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Procedure : 2014/2233(INI)
Forløb i plenarforsamlingen
Dokumentforløb : A8-0182/2015

Indgivne tekster :

A8-0182/2015

Forhandlinger :

PV 06/07/2015 - 16
CRE 06/07/2015 - 16

Afstemninger :

PV 07/07/2015 - 5.13
CRE 07/07/2015 - 5.13
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Vedtagne tekster :

P8_TA(2015)0250

Forhandlinger
Mandag den 6. juli 2015 - Strasbourg Revideret udgave

16. Den eksterne indvirkning af EU's handels- og investeringspolitik på offentlig-private initiativer i tredjelande (kortfattet forelæggelse)
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PV
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  La Présidente. – L'ordre du jour appelle le rapport de Jan Zahradil, au nom de la commission du commerce international, sur l'incidence extérieure de la politique de l'Union en matière de commerce et d'investissement sur les initiatives public-privé dans les pays tiers (2014/2233(INI)) (A8-0182/2015).

 
  
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  Jan Zahradil, rapporteur. Madam President, I welcome the opportunity here to present a report which has already been adopted by the Committee on International Trade (INTA), with contributions from the Committee on the Internal Market and Consumer Protection (IMCO) and the Committee on Development (DEVE). The report looks into the European Union’s common commercial policy and its impact on so-called public—private partnerships (PPPs).

As everybody knows, PPPs are arrangements where the public sector and private sector act together in order to deliver certain types of services of general interest to the public. Those services could be, for instance, infrastructure, like roads, public transport, power plants or water treatment plants. They could also be some kind of social services, like health care or education. Last, but not least, in recent years, they could be realised in the field of innovative high-tech sectors.

What is important to stress is that they are not current practice in well—developed countries, but they are becoming more and more important and widely used by donors in developing countries. PPP projects account for roughly 15% to 20% of total infrastructure investments in those countries.

The report concentrates mainly on two aspects of PPP projects. One is, of course, the EU’s own interests, which means promotion of EU trade interests. Participating in PPP projects provides EU companies with a great opportunity to grow and to gain new markets, if we take into account the current market conditions, slow economic recovery and the remaining high levels of unemployment in Europe.

We can all agree, I hope, that European companies can achieve growth only if they go international and enter other non-European markets. Therefore, we have to build success stories, models and good practices concerning PPPs to encourage our companies to go there. We also have to create things like one-stop shops or user-friendly platforms. We should use the good experiences of institutions already engaged in those projects, like the European Investment Bank and others.

At the same time there is another goal, namely pursuing our development agenda. This is a crucial point. I think that we can create synergies with our development objectives by pursuing PPP projects. We all know that massive investments are required in developing countries in terms of infrastructure, energy supply or access to water. A substantial part of this funding will need to come from the private sector, where PPP can play a crucial role. Of course we also have bad examples, particularly in some developing countries where PPPs were in trouble. There were badly designed projects, engineering problems, too much bureaucracy, delays in realisation and poor project management. That is also why it is so important to work towards a common approach to tackling all those challenges.

I think that this report could play a positive role in that. This report, I need to stress, does not make any attempt to establish new legislation or bureaucracy or anything like that. It just urges the EU institutions to take the necessary steps on the existing playing field to promote the participation of EU companies in PPP projects. It has been prepared in a spirit of very good cooperation between the political groups and committees. I hope that it will be received as well by the plenary of the European Parliament.

 
  
 

Interventions à la demande

 
  
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  Doru-Claudian Frunzulică (S&D). Madam President, public-private partnerships in third countries will have many positive effects on job creation, competitiveness and productivity in Europe. I strongly believe that the European Union trade policy should work towards ensuring market access for EU companies abroad, where they still face substantial barriers in procurement markets.

Small and medium-sized enterprises should easily be able to access these standards and make a number of recommendations in this regard, including the formation of consortiums. The legal framework for public partnership programs should be reinforced, with a view to establishing a clear, predictable and legitimate institutional framework supported by competent and well-resourced authorities. Adequate human resources should be ensured to enable the administration to properly design PPPs and oversee their implementation. Efforts should also be made to raise the capacity of public administration in developing countries.

 
  
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  Νότης Μαριάς ( ECR). Κυρία Πρόεδρε, πρέπει κατ’ αρχάς να επισημάνουμε ότι η Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωση οφείλει να εφαρμόσει την αρχή της συνοχής στις πολιτικές εμπορίου, επένδυσης και ανάπτυξης. Όμως, ενώ η Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωση έχει διατηρήσει τις αγορές δημοσίων συμβάσεων ανοικτές στον διεθνή ανταγωνισμό, οι επιχειρήσεις της Ένωσης εξακολουθούν να αντιμετωπίζουν φραγμούς στο εξωτερικό. Απ’ την άλλη πλευρά οι πολυεθνικές επιχειρήσεις της Ευρωπαϊκής Ένωσης οφείλουν να εργάζονται σύμφωνα με τις ισχύουσες κατευθυντήριες γραμμές του ΟΟΣΑ.

Επιπλέον, πρέπει να εφαρμοστούν οι κατευθυντήριες αρχές του ΟΗΕ για τις επιχειρήσεις και τα ανθρώπινα δικαιώματα εντός και εκτός Ευρωπαϊκής Ένωσης. Επίσης οι αναπτυξιακές εταιρείες πρέπει να διασφαλίζουν ότι η δημόσια αναπτυξιακή χρηματοδότηση δεν θα διοχετεύεται στις διάφορες πολυεθνικές, αλλά θα χρησιμοποιείται για την υποστήριξη των τοπικών οικονομικών δικτύων. Τέλος, εάν επιθυμεί η Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωση πραγματική ανάπτυξη και επενδύσεις στις αναπτυσσόμενες χώρες, πρέπει να υπάρξει διαγραφή των χρεών των αναπτυσσομένων χωρών έναντι του Διεθνούς Νομισματικού Ταμείου, της Διεθνούς Τράπεζας και της Αφρικανικής Τράπεζας Ανάπτυξης.

 
  
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  Ivan Jakovčić (ALDE). Gospođo predsjednice, nema nikakve dvojbe da javno-privatno partnerstvo može dati jako dobre rezultate, može dati dobre učinke, pogotovo kada govorimo o modernoj infrastrukturi. Postoje, naravno, i negativni primjeri, postoje i situacije koje nisu dale idealne rezultate ili su čak dovele neke projekte u probleme.

Međutim, gospodine povjereniče, molim Vas, uzmite na sebe obvezu i pogledajte jedan projekt koji stoji u ladicama Europske komisije, a tiče se Hrvatske. Radi se o izgradnji Istarskog ipsilona, cestovnog prometnog pravca u Istri, u Hrvatskoj, koji se radi temeljem javno-privatnog partnerstva, Hrvatske i francuske tvrtke Bouygues. Nema razloga da taj projekt stoji, da se ne realizira do kraja, jer nam je naprosto neophodna izgradnja i završetak Istarskog cestovnog ipsilona pa vas u tom kontekstu molim da zaista uzmete na sebe obavezu pogledati i pomognete da taj projekt ne bude blokiran u ladicama Europske komisije.

 
  
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  Miguel Viegas (GUE/NGL). Senhora Presidente, as parcerias público-privadas representam hoje para muitos países simultaneamente um sintoma deste modelo de integração capitalista e uma causa da atual crise. Este modelo de integração europeia com moeda única e todos os constrangimentos orçamentais deixa os Estados sem margem para poder realizar os investimentos públicos, e estes passam a estar na dependência das grandes empresas, não só a nível das grandes infraestruturas de transporte, mas igualmente em domínios fundamentais como a saúde, a energia, ou a educação.

Em Portugal, a despesa com parcerias público-privadas cresce exponencialmente, ao contrário de todas as despesas sociais. Ou seja, a austeridade é apenas para alguns, e não para os grandes grupos económicos, que beneficiam cada vez mais das rendas públicas. O que é necessário é proteger a Europa contra a abertura que é proposta pelo TTIP. Trata-se de combater, e não alargar, a vigência de um instrumento que se tornou um cancro para a nossa democracia.

 
  
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  Jonathan Arnott (EFDD). Madam President, when I read the title of the debate, ‘External impact of EU trade and investment policy’, I first expected that we would be talking about the negative impact the EU can have across the world, where our trade policies can impact on the poorest nations. While we help with one hand, we stamp down with our foot at the same time.

Then I read through the report and saw that it is all about public-private partnerships. The danger is that, as the experience in the UK shows, they often cannot work, as we have seen in the British NHS. We can see them combine the worst of both worlds, where we get all the inefficiency of the public sector combined with the narrow profit focus of the private sector. We need to remember that there are dangers with this approach and that we need to be relatively cautious.

Nevertheless, I would commend the rapporteur specifically on the point that he recognises that these are decisions which must be taken sovereignly by the Member States themselves.

 
  
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  Inmaculada Rodríguez-Piñero Fernández (S&D). Señora Presidenta, intervengo como ponente alternativa del Grupo S&D y en primer lugar quiero agradecer la actitud que ha tenido el ponente de este informe, colaboradora y participativa. Pero, nosotros, los socialistas, defendemos una reforma del ordenamiento jurídico que precisamente minimice los riesgos que pueden tener las asociaciones público-privadas, o las APP, como se conocen por sus siglas.

Nosotros creemos que nunca debe escogerse una APP porque sea un método que contablemente beneficia a la Administración por no computar en déficit, sino porque sea la mejor forma para proporcionar un servicio público de la manera más eficiente y más barata posible, y para ello es fundamental que se redefina muy bien la transferencia de riesgos. Nunca apoyaremos un modelo de colaboración público-privada que permita que se privaticen los beneficios económicos y que se socialicen las pérdidas a través de las arcas públicas. Nunca una APP debe suponer un primer paso hacia la privatización de un servicio público, y por eso queremos un marco jurídico muy claro, muy transparente y que además facilite recursos a las administraciones: técnicos y de carácter financiero.

 
  
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  Ruža Tomašić (ECR). Gospođo predsjednice, Europa mora težiti razvoju kvalitetnih javnih usluga unutar svojih granica, ali i kod svojih međunarodnih partnera. Podizanje kvalitete života građana mora nam biti jedan od glavnih prioriteta, a jedini način da se to postigne, uz obaveznu odgovornost pri upravljanju novcem poreznih obveznika, jest poticanje ulaska privatnog kapitala u projekte od javnog interesa.

Rastući vanjski dug većine država i evidentno pomanjkanje novca za infrastrukturne projekte otvaraju prostor za popularizaciju javno-privatnog partnerstva i unutar i van Europske unije.

Popularizacija ovakvog modela u partnerskim državama prilika je za europska mala i srednja poduzeća koja bi tako proširila svoje poslovanje i pojačala izvoz roba i usluga.

Pozivam stoga Komisiju da u okviru svih trgovinskih sporazuma koje Europska unija potpisuje s trećim zemljama osigura ravnopravan tretman naših poduzeća u postupcima javne nabave te otvoren pristup javno-privatnom partnerstvu.

 
  
 

(Fin des interventions à la demande)

 
  
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  Phil Hogan, Member of the Commission. Madam President, I am here tonight representing Commissioner Malmström, our Trade Commissioner, and she would like to thank the rapporteur Mr Zahradil and the Committee on International Trade (INTA) for their valuable work on this report.

The report underlines the high importance of public-private partnerships as a tool for economic growth, innovation and job creation. This has been the case in the EU and is increasingly true in our neighbourhood and in developing countries further afield. The report also underlines the opportunity provided by EU Trade and Investment Policy in negotiations to promote public-private partnerships in third countries and thereby increase the market access of EU companies in this area.

The Commission welcomes the report’s call for improved transparency and fair competition in public-private partnerships in international trade relations. We will continue to strengthen efforts to include public-private partnerships to the greatest extent possible within the government procurement chapter of international trade agreements. Indeed, there are many points expressed in the report with which the Commission fully agrees and certainly welcomes. I want to give you some examples.

Firstly, that public-private partnerships can foster innovative solutions and mobilise long-term private finance, facilitating complex projects in the public interest, notably in the infrastructure sector or other capital-intensive sectors. Secondly, that cooperation between the private and public sectors can foster innovation, research and development through increased competition. Thirdly, the importance of facilitating the participation of SMEs in public—private partnerships. Finally, PPPs give opportunities abroad, which can increase European companies’ market access in government procurement in countries outside the EU and redress the asymmetry between EU and other countries’ levels of openness in government procurement. At the same time, these represent great opportunities for developing countries to create wealth and develop the infrastructures that are needed for business.

The Commission had welcomed the references in the rapporteur’s draft report to the positive synergies of public procurement and investment protection policies. In this regard, the Commission would have preferred a more explicit acknowledgment of the need to employ the EU’s investment policy to ensure that assets invested by EU investors in the context of long—term projects in third countries are effectively protected, including by negotiating adequate and impartial means of resolving potential problems. The Commission will be taking careful note of all of the recommendations made in this report and will continue to strengthen its efforts to ensure that the opportunities provided by PPPs can be best utilised. Be assured also that I will pass the comments that you make today to my colleague Cecilia Malmström who, as I mentioned, is the Commissioner in charge.

 
  
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  La Présidente. – Le point est clos.

Le vote aura lieu mardi 7 juillet 2015 à 13 heures.

Déclarations écrites (article 162)

 
  
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  Dita Charanzová (ALDE), in writing. As the Rapporteur of the IMCO opinion and ALDE INTA shadow rapporteur, I welcome the very good and balanced message sent by this report.

The key point for me has been to focus on how to improve Public Private Partnership projects and how to support the work of European companies in foreign and developing markets. I believe we have achieved this.

PPPs are a major potential source of growth for our European companies and in the case of development PPPs, a way that our European companies can help to do good works in the world. We have to work to encourage fair and transparent access to external PPPs for our firms. This is especially true for our SMEs, who should be encouraged to take part in the sub-contracting chain or as part of consortiums. The EU and our Member States must be more proactive in our trade and investment policies on PPPs. This should be clear in our agreements with third countries.

I ask the Commission to also work to increase the use of PPPs in our EU development aid policy. PPPs could be an effective way to spend development aid while allowing our limited budgets to go further.

 
  
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  Lola Sánchez Caldentey (GUE/NGL), in writing. The PPP strategy as a mechanism mainly designed and used as a tool for market access, deregulation and liberalization of public services and public procurement in third countries, especially developing countries, and to divert development founds to private companies must be rejected.

There is a link between PPPs and the risk of debt unsustainability. PPPs are often the way to transfer the risk from rich private companies to taxpayers in poor countries. A binding framework which ensures that EU companies contribute to a socially inclusive growth and are accountable for their actions in developing countries as regards standards in respect of human rights, social protection, gender equality, decent work, union rights, environmental protection, universal access to quality goods and public services, paying particular attention to public services is needed.

 
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