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Plenardebatten
Mittwoch, 11. März 2015 - Straßburg Überprüfte Ausgabe

17. Friedensabkommen in Mali (Aussprache)
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  Elnök asszony. – Most pedig folytatjuk a vitát a A Bizottság alelnökének és az Unió külügyi és biztonságpolitikai főképviselőjének nyilatkozatáról: A mali békemegállapodás (2015/2593(RSP)).

 
  
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  Zanda Kalniņa-Lukaševica, President-in-Office of the Council on behalf of the Vice-President of the Commission/High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy. Madam President, on behalf of the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy/Vice-President of the Commission, I am very glad that Parliament still has a keen interest in the situation in Mali, as the European Union has deployed considerable efforts in support of peace, democracy and development in the country over the years.

We are all saddened by the recent attack in Bamako on 7 March which cost the lives of several people, including a Belgian security officer in the EU Delegation. There is a real risk that increased terrorist activity will derail the political process which is currently at a turning point. All should join efforts to make sure that this will not happen.

The United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA) in particular should be given the appropriate means to accomplish its mandate. The EU condemns the continuous attacks against the UN forces, such as recently in Kidal on 8 March.

As you know, the EU contributed to reaching a peace agreement in Algiers on 1 March. It acted as co-mediator together with the United Nations, the African Union, the Organization of the Islamic Conference, the Economic Community of West African States and five neighbouring countries.

The European Union Special Representative was personally involved in the talks. It required substantial efforts to reach a compromise between the parties, respecting the unity and integrity of Mali.

The Accord foresees further devolution of economic competencies and resources to local authorities and the creation of local police forces. Regions should be better represented in the central institutions. The Malian army will be reformed to integrate ex-rebels in its ranks and will then be progressively redeployed over all the territory under UN MINUSMA supervision.

The immediate challenge for us is to obtain endorsement of the agreement by the Coordination. The Eureopan External Action Service is currently taking part in a joint mission on the ground to support this process and to convince the different stakeholders that there is no other credible alternative.

It is now important for the Government to demonstrate its commitment to the agreement by taking swiftly some of the actions it has undertaken to deliver. The EU will play its role in making sure progress is indeed achieved.

Beyond this immediate action of the mediation, resources will have to be mobilised to accompany the process through reconciliation and a re-foundation of Mali. Our 11th European Development Fund National Indicative Programme has just been signed on 6 March in Brussels and would contribute significantly to this endeavour, but implementation will depend partly on the speed with which the government meets its obligations.

Other tools within the comprehensive approach and in synergy with Member States and other international actors could also be mobilised as well. But of course, security remains a pre-condition for any humanitarian or development action.

The UN mission – MINUSMA – as already mentioned, has a crucial role to play. The EU should support it in its efforts and make sure it is given proper means to accomplish its mandate. To this end, the EU will have to assess how the EU Training Mission and European Union CSDP Mission in Sahel Mali, can work with MINUSMA on the disarmament, demobilisation, and reintegration and security sector reform processes of security forces, both civilian and military, as foreseen in the agreement.

These EU missions are already providing advice and training contributing to the reform of the security sector. In the longer run, efforts have to be pursued in the regional context through the implementation of the EU Sahel Strategy for security which was adopted in 2011. The adoption still this week of a Sahel Regional Action Plan will indicate additional actions to support the strategy in the years ahead.

I thank you very much and look forward to a fruitful debate.

 
  
  

Președinte: ADINA-IOANA VĂLEAN
Vicepreședintă

 
  
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  Davor Ivo Stier, u ime kluba PPE. Gospođo predsjednice, na početku bih želio izraziti sućut obitelji poginulog djelatnika Delegacije Europske unije u Maliju Ronnyija Piensa iz Belgije, žrtve terorističkog napada u Bamaku. Kontinuirano nasilje u sjevernom dijelu Malija postalo je kočnica razvoja čitave zemlje, ali i prijetnja sigurnosti razvoja šire regije Sahela.

Ovaj recentni čin nasilja u Maliju, a koji uključuje i smrt državljana Europske unije na žalost samo je jedan od brojnih primjera nasilja i kršenja ljudskih prava. Sve su strane u konfliktu počinile ozbiljne prekršaje ljudskih prava uključujući i kršenje prava na život, prisilne nestanke, mučenja, seksualno nasilje, uhićenja.

Nedavno smo u Bruxellesu susreli delegaciju s Malija koja nam je poručila kako nema mira bez razvoja niti razvoja bez mira i zato se priključujem pozivu Visoke predstavnice i povjerenika Mimice svim stranama u konfliktu da započnu konstruktivan dijalog i da što prije potpišu mirovni sporazum u Alžiru te da krenu na put pomirbe, obnove i razvoja.

Mirovni sporazum je temeljni preduvjet, ali dugoročna stabilnost i rast može se ostvariti samo kroz pomirenje i iskorjenjivanje ekstremnog siromaštva. Građani Malija uistinu trebaju solidarnost EU-a kako bi se kroz održiv razvoj osigurao dostojanstven život.

Razvojna suradnja između Malija i EU-a je obnovljena 2013. nakon što je vlada pokazala spremnost za politički dijalog, a sada je važno da sve strane pokažu ozbiljnost u postizanju mirovnog sporazuma i da se Mali vrati na put stabilnosti i održivog razvoja.

 
  
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  Ana Gomes, em nome do Grupo S&D. Senhora Presidente, o acordo de paz é essencial para garantir o controlo de todo o território do Mali e impedir a expansão da ameaça terrorista no Norte do país, que alimenta e se alimenta do conflito entre as forças rebeldes e as leais a Bamako. A ameaça terrorista que, para fazer descarrilar o processo de paz, nos últimos dias golpeou miseravelmente, ceifando vidas de crianças, civis, soldados da paz da MINUSMA e um funcionário de segurança da delegação europeia.

É necessário que todas as fações estejam representadas neste acordo de paz, incluindo a comunidade tuaregue, e é positivo que o acordo organize a transferência de autonomia para o Norte do país e o reforço da representação das comunidades do Norte nas instituições nacionais.

A solução política para o fim do conflito armado no Mali tem de assentar num plano inclusivo, representativo da diversidade da sociedade, para que seja sustentável e devolva a paz ao país. A segurança do Mali é essencial para a pacificação de todo o Sahel e para a erradicação da ameaça terrorista na região, onde encontra terreno fértil para a insurreição violenta e para a proliferação do crime organizado que lhe dá a sustentação financeira, como o tráfico de armas e de drogas.

Nada funcionará se o plano de paz e a ação europeia no Mali não integrarem uma perspetiva regional, tendo em conta as ligações às crises na República Centro-Africana, à Líbia e à Nigéria. E, finalmente, nada funcionará sem apoio europeu à boa governação e à capacitação institucional e ao desenvolvimento no Mali.

 
  
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  Michèle Rivasi, au nom du groupe Verts/ALE. Madame la Présidente, ce que je voulais vous dire, c'est que dans le cadre des ACP, nous avons reçu, il y a quinze jours, une délégation malienne d'imams. Et leur cri d'alarme était le suivant: "Aidez-nous, parce qu'il y a de plus en plus de djihadistes avec des kalachnikovs qui viennent dans les mosquées". Par conséquent, il est vrai que leur première préoccupation, c'est la sécurité. Mais pas seulement. C'est aussi le développement de leur pays et, notamment, de toute cette partie qu'on appelle la Sawâd.

Cet accord de paix et de réconciliation est pour nous une opportunité que nous soutenons énormément. Mais, vous avez vu qu'il y a toute une série d'associations qui demandent d'abord une consultation de la population avant que cela ne soit ratifié. Cela veut donc dire qu'il faut que l'Union européenne – vous l'avez dit – soutienne vraiment la Minusma, mais, en même temps, qu'il faut un plan d'action visant à donner un avenir à cette population. Il n'y a plus de service public. Il n'y a plus rien dans ces régions. Si l'Union européenne ne consacre pas toute son énergie et des moyens financiers pour qu'il y ait des services publics, je ne vois pas comment la population peut accepter le fait qu'il y ait encore des mouvements avec des kalachnikovs qui menacent la population. Il est donc urgent que l'Union européenne s'implique davantage.

 
  
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  Jiří Pospíšil (PPE). Já jsem se zájmem vyslechl to, jak se EU snaží podpořit mírový proces v Mali. Podle mého názoru je to mimořádně důležité, už to tady také bylo řečeno.

Je možné stabilizovat poměry v zemi, pokud se dohoda o zastavení bojů mezi malijskou vládou a Tuaregy posune dále do stabilnější mírové dohody. K tomu může napomoci právě EU, jak tlakem na Tuaregy, tak tlakem na malijskou vládu. Byli jsme totiž svědky v posledních letech, že se vždy vytvořil pokus o uzavření jakési dohody o příměří a ten pokus ztroskotal. Ztroskotal i tím, že vláda v Mali nebyla ochotna respektovat jistou míru autonomie nebo samosprávy pro Tuaregy.

Jedině tato stabilní dohoda může vést k tomu, že islámský fundamentalismus a útoky, které odsuzujeme, budou potlačeny a islámisté v Mali nebudou narůstat. To považuji za mimořádně důležité a také odsuzuji útoky, kdy obětmi bohužel byli i občané EU.

 
  
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  Doru-Claudian Frunzulică (S&D). Madam President, I greatly deplore the violent terrorist attacks last weekend that should not disrupt the efforts for peace in Mali.

The peace agreement between the government of Bamako and the Tuareg rebels in Mali could effectively revive an area that has been devastated by civil war. This agreement presents a concept of decentralisation of powers that has proven effective. Greater autonomy is the key to reducing tensions in the region. The clauses in the prospective agreements, such as the one that transfers 30% of Bamako administration revenues to local entities, are much needed elements in the peace agreement and need to be encouraged.

The proposal of creating powerful elected regional assemblies led by a directly elected president should be fast implemented, and the request for a greater representation of the northern populations in national institutions has to be fulfilled.

I truly believe that this agreement is a crucial step for the stability of Mali; a victory for reconstruction and the reconciliation of the area. As stated by the agreement, the reconciliation of Mali must: ‘respect its territorial integrity and take account of its ethnic and cultural diversity’. I also believe that this demonstrates the possibilities for success by European diplomacy, and could become a model for the other conflicts in the region. Algerian leadership in these negotiations has to be praised as well. I encourage all stakeholders to sign it. The people of Mali have been troubled enough. They deserve peace.

 
  
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  Michela Giuffrida (S&D). Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, la notizia di un accordo di pace per il popolo del Mali è di certo una notizia positiva: dobbiamo ammettere però che ci sono aspetti che continuano a preoccuparci e che non ci consentono di definirlo un successo pieno.

Prima di tutto l'accordo non è stato ancora firmato dai ribelli del Nord e poi i ribelli che siedono ai negoziati non rappresentano tutta la gente delle regioni interessate. Non tutti i cittadini settentrionali si sentono rappresentati dai separatisti tuareg. I giovani maliani hanno manifestato tutta la loro frustrazione nei confronti di gruppi che si ostinano a parlare a nome di tutta la popolazione ma da cui non si sentono rappresentati. La campagna virale che hanno lanciato sui social media ha registrato migliaia di consensi ma sembra che la loro voce non sia stata ascoltata.

Gli attacchi terroristici dello scorso weekend testimoniano la presenza dell'ISIS nel territorio. Va bene dunque rallegrarci oggi ma con la consapevolezza che la pace e la riconciliazione sono ancora lontane.

 
  
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  Boris Zala (S&D). Madam President, this agreement is of crucial importance, not only for the future of Mali, but also for European security and our counter—terrorism efforts in Western Africa.

It is still unclear whether the preliminary agreement between the central government and the Tuareg rebels will translate into a lasting political settlement. A durable peace agreement is absolutely vital and the EU must do its utmost to assist Algeria and other international mediators to secure it.

France was right, in 2012, to send in the military to drive the Islamists out of northern Mali. The EU is also doing commendable work through its training mission in the country. Let us hope that Mali will be a positive example in this regard.

 
  
 

Catch-the-eye procedure

 
  
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  Νότης Μαριάς ( ECR). Κυρία Πρόεδρε, η υπογραφή της προκαταρκτικής συμφωνίας για τον τερματισμό των συγκρούσεων με τους αντάρτες στο Μαλί αποτελεί μια σημαντική εξέλιξη. Μάλιστα, η πρόβλεψη για δημιουργία περιφερειακών συνελεύσεων που θα εκλέγονται με άμεση και καθολική ψηφοφορία με σημαντικές εξουσίες, αναμφίβολα θα συμβάλει στον εκδημοκρατισμό στο Μαλί και στον περιορισμό των εντάσεων.

Όμως το Μαλί δεν μπορεί να επιλύσει τα οικονομικά του προβλήματα όσο διαρκεί η υπερχρέωσή του στους ξένους δανειστές. Γι' αυτό θα πρέπει να διαγραφεί το χρέος της χώρας αυτής προς τους ξένους δανειστές. Ταυτόχρονα θα πρέπει να εξεταστούν όλα τα εγκλήματα πολέμου, όπως η γενοκτονία και οι παραβιάσεις των ανθρωπίνων δικαιωμάτων κατά τη διάρκεια της σύγκρουσης.

Τέλος, η Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωση πρέπει να προσφέρει την αναγκαία βοήθεια για τη στήριξη της ανάπτυξης του Μαλί, διότι μόνο έτσι μπορεί να περιοριστεί η δράση και η επιρροή των τζιχαντιστών στην περιοχή και οι τρομοκρατικές επιθέσεις.

 
  
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  Fabio Massimo Castaldo (EFDD). Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, proprio oggi a Kidal è cominciata una grande assemblea dei gruppi armati tuareg nel nord al fine, appunto, di valutare la proposta di accordo di pace sostenuta dal governo maliano, dai movimenti a lui vicini e dalla comunità internazionale, tra cui anche noi come Unione europea.

Tra i punti avanzati dall'accordo c'è l'assemblea regionale, come è stato ricordato da alcuni colleghi, dotata di poteri concreti, la decentramento verso le autonomie locali e la concessione di una larga parte di competenze alle comunità: si tratta peraltro di punti imprescindibili e come Unione dobbiamo assolutamente garantire la loro effettiva implementazione.

Ma non dobbiamo neanche illuderci, anche perché larga parte della società civile è ancora esclusa da questo processo, tra cui le giovani generazioni maliane. Dobbiamo esercitare la nostra influenza per assicurare che anche loro facciano parte di un accordo che deve essere l'accordo di tutti.

Non possiamo permetterci un'ulteriore deflagrazione se non vogliamo che il Mali diventi un'altra Siria, un'ennesima crisi irrisolvibile e un giardino fertile per le ambizioni dei gruppi estremisti.

 
  
 

(End of catch-the-eye procedure)

 
  
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  Zanda Kalniņa-Lukaševica, President-in-Office of the Council, on behalf of the Vice-President of the Commission/High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy. Madam President, this debate has again demonstrated that security and development must go hand in hand. There is no one result without the other. The EU, together with the international community, is determined to pursue joined-up thinking to translate into reality the peace agreement and monitor its implementation. It is the best text possible that could be adapted in the current context and there is no alternative.

We will work towards full confluence and complementarity of our actions, including CSDP instruments as part of our comprehensive approach. In fact, the EU has real added value in this process and is trusted by all sides. However, expectations are extremely high and the EU should not disappoint knowing that all remains to be done and depends first of all on the Malians themselves in a complex regional environment.

I would also like to underline that the EU has already developed a number of projects for the return of the administration in the northern regions through the instrument contributing to stability. Construction and planning of infrastructures, for example the road to Timbuktu and Bourem—Kidal for the North-South axis has already begun and it is only a matter of time for resuming work.

Finally the EU will make available to the government already this year a substantial amount of budget support through a new state building contract. I would like to thank you for this debate and we hope and count on the continued support of the European Parliament for our policy in the Sahel.

 
  
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  President. – The debate is closed.

Written statements (Rule 162)

 
  
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  Andrej Plenković (PPE), napisan. Pozdravljam parafiranje Sporazuma o miru u Maliju kojim su okončani višemjesečni pregovori uz ključno posredovanje Alžira i ostalih međunarodnih aktera i organizacija, Europske unije, Ujedinjenih naroda, Afričke unije, te Ekonomske zajednice zapadno-afričkih zemalja i nekoliko susjednih država. Postignuti Sporazum predstavlja značajan korak k uspostavi trajnog mira u Maliju uz poštivanje njegovog jedinstva, integriteta i teritorijalnog suvereniteta. Vjerujem kako će sve strane u postupku nastojati poštivati postignuto kompromisno rješenje na dobrobit naroda Malija i postizanja trajnog rješenja sukoba. Važno je da Europska unija u suradnji s ostalim međunarodnim akterima prati proces implementacije dogovorenog sporazuma jer sigurnost i mir u Maliju predstavlja strateški izazov za Afriku i Europu. Civilna misija EUCAP Sahel Mali koja je pokrenuta u siječnju ove godine ima važnu ulogu u regionalnom pristupu Europske unije za sigurnost i razvoj Sahela. U kontekstu narušene sigurnosti, što dokazuje i zadnji atentat u Bamaku u kojemu je poginulo i nekoliko europskih državljana, važno je institucijama Malija pružiti pomoć u provedbi nužnih reformi u segmentu unutarnje sigurnosti. Sigurnost predstavlja nezaobilazni preduvjet za sve ostale aktivnosti koje međunarodna zajednica želi pokrenuti u domeni obnove i razvoja Malija.

 
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