spus, însă vreau să pun următoarea întrebare: s-a vorbit aici că avem nevoie de formare, avem nevoie de investiții, avem nevoie de crearea de locuri de muncă, avem nevoie de acces la credit pentru IMM-uri. Eu sunt de acord cu acest lucru, însă nimeni nu va lua credit, nimeni nu va crea locuri de muncă, dacă nu avem o piață. Și întrebarea mea este următoarea: nu credeți că Comisia, Uniunea Europeană trebuie să se aplece mai mult asupra protejării pieței interne a Uniunii Europene de toată avalanșa de marfă care intră și creează o concurență neloială industriașilor și prestatorilor de servicii din Uniunea Europeană?

 
  
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  Maria João Rodrigues (S&D), Resposta segundo o procedimento "cartão azul". – Senhora Presidente, essa é de facto uma boa questão, mas eu penso que a economia europeia deve estar voltada para o futuro. É verdade que estamos confrontados com concorrência global, mas a Europa tem que saber produzir produtos e serviços do futuro, e é para isso que temos que saber utilizar a qualificação dos nossos jovens. Eles estão preparados para isso.

 
  
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  Richard Sulík (ECR) - Vážený pán komisár Andor. Európska únia a aj Vy osobne stále úplne zle chápe príčiny tejto krízy. Pri snahe pomôcť zamestnanosti a hospodárskemu rastu Európska únia slepo využíva len dva nástroje. Viac regulácií a viac prerozdelenia. Ak to nefunguje, tak robí ešte viac toho istého, ešte viac regulácií a ešte viac prerozdelenia. Na vytvorenie pracovných miest je potrebný úplný opak. Súčasná stratégia Európskej únie je oveľa horšia, ako keby Európska únia nerobila nič, lebo zosilňuje len tie isté problémy, ktoré sa snaží vyriešiť. Na skutočné riešenie problémov sú potrebné štyri veci: po prvé, posilniť vnútorný trh ako základný pilier Európskej únie, po druhé, skončiť so záchranou nezodpovedných krajín, ktorá je v rozpore s Lisabonskou zmluvou, po tretie, odpolitizovať Európsku centrálnu banku a po štvrté dodržiavať zásady subsidiarity. Pokiaľ tieto body nebudete dodržiavať, tak môžete sa stretávať koľko chcete, nezamestnanosť mladých nevyriešite.

 
  
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  Martina Dlabajová (ALDE). - Signor Presidente, signor Commissario, onorevoli deputati, vorrei ringraziare la Presidenza italiana per aver organizzato questa Conferenza sul lavoro a Milano perché è indispensabile lavorare insieme a una soluzione a questo grave problema di disoccupazione. È fondamentale farlo insieme ai rappresentanti dei governi nazionali, delle istituzioni europee e del settore privato, perché soluzioni comuni secondo me hanno bisogno di risposte comuni.

Una delle cause principali della disoccupazione giovanile, come è già stato detto, è quella di non riuscire ancora a far coincidere la qualifica dei giovani europei alle necessità del mercato di lavoro: ssemplicemente far coincidere la domanda all'offerta. Questa malattia – e permettetemi il termine – impedisce ai nostri giovani di trovare il lavoro dopo la scuola, solo perché non hanno potuto acquisire le competenze di cui le imprese hanno bisogno.

Se questa incongruenza tra l'educazione e la professione non verrà risolta quanto prima, l'Europa di domani non potrà esser sana, competitiva e non potrà tornare alla crescita!

Servono comunque azioni concrete. Ve ne dico una: io sto lanciando adesso nella Repubblica ceca un progetto mirato a far incontrare imprenditori di successo e giovani per mezzo dei tirocini che permetterà ai giovani di entrare in contatto in prima persona con realtà produttive di successo. L'obiettivo non è quello di creare ancora un altro ennesimo progetto di tirocini, ma quello di dare opportunità ai giovani motivati e farli capire quali sono le vere necessità del mercato di lavoro. Sarebbe bello proporre questo programma anche a livello europeo per investire sul nostro futuro e per dare la possibilità ai giovani di trovare la giusta motivazione.

 
  
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  Paloma López Bermejo (GUE/NGL). - Señora Presidenta, las cumbres de Berlín y París son la constatación de un fracaso y, lamentablemente, la Conferencia de Milán no aporta nada nuevo: presupuestos insuficientes y fuera de tiempo; objetivos difusos —se insiste en reformas laborales agresivas en contra de los trabajadores—; rebajas de salarios y menos derechos y protección. En resumen, trabajo precario, aumento de la temporalidad y de los trabajos a tiempo parcial no deseados.

En España —que se pone de ejemplo—, con más del 50 % del paro juvenil, los contratos formativos apenas alcanzan 7 800 contratos mensuales; con un 50 % de desempleo juvenil, como digo, esto es absolutamente ridículo. Esta no es la solución. En resumen, con todas estas políticas que se deciden en las cumbres, lo único que se constata es el incremento de la pobreza, el incremento de la desigualdad entre nuestros países y en el seno de la propia Unión Europea.

Y se anuncia un plan de inversiones sin saber tan siquiera si va a haber dinero nuevo para llevarlo a cabo. ¿Nos parece suficiente un 1 % del presupuesto de la Unión Europea? Es absolutamente ridículo. Queremos generar empleo y queremos que sea de calidad. ¡Dejémonos de grandes cumbres y empecemos a poner recursos para el crecimiento, para estimular la demanda y la inversión pública y los servicios públicos! Los Estados, en esta situación, tienen que actuar como empleadores de último recurso, y así se estimulará también la inversión privada, porque, si no, no se puede acceder a los créditos.

 
  
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  Ernest Urtasun (Verts/ALE). - Señora Presidenta, señor comisario, señores del Consejo, una Cumbre más prácticamente para nada —y llevamos ya unas cuantas—. No sé, reunir a dieciséis jefes de Estado y de Gobierno para estas pobres conclusiones parece francamente muy poco constructivo.

Nos han hablado, una vez más, de las reformas estructurales, de seguir cumpliendo los marcos fiscales ya establecidos, que sabemos que han sido un auténtico fracaso.

Nos dice, señor Andor, que la gran reforma estructural en materia de empleo es la Garantía Juvenil. ¡No nos tome el pelo! La gran reforma estructural, las grandes reformas estructurales en materia de ocupación son las reformas laborales que se han hecho en cada uno de los países y que han sido un auténtico desastre —en España, desde la aplicación de la última, 400 000 personas menos ocupadas —.

Nos hablan de inversiones y crecimiento, pero no nos concretan nada, cosa que viene siendo costumbre en esta Cámara y, finalmente, no nos hablan de cuestiones fundamentales: ¿qué pasa con la movilidad forzosa de nuestros jóvenes, con los parados de larga duración, con el impacto de las reformas en la igualdad entre hombres y mujeres?

Y una última cosa: no hablen de educación cuando, en estos momentos, estamos expulsando a los jóvenes de la educación superior por culpa de la reforma que estamos realizando, porque, por ejemplo, en la universidad, las tasas ya resultan absolutamente inasumibles para muchos de nuestros jóvenes. Así que, por favor, empiecen a dar un giro a estas políticas que nos llevan al fracaso.

 
  
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  Laura Agea (NI). - Signora Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, il Presidente del Consiglio Matteo Renzi a Milano ha dichiarato: un'Europa che pensa solo ai vincoli è arida, senza crescita non c'è lavoro, senza lavoro non c'è dignità, senza dignità non c'è Europa. Parliamo di vincoli: da mesi il Movimento cinque stelle chiede flessibilità sul limite del 3% e quello che ci sentiamo rispondere dai popolari e dai socialisti è sempre lo stesso: non c'è crescita senza disciplina.

Il PD, il partito di Renzi, ha approvato senza remore il supercommissario all'austerità Katainen e si accinge ad approvare il nuovo governo dell'Europa: la Commissione dell'austerità di Juncker.

Senza lavoro non c'è dignità! Una cosa giusta il Presidente Renzi l'ha detta. Purtroppo si limita a dirla, perché in Italia il Presidente vuole rendere più facile i licenziamenti, abolendo le garanzie che hanno i lavoratori. Senza dignità non c'è Europa, ma quella a cui assistiamo qui è un'Europa senza dignità, un'Europa che chiede ai greci di dare il Partenone in garanzia di un prestito. Un'Europa che impone il pareggio di bilancio. Quindi noi immaginiamo che il Presidente Renzi abbia detto quello che pensa veramente: più disciplina, meno crescita, meno diritti e per quanto riguarda il lavoro a quello proprio non ci ha pensato.

 
  
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  Eva Paunova (PPE). - Madam President, I would like to think that today I stand here before you not so much as an MEP but as a young person, because the growing numbers of young people that are unemployed in Europe is scaring me, for two reasons. First, I am afraid that my generation could be a lost generation and second, a lot of the young people of today will decide not to realise their potential here in Europe.

Programmes like the Youth Employment Initiative and the Youth Guarantee, borne out here in this agenda, have ambitious goals backed by substantial funding, and while there is much talk about their aspirations, we know very little about their achievements. I would very much like to know how many young people have benefited from the Youth Guarantee so far, and what trends we are observing in the reduction of unemployment as a result.

I do understand that perhaps the achievements might be difficult to assess and that there is a sound reason for that, but we need to adopt a fundamentally different approach, one that goes beyond pledges and guarantees and devises a grand strategy for tackling the problems faced by youth instead.

A three-step plan proposed last year which is based on tax breaks, entrepreneurship investment and skill-based education was backed by the Council and the European Parliament. Providing such a model, as it tackles several key components simultaneously, is crucial. Providing security and stability for the young people on our continent requires more than individual programmes and initiatives. It requires an overhaul of old practices, a reform from the bottom up, a change of thinking, culture and decisive action. As the Commissioner said, investing in the Youth Guarantee is crucial. I would say: let us start thinking about how to invest in people more than in guarantees.

(The speaker agreed to take a blue-card question under Rule 162(8))

 
  
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  Liisa Jaakonsaari (S&D), sinisen kortin kysymys. – Ensinnäkin haluan korjata yhden virheen, jonka esititte. Sanoitte, että nuorisotakuualoite on syntynyt täällä. Ei se ole syntynyt täällä. Se on itävaltalais-suomalainen innovaatio. Se on syntynyt jäsenvaltioissa, niin kuin monien muidenkin aloitteiden pitää syntyä.

Teillä oli hyvää analyysiä, mutta haluan nyt kysyä perusasiaa koskevan kysymyksen. Mitä mieltä Te olette siitä, että ylikorostunut kuri- ja säästöpolitiikka on itse asiassa johtanut siihen, että monissa maissa nuorisotyöttömyys on kasvanut?

 
  
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  Eva Paunova (PPE), blue-card answer. – I am a true believer that we should create the right environment for young people to develop their potential, to have a place where they can become entrepreneurs and create their own SMEs. I do not believe that the government is the one that should create jobs, and I do not think that budgetary discipline has anything to do with that.

 
  
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  Evelyn Regner (S&D). - Frau Präsidentin, sehr geehrter Herr Kommissar! Dieser Gipfel ist nun schon der dritte dieser Art. Es ist wichtig – ich möchte nicht sagen, wunderbar –, aber es ist sehr wichtig, dass es diese Gipfel überhaupt gibt, dass über das Thema Beschäftigung in einem ausreichend ernst genommenen Rahmen gesprochen wurde. Allerdings, das Ergebnis ist mehr als ernüchternd. Über den Investitionsplan über 300 Milliarden Euro wurde zwar diskutiert, aber für die Mitgliedstaaten ist es einfach zu wenig, auf die konkreten Pläne zu warten. Es ist also längst an der Zeit, wieder mehr und nachhaltig zu investieren. Das sage ich auch in Richtung meiner Vorrednerin. Denn nur so können wir Beschäftigung, die Binnennachfrage und die gesamte Wirtschaft ankurbeln.

Es geht also immer wieder um das große Bild, um das makroökonomische Bild, in das die Jugendlichen mit ihren Schicksalen eingebettet sind und das wir nicht so ganz einfach wegwischen können. Dafür brauchen die Staaten mehr Flexibilität bei den Defizitregeln. Nachhaltige Investitionen, etwa in Infrastruktur, erneuerbare Energie oder Bildung und Ausbildung, sollen aus den Berechnungen ausgenommen werden. Denn Sparen um jeden Preis ist der falsche Weg. Das sagt uns sogar der IWF in der Zwischenzeit. Und das haben Sie ja auch alle zur Kenntnis genommen.

Jugendbeschäftigung war ein zentrales Thema dieses Gipfels. Ich kann schon gar nicht mehr aufzählen, wie oft wir hier in diesem Plenarsaal über dieses Thema diskutiert haben und wie oft wir auch zu raschem Handeln gedrängt haben. Trotzdem wird die Situation der Jugendlichen immer schwieriger. denn was nützt es einem jungen Menschen, der schon den dritten Postgraduate-Abschluss gemacht hat, wenn es ganz einfach keine Jobs gibt.

Also nochmals: Das makroökonomische Umfeld muss stimmen! Bei der Umsetzung der Jugendgarantie müssen einige Staaten ihre Anstrengungen erhöhen. Ja, das ist richtig. Aber gleichzeitig muss die Kommission die Prozesse vereinfachen, damit das Geld der Jugendinitiative endlich abgeholt wird.

(Die Rednerin ist damit einverstanden, eine Frage nach dem Verfahren der „blauen Karte“ gemäß Artikel 162 Absatz 8 der Geschäftsordnung zu beantworten.)

 
  
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  Bronis Ropė (Verts/ALE), pakėlus mėlynąją kortelę pateiktas klausimas. – Noriu paklausti: lyg ir yra ir pinigų, lyg ir yra ir fondai bei sistemos, bet nedarbo problemos ne mažėja, o didėja. Tai ar neatrodo, kad ta sistema yra per daug biurokratinė ir reikėtų galvoti, kaip ją labiau decentralizuoti ir leisti labiau įjungti vietos valdžią, kad vietos valdžia konkrečiai spręstų tas problemas, o ne tik palikti tai nacionalinėms valstybėms ir spręsti problemas per nacionalines programas.

 
  
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  Evelyn Regner (S&D), Antwort auf eine Frage nach dem Verfahren der „blauen Karte“. – Da möchte ich Ihnen Recht geben. Natürlich müssen die Abläufe vereinfacht werden. Ich habe mir einige Beispiele angeschaut, wie von der Kommission versucht wird, hier Projekte zu unterstützen. Ich denke, dass gerade beim Vereinfachen der Prozesse, bei der Zusammenarbeit der Arbeitsmarktverwaltungen, sicherlich einiges viel unbürokratischer gemacht werden kann. Hier teile ich Ihre Ansicht sehr wohl.

 
  
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  Nathalie Griesbeck (ALDE). - Madame la Présidente, chers collègues, Mesdames et Messieurs, un sommet pour rien. C'est ainsi que beaucoup de médias ont présenté, non seulement avant mais malheureusement après, la situation au moment du sommet de Milan. C'est aussi dans cet état d'esprit, semble-t-il, qu'un certain nombre de partenaires et de participants à ce sommet sont sortis, pensant que ce sommet n'avait servi à rien. Pourtant, la thématique, qui nous préoccupe tous, est cruciale pour les Européens et est évidemment cruciale pour les chômeurs qui sont concernés et notamment pour les jeunes.

Je m'étais dit tout simplement, peut-être de manière très naïve, que ce sommet servirait au moins à mettre sur le haut de la pile le chômage terrible des jeunes, qui est notre priorité absolue. Mais les outils que nous avons mis en place, et dont nous parlons depuis 9 heures ce matin, tardent à se mettre en route et ne sont pas appliqués. Seuls deux États membres ont réellement mis en œuvre la garantie pour la jeunesse. Comment est-ce possible, alors que 24 % de nos jeunes sont au chômage en Europe? Comment peut-on imaginer que la Commission ne pousse pas les États membres à mettre en œuvre ce dispositif dont elle parle souvent et qui ne se concrétise pas? Devons-nous rester les bras ballants et laisser monter et progresser cette désespérance, qui s'accompagne de sensibilités extrémistes?

Alors, au-delà des aspects financiers dont nous avons parlé, au-delà des outils, il faut que l'on fasse bouger tout le système: la mobilité, la correspondance entre les études et la demande de l'emploi, les infrastructures, l'accompagnement, surtout des PME, qui sont les seules à créer des emplois.

(L'oratrice accepte de répondre à une question "carton bleu" (article 162, paragraphe 8, du règlement))

 
  
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  Bill Etheridge (NI), blue-card question. – My question is this. Speaking about youth unemployment particularly, and youth guarantees, would not the best guarantee for that youth be that they are not saddled for generations with massive amounts of debt caused by the addiction to over-spending by our current political elite? Would it not be better to give them, the future generations, a dynamic, low-taxation, fair-taxation economy where they can work hard and excel and make the future far better than our present?

 
  
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  Nathalie Griesbeck (ALDE), réponse "carton bleu". – Madame la Présidente, pour nous les enjeux sont justement à la fois l'urgence de la réponse et cette idée de responsabilité et de solidarité à l'égard de la nouvelle génération pour éviter qu'elle soit une génération perdue, comme assez souvent elle-même se qualifie.

C'est notre responsabilité. Elle est européenne et ne doit pas nous amener à nous gargariser simplement de mots mais à mettre en mouvement une volonté européenne globale, en coopérant, en avançant sur tous les plans (l'éducation, l'économie, la mobilité, les infrastructures) et en choisissant nos priorités.

 
  
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  Tania González Peñas (GUE/NGL). - Señora Presidenta, en estas cumbres se pretende mostrar preocupación al más alto nivel por un problema dramático para millones de jóvenes sin futuro, para el que aportan soluciones que no solo son ineficientes sino que demasiadas veces empeoran la situación. En el mejor de los casos, ofrecen un horizonte precario a base de subempleos.

El programa de empleo Garantía Juvenil, como ya denunciamos aquí, parte de la premisa de que la principal dificultad de los jóvenes a la hora de encontrar empleo es su empleabilidad, es decir, que no tienen formación o flexibilidad suficientes. El problema es cómo se establecen las prioridades: ¿se trata de beneficiar a las grandes empresas o de solucionar los problemas de la gente?

La flexibilización y la precarización continua de las condiciones de trabajo significan sacrificar a la gente para resolver los problemas generados por la especulación financiera. Las soluciones van en sentido contrario: lo que tenemos que hacer es poner la economía al servicio de la ciudadanía y no poner a la ciudadanía al servicio de los intereses privados de las corporaciones financieras.

(La oradora acepta responder a una pregunta formulada con arreglo al procedimiento de la «tarjeta azul» (artículo 162, apartado 8, del Reglamento))

 
  
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  Jérôme Lavrilleux (PPE), question "carton bleu". – Madame la Présidente, je viens d'entendre notre collègue dénoncer les grandes entreprises, le secteur privé, et dire qu'il fallait plus d'interventions de l'État. Mais je n'ai pas bien compris quelles étaient les solutions concrètes qu'elle proposait pour favoriser l'emploi des jeunes, si ce n'est le recours, sans doute, comme en France, à des contrats publics mais précaires qui font qu'après deux ans, nos jeunes se retrouvent à nouveau au chômage. Je serais donc très heureux d'entendre les solutions proposées par notre collègue, plutôt que des critiques systématiques.

 
  
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  Tania González Peñas (GUE/NGL), respuesta de «tarjeta azul». – Señor Lavrilleux, las soluciones las podemos encontrar de muchas maneras, siempre que el camino sea la voluntad de que las necesidades de la gente sean la prioridad.

Hay estudios que plantean que, solamente con fomentar el empleo verde, en España se generarían dos millones de puestos de trabajo.

Ahora bien, si la dirección es destrozar el mercado laboral, si la solución es abaratar el despido —como quiere hacer el señor Renzi—, si la solución pasa por aumentar la edad de jubilación en vez de reducirla para distribuir el trabajo, así no vamos a generar más empleo.

 
  
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  Λάμπρος Φουντούλης (NI). - Κυρία Πρόεδρε, στη σύνοδο κορυφής του Μιλάνου δόθηκε έμφαση, από όλους τους ηγέτες, στα υψηλά ποσοστά ανεργίας και ιδιαίτερα στην ανεργία των νέων. Ο Πρόεδρος Schulz δήλωσε συγκεκριμένα ότι η κρίση θα έχει τελειώσει μόνο όταν η Ευρώπη θα αποκτήσει σταθερούς ρυθμούς ανάπτυξης και πως τώρα πρέπει να χτίσουμε τις βάσεις για ένα καλύτερο αύριο. Όμως, θα ήθελα να επισημάνω ότι με ευχολόγια δεν αντιμετωπίζεται η ανεργία.

Για παράδειγμα, το μεγαλύτερο μέρος των κονδυλίων του Ευρωπαϊκού Ταμείου Προσαρμογής στην Παγκοσμιοποίηση για την περίοδο 2014 – 2020, σκοπό έχει να χρηματοδοτεί το κόστος σχεδίων παροχής βοήθειας σε απολυμένους ώστε να βρουν μια θέση εργασίας ή να δημιουργήσουν τη δική τους επιχείρηση. Αυτό όμως δεν έχει συντελέσει καθόλου στην προσπάθεια μείωσης της ανεργίας. Αντίθετα, τα ποσοστά της ανεργίας παρουσιάζουν άνοδο. Υπάρχουν στην Ελλάδα 1.300.000 απολυμένοι με κατάρτιση και δεξιότητες που ψάχνουν απεγνωσμένα για εργασία.

Ψηφίζουμε εκθέσεις, νέα μέτρα και μεταρρυθμίσεις χωρίς ουσιαστικό αποτέλεσμα. Και σας ρωτώ: μπορεί να υπάρξει ελπίδα για τους νέους χωρίς τη δημιουργία νέων θέσεων εργασίας; Ας αποφασίσουμε επιτέλους τα χρήματα να πηγαίνουν στην ανάπτυξη, όχι σαν μια αόριστη έννοια, αλλά σε στοχευμένους τομείς.

(Η ομιλήτρια δέχεται να απαντήσει σε ερώτηση με γαλάζια κάρτα (άρθρο162, παράγραφος 8, του κανονισμού))

 
  
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  Richard Sulík (ECR), Frage nach dem Verfahren der „blauen Karte“. – Frau Präsidentin! Es ist natürlich sehr traurig, dass es so viele Arbeitslose in Griechenland gibt, aber ich fürchte, es wird ihnen kein Sozialfonds helfen. Griechenland hat die gemeinsame Währung Euro, und die ist einfach zu teuer für Griechenland. Alles, was Griechenland produziert, ist zu teuer. Deswegen produziert es wenig. Die Industrieproduktion ist auf dem Stand des Jahres 1970. Deswegen haben sie die Arbeitslosen. Der Euro schadet Griechenland am meisten.

(Beifall)

 
  
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  President. - I am not sure I heard a question there, but would you like to respond?

 
  
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  Λάμπρος Φουντούλης (NI), απάντηση "γαλάζια κάρτα". – Κυρία Πρόεδρε, όχι μόνο το ευρώ κάνει κακό στην Ελλάδα, αλλά και ο τρόπος που η κυβέρνηση διαχειρίζεται τα χρήματα. Παραδείγματος χάρη, τα χρήματα από το Ευρωπαϊκό Ταμείο Προσαρμογής στην Παγκοσμιοποίηση, αντί να πηγαίνουν στους απολυμένους, πηγαίνουν σε κάποιες εταιρείες οι οποίες κάνουν σεμινάρια για δεξιότητες κ.λπ. και οι οποίες καρπώνονται το μεγαλύτερο μέρος των χρημάτων, ενώ ελάχιστα πηγαίνουν στους απολυμένους. Τα δε χρήματα που θα πάρουν οι απολυμένοι, θα τα πάρουν τουλάχιστον μετά από δέκα μήνες ή και ένα χρόνο και η κυβέρνησή μας τα παρουσιάζει σαν πρωτογενές πλεόνασμα.

 
  
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  Agnes Jongerius (S&D). - Voorzitter, mag ik allereerst László Andor bedanken voor zijn werk als commissaris voor Sociale Zaken en Werkgelegenheid, juist op een moment waarop het op dit gebied voor heel veel mensen een heel moeilijke tijd geweest is. Juist die moeilijke tijd was het onderwerp van de top in Milaan. Natuurlijk is het goed als regeringsleiders bij elkaar komen om over de zorgelijke werkgelegenheidssituatie te spreken, maar dan is het wel extra wrang als de 24 miljoen werklozen die op dat moment thuis zitten te wachten, eigenlijk horen dat er niets uit de top gekomen is.

Banen en groei staan voor de nieuwe Commissie centraal, maar hoe de Commissie die beloofde 300 miljard ook echt denkt te gaan besteden is mij nog niet duidelijk en niet alle regeringsleiders lijken even enthousiast over dit plan. Ik zou zeggen, concrete voorstellen moeten zo snel mogelijk op tafel komen, want mensen kunnen niet langer wachten, en alle 28 commissarissen moeten werkgelegenheid centraal stellen en vanuit hun portefeuille bedenken hoe zij een bijdrage kunnen leveren aan groei en echte goede banen.

 
  
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  Mara Bizzotto (NI). - Signora Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, qualche giorno fa i nostri cittadini hanno sperato, guardando il Vertice sul lavoro di Milano, che qualcosa cambiasse. Invece hanno visto per l'ennesima volta lo stesso deludente spettacolo: una sfilata di potenti, vestiti bene, incapaci di trovare soluzione al problema lavoro.

Venticinque milioni di disoccupati, di cui 18 milioni nella zona euro, 3 milioni in Italia, chiedono a gran voce all'Europa di mettere in discussione le scelte su cui hanno costruito le basi di questo fallimento.

Mi riferisco alla moneta sbagliata, ai parametri di bilancio fissi inderogabili imposti dai trattai europei. Hanno visione del mondo che aiuta gli immigrati e non aiuta gli europei, non aiuta i nostri giovani, i nostri disoccupati. Se vuole in futuro l'Unione europea deve andare oltre la propaganda buonista e superficiale con cui ha affrontato fino ad oggi i problemi.

Basta parole, basta vertici inutili! Bisogna fare! Serve una nuova politica monetaria, serve una nuova politica per gli investimenti che sostengano per prima la crescita economica. Serve una nuova politica estera che non demonizzi interlocutori economici vitali per i nostri imprenditori come la Russia. Serve l'Europa diversa, bisogna cambiare velocemente prima che sia troppo tardi.

 
  
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  Brando Benifei (S&D). - Madam President, let me first thank the Italian Presidency for having taken the initiative and the commitment to organise the high level conference on employment in Milan. It is important that Italy be insistent and determined on this front. Fixing unemployment and youth unemployment must remain Europe’s number one priority. For this reason, it is now essential that we make a unified effort towards creating quality jobs. We must remain focused, since – let me repeat this – the crisis is by no means over yet.

I particularly welcome the opening of a dialogue on the matter of the system of co-financing for European projects. Grounds for agreement were found on the need to reform the system, which at the moment does not allow countries – especially those engaging in reforms – to strike a proper balance between their deficit rules and growth. This is a very important step in the right direction which will give Member States greater flexibility, which is much needed. It will be essential for the next European Council on 23 and 24 October to sketch out specific proposals for jobs and job creation in Europe. In particular, it is imperative that very specific responses be given to the requests from the Parliament to know how the EUR 300 billion investment plan presented by President Juncker will be financed. Parliament is uncomfortable with vagueness on the issue of the sources of financing. The people demand and deserve clarifications on this.

(The speaker agreed to take a blue-card question under Rule 162(8))

 
  
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  Tiziana Beghin (NI), Domanda "cartellino blu". – Signora Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, volevo chiedere al collega Benifei come pensa, se ha mai lavorato in una piccola e media azienda italiana, come possa una piccola e media azienda in Italia essere competitiva e creare nuovi posti di lavoro con una tassazione imposta di quasi il 70% con il mercato del lavoro, come lo abbiamo e come lo state impostando con il vostro partito in questo momento in Italia.

 
  
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  Brando Benifei (S&D), Risposta a una domanda "cartellino blu". – Signora Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, ringrazio la collega Beghin perché mi dà l'occasione di rispondere, diciamo di notare come qui, molti colleghi del gruppo EFDD, i grillini italiani rispondono e fanno domande su questioni italiane invece che fare domande su ciò di cui si è parlato in questa sede. Non siamo in un meetup di Grillo! Sulla questione che è stata posta, non del tutto pertinente, io penso che quello che si sta cercando di fare in Italia, anche in Europa è quello di migliorare la situazione per le nostre imprese. Però mi sembra una domanda provocatoria: è difficile da rispondere in 20 secondi.

 
  
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  Javi López (S&D). - Señora Presidenta, parece que la historia se repite: los Gobiernos europeos se reúnen en cumbres y los europeos caminan al filo del precipicio una vez más. Es una suerte de déjà vu. Después de este verano, cinco años más tarde, datos macroeconómicos muy negativos nos indican que entramos otra vez en recesión en Europa —esta sería ya la tercera—, y todos los analistas internacionales nos dicen que volvemos a ser fuente de los problemas para la recuperación económica mundial, provocando además, como hoy hemos comentado, una tasa de desempleo enormemente dolorosa, muchísima pobreza, precarización y emigración forzosa en muchos países.

Lo peor de todo esto es que parte de este dolor viene autoimpuesto por las políticas que estamos aplicando. Así que, por favor, escuchemos a todos aquellos que nos piden que activemos la demanda como única forma para utilizar la palanca del sector público y la inversión para salir de esta crisis económica. Porque, de lo contrario, será imposible recuperar empleo, también para la gente joven, en este continente.

(El orador acepta responder a una pregunta formulada con arreglo al procedimiento de la «tarjeta azul» (artículo 162, apartado 8, del Reglamento))

 
  
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  Janice Atkinson (NI), blue-card question. – I am actually here to represent the UK and not the rest of Europe. What we have seen in the UK is really high youth unemployment. We have got nearly one million people unemployed. That is unacceptable. And that is because of the fundamental principle of this place, of the free movement of people, which is driving wages down and unemployment up in my country, do you not agree?

 
  
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  President. - Please answer that ‘question’ in thirty seconds.

 
  
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  Javi López (S&D), respuesta de «tarjeta azul». – Es difícil contestar a una pregunta que no ha formulado, pero a su Señoría le diré que yo aquí vengo a representar a los europeos —no solo al Reino Unido— , y también a exponer los problemas que padece mi país, que padece Cataluña, que padece España, y creo que los problemas que vivimos hoy no cabe atribuirlos a la libre circulación.

Y durante el último siglo, impidiendo la libre circulación y llevando las economías al proteccionismo, hemos asistido a los mayores desastres sociales, económicos y políticos que ha vivido este continente.

 
  
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  Maria Arena (S&D). - Madame la Présidente, aujourd'hui, 1 % des fonds de la garantie pour la jeunesse a été versé aux États membres. La Commission rejette la faute sur les États membres, les États membres rejettent la faute sur la Commission. Dans ce jeu, ce sont les jeunes qui sont perdants. J'aimerais donc tout simplement vous poser la question suivante: que comptez-vous faire pour accélérer le processus d'un mécanisme qui a été décidé en 2013, sachant que nous sommes aujourd'hui en 2014?

Premièrement, envisagez-vous un cadrage correct de la mesure, qui permette à chacun de se retrouver dans ce qu'il veut faire par rapport à ces jeunes? Deuxièmement, prévoyez-vous la question du préfinancement? Aujourd'hui, deux États membres ont droit au préfinancement, pourquoi pas tous les États membres? Troisièmement, on a l'impression que l'Union reprend d'une main ce qu'elle donne de l'autre. Certains opérateurs publics doivent, à cause de l'austérité, faire des économies et justement des économies au détriment des jeunes. Ne pourrait-on pas immuniser les actions d'accompagnement des jeunes contre les plans d'austérité actuels, ce qui permettrait d'obtenir l'investissement à la fois des États membres et de l'Union?

(L'oratrice accepte de répondre à une question "carton bleu" (article 149, paragraphe 8, du règlement))

 
  
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  Jonathan Arnott (NI), blue-card question. – I agree that young people are the losers when everyone bickers, but can we accept that ‘one size fits all’ does not always work? Can we accept that the needs of one country can be different from the needs of another? Of course we should be doing more to get our young people back into work, but could that not be done far better by the Member States themselves, directly on the things that they know about, if this were taken out of the EU budget and given back to the Member States to help young people themselves?

 
  
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  Maria Arena (S&D), réponse "carton bleu". – Madame la Présidente, je pense justement que la garantie pour la jeunesse satisfait à ce besoin qu'ont les États membres de répondre tout particulièrement aux situations vécues par les jeunes. Contrairement à ce que vous dites, la garantie pour la jeunesse répond à des besoins spécifiques des jeunes dans les quartiers, et pas uniquement dans des régions ou dans des États membres. Il s'agit vraiment d'un outil qui, s'il était fluidifié par rapport aux moyens qu'on donne, pourrait répondre parfaitement à des réalités de terrain.

 
  
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  Εύα Καϊλή (S&D). - Κυρία Πρόεδρε, τα αποτελέσματα για την απασχόληση στην Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωση είναι απογοητευτικά, για άλλη μια φορά, καθώς οι θέσεις μερικής απασχόλησης δεν είναι στέρεες θέσεις εργασίας, ούτε μπορεί κανείς να εφησυχάζει. Η εγγύηση για τους νέους είναι 'ασπιρίνη', για να κερδίσουμε λίγο χρόνο μέχρι να καταλάβουμε ότι πρέπει να αλλάξουμε πλεύση και στρατηγική. Πρέπει να πάψουμε να είμαστε παθητικοί στις αποφάσεις μας και στην αντιμετώπιση της ανεργίας, και να ενεργοποιήσουμε την κατεύθυνση της ανάπτυξης.

Η ψηφιακή εποχή καθώς είναι εδώ, δεν πρέπει να μας ξεπεράσουν πάλι οι εξελίξεις. Πρέπει να ενισχύσουμε περαιτέρω το πρόγραμμα Horizon 2020, να συνδέσουμε τα ευρωπαϊκά κεφάλαια με τον ιδιωτικό τομέα ενισχύοντας την καινοτομία, να ομολογήσουμε πως ο παραδοσιακός τρόπος αντιμετώπισης της ανεργίας επιτρέπει ακόμη αυτή να αυξάνεται σε χώρες εντός της Ευρωπαϊκής Ένωσης και οι ανισότητες να διευρύνονται. Και αν ο Βορράς αντέχει, ο Νότος εξοντώνεται.

Οι συνέπειες στην εποχή της παγκοσμιοποίησης, όπως έχουμε καταλάβει τελευταία, και οι επιδημίες δεν περιορίζονται πια από σύνορα, ειδικά ανάμεσά μας, κι αν δεν αλλάξουμε πλεύση, σύντομα εδώ μπορεί να συναντάμε πιο συχνά τον Επίτροπο διαχείρισης κρίσεων.

(Η ομιλήτρια δέχεται να απαντήσει σε ερώτηση με γαλάζια κάρτα (άρθρο162, παράγραφος 8, του κανονισμού))

 
  
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  James Carver (NI), blue-card question. – Madam President, it seems to me that you are all following the mindset of that great philosopher, Homer. I am not speaking about the ancient Greek poet but the American cartoon character, Homer Simpson, when he said ‘a fool and his money are soon parted – I will pay good money to have that one explained to me’. Speaking as a small businessman, does my colleague not accept that the best way to stimulate employment and the economy is to have a bonfire of regulations, in distinct contradiction to the outpourings from the European institutions?

 
  
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  Εύα Καϊλή (S&D), ερώτηση "γαλάζια κάρτα". – Κυρία Πρόεδρε, ακριβώς όπως είπα και στην ομιλία μου θα πρέπει να ενισχύσουμε τη σύνδεση των ευρωπαϊκών κεφαλαίων με τον ιδιωτικό τομέα, προκειμένου να δοθούν χρήματα στις πρωτοβουλίες, ειδικά στον τομέα της καινοτομίας, καθώς εκεί μπορούμε να δημιουργήσουμε θέσεις εργασίας για τους νέους και τις γυναίκες. Περαιτέρω ενίσχυση θέλουμε και όχι κανόνες οι οποίοι περιορίζουν την πρωτοβουλία. Το αντίθετο. Θέλουμε ενίσχυση, αλλά όχι επιδοματική πολιτική. Ο παραδοσιακός αυτός τρόπος απέδειξε ότι δεν μπορεί να αποδώσει. Χρειαζόμαστε χρήματα για την ανάπτυξη πρωτοβουλιών, και όχι απλώς προκειμένου να στηρίξουμε για ένα ορισμένο διάστημα τους ανθρώπους που πλήττονται από την ανεργία.

 
  
 

Catch-the-eye procedure

 
  
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  Ádám Kósa (PPE). - Kedves kollégák! Nagyon fontosnak tartom azt, hogy minden plenáris ülésen foglalkozzunk a munkahelyteremtés kérdésével. Mint tudjuk, az EU alapszerződésében és az Európa 2020 stratégiában is kiemelt szerepe van a foglalkoztatási kérdésnek. Ennek az Európa 2020 stratégiának kitűzött célja a 75%-os foglalkoztatási szint elérése. Ez nagyon ambiciózus cél. Néhány nyugat-európai ország kivételével, azt gondolom, a többi tagállam nagyon nehezen tudja elérni. Számunkra is nehéz ennek a célnak az elérése, és olyan eszközökkel kell elősegíteni a foglalkoztatási szint növekedését, amelyek hatékonyak. Itt szeretném megjegyezni, hogy nagy hibának tartom, hogy csak a fiatalokkal foglalkozunk most, hiszen rengeteg olyan csoport van – az idősek, az alacsonyan képzettek vagy a fogyatékossággal élők – akikkel érdemes foglalkozni, és erre a kérdésre náluk is fókuszálni kell. Tehát javaslom, hogy komplexebb megközelítést alkalmazzunk.

 
  
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  Tibor Szanyi (S&D). - Tisztelt elnök asszony! Valóban egyetértek mindazokkal, akik úgy gondolják, hogy kiemelten és visszatérően érdemes foglalkozni a munkahelyteremtéssel. Tán ennek is eredménye az, hogy immár a Bizottság is magáévá tette többünk javaslatát, hogy az európai ifjúsági garancia életkorhatárát 25-ről 30 évre emeljük. Ugyanakkor minden törekvésünk dacára meg kell jegyezzük, hogy a tagországi elszámolások, a statisztikai számbavételek vizsgálata, ellenőrzése legalább olyan fontos, mint megannyi más eszköz itt. Példának hozhatom hazám, Magyarország esetét, ahol a kormány egyébként egy olyan közmunkaprogramot vezetett be, amelyben egy hónapban napi 4–6 órás munkáért 150 eurónyi fizetést adnak, ámde foglalkoztatottnak tekintik ezeket az embereket. Egy szó, mint száz, ha itt hangzatos célokat tűzünk ki, az jó dolog, de megvalósításuknál az ellenőrzés ugyanilyen fontos.

 
  
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  Νότης Μαριάς (ECR). - Κυρία Πρόεδρε, 'στο ίδιο έργο θεατές'. Ακούμε συνεχώς τα ίδια. Βλέπουμε στην τελευταία συνάντηση κορυφής στο Μιλάνο ότι η Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωση συνεχίζει να στηρίζει την ανταγωνιστικότητά της στην 'κινεζοποίηση' των μισθών, στη μείωση δηλαδή των μισθών, μια λάθος πολιτική, ενώ αντιθέτως πρέπει να επενδύσει στις νέες τεχνολογίες, στην εκπαίδευση και στην κατάρτιση.

Αλλά, πώς να το κάνει αυτό όταν με τη βίαιη δημοσιονομική προσαρμογή μειώνει τις δημόσιες δαπάνες για την ίδια την εκπαίδευση; Συνεχίζει να στηρίζεται λοιπόν στη λιτότητα, ενώ πρέπει να ενισχύσει τη ζήτηση. Συνεχίζει να στηρίζει τη διάσωση των τραπεζών: 1,6 τρισεκατομμύρια ευρώ δόθηκαν για να διασωθούν οι τράπεζες, να κοινωνικοποιηθούν δηλαδή οι ζημιές των τραπεζών. Μόνο 6 δισεκατομμύρια ευρώ για την εγγύηση των νέων. Άλλο ένα τρισεκατομμύριο ευρώ από τον κ. Draghi, πάλι για τις τράπεζες. Αποτυχία, λοιπόν, στην όλη διαδικασία, αποτυχία και για την Ελλάδα με τις πολιτικές που εφαρμόζουν εκεί, το μνημόνιο, το οποίο έχει διαλύσει και φτωχοποιήσει την ελληνική κοινωνία.

 
  
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  Ivan Jakovčić (ALDE). - Gospođo predsjednice, shema jamstva za mlade kao novi mehanizam je odgovor na ekonomsku krizu, jedna vrsta vatrogasne mjere. Ali nije samo kriza kriva za nezaposlenost mladih, jer su korijeni ovog problema po mom uvjerenju mnogo dublji.

Zato samo jaka suradnja i jako partnerstvo između europske, nacionalne, regionalne, lokalne razine može u ovome slučaju zaista dati rezultate. Ali i iskreno partnerstvo s obrazovnim sustavom i naravno pogotovo s privatnim sektorom gdje posebno naglašavam mala i srednja poduzeća.

Tome želim dodati tri poticaja: Prvo, stvaranje zaista efikasnog mehanizma samozapošljavanja mladih, drugo, mobilnost mladih unutar Europske unije, i treće, zaključak da su digitalno tržište i energetika kao sektor za zapošljavanje mladih nešto što je aktualno, što sam čuo od g. Della Vedove, ali dodajem i poljoprivredu i turizam.

 
  
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  Senra Rodríguez, Lidia (GUE/NGL). - Senhora Presidente, eu venho de um povo do sul da Europa, da Galiza, golpeado pela dívida e golpeado pela troica. No meu país, a juventude continua sem trabalho, milhares de jovens, desde 2008, abandonaram o país à procura de trabalho, muitos milhares continuam no país em busca de trabalho, durante longas jornadas, mas não o conseguem.

Queria perguntar realmente ao Conselho e à Comissão para quando vai haver medidas reais para que a juventude e as outras pessoas sem trabalho tenham emprego, emprego de qualidade, e que não fiquem trabalhadores e trabalhadoras pobres como acontece na atualidade.

 
  
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  Krisztina Morvai (NI). - Kifejezetten honfitársamat, Andor biztos urat szeretném kérdezni arról, hogy mennyire hisz Ön, biztos úr, a tisztes munka fogalmában, a „decent job” fogalmában? Az Európai Unió és az Európa Tanács számos dokumentuma mostanában már tisztes munkahelyről beszél, és nem egyszerűen akármilyen munkahelyről. És a következő kérdésem: hogy gondolja, hogy az elmúlt 5 évben, amióta Ön itt magyarként, új tagállami biztosként a munka világát képviseli, mennyire sikerült kiemelkedniük a rabszolgasorból például az Ön honfitársainak, illetőleg a szegényebb tagállamok rabszolgasorban lévő munkavállalóinak? Mit szól ahhoz, hogy úgy foglalta össze a munkavállalók helyzetét nemrég egy magyar asszony, hogy „lecserélhető tárgyak lettünk”. A munkaerő-kölcsönzőknek való kiszolgáltatottságban, jogfosztottságban, teljes munkajogi jogfosztottságban éljük az életünket? Milyen eredmény ez az Ön számára?

 
  
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  Danuta Jazłowiecka (PPE). - Pani Przewodnicząca! Europa potrzebuje poważnych zmian, a przede wszystkim zdecydowanej modernizacji europejskiego modelu społecznego. Za brak tych zmian płacimy dzisiaj najwyższą cenę, jaką jest wysokie bezrobocie, nie tylko wśród ludzi młodych, ale także wśród kobiet i osób starszych. Wciąż zastępujemy wiele środowisk naszego społeczeństwa w ich aktywności, rozdajemy pieniądze bez równoległego wdrażania narzędzi dających naszemu społeczeństwu szanse, a nie gwarancje. Żaden rząd nie jest w stanie zagwarantować ludziom młodym pracy, szkoleń czy staży, a tego dotyczy program gwarancji dla młodzieży. To nie rządy mają takie kompetencje, lecz przedsiębiorcy, o których Unia Europejska dba poprzez zwiększanie biurokracji czy podnoszenie różnego rodzaju obciążeń. Zacznijmy w końcu działać, zapewniając szanse młodzieży, a skoro już podjęliśmy tę nieroztropną decyzję o programie gwarancji dla młodzieży, to realizujmy ją z olbrzymią odpowiedzialnością. Dzisiejsze wdrażanie świadczy o tym, że tej odpowiedzialności brak.

Na koniec pytanie: gdzie są propozycje dla bezrobotnych kobiet i osób starszych?

 
  
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  Milan Zver (PPE). - Čestitam predsedujoči Italiji, da je v Milanu organizirala to pomembno konferenco, na kateri je brezposelnost mladih ponovno postavila visoko na agendo. Zagotovo bo imela kak pozitiven učinek, četudi vemo, kako je takrat, ko se dobijo šefi vlad in držav.

Vendar sem vse manj vesel, ker države članice ne izkoriščajo vseh možnosti, vseh resursov, ki jih imajo pri premagovanju brezposelnosti mladih – niti evropskih. Birokratski mlini meljejo počasi v državah članicah, znano je, da sta le dve državi izkoristili, popolnoma izkoristili jamstveno shemo.

Dober znak je, ko komisar govori o izobraževanju, ko išče načine reševanja brezposelnosti mladih – to je dobro. Še vedno ostaja ključno vprašanje, kdo naj ustvari delovna mesta. Z administrativnimi ukrepi ne bomo ustvarili produktivnih delovnih mest za mlade. To ni naravna pot, naravna pot je ustvarjanje boljših pogojev za podjetništvo.

 
  
 

(End of catch-the-eye procedure)

 
  
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  László Andor, Member of the Commission. - Madam President, honourable Members, I believe the Milan Summit of Heads of State and Government was a step forward, compared to Berlin and Paris, because Prime Ministers and leaders of public employment services spoke in much more concrete terms about the Youth Guarantee and its implementation in their respective countries than in previous cases.

Indeed, there were reports about the progress being made and the Commission also keeps reporting about the results of pilot projects, as well as the actual Youth Guarantee implementation, on its own website. Ms Paunova and others who were asking about this can find information about it on the DG Employment website, and I have also been reporting regularly to this House about the progress made.

The Youth Guarantee is, as you know, an EU-wide initiative, but it is not a uniform model. It is tailor-made. Countries themselves were designing their own youth guarantee implementation plans according to common guidelines which were provided at EU level. This is something to be emphasised, because Mr Mureșan as well as Mr Arnott were asking about this aspect. Certainly, the Youth Guarantee is tailor-made in the case of each and every EU Member State. We took inspiration from the pioneers, Austria and Finland, inside the EU and all countries have to apply the common principles – the four-month deadline, for example, and the importance of quality jobs, apprenticeships, training or learning according to their own needs and capacity.

We have to clarify in such a broad discussion what the Youth Guarantee actually is and what it is not. The Youth Guarantee is primarily about the school-to-work transition. It is about improving school and training performance; improving labour market performance and the connection between the two, because this is where many young people, including the so called NEETs, have been lost – and not only at the time of the crisis. We are not only responding to the crisis with the Youth Guarantee, but also to the previous model of economic development, which was not inclusive enough and because of which Europe was losing significant growth potential.

The Youth Guarantee is certainly not a tool against deflation because, again, on deflation it is the European Central Bank which needs to act, and the surplus countries of the euro zone, by boosting investment and also wages. It is not a tool to generally promote industrial competitiveness, because innovation has to be promoted for that purpose, and it is certainly not a tool to respond to asymmetric shocks in the monetary union, because for that we would need a counter-cyclical fiscal capacity.

The new financial instrument, the Youth Employment Initiative, is in a way an embryonic fiscal capacity to respond also to the cyclical rise of youth unemployment in the European Union, but it has to function according to the rules of the structural funds. The Commission has to observe these rules and we have to be held accountable according to the regulations. I am sure that is also what the House would demand from the Commission. Nevertheless, the Commission has been doing its utmost to help the Member States to accelerate implementation of the Youth Guarantee and the financial instruments supporting it. We have been helping to design the programmes; we have been helping to exchange experiences and also accelerating the adoption when necessary.

Those who are still not satisfied with the speed, like Ms Steinruck and Mr Ropé, obviously would like to see a different type of fiscal capacity, for example in the form of automatic stabilisers, because that would indeed immediately provide financial support, but under the current design of the EMU, such capacity does not exist.

I think Mr Kósa is right. Apart from the young generation, we also have to speak seriously and also act seriously about the unemployment in the European Union. The youth, those under 25, represent about a fifth of total unemployment in the European Union. Total unemployment in the last one year has been falling, contrary to what some Members of this House actually believe. The problem is that it has not been falling fast enough, it has not been falling everywhere, and very often the quality of the new jobs is not what we would like to see. Indeed the quality of employment has also suffered during the crisis years and the Commission’s initiatives have to respond to all these aspects: the speed of job creation, the balanced nature of economic growth and also the quality of employment.

Where the overall macroeconomic picture is concerned – and I agree with Ms Regner, this is very important – it is obviously true that the youth guarantee alone will not create a job-rich recovery. We outlined an employment package in 2012 with a host of measures that need to be taken: shifting taxation away from labour, for example, which Member States are capable of doing just very, very slowly, but it also should be seen as a priority. Boosting entrepreneurship and helping enterprises to employ more people is indeed an important part of this broader policy. But certainly, when we are facing the risk of another downturn it is also important that fiscal as well as monetary policies use their existing room for manoeuvre to stimulate the economy and to boost investment, which certainly should not remain just a buzz word of our time.

I do not think it is helpful when some blame migrants for the level of unemployment in the EU, including for youth unemployment. In fact the two countries that receive the highest numbers of migrant workers in the Europe Union, Germany and the UK, are doing relatively well. Germany has had relatively low unemployment rates during the crisis as well and the UK is experiencing one of the fastest falls in unemployment, despite having received relatively large numbers of EU migrants.

Finally, on the question of decent work, because indeed this has been a priority for the Commission, not only inside the EU but also internationally, just in the last one year we rolled out a number of initiatives: the quality framework on restructuring, the quality framework on traineeships, a new health and safety strategy for the next seven years and the European platform proposal against undeclared work. All these initiatives are supposed to help boost the quality of employment and improve industrial relations in the European Union, but certainly they do not cover all aspects of the employment policy in the Member States because a large part of it is dependent on national law, for example in the case which has been mentioned, about Hungary. Indeed, the Commission finds it regrettable that some of these domestic measures have caused serious damage to the quality of employment, and the country operates with an inflated public scheme which is on the one hand quite costly and secondly does not help many of the participants reintegrate into the labour market at a later stage. But we have been promoting this as well inside the EU and we have been doing that also internationally, in the context of the G20.

Just yesterday we had a meeting with the representatives of Bangladesh, involving the ILO as well, because we cannot allow unfair competition to continue internationally which does not respect the rights of workers and does not protect workers from risks to their health and safety at the workplace. I hope you find all these initiatives positive and helpful. We remain committed to boosting the quality of employment in general, but also specifically for young people in Europe.

 
  
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  Benedetto Della Vedova, Presidente in carica del Consiglio. - Signora Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, brevissimamente perché non credo ci siano conclusioni da trarre. Io voglio ringraziare tutti i parlamentari che sono intervenuti nella discussione con interventi appassionati che segnalano l'interesse comune e l'obiettivo comune che abbiamo, credo, tutti quanti noi europei nelle diverse posizioni, che è quello di affrontare e possibilmente avviare a soluzione, il tema dell'occupazione, dell'occupazione giovanile in particolare, nell'occupazione in altre categorie con difficoltà e possibilmente della buona occupazione.

L'avvio a soluzione dei problemi strutturali, quali quelli posti dalla disoccupazione non può prescindere da un impegno coerente degli Stati membri e delle istituzioni dell'Unione che deve realizzarsi attraverso misure concrete ed efficaci da attuare in modo rapido e senza aggravi burocratici.

Altri incontri ad alto livello che rafforzino l'impulso lanciato da quelli organizzati a Berlino, Parigi e Milano, che ovviamente non sono luoghi dove le soluzioni vengono trovate e implementate, ma credo siano luoghi dove un confronto aperto e una discussione aperta faccia fare dei passi avanti alle politiche concrete. Potranno senz'altro contribuire all'accompagnamento delle azioni già decise e ad approfondire quelle analisi sulle condizioni necessarie per la ripresa dell'occupazione avviata nella Conferenza di Milano.

Ringrazio quindi, Signora Presidente, nuovamente tutti coloro che sono intervenuti per l'attenzione e il contributo.

 
  
  

PRZEWODNICZY: RYSZARD CZARNECKI
Wiceprzewodniczący

 
  
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  Przewodniczący. - Zamykam debatę.

Oświadczenia pisemne (art. 162)

 
  
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  Dominique Bilde (NI), par écrit. – Cette troisième rencontre à haut niveau (tout un programme!) doit permettre d'échanger les expériences pour augmenter le taux d'emploi, encourager l'esprit d'entreprise et permettre la mise en place d'instrument pour lutter contre le chômage. La mise en œuvre de la Garantie Jeunesse qui nous est présentée ici comme le remède miracle n'est qu'un palliatif et ne permet pas durablement d'insérer les jeunes sur le marché de l'emploi. Cinq millions de jeunes sont actuellement au chômage en Europe et 6 milliards d'euros sont consacrés à l'initiative (1200€ par jeunes). Trop peu pour des résultats concrets ou beaucoup trop pour l'inutilité de la mesure, chacun jugera... D'autre part, vous parlez de régler le problème du chômage et de relancer l'activité économique en Europe en mettant en oeuvre différentes politiques, alors même que l'UE a voté la directive dite des "travailleurs détachés" qui crée une véritable concurrence sur nos marchés nationaux du travail et engendre un effrayant dumping social. N'est-ce pas là une profonde contradiction?

 
  
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  Monika Flašíková Beňová (S&D), písomne Je veľmi dôležité, aby mladí ľudia našli uplatnenie po skončení školy a mohli naplno využiť nadobudnuté vzdelanie, pretože ak sa im to nepodarí a nevytvoria si pracovný návyk už v mladosti, môžu ľahko prepadnúť frustrácii a prestanú veriť vo vlastné schopnosti, čo bude v konečnom dôsledku znamenať zvýšenie napätia v spoločnosti a ďalšiu záťaž pre sociálne systémy jednotlivých členských štátov. Myslím si, že je načase si priznať, že európsky model zamestnávania má vážne problémy a nedostatky, čoho dôkazom je 7,6 milióna stratených pracovných pozícií v období rokov 2007 – 2013. Musíme mladým ľudom ukázať, že majú možnosť sa zamestnať a dať im nádej na lepšiu budúcnosť. Treba priznať, že v dôsledku reforiem, ktoré boli uskutočnené v jednotlivých členských štátoch, sa podarilo situáciu na trhu práce čiastočne stabilizovať, avšak nezdieľam bezhraničný optimizmus pána Barrosa, pretože situácia je stále vážna a tak k nej aj musíme pristupovať. Môžem však súhlasiť s tým, že rast v Európe je veľmi krehký a nerovnomerný a že členské štáty, ktoré boli zodpovedné a uskutočnili štrukturálne reformy, sú dnes v podstatne lepšej kondícii a výhodnejšej situácií. Ako dobrý príklad môže poslúžiť Taliansko, kde sa uskutočnila významná reforma, ktorá má pomôcť zamestnať sa mladým Talianom do 25 rokov.

 
  
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  Michela Giuffrida (S&D). - Il terzo appuntamento sull'occupazione svoltosi a Milano l'8 ottobre non ha prodotto i risultati sperati: buoni i propositi e il rilancio di un'agenda programmatica in favore dell'occupazione, non solo giovanile, attraverso le necessarie riforme del mercato del lavoro. Posto che la disoccupazione strutturale e la disparità nei mercati del lavoro a livello nazionale, soprattutto in termini di competenze di chi cerca lavoro e il tipo di lavoro disponibile sul mercato del lavoro, sono in crescita all'interno dell'UE, si fa urgente l'attuazione di una riforma. Cosa è andato storto, come mai nessuna risposta concreta e tempestiva è stata fornita su temi quali: modelli di contrattazione salariale, adattabilità alle condizioni del ciclo economico; riequilibrio dei costi di manodopera; progettazione e adozione di indennità di disoccupazione e regimi di assicurazione; grado di flessibilità in entrata e uscita dal mercato del lavoro, mobilità della manodopera e razionalizzazione delle forme contrattuali; e profilo di competenze dei lavoratori disoccupati? Inaccettabile che capi di Stato e di governo non siano riusciti a produrre un documento comune e che non abbiano formalizzato un programma di appuntamenti volto alla soluzione dei problemi occupazionali. Le attese non pagano, soprattutto durante le crisi, e rischiamo di ritrovarci a successive analisi non solo sulla povertà, ma anche sul perché degli estremismi in Europa.

 
  
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  Krzysztof Hetman (PPE), na piśmie. – Bezrobocie wśród młodzieży to temat, który gości na każdej sesji plenarnej obecnej kadencji. Słusznie, ponieważ jest to jeden z poważniejszych problemów, z jakimi boryka się obecnie Europa. Gwarancje dla młodzieży nie są wystarczającym środkiem rozwiązującym ten problem, są jednak ważnym instrumentem, który może zapewnić istotne wsparcie dla reform strukturalnych przeprowadzonych przez państwa członkowskie. Ich wdrażanie musi być jednak przyspieszone. Te środki należy wykorzystać na reformy rynków pracy w państwach członkowskich, a także na dopasowanie umiejętności młodych do oczekiwań pracodawców. To jednak nie wszystko. Trwałe zlikwidowanie bezrobocia możliwe jest tylko poprzez stworzenie nowych miejsc pracy. Należy pobudzić wzrost gospodarczy, bo tylko w ten sposób stworzymy dobry klimat do rozwoju firm. Pracodawcy, którzy w wyniku kryzysu zmuszeni byli redukować zatrudnienie, muszą mieć zapewnione dobre warunki do odtworzenia tych miejsc pracy. Ponadto musimy wspierać przedsiębiorczość młodych ludzi i stworzyć im możliwości do zakładania własnych firm. System wsparcia musi być kompleksowy i obejmować zarówno ułatwienia administracyjne, jak i dostęp do finansowania.

 
  
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  Barbara Kappel (NI), schriftlich. – Europa muß Instrumente entwickeln, die Wachstum und Beschäftigung fördern. Ebenso ist die ökonomische Governance zu stärken“, das sagte der italienische Staatssekretär Benedetto Della Vedova heute im Rahmen der Debatte über die Ergebnisse des Beschäftigungsgipfels in Mailand, dem dritten Beschäftigungsgipfel innerhalb von 15 Monaten. Allgemeiner hätte man es nicht halten können angesichts von 25,7 Millionen Arbeitslosen in Europa, davon 5,3 Millionen Jugendliche zwischen 15 und 24 Jahren. Und angesichts einer insbesondere in Südeuropa erschreckenden Jobsituation: In Spanien, Italien und Griechenland ist jeder zweite Jugendliche ohne Arbeit. 15 Milliarden Euro stehen auf der europäischen Ebene jährlich zur Verfügung, um Maßnahmen zur Jugendbeschäftigung zu forcieren. Von der Jugendgarantie – wo von den eingereichten 34 Anträgen bisher nur drei genehmigt wurden – bis zur Jugendbeschäftigungsinitiative für Regionen mit einer Jugendarbeitslosigkeit von mehr als 25 Prozent. Experten sind sich einig darüber, dass milliardenschwere EU-Programme zur Bekämpfung der Arbeitslosigkeit bestenfalls ein Tropfen auf dem heißen Stein sind. Was Europa braucht, um die Beschäftigung nachhaltig zu erhöhen, das ist Wachstum, das sind gute Rahmenbedingungen für Unternehmen und Innovation, Zugang zu Finanzierungsquellen und der Abbau von Bürokratie. Nur durch gezielte Wachstums- und auch Wettbewerbspolitik sowie durch gute Rahmenbedingungen für Unternehmen können Jobs geschaffen werden.

 
  
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  Agnieszka Kozłowska-Rajewicz (PPE), na piśmie. – Bezrobocie w Unii Europejskiej dzięki podejmowanym wysiłkom na poziomie europejskim i krajów członkowskich powoli maleje. Jednak tempo i zakres tych działań wciąż są niewystarczające. Zabezpieczone na Gwarancję dla Młodzieży środki są wydawane wolno, a wdrażanie polityk wobec bezrobocia w krajach członkowskich postępuje opornie. Jest jasne, że redukcja bezrobocia wymaga nie tylko programów szkoleniowych i finansowania biur pośrednictwa pracy, ale też głębokich reform strukturalnych dotyczących zarówno systemu szkolnictwa zawodowego, jak i funkcjonowania małych i średnich przedsiębiorstw, które dostarczają najwięcej miejsc pracy i są odpowiedzialne za największą część dochodu. Podczas debaty wiele osób podkreśla, że walka z bezrobociem, aby doprowadzić do trwałego efektu, musi dotyczyć jego przyczyn, a nie zajmować się jedynie likwidowaniem objawów. Aby inicjatywy na rzecz zatrudnienia były skuteczne i doprowadziły do założonego przez UE celu 75% zatrudnienia osób w przedziale wiekowym 20–64 lat, kraje członkowskie potrzebują inwestycji publicznych zachęcających małe i średnie przedsiębiorstwa do tworzenia nowych miejsc pracy. Brak wzrostu gospodarczego będzie w dłuższym okresie pogłębiał kryzys na rynku pracy. Gwarancja dla Młodzieży nie zastąpi instrumentów makroekonomicznych, które działają uniwersalnie na cały rynek, poprawiając nie tylko sytuację młodych, ale także starszych pracowników, których doświadczenie i umiejętności są równie ważne dla rozwoju Europy jak entuzjazm i nowoczesne wykształcenie młodych.

 
  
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  Krystyna Łybacka (S&D), na piśmie. Zasadniczym problemem w Unii pozostaje wysoki stopień bezrobocia wśród młodych ludzi, który pomimo tendencji spadkowej utrzymuje się w dalszym ciągu na wysokim poziomie w niektórych państwach członkowskich. W tym kontekście na poziomie europejskim kluczowy jest efektywny monitoring i wymiana najlepszych praktyk w zakresie wdrażania gwarancji dla młodzieży oraz strategii na rzecz zwalczania bezrobocia.

Kolejna kwestia to wzrost liczby osób długotrwale bezrobotnych. Według statystyk z 2014 roku niemal 13 milionów osób pozostaje bez pracy od ponad roku, a ponad jedna trzecia bezrobotnych pozostaje bez zatrudnienia od ponad dwóch lat. Długotrwałe bezrobocie ma negatywne konsekwencje zarówno dla osób pozostających długi czas bez pracy, jak również dla budżetów państw członkowskich. Koszt utrzymania osób bez pracy ocenia się np. na 10,5 mld zł. rocznie w Polsce. Większość kompetencji związanych z zatrudnieniem należy jednak do państw członkowskich, dlatego to w ich gestii i odpowiedzialności leży wiele aspektów niezbędnych do zwiększenia zatrudnienia. Do niezbędnych działań należy zaliczyć skorelowanie systemów kształcenia z potrzebami rynku pracy ułatwiające przechodzenie od kształcenia do zatrudnienia oraz rozwój gospodarki opartej na wiedzy.

 
  
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  Ivana Maletić (PPE) , napisan. Nezaposlenost u Europskoj uniji u zadnjih pet godina bilježi rekordne stope, osobito nezaposlenost mladih. Hitne mjere kojima će se potaknuti otvaranje radnih mjesta su neophodne. Te mjere moraju biti usmjerene na uspješne projekte poduzetnika i na jačanje njihove konkurentnosti. Potrebno je razvijati potporne institucije koje će osloboditi poduzetnike od administrativnih opterećenja, pomagati u modernizaciji poslovanja te im olakšati izlazak na druga tržišta.

Još uvijek se premali dio EU fondova usmjerava direktno projektima poduzetnika i jačanju poduzetničke infrastrukture. Tako se u RH-oj u OP Regionalni razvoj i konkurentnost, kojim se definira korištenje 6,7 milijardi eura u razdoblju od 2014.-2020., samo 14,1 posto sredstava odnosno 970 milijuna eura odvaja za razvoj poslovne konkurentnosti, odnosno za ulaganja u srednje i male poduzetnike te potporne institucije. Europska komisija bi trebala aktivnije poticati države članice na bržu implementaciju mjera za mlade i korištenje sredstava izdvojenih za mlade.

Mladima posao treba danas, a ne u budućnosti. Mnogi talentirani i pametni mladi odlaze na druge kontinente. Europa, koja stari galopirajućom brzinom, postala je rasadnik mladih kadrova, a to naše gospodarstvo ne može podnijeti. Konferencije su važne i podržavam njihovo održavanje, ali ako ih ne prate mjere i njihova provedba u praksi postaju besmislene, a to ne želimo.

 
  
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  Sophie Montel (NI), par écrit. – L’Union européenne a organisé début octobre, une énième conférence sur l’emploi en Europe. Au programme : toujours les mêmes poncifs et vœux pieux… L’emploi des jeunes serait ainsi la priorité des priorités pour l’UE. Relancer la croissance et l’activité économique permettrait aussi de solutionner le problème du chômage, etc… Evidemment cela va mieux en le disant… Cette conférence, nous l’avons bien compris, n’aura été, en réalité, qu’une opération de communication de plus. L’UE avec son dogmatisme ultralibéral étant justement à l’origine même de l’explosion du chômage en Europe! Et que dire de la directive européenne dite « des travailleurs détachés » qui a créé une effroyable concurrence sur le marché de l’emploi en France, en Allemagne, en Italie… Et que dire du fait que l’UE réclame toujours plus d’immigration alors même que le chômage et la paupérisation explosent! En réalité, sans le retour à un protectionnisme raisonné, sans le rétablissement des frontières nationales, sans la remise en cause du dogme ultralibéral (la concurrence libre et non faussée), les économies nationales resteront atones et durablement impactées par les effets dévastateurs de la globalisation, et de la croissance nulle nous sombrerons bientôt dans la récession.

 
  
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  Alessandra Mussolini (PPE) , per iscritto. Il rischio che appuntamenti così importanti, come ad esempio quello di Milano sull'occupazione, possano trasformarsi in un'inutile passerella se non si sviluppano contenuti concreti é fondato. Il semestre italiano é quasi finito e ancora si parla in modo generico senza affrontare realmente, e soprattutto risolvere, la disoccupazione giovanile, la questione tutta italiana degli esodati e la differenza di stipendio tra uomo e donna a parità di mansione. Basta con le passerelle che allontanano le istituzioni europee dai cittadini. Il vertice di Milano, tra le altre cose, é avvenuto a ridosso di gravi alluvioni che hanno colpito regioni economicamente molto importanti d'Italia. Non vi é stato all'interno del vertice nessun riferimento solidale concernente tali eventi da parte dei vertici dell'Unione.

 
  
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  Θεόδωρος Ζαγοράκης (PPE), in writing. – Χαιρετίζω τα συμπεράσματα της συνόδου για την απασχόληση στην Ευρώπη, που διεξήχθη στο Μιλάνο με πρωτοβουλία της Ιταλικής Προεδρίας. Η ανεργία στην ΕΕ, ειδικότερα των νέων, των γυναικών και των ατόμων με ειδικές ανάγκες, είναι σκανδαλώδης. Η ΕΕ έχει λάβει πρωτοβουλίες για την ενίσχυση της απασχόλησης από τα διαρθρωτικά ταμεία, κυρίως μέσω του Ευρωπαϊκού Κοινωνικού Ταμείου, αλλά και της Πρωτοβουλίας για τους Νέους, που δίνει νέες δυνατότητες στην μαθητεία και την ενίσχυση των δεξιοτήτων. Δυστυχώς, όμως, οι δράσεις αυτές δεν αρκούν. Ιδιαίτερα στον Ευρωπαϊκό Νότο που μαστίζεται από την οικονομική κρίση και τα δυσθεώρητα ποσοστά ανεργίας. Για αυτό το λόγο χρειαζόμαστε μεγαλύτερη αποφασιστικότητα και ευελιξία από πλευράς ΕΕ. Έχουμε ανάγκη από νέες στοχευμένες γραμμές χρηματοδότησης, οι οποίες θα συμβάλουν στην ανάκαμψη της ευρωπαϊκής οικονομίας και στην διατήρηση της κοινωνικής συνοχής. Είναι ευθύνη όλων μας, να οικοδομήσουμε ένα σταθερό πλαίσιο, που ευνοεί τις δημόσιες και ιδιωτικές επενδύσεις, τη δημιουργικότητα, τις νεοφυείς επιχειρήσεις, τη δια βίου μάθηση και την κινητικότητα. Η ΕΕ είναι από τις μεγαλύτερες οικονομίες στον κόσμο, οι νέοι μας και το ανθρώπινο δυναμικό, συνολικά, το καλύτερο που είχε ποτέ στην διάθεση της. Οφείλουμε, να ενισχύσουμε την ανταγωνιστικότητα της Ευρωπαϊκής αγοράς και να κρατήσουμε τους νέους μας εντός των συνόρων.

 
  
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  Σωτήριος Ζαριανόπουλος (NI), in writing. – Η σύνοδος κορυφής στο Μιλάνο για την απασχόληση δεν απέδειξε μόνο ότι η ΕΕ δεν θέλει, αλλά και ότι δεν μπορεί να αντιμετωπίσει το πρόβλημα της ανεργίας το οποίο οξύνεται και βασανίζει εκατομμύρια οικογένειες. Η Ευρωενωσιακή πολιτική μοιράζει την ανεργία σε περισσότερους, γενικεύει την ελαστική απασχόληση, ιδιαίτερα στους νέους, χαρίζει στην εργοδοσία δωρεάν εργατικό δυναμικό, με προγράμματα επιδότησης των επιχειρήσεων και ψευτοκατάρτιση, τσακίζει μισθούς και κατακτημένα με αγώνες δικαιώματα που επιδιώκουν οι νέοι να μην γνωρίσουν ποτέ. Στόχος της ΕΕ και των κομμάτων που την υποστηρίζουν είναι να μειώσουν την απαιτητικότητα των εργαζομένων, ιδιαίτερα των νέων. Με τις "θεμελιώδεις αρχές" της ΕΕ για την ελευθερία κίνησης του κεφαλαίου και την κινητικότητα των εργαζομένων εξασφαλίζει πάμφθηνο εργατικό δυναμικό στους μεγάλους ομίλους, ενώ ταυτόχρονα ρίχνει στην ανεργία χιλιάδες εργαζόμενους. Παρά τους ανταγωνισμούς που εκδηλώνονται, ενιαία επιδίωξη της Ε.Ε είναι να μονιμοποιηθεί αυτή η κατάσταση, Αυτό το σύστημα δεν μπορεί να εξασφαλίσει το δικαίωμα στη δουλειά. Χρειάζεται τις στρατιές ανέργων για να εξασφαλίζει φθηνή εργατική δύναμη, βασική προϋπόθεση για κέρδη, ανταγωνιστικότητα. Η εξασφάλιση του δικαιώματος στην πλήρη, μόνιμη δουλειά απαιτεί οργανωμένη πάλη, ανατροπή του συστήματος που παράγει ανεργία, φτώχεια και εκμετάλλευση.

 
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