Indekss 
 Iepriekšējais 
 Nākošais 
 Pilns teksts 
Debates
Trešdiena, 2015. gada 20. maijs - Strasbūra Pārskatītā redakcija

15. Stāvoklis Etiopijā (debates)
Visu runu video
PV
MPphoto
 

  Elnök asszony. – A következő pont a Bizottság alelnökének és az Unió külügyi és biztonságpolitikai főképviselőjének nyilatkozata az etiópiai helyzetről (2015/2703 (RSP)).

 
  
MPphoto
 

  Christos Stylianides, Member of the Commission. Madam President, on behalf of the Vice-President of the Commission/High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, Federica Mogherini, I welcome the opportunity to discuss the situation in Ethiopia just four days before elections take place there.

It is indeed important that we can exchange views on this very important country. To start with, the Commission wishes to recognise Ethiopia’s active role in regional and international efforts to build a more secure and peaceful Horn of Africa region. Ethiopia is notably leading Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) mediation efforts in South Sudan. It has contributed a significant number of troops to the African Union mission to Somalia, in particular, fighting al-Shabaab with considerable success. This illustrates Ethiopia’s importance as a partner for the European Union in terms of regional peace and stability.

We have common interests and similar positions on a number of global issues – on migration and displacement, for instance. Ethiopia is a key country of origin and transit, as well as a destination. It is host to more than 680 000 refugees, with all the difficulties this entails. It is actively involved in the Khartoum Process.

The recent killing of Ethiopian Christian migrants by ISIS in Libya has brought the issue of migration, as well as terrorism, to the top of the agenda in Ethiopia, and the government has expressed an interest in expanding cooperation on these matters with the European Union.

On climate change, Ethiopia’s policy in global discussion is in line with the European Union position. The European Union intends to sign the Lima Declaration on cooperation with Ethiopia, as several EU Member States have already done.

In terms of economic development and poverty reduction, Ethiopia is considered in many ways a success story for Africa. The assistance that the EU and its Member States have been providing is bearing fruit in terms of progress towards the Millennium Development Goals for social and economic growth. The IMF estimate for economic growth in the current year, 2015, is 7.5-8.5%, which is rather impressive for the region. Moreover, according to a recent report by the World Bank, poverty in Ethiopia fell by one third between 2000 and 2011. These are remarkable achievements and I am glad that our support contributed to them.

But we all know there is another side to the coin: as in many post-conflict situations, democratic transition in Ethiopia is taking time and does not always go smoothly. The Commission is well aware that the political environment is not conducive to transparent, credible and inclusive elections – and this is a concern which we have raised with the government during our Article 8 political dialogues and bilateral meetings, including at the highest level.

We have repeatedly highlighted the need for genuine political dialogue with the opposition, and for full respect for freedom of speech, freedom of association and freedom of the press, as provided for by the Ethiopian Constitution. The government’s line is that their primary concern is stability and security for their people, and that they cannot permit destabilisation of the country which would jeopardise social and economic progress.

Thus, we cannot say that we agree on everything, but we have an ongoing open dialogue on these issues, sometimes with constructive results. We are, for example, discussing the possibility of cooperating on improving the quality of the Ethiopian media, both public and private, as an outcome of a recent Article 8 dialogue on the media.

Turning to the elections, you are all aware that progress in following up implementation of the recommendations of previous election observation missions has been lacking. The reports of 2005 and 2010 have unfortunately been rejected. We have not received an invitation for the elections that will take place next Sunday, and therefore the European Union will not send an election observation mission. Similarly, we have decided against financially supporting the UNDP electoral programme.

The situation of journalists, bloggers, members of the opposition and other individuals is a major cause for concern. They have been imprisoned for having expressed their opinions publicly. The space for the media and political parties has been gradually reduced since just before the start of the electoral period in 2014.

The EU delegation, together with Member States present in Addis Ababa, is closely following the situation and monitors all the relevant trials. We also discuss these issues, including the use of the anti-terrorism proclamation to stifle dissent, with the Ethiopian authorities, and the authorities are fully aware of our concerns and positions.

Our global partnership with Ethiopia therefore does not mean that the European Union is indifferent to the difficulties that the Ethiopian population continues to face, as discussed in the Human Rights Subcommittee meetings in January this year and in September 2014, when the EU issued a statement on the political and human rights situation in Ethiopia. We will certainly continue to follow the situation closely and to react publicly when necessary.

I will be happy to hear your views on EU engagement with Ethiopia.

 
  
  

PRZEWODNICTWO: RYSZARD CZARNECKI
Wiceprzewodniczący

 
  
MPphoto
 

  Davor Ivo Stier, u ime kluba PPE. Gospodine predsjedniče, gospodine povjereniče, s 94 milijuna stanovnika Etiopija je druga zemlja u Africi po broju stanovnika i jedna od ključnih država za stabilnost i razvoj kontinenta koji sasvim sigurno ima stratešku važnost za našu europsku sigurnost upravo zbog svih razloga koje ste, vi povjereniče, prije spomenuli.

Zbog toga sa zabrinutošću gledamo sužavanje demokratskih sloboda, a o tome svjedoči zatvaranje oporbenih političara i novinara koji su kritični prema vladajućoj Narodnoj revolucionarnoj demokratskoj fronti. Kao i u drugim afričkim zemljama, u Etiopiji je vidljiva ta poveznica između nedostatka slobode, dobrog upravljanja i siromaštva. Stoga je važno da izbori koji će se održati ovaj vikend budu fer, slobodni, da vlada trenutno i bezuvjetno oslobodi političke zatvorenike i novinare. Afirmacija pravne države te pokretanje inkluzivnog procesa pomirbe su doista ključni preduvjet za održiv razvoj u Etiopiji.

Naša razvojna suradnja stoga mora biti usmjerena prema tim ciljevima, da podupiremo Etiopiju i kao važnog partnera u toj regiji. Zašto? Jer je za nas važno da Etiopija nastavi s konstruktivnom regionalnom suradnjom. Iako je siromašna država, danas prihvaća više od 680 tisuća izbjeglica, a i isto tako nam je važno da Etiopija ostane pouzdan partner u borbi protiv radikalnih i terorističkih organizacija poput Al Shabaaba.

No upravo zbog toga, jer želimo Etiopiju kao snažnog partnera moramo se zauzeti za poštivanje ljudskih prava u Etiopiji, promovirati dobro upravljanje i vladavinu prava. Od vlade očekujemo da pokrene ozbiljan vjerodostojan proces dijaloga s oporbom kako bi se ostvarila nacionalna pomirba i produbio proces demokratizacije.

 
  
MPphoto
 

  Kashetu Kyenge, a nome del gruppo S&D. Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, l'Etiopia è un attore fondamentale per la pace nella regione del Corno d'Africa, per la Somalia, per l'Eritrea e per il Sud Sudan, ma per poter svolgere il ruolo internazionale che le spetta è necessario che la pace sia raggiunta anche al suo interno.

Non può esserci aiuto allo sviluppo senza progressi nel processo di democratizzazione del paese. L'Etiopia si appresta al voto domenica, come abbiamo appena sentito. Un voto del quale però conosciamo già l'esito. L'Unione ha scelto di non inviare osservatori per questa elezione.

Signor Presidente, siamo i principali fornitori di aiuti a questo paese: abbiamo per questo il dovere e la responsabilità di vigilare sul rispetto dei diritti umani e delle diversità, promuovendo la buona governance e incentivando il processo di democratizzazione.

Sono ancora troppi, troppi, gli abusi oggi commessi nel paese. Urgessa Danana, Obsa Abdissa, Tadesse Sime (giovani studenti), Birehanu Diriba (insegnante): sono solo alcuni dei nomi di persone arrestate dal governo etiope, identificati nei giorni scorsi dalla Lega per i diritti umani del Corno d'Africa. In 50 sono stati arrestati in una manifestazione di studenti, 20 feriti – questo solo nel mese di aprile – in un paese dove i media sono imbavagliati. I blogger, come quello appartenente al gruppo "Zona 9", in carcere da un anno senza processo, e i giornalisti sono quotidianamente intimiditi e arrestati. Neanche un passaporto dell'Unione europea ferma gli abusi del governo contro l'informazione: l'hanno scoperto i giornalisti svedesi Martin Schibbye e Joan Person, arrestati nel 2011 e rilasciati dopo ben 14 mesi di carcere.

L'Etiopia sta conoscendo in questi anni un boom economico. È arrivato il momento che anche il regime compia passi avanti verso una società più equa e rispettosa dei diritti della persona.

 
  
MPphoto
 

  Mirosław Piotrowski, w imieniu grupy ECR. Panie Przewodniczący! Szanowni Państwo! Niebawem w Etiopii odbędą się wybory. Choć od dawna obserwuje się tam ograniczenie swobód obywatelskich, wolności mediów, a w poprzednich wyborach odnotowano wiele nieprawidłowości – o czym mówił przed chwilą pan komisarz – to Unia Europejska nadal udziela pomocy Etiopii poprzez m.in. Europejski Fundusz Rozwoju. Musimy wobec tego zapewnić przynajmniej skuteczną kontrolę wydatkowania tych środków, skoro są problemy z zewnętrzną obserwacją wyborów.

Etiopia to ważny kraj dla Unii Europejskiej, choćby z punktu widzenia problemu migracji. Niedawno około 30 etiopskich uchodźców, chrześcijan, zostało w brutalny sposób zamordowanych przez islamskich terrorystów w Libii, co spowodowało rozruchy społeczne w Etiopii. Trzeba więc bezwzględnie wysłać tam misję obserwacyjną – choć wiemy, że nie zaproszono tam Unii Europejskiej – gdyż niepokoje społeczne mogą doprowadzić do destabilizacji jednego z najludniejszych krajów Afryki, a co za tym idzie, zwiększyć liczbę nielegalnych uchodźców w Europie.

 
  
MPphoto
 

  Louis Michel, au nom du groupe ALDE. Monsieur le Président, Monsieur le Commissaire, je rentre d'une mission à Addis-Abeba où je me suis entretenu avec le Premier ministre du contexte des prochaines élections, de la situation dans le pays mais aussi de la situation régionale.

L'image et l'opinion que j'ai de Hailemariam Desalegn sont celles d'un Premier ministre au-dessus de la mêlée. Le grand intérêt, c'est qu'il est étranger aux querelles ethniques mais aussi aux querelles religieuses. Il est musulman, Meles Zenawi était chrétien et pourtant, ils s'entendaient très bien. Dans le contexte de ce pays, c'est évidemment une qualité indéniable.

Avec 5 328 kilomètres de frontières, l'Éthiopie doit faire face à la fragilité de ses voisins. C'est d'autant plus risqué que l'Éthiopie est, sans aucun doute, dans la ligne de mire de la mouvance islamiste liée à Al-Qaïda. Elle a accepté, en janvier 2014, que ses troupes soient intégrées à la force d'intervention de l'Union africaine en Somalie. Je suis résolument d'avis qu'il est essentiel pour l'Union européenne de mener un dialogue politique intense avec ce pays-clé de la région.

Je rappelle que le pays compte 90 millions d'habitants. Cela n'est pas rien. C'est un géant dans la Corne de l'Afrique et il joue évidemment un rôle important pour la stabilité.

Les États-Unis, d'ailleurs, ont compris depuis longtemps l'importance de soutenir ce pays. Je pense que nous devons aider l'Éthiopie dans son rôle de leader dans la lutte contre le terrorisme dans la Corne de l'Afrique. Le pays a été tiré vers le haut, quoique en pensent d'aucuns, par la dimension visionnaire de feu le Premier ministre Meles Zenawi. Son successeur semble s'inscrire dans cette continuité en mettant l'accent sur la modernité, la jeunesse et la responsabilisation. Mais, c'est vrai qu'il y a un point noir, c'est évidemment le travail qui reste à faire sur l'aspect des droits de l'homme. Nous devons les aider sur ce plan en intensifiant le caractère politique d'un dialogue préférentiel avec les autorités de ce pays.

 
  
MPphoto
 

  Lidia Senra Rodríguez, en nombre del Grupo GUE/NGL. Señor Presidente, señor Comisario, yo me pregunto cómo se puede proponer o decir que Etiopía es un modelo de erradicación de la pobreza en la zona, cuando estamos hablando de un Gobierno que ha puesto a disposición de empresas extranjeras más de diez millones de hectáreas de tierra, de un Gobierno que está poniendo en marcha proyectos de embalses, como Gibe III o Renacimiento —por cierto, construidos por una multinacional italiana—, y, además, está poniendo en marcha grandes plantaciones, como en Kuraz, que amenazan el río Omo y el lago Turkana, que son el sustento de miles y miles de personas y de los pueblos que viven del río y del lago, que, además, están sufriendo intimidación y represión para que no opongan resistencia.

Esto, señor Comisario, causará más hambre, más pobreza y más muertes en un país donde ya el 80 % de la población vive con menos de dos dólares al día. Creo que este es un modelo para los intereses de las grandes transnacionales de la Unión Europea, pero no para los intereses de las personas que viven en el país.

Transmita, por favor, a la señora Mogherini, de parte de nuestro Grupo, que ponga fin a la avaricia occidental. Parar estos proyectos es lo más útil que podemos hacer para combatir el terror y salvar vidas.

 
  
MPphoto
 

  Jordi Sebastià, en nombre del Grupo Verts/ALE. Señor Presidente, señor representante de la Comisión, me ha dejado bastante perplejo. Me está usted hablando de una Etiopía que no tiene nada que ver con la que yo conozco.

Todo el mundo sabe que las elecciones en Etiopía son una farsa. Etiopía es el cuarto país que más ayuda al desarrollo recibe de la Unión Europea y también es el país donde a los observadores electorales que envió este Parlamento no se les permite la entrada; el país donde periodistas suecos son encarcelados con la sola acusación de haber entrado en la zona de Ogadén. Hay organizaciones independientes que denuncian la persecución sistemática de los opositores políticos, de los periodistas y blogueros independientes que critican al Gobierno y de los grupos étnicos como los oromo, ogadén, o sidama. El Gobierno etíope no permite la entrada de observadores ni de periodistas en la zona de Ogadén, donde se calcula que el 30 % de las mujeres han sido violadas, muchas de ellas por agentes gubernamentales.

Me pregunto a qué espera la Unión Europea para condenar al Gobierno etíope y para exigir el inmediato respeto de los derechos humanos. ¿A qué estamos esperando para condicionar nuestra ayuda a la creación de una misión que investigue las violaciones de derechos humanos, las persecuciones y las torturas?

Los pueblos de Etiopía no merecen el castigo que sufren en manos de ese Gobierno tolerado y ayudado por la Unión Europea. ¿Podemos asegurar que ninguna parte de la ayuda de la Unión Europea se está destinando a la represión?

Tenemos una responsabilidad importante en el sufrimiento de miles de personas y no podemos mirar hacia otro lado. De lo contrario, seremos cómplices. Es hora de actuar ya.

 
  
MPphoto
 

  James Carver, on behalf of the EFDD Group. Mr President, there are concerns in this Chamber about human rights in Ethiopia. It is only right that Ethiopia should be encouraged to respect the rights of its citizens, but it would be foolish to take a holier-than-thou approach to diplomacy.

Take, for example, the issue of villagisation, which revolves around the removal of people to villages in new areas often far from their tribal lands, all in the name of commercialising agriculture. Before emitting the usual gasps of horror, the EU and the Member States need to look in the mirror and genuinely consider whether the foreign aid they have provided is being used to support this policy.

Ethiopia fulfils many humanitarian obligations, as we have heard from the Commissioner: not least, accommodating more than 650 000 refugees, the largest number in Africa, including populations from South Sudan, Eritrea and Somalia. Ethiopia enjoys good relations with the West, and it is essential that this regional power, in a deeply troubled part of the world, is allowed to continue developing its economy alongside regional stability, including that of its promising neighbour Somaliland, which craves and deserves international recognition.

Instead of a reactionary response to the crisis in the Mediterranean, and in an attempt to stop further migration, we should pursue instead the proactive development of the country through trade – an area in which the European Union has, of course, been destructive. Ethiopia’s top export (accounting for 28%) is coffee, which can face third-country tariffs of up to 9%. If Africa is truly to be allowed to develop, then the EU must lift its protectionist tariffs and stop mumbling into its own, cheaper coffee.

 
  
MPphoto
 

  Marie-Christine Arnautu (NI). Monsieur le Président, sans préjuger du choix souverain des électeurs éthiopiens, le Premier ministre M. Hailemariam Desalegn, sera probablement reconduit lors des élections générales de dimanche. Je souhaite que les États membres de l'Union européenne apportent leur soutien au gouvernement éthiopien, un des rares îlots de stabilité et de développement en Afrique orientale.

À ce jour, les Européens sont les grands absents du développement éthiopien et laissent la Chine agir en maître en Éthiopie. Outre un soutien accru au développement, via l'implantation d'entreprises européennes, il conviendrait de coopérer plus activement, et notamment militairement, avec l'Éthiopie dans sa lutte contre l'islamisme radical, à l'intérieur comme à l'extérieur de ses frontières.

En contrepartie, il faudrait demander à l'Éthiopie plus d'efficacité dans sa lutte contre l'émigration de ses forces vives, notamment via la Libye. Cette émigration clandestine met en danger de mort les migrants qui, outre le risque de naufrage en Méditerranée, se retrouvent, en tant que chrétiens, sous la menace des massacres commis par le prétendu État islamique en Syrie.

 
  
MPphoto
 

  Bogdan Brunon Wenta (PPE). Panie Przewodniczący! Panie Komisarzu! 24 maja bieżącego roku obywatele Etiopii pójdą do urn, aby zagłosować w wyborach powszechnych. Istnieje jednak ogromna obawa, że wybory mogą nie spełnić podstawowych międzynarodowych standardów, a ich wyniki mogą okazać się niewiarygodne ze względu na represyjny system polityczny.

Podstawą demokracji, nowoczesnego społeczeństwa oraz źródłem prawomocności ustroju politycznego jest pluralizm polityczny. Przeprowadzenie wyborów wymaga zapewnienia wolnej i uczciwej procedury oraz równych szans dla wszystkich kandydatów. Dlatego rząd Etiopii powinien zapewnić demokratyczną debatę polityczną oraz przestrzeganie kodeksu wyborczego. Walka z korupcją oraz zapewnienie wolności wypowiedzi to podstawowe podstawy przejrzystych oraz uczciwych wyborów.

Jednak władze Etiopii stosują działania, które eliminują opozycję polityczną poprzez prześladowania i naruszenia praw człowieka. Znane przypadki arbitralnych aresztowań niezależnych dziennikarzy i blogerów, przetrzymywania więźniów politycznych, wysiedlenia mniejszości etnicznych, dyskryminacja chrześcijan, a także pozasądowe egzekucje czy tortury i przemoc seksualna to przestępstwa, których w dużej części dopuszczają się etiopskie wojska. Działania Unii powinny wpłynąć na władze Etiopii, aby doprowadzić do przestrzegania przez nie umowy z Kotonu odnośnie praw człowieka, w tym wolności słowa, oraz Międzynarodowego paktu praw obywatelskich i politycznych, a także przeprowadzenia niezwłocznego dochodzenia w sprawie poważnych zarzutów o tortury i gwałt na nieletnich w Ogadenie dokonanych przez etiopskie siły zbrojne.

 
  
MPphoto
 

  Josef Weidenholzer (S&D). Herr Präsident! Das Horn von Afrika spielt für unsere Sicherheit offensichtlich eine ganz wichtige Rolle, und Äthiopien ist dabei ein zentrales Element. Seine Regierung vermittelt den Eindruck, dass sie diese Sicherheit garantieren kann, und sie wird von uns dafür auch belohnt. Die jetzigen Wahlen, die sogenannten Wahlen, dienen der Fortschreibung dieser Rolle. Und wir, liebe Kolleginnen und Kollegen, sollten nicht glauben, dass Sicherheit mit Ruhe gleichgesetzt werden kann. Nachhaltige Sicherheit bedeutet Rechtsstaatlichkeit, Menschenrechte und dass alle Stakeholder mitreden können.

Besondere Sorge bereitet mir und vielen anderen die Lage in Ogaden. Und wenn wir nicht auf diese Sorgen eingehen, wenn wir nicht versuchen, hier eine andere Entwicklung in die Wege zu leiten, dann bereiten wir wirklich den Boden für den Extremismus vor. Nur mit der Illusion einer scheinbaren Sicherheit werden wir den Extremismus in dieser Region nicht bekämpfen können.

 
  
MPphoto
 

  Fabio Massimo Castaldo (EFDD). Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, il 24 maggio ci saranno nuove elezioni in Etiopia, il secondo paese più popoloso d'Africa. Saranno altre elezioni farsa e tristi, perché tutt'al più i sondaggi ci diranno se il partito ora al governo, l'EPRDF, avrà il 99%, il 99,5% o il 100% dei seggi.

Questo paese ha purtroppo il record di giornalisti imprigionati in tutto il continente. Io ho partecipato personalmente come osservatore per l'Unione europea alle elezioni in Tunisia e in Nigeria proprio nel continente africano. Ho visto negli occhi di quei popoli cosa vuol dire la speranza in una vera democrazia e dico a voi, colleghi, che non basta una crescita economica a doppia cifra e qualche contingente di soldati per dimenticarci che cosa sono e come vengono violati quotidianamente lo Stato di diritto e le libertà civili e politiche in Etiopia.

Lo dobbiamo chiedere a noi stessi, lo dobbiamo chiedere anche alla Cina, che la sta colonizzando in modo selvaggio. Noi non possiamo più chiudere gli occhi e dobbiamo essere sempre e comunque coerenti con i nostri valori, costi quel che costi.

 
  
MPphoto
 

  Steeve Briois (NI). Monsieur le Président, l'Éthiopie est devenue une grande puissance régionale et un véritable pôle de stabilité dans la Corne de l'Afrique. Avec un taux de croissance de 10,5 % pour l'année 2013, elle récolte les fruits d'un modèle de développement fondé sur une économie dirigée par un État fort et structuré.

Dans un continent africain frappé par de nombreuses guerres civiles et tentatives de putsch, l'Éthiopie fait figure de modèle en matière de stabilité politique, et ce compte tenu de sa très forte diversité ethnique et religieuse. Les élections législatives qui se dérouleront ce dimanche sont les premières depuis le décès, en 2012, du très populaire Premier ministre M. Zenawi. Elles ne doivent donc pas servir de prétexte à une quelconque ingérence morale de l'Union européenne et des pays occidentaux dans des affaires internes d'un gouvernement certes autoritaire, mais qui a obtenu de spectaculaires résultats en matière de réduction de la pauvreté. La survenance de troubles pourrait engendrer un cycle de déstabilisation dont personne ne peut prédire l'issue.

Enfin, je déplore que les États membres de l'Union portent une attention limitée au potentiel économique que représente l'Éthiopie, avec qui nous gagnerions à renforcer nos liens de coopération dans l'optique d'échanges économiques équitables.

 
  
MPphoto
 

  Alessia Maria Mosca (S&D). Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, ogni sforzo da parte dell'Etiopia di promuovere crescita economica e riduzione della povertà, di sostegno allo sviluppo e al benessere che riconosciamo e applaudiamo può essere però seriamente minato se, al contempo, non c'è uno sforzo per garantire uno sviluppo democratico sostenibile. E non può esserci tale sviluppo se si limita la libertà di espressione e di informazione, che ne è condizione necessaria e, nondimeno, è uno dei valori fondamentali su cui abbiamo costruito il nostro vivere collettivo.

È per questo che non possiamo tacere come Unione europea su quanto sta avvenendo in generale in Etiopia e in particolare in vista delle prossime elezioni politiche. La situazione economica non può essere giudicata in maniera indipendente e non giustifica alcuna azione di soppressione dei diritti civili e umani.

L'Europa ha il dovere di non lasciare soli i cittadini e gli operatori dell'informazione perché anche così aiutiamo lo sviluppo sostenibile in questo paese.

 
  
MPphoto
 

  Julie Ward (S&D). Mr President, I would like to thank Josef Weidenholzer and many other colleagues for speaking on this issue, which sadly does not reach mainstream Western media. I have been working with civil society groups from Ogaden in Ethiopia, and it was important for me to speak out on the situation as there has been no level playing field for opposition voices. Ethiopia will have its elections next week without an EU election observation mission, and this is happening while the government cracks down on journalists and civil society and persecutes the Ogaden Oromo and other ethnic groups, targeting women and children. Rape and torture have been systematically used to spread fear, and the Ogaden region is effectively under government embargo.

Meanwhile, Ethiopia is the fourth largest recipient of EU aid and receives 45% of its budget through foreign aid. The EU must make a clear public statement, outlining its concerns about the upcoming elections before 24 May and making clear its commitment to human rights and democracy in solidarity with the people of Ethiopia. It must also ensure the EU aid money is not being used or implicated in ethnic persecution and human rights violations. A more secure and peaceful Ethiopia must not come at the price of human rights abuses or sham elections with no healthy opposition.

(The speaker agreed to take a blue-card question under Rule 162(8))

 
  
MPphoto
 

  James Carver (EFDD), blue-card question. Thank you for taking my blue card, Mrs Ward. Do you not accept why everybody in this Chamber is concerned about allegations of human rights abuse? The greatest threat to the Horn of Africa is the rise of Islamic fundamentalism. Do you not agree with me that Ethiopia should actually be given credit for the huge work she is doing to combat extremism in that area, and for actually being able to have a far better approach to women’s rights and children’s rights than that which is being offered by Islamic fundamentalists?

 
  
MPphoto
 

  Julie Ward (S&D), blue-card answer. I spend a lot of my time working with civil society groups and I work with unrepresented people who have no voice. I speak here, I use my position to give power and voice to those people who do not have a voice.

The organisations that I have worked for have brought forward huge abuses of human rights in respect of violence against women and girls in Ethiopia by the government there.

So yes, I stand up for human rights, and I think one of the worst threats against our security and democracy is the fact that we are not represented equally in the world. Women and men do not have equal representation. I see that as a massive problem for us in society.

(Interjection from the questioner)

I have answered the question. The biggest threat, Mr Carver, is the threat that men hold the balance of power.

 
  
MPphoto
 

  Ana Gomes (S&D). Senhor Presidente, as eleições na Etiópia, agendadas para 24 de maio, não serão justas nem livres. As recomendações das missões de observação eleitorais europeias e outras, de 2005 e 2010, não foram recebidas nem seguidas pelo governo. Esta é a verdadeira razão porque não haverá este ano missão de observação eleitoral europeia e não, como diz o governo na sua propaganda, por razões financeiras.

A Alta Representante seguiu as recomendações deste Parlamento.

Os partidos da oposição dizem que o EPRDF no poder tem minado os seus esforços para registar candidatos. Desde o ano passado, mais membros de partidos da oposição têm de novo vindo a ser presos e perseguidos. O único membro da oposição no Parlamento não irá concorrer à reeleição devido à interferência do Estado no seu partido. O pluralismo político e as liberdades de expressão, associação e imprensa são muito mais restritos hoje do que há dez anos, quando eu fui Chefe da Missão de Observação Eleitoral na Etiópia. Nenhum outro país africano tem tantos jornalistas e tantos bloggers presos, falsamente acusados de terrorismo, como Eskinder Nega e Reeyot Alemu e muitos outros.

A Etiópia é o maior beneficiário africano da ajuda ao desenvolvimento por parte da União Europeia e é um aliado-chave da União Europeia e dos Estados Unidos em matéria de segurança na região, o que explica a indigna lenidade sobre as graves violações dos direitos humanos, as leis antidemocráticas na Etiópia e a repressão feroz sobre a sua maioria Oromo e sobre as suas minorias, designadamente no Ogaden.

A União Europeia tem de ser audível, exigindo ao governo da Etiópia que liberte todos os jornalistas e opositores políticos, incluindo Andargachew Tsige, um cidadão etíope e britânico, líder da oposição no exílio, que foi sequestrado em julho de 2014 no Iémen e extraditado para a Etiópia.

Ao não promover as vozes para a democracia na Etiópia, a União Europeia está a trair os seus valores e a promover tensões inter-religiosas, extremismo antiocidental no país, um sentimento contraproducente contra os interesses da Etiópia e contra os nossos interesses.

Este é um país estratégico na região. Nós não podemos ficar calados. Nós temos que exigir uma mudança de estratégia, de política para com a Etiópia, que seja, efetivamente, onde temos imensa influência e que, efetivamente, faça a diferença.

Conto consigo, Sr. Stylianides!

 
  
 

Pytania z sali

 
  
MPphoto
 

  Marijana Petir (PPE). Gospodine predsjedniče, stanje u Etiopiji je alarmantno i poziva na uzbunu u nekoliko aspekata. U nedjelju će u Etiopiji biti održani parlamentarni izbori, a pluralizam stranačkog sustava je prisutan samo deklarativno i nad opozicijskom strankama se provodi represija.

Sloboda medija kao jedno od temeljnih načela demokracije ne samo da je ograničena, nego su novinari dovedeni u situaciju birati između autocenzure ili uhićenja, a mnogi su prisiljeni pobjeći iz vlastite zemlje. Iako većinom kršćanska, Etiopija je danas 22. zemlja na svijetu po progonu kršćana.

Kršćane progone ekstremne skupine koje zagovaraju stvaranje islamske države, a koje u islamu ne mogu imati svoje uporište niti nasilje opravdavati pozivajući se na Boga. Protiv njih se moramo boriti snažnije zajedničkim snagama. Duboko uznemiruje i nasilan program preseljenja stanovništva iz ruralnih područja pod krinkom poboljšanja njihovih životnih uvjeta.

Poljoprivredna je važna za lokalno stanovništvo, ona im osigurava život, stoga se treba usprotiviti i hitno zaustaviti nasilno otimanje poljoprivrednog zemljišta iz ruku lokalnog stanovništva.

 
  
MPphoto
 

  Nicola Caputo (S&D). Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, si fa ancora troppo poco per l'Etiopia, uno dei paesi dell'Africa con maggiori difficoltà economiche e sociali.

In questo paese il dato più preoccupante è rappresentato da un'aspettativa di vita tra le più basse del mondo, che non supera i 49 anni. Il motivo principale dell'elevata mortalità è la mancanza del bene principale per l'essere umano: l'acqua. Ancora oggi le donne devono percorrere a piedi svariati chilometri per raggiungere i pochissimi pozzi presenti e si calcola che in Etiopia ogni 20 secondi una persona muoia per insufficienza d'acqua e per le conseguenze di scarse condizioni igieniche. Il paese deve far fronte inoltre a un altissimo tasso di emigrazione, fenomeno che costringe i giovani anche istruiti a sfuggire dalla disoccupazione cercando lavoro altrove. Altra questione che desta preoccupazione è la difficile convivenza tra cristiani e musulmani.

Il governo locale ha disposto negli ultimi giorni un piano d'investimento importante per lo sviluppo industriale. Un provvedimento certamente positivo, ma che risulta inutile se non vengono risolte prima le emergenze che impediscono alla popolazione di vivere in condizioni accettabili.

L'Europa dovrebbe essere capace di intervenire più concretamente per sollevare il paese da questa grave situazione e garantire condizioni di vivibilità.

 
  
MPphoto
 

  Νότης Μαριάς ( ECR). Κύριε Πρόεδρε, στις 19 Απριλίου το ISIS δημοσιοποίησε βίντεο με τον αποκεφαλισμό στη Λιβύη τριάντα χριστιανών απ' την Αιθιοπία με σκοπό να τρομοκρατήσει τον πληθυσμό της Αιθιοπίας, χώρα στην οποία τα δύο τρίτα των 100 εκατομμυρίων κατοίκων της είναι χριστιανοί.

Στόχος των Τζιχαντιστών είναι να χρησιμοποιήσουν και στην Αιθιοπία την θρησκεία και τη φτώχεια για να προωθήσουν τα σκοτεινά τους συμφέροντα. Όμως σήμερα, εκατοντάδες χιλιάδες άνδρες και γυναίκες της Αιθιοπίας αναγκάζονται να εγκαταλείψουν τη χώρα τους που πλήττεται από τη φτώχεια, την ανεργία, την πολιτική αστάθεια, και τις συλλήψεις αντιφρονούντων.

Πρέπει λοιπόν να διασφαλιστούν οι όροι διεξαγωγής δημοκρατικών εκλογών, η ελευθερία του Τύπου και τα δικαιώματα της αντιπολίτευσης.

Ανησυχούμε λοιπόν σοβαρά για την κατάσταση της πολυπληθούς αυτής χριστιανικής χώρας και η Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωση πρέπει να συμβάλει στη σταθερότητα της περιοχής, στην οικονομική ανάπτυξη της Αιθιοπίας, στη λειτουργία του κράτους δικαίου και στην προστασία των δημοκρατικών δικαιωμάτων. Πρέπει, επιτέλους, η Αιθιοπία να πάψει να αποτελεί ξέφραγο αμπέλι για τις μεγάλες κινεζικές και ιταλικές πολυεθνικές επιχειρήσεις.

 
  
MPphoto
 

  Ivan Jakovčić (ALDE). Gospodine predsjedniče, u ovom Parlamentu imam osjećaj da ponekad raspravljamo isključivo. Ova rasprava mi sliči pomalo i na onu raspravu koju smo vodili kada smo govorili o Turskoj.

Ajmo si reći one stvari koje su pozitivne i dobre za Etiopiju, one stvari koje su korisne za Europsku uniju, za Europu. Kada bi bila u Europi, Etiopija bi bila najveća zemlja po broju stanovnika. Etiopija je danas faktor stabilnosti u vrlo nemirnom dijelu svijeta i na neki način je zaštita naših interesa u tom svijeta. I zato ja jesam za nastavak pomoći Etiopiji, ali sam naravno i za to, za što govore kolege i ukazuju na nedemokratske postupke sadašnje vlasti.

Međutim, molim svakoga ovdje da uzme u obzir i da pokuša balansirati vrijednosti kada govorimo o Etiopiji, Turskoj ili o kad god govorimo o nekoj zemlji za koju imamo poseban interes.

 
  
MPphoto
 

  Gianluca Buonanno (NI). Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, ho sentito il dibattito: qui, a seconda di chi parla, qualcuno dice che l'Etiopia è un disastro, qualcun altro dice che il PIL è al 10 % – ce l'avesse l'Europa il PIL al 10 %! – qualcuno dice che ogni x secondi muore un etiope e qualcun altro invece dice che finalmente stanno uscendo dalla miseria. Mettetevi d'accordo!

Però, secondo me, al di là dell'Etiopia, forse è meglio che si parli di più di Europa. Vogliamo parlare dei nostri anziani? Vogliamo parlare dei nostri giovani senza lavoro? O vogliamo parlare della Libia? Dove gli europei, quelli che parlano qua, questi ipocriti che sono qua, hanno bombardato la Libia e Gheddafi, e adesso abbiamo lo schifo, in Libia. Abbiamo lo schifo e arrivano i clandestini con i terroristi, con i barconi, come è successo oggi in Italia. E abbiamo un governo di farabutti in Italia che dice che non è vero. Ecco, questa è l'Africa che intende l'Europa?

Svegliatevi!!

 
  
MPphoto
 

  Doru-Claudian Frunzulică (S&D). Mr President, Ethiopia is certainly a very important partner of the European Union. It is a key state with an important strategic position in the area, although I am deeply concerned that elections in Ethiopia will not meet international or African Union standards for fairness or credibility due to a repressive political environment and efforts by the Ethiopian Government to limit political pluralism and the independent media.

Ethiopia now has the second largest number of journalists in exile in the world, and the highest number of imprisoned journalists in Africa. Opposition parties have routinely been denied access to state media and prevented from holding public campaign events. The ruling party has used its control over municipal governments to deny permission for opposition rallies and, on several occasions, police have forcibly disbanded and arrested peaceful protesters. These kinds of violations of human rights and the right to freedom are not acceptable and must be formally condemned.

 
  
 

(Koniec pytań z sali.)

 
  
MPphoto
 

  Christos Stylianides, Member of the Commission. Mr President, thank you for this debate at such a timely moment. I agree with most of the concerns you have raised on our partnership, but this partnership has many aspects and facets, some more controversial than others. We should bear in mind the substantial positive developments that this country and its people have seen, as well as the constructive and critical role in the region and beyond that Ethiopia plays.

Our aim is to continue to engage with Ethiopia while strengthening our messages on democratisation, on human rights, on fundamental freedoms. After the heat of the elections we will certainly further deepen our engagement with the authorities on the long-term democratisation of the country. If Ethiopia wants to maintain stability and to achieve middle income status by 2025, it is essential that the population is provided with the opportunity to openly express its views.

Federica Mogherini, the High Representative, intends to visit Ethiopia some time soon to see the situation for herself and to personally discuss issues of concern with the country’s leadership. This is the situation. Thank you for your attention and for this very rich debate.

 
  
 

(Nastąpiła przerwa w debacie.)

 
  
MPphoto
 

  Przewodniczący. – Zamykam debatę.

 
Juridisks paziņojums - Privātuma politika