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Debates
Tuesday, 7 June 2016 - Strasbourg Revised edition

11. Legal migration package - Action plan on integration of third country nationals (debate)
Video of the speeches
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  Πρόεδρος. – Το επόμενο σημείο στην ημερήσια διάταξη είναι η κοινή συζήτηση επί:

- της δήλωσης της Επιτροπής σχετικά με δέσμη μέτρων για τη νόμιμη μετανάστευση

(2016/2758(RSP)), και

- της δήλωσης της Επιτροπής σχετικά με σχέδιο δράσης για την ένταξη των υπηκόων τρίτων χωρών (2016/2759(RSP)).

 
  
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  Dimitris Avramopoulos, Member of the Commission. – Mr President, I do not hide that you inspire me to speak in Greek tonight but since it will be all Greek to everybody, I come back our working language.

Honourable Members of the Parliament, Mr President, I am really pleased to present before you today a revised EU Blue Card proposal and an EU action plan on integration. From the very beginning, this House has valued the importance of having sound and forward-looking legal migration policies, which are the other important side of the coin of managing migration comprehensively and in an effective way. But legal migration goes beyond migration and mobility as such. It plays an important role in strengthening the EU’s competitiveness and it can address demographic challenges and labour shortages.

While, on the one hand, we will need to continue investing in the skills of our existing workforce and addressing unemployment, the rapid ageing of the population in the European Union will require us to attract skills from abroad to address shortages in specific sectors. I will give you two examples.

In the ICT sector we need more than 100 000 highly skilled professionals per year. In the health sector there will be around one million unfilled highly skilled vacancies by 2020.

Even if we upskill our labour force, this takes time. Besides that, we will still need more people to fill the shortages. Let me also state another fact, which I know is difficult to hear in the current context: European societies are and will continue to become increasingly diverse. Today there are 20 million non-EU nationals residing in the European Union – around 4% of its total population. The key element here is not to fight this reality but to embrace it and turn it into an advantage by ensuring the successful integration of migrants – including, of course, refugees – into the host societies as soon as possible, therefore maximising the benefits of immigration.

Today’s proposals address all these issues. On the Blue Card, the European Union is increasingly competing with the growing number of other destinations for the same global pool of talent. We want to become more attractive than countries such as Australia, Canada and the United States of America. Therefore, the EU needs to establish a more efficient, transparent and simpler scheme for attracting highly skilled workers.

This will bring substantial benefits to the European Union in terms of innovation, transfer of technology and increased investment flows. This will enhance the European Union’s competitiveness and help create new jobs. In fact, the new Blue Card scheme would bring an estimated post-dip annual economic impact of between EUR 1.4 billion to EUR 6.2 billion from additional highly skilled workers coming to the European Union to take up jobs.

Right now, the existing Blue Card is unattractive, unknown and fragmented. So, how can we change? How can we remedy these shortcomings? Today’s proposal aims at establishing an ambitious Europe-wide scheme. It will be easier to qualify for the EU Blue Card. The scheme is also made more accessible if you have graduated recently or work in a shortage occupation. The EU Blue Card is also made accessible to highly skilled beneficiaries of international protection. This will allow them to make full use of their potential and skills and support their integration. The Blue Card can be obtained faster because the maximum processing time is shorter. The new proposal also provides for enhanced rights in terms of intra-EU mobility, access to employment and long-term residence, and for family members.

On the action plan on integration, we are not starting from scratch on integration but we should learn from the past when looking at the future. If we look at integration outcomes across the European Union, third country nationals continue to face barriers in the education systems or the labour market. They are more at risk of poverty or social exclusion. The recent inflow of third country nationals to Europe, and in particular of refugees, represents an additional challenge but is also an opportunity and we have to seize this window of opportunity. It is therefore high time to investment more on integration if we want to ensure that all third country nationals can fully contribute to our economies and societies.

I want to be very clear: the cost of non-integration in the longer-term will be higher than the cost of investing today in effective integration policies. On the other hand, if we succeed in making integration a success story, this will be highly beneficial, both for the host countries and for the migrants themselves.

Effective integration also entails an understanding and subscribing to EU fundamental rights and values. This is an essential element of living and participating in the European Union, and we should not shy away from addressing this question when we define what it means to live in and belong to Europe.

Now, while we fully recognise that integration policies are made and done at national, and particularly at regional and local levels, it is also true that those levels across the European Union are experiencing the same challenges. So the European Union has a role to play in supporting all stakeholders in this process in coordinating and in helping structurally and financially.

The action plan adopted today offers a comprehensive framework to support Member States’ efforts in developing and strengthening their integration policies. It targets all third country nationals in the European Union while including several actions that address the specific challenges faced by refugees. The key areas of action that we have identified are:

Firstly, support to third country nationals, but also the communities that welcome them at the earliest possible moment in the migration process through pre-departure and pre-arrival measures. Secondly, education and training. Thirdly, integration of third country nationals into the labour market and into vocational training. Fourthly, facilitating access to basic services such as adequate and affordable housing and health. Fifthly, and finally, the action plan also proposes to strengthen the coordination between the various actors working on integration at national, regional and local level and proposes a more strategic approach towards the use of EU funds for integration, not only asylum, migration and integration funds but also the European Social Fund and other relevant EU funds.

Honourable Members of the Parliament, I look forward to hearing your comments on our proposals today but most importantly, I count on you to help us turn them into reality as soon as possible. It was one and a half years ago that I was committed to bring this proposal here today and I am more than happy to do so.

 
  
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  Kinga Gál, a PPE képviselőcsoport nevében. – Tisztelt Elnök! Engedje meg, hogy ehhez a vitaponthoz a migrációs kérdés egészét tekintve szóljak hozzá, hiszen ezek nagyon szorosan összefüggő kérdések. A bizottsági javaslatok, mindaz, amit az imént, illetve azt megelőzően hallottunk, az Európára háruló terhek összességének csökkentését kell célozzák. És mára nyilvánvaló, hogy az európai érdekek szempontjából elsődleges az Unió külső határainak a védelme, így tengeri határainak védelme is. És ez nemcsak érdekünk, de humanitárius felelősségünk is, hiszen a bizonytalan lépések meghívóként értelmezhetők a jobb életre váró százezrek számára. Ha pedig következetesen tartjuk, megteszünk mindent, hogy illegálisan ne lehessen az Unióba jönni, talán megállíthatjuk, hogy a Földközi-tenger tömegsírrá váljon.

Ehhez elengedhetetlen, amit hallottunk az előző vitapontnál is, hogy a valódi menekülteket szét kell választanunk a migránsoktól, és vissza kell küldenünk az illegális gazdasági migránsokat. Pénzt kell áldozni mindenre, és ki kell venni a részünket a migrációs hullám okainak kezelésében. A fejlesztési és vízumpolitikánkat a harmadik országok együttműködésétől kell függővé tenni. De egyértelműen nyilvánvaló és fontos felismerés – és örülök, hogy elhangzik ma –, hogy az illegális migrációra adandó sürgős válaszok nem moshatók össze a demográfiai és munkaerőpiaci kihívásokra adandó közép és hosszú távú válaszokkal. Ez utóbbi problémák megoldásához figyelembe kell venni a tagállamok sajátos helyzetét, és a tagállamoknak szuverén döntéseket kell hozniuk ezen a területen. Semmilyen kötelező és automatikus mechanizmus nem kerülhet bevezetésre.

A blokádjavaslat tekintetbe kell vegye az európai, képzett, fiatal munkanélküliség magas arányát, és ennek megfelelően kell majd kinéznie ennek a kezdeményezésnek. Az Unióba került migránsok integrálása eddig sem mondható túl sikeresnek, és egyre jobban látszanak, tisztán látszanak az újabb összetett problémák, amelyben az oktatásnak lesz legnagyobb szerepe. Ki kell mondanunk, hogy Európa integráló képessége véges, és hogy európai hagyományos értékeinkhez ragaszkodunk. Elvárjuk, hogy akik Európában szeretnének élni, tiszteljék ezeket, így könnyebben mehet az integráció is.

 
  
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  Claude Moraes, on behalf of the S&D Group. – Mr President, I would like to thank the Commissioner for his statement and the proposals. They are very important proposals and indeed very brave coming at the time of the global migration crisis. As we heard in the previous debate, it is a global migration crisis. But if I start with the first proposal on integration, I was reminded of a Swiss German poet – I cannot remember the name – who, when asked about guest workers in Germany, said ‘we invited guest workers to Germany, unfortunately we got human beings’. The problem is that if we do not manage migration, and if we do not manage the integration of those whom we invite or of those refugees who are deserving of international protection, we will pay the cost. I think the Commissioner has made that point. But the Commission, the European Parliament and of course the Member States above all have to understand that integration is not an option. We will pay the cost if we do not employ those integration measures that we can have at our disposal.

Ultimately, most integration measures are done at local level, but we know from our discussions with the Commission that there are key integration measures that we can advance with the Commission in the labour market that are at our disposal. We know that some countries, like the United Kingdom, will opt out of those and I want to make that clear to those who are listening very carefully to that point.

On the question of the Blue Card, many people throw around issues like the Australian-style points system. Well let us be very clear on the question of the Blue Card: at the moment it is completely unsatisfactory. The issue of managing migration, which everyone wants to talk about across the political spectrum, has to be worthy of the name. If we are going to manage migration for the benefit of migrants in a proper respectful mutual partnership with those countries who are sending migrants, then we have to have a proper well-studied proposal, like the seasonal workers proposal or the student proposal that my colleague Ms Wikström has finished. Legal migration must not be done on the cheap and on the quick. With the Commission we must do it properly, so that we have a proper mutual understanding with the sending countries: no cherry picking, a proper legal migration proposal that is worthy of its name. I thank the Commission for its proposal today.

 
  
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  Πρόεδρος. – Υπενθυμίζω ότι, σύμφωνα με τον Κανονισμό, οι επισκέπτες που παρακολουθούν τη συζήτηση από τα θεωρεία δεν επιτρέπεται να χειροκροτούν. Το σημειώνω γιατί μπορεί ορισμένοι να μην το είχαν υπόψη τους.

 
  
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  Helga Stevens, namens de ECR-Fractie. – Niemand zal ontkennen dat Europa geconfronteerd wordt met grote demografische uitdagingen, vandaag maar zeker ook in de toekomst. Het is dus op zich een heel goede zaak dat de EU nadenkt over haar beleid en het debat nu voert. Er ligt vandaag heel wat voer voor discussie op tafel. Ik zal mij beperken tot enkele kernopmerkingen.

Laat me eerst benadrukken en herhalen dat asiel en migratie twee verschillende zaken zijn, die afzonderlijk moeten worden behandeld. Asiel kan bijvoorbeeld niet de structurele interne economische tekortkomingen oplossen en legale migratie kan ook de asielcrisis niet oplossen.

Zo kom ik bij mijn tweede punt. De herziening van de blauwekaartrichtlijn. Het is essentieel voor onze economie dat Europa hooggekwalificeerden kan aantrekken. Maar, ik herhaal, de blauwe kaart mag geen sluiproute zijn voor asiel. Ik benadruk daarom het belang van een effectief vrije vacature die enkel via de blauwe kaart kan worden ingevuld. Bij een herziening van de blauwekaartrichtlijn moet worden erkend dat lidstaten het best geplaatst zijn om de behoeften van hun nationale arbeidsmarkt te beoordelen.

En tot slot, eens in Europa is het belangrijk dat nieuwkomers zich goed integreren. Ik steun daarom het voorstel om Europese middelen vrij te maken voor de integratie van nieuwkomers. Belangrijk is dat deze middelen naar de bevoegde instellingen en de lidstaten gaan, zodat ze deze zelf kunnen besteden conform de eigen lokale behoeften.

 
  
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  Nathalie Griesbeck, au nom du groupe ALDE. – Monsieur le Président, Monsieur le Commissaire, cela fait plusieurs années que, face aux lacunes de la directive "carte bleue" de 2009, nous demandons une réforme ambitieuse de ce texte et que nous disons, notamment mon groupe parlementaire, qu'il y a urgence à ce que l'Europe se dote d'une véritable politique efficace en matière d'immigration légale, d'intégration réussie, tout en luttant à la fois contre l'immigration irrégulière et le travail clandestin.

Quatre points rapidement: pour cela, il nous faut réexaminer vraiment en profondeur cet instrument législatif – comme vous l'avez souligné, Monsieur le commissaire –, éviter que nous procédions à une réforme en demi-teinte, comme assez souvent, malheureusement, nous le faisons et qui aboutit à ce que nous remettions l'ouvrage sur le métier, quelques années après, pour l'adapter à la situation. En deux mots, aboutissons ensemble à une réforme qui soit significative et courageuse, légiférons avec ambition, comme on a l'habitude de le dire ici.

Deuxième point: il nous faut adapter le dispositif en mettant en place des quotas d'immigration légale pour l'Union et le faire pays par pays, secteur par secteur, selon les besoins de l'économie européenne, cela, par exemple, troisièmement, avec un portail européen contenant les informations sur les besoins, sur les offres d'emplois dont l'Union a besoin pour que le système fonctionne de manière fluide, correctement et efficacement.

Et enfin, comme l'a souligné Guy Verhofstadt dans le débat précédent, ne créons pas 28 dispositifs, mais un dispositif qui soit lisible, efficace et utilisable.

En conclusion, cette nouvelle carte bleue, elle doit être peut-être un équivalent "réaliste" de la Green Card des Américains pour attirer l'innovation et stimuler notre développement économique européen, qui en a bien besoin.

 
  
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  Marina Albiol Guzmán, en nombre del Grupo GUE/NGL. – Señor Presidente, nosotras no vamos a discutir si las personas sin papeles, a quienes a muchos de ustedes les gusta llamar «ilegales», merecen ser expulsadas o no. No vamos a discutir si merecen tener acceso a la sanidad o a las prestaciones sociales o no. Porque eso sería entrar en su lógica racista y xenófoba. Nosotras nos negamos a que la situación administrativa de una persona condicione sus derechos y su libertad. Es más, negamos esta división entre personas legales e ilegales, porque ningún ser humano es ilegal. Ilegal es una condición que les imponen sus leyes. Quieren legales, unos pocos —muy pocos— para trabajos altamente cualificados, en una visión muy utilitarista de la migración y quieren ilegales para que haya mano de obra barata, los esclavos del siglo XXI. Y quieren ilegales para la explotación sexual de las mujeres. En el Estado español, más del 85 % de las víctimas de trata son mujeres que no tienen papeles. Nosotras no vamos a apoyar ninguna medida que no sea garante de una vida en dignidad para todas las personas migrantes. Para todas.

 
  
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  Jean Lambert, on behalf of the Verts/ALE Group. – Mr President, I would agree with what the Commissioner has said about the need to develop our own skills base within the European Union. That is the topic of the next debate this afternoon. Of course, we need to actually do more to retain the highly-qualified people that we have, but this is never going to be a perfect match. As the Commission figures show, there are major shortages. I would add engineers to his list, and if we want to move further in terms of a just transition towards a low-carbon economy, engineers are people that we need. They do not all have to be men.

But the group that we are talking about very much this afternoon are people who actually do have choices about where they go, and some of the proposed changes to the Blue Card sound very positive. Indeed, a number of them were argued for by some of us in this Chamber the first time round – I am sure Mr Moraes will remember that. But when this Blue Card was coming into place, again at the beginning, one of the things that we were told was that people who have choices were often put off coming to the European Union because they actually perceived it as a place where they would experience racism, where they would experience xenophobia and where they would not be made welcome.

Would the Commission like to comment on whether he feels that the European Union has moved on to become a more welcoming environment, or indeed whether the integration proposals that he has are going to work as part of a two-way street? That needs to cover attitudes here as well. We do need to look at the issues around social inclusion and at how the different funding mechanisms we have work together to actually make sure that no group is excluded.

 
  
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  Πρόεδρος. – Έχει ζητήσει μπλε κάρτα ο κ. Obermayr. Απ’ ό,τι βλέπω όμως, είναι στη σειρά των εγγεγραμμένων ομιλητών να μιλήσει μετά από 10 λεπτά. Κατά συνέπεια ας περιμένει να μιλήσει τότε και να θέσει τα ζητήματα που επιθυμεί. Έχουμε καθυστερήσει πολύ. Επιτρέψτε μου να είμαι λίγο αυστηρός με τη δική σας συμβολή.

 
  
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  Jonathan Arnott, on behalf of the EFDD Group. – Mr President, I would like to say to the Commissioner that I find myself listening with great interest to what he says in his speech.

If we took the words ‘European’ and ‘Union’ out of this for a moment, Commissioner, you say that immigration should be skills-based: I agree. You say that sometimes there are times when it would take too long to train particular skills that we need in our economy for ourselves, and again, I agree. Also, you accept that there is a need for control rather than for uncontrolled immigration, and again I agree.

Of course, in terms of training up skills, there is an awful lot more that we need to do. I agree with all of that. But the debate that we have in the United Kingdom when we come up to the referendum on 23 June is not just about non-EU immigration, it is also about EU immigration. It is the same issue to us whether people come from Poland or Pakistan, whether they come from Austria or Australia, whether they come from Spain or Senegal.

We believe that people should be treated the same. Nobody would have argued, 40 years ago – certainly not in the UK – that we should have a system of uncontrolled immigration from the other 27 countries of the European Union, but highly controlled migration from the other 167. So Commissioner, your arguments against uncontrolled immigration from non-EU countries I say apply just as well to immigration from EU countries. We need appropriate control from everywhere.

 
  
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  Vicky Maeijer, namens de ENF-Fractie. – Bovenop bakken vol ontwikkelingsgeld verdwijnen er straks wederom miljarden euro’s richting Afrika, in de handen van corrupte leiders en organisaties als Boko Haram, Al Qaeda en de Islamtische Staat. Na Erdogans Turkije stelt Brussel voor om het lot van ons land nu ook in de handen te leggen van corrupte landen als Nigeria, Libië, Ethiopië, Niger en Senegal. 

De asieltsunami bestrijden met een geldgolf, dat kan alleen hier in Brussel verzonnen worden. Het doel is niet om de immigratiestroom te stoppen, integendeel. Terwijl de grenzen wagenwijd open blijven staan, stelt u voor om nóg meer legale wegen te creëren om gelukszoekers deze kant op te laten komen. Die blauwe kaart van u is eerder een gouden ticket, met nog meer en nog onbeperktere mogelijkheden om hier binnen te komen. We betalen straks dus grof voor meer immigratie, maar die noemt u nu legaal in plaats van illegaal. Compleet bizar!

Er is slecht één pakket maatregelen dat werkt. Een pakket dat alleen kan worden voorgesteld en ingevoerd door moedige soevereine natiestaten. Een pakket naar vrijheid. Een pakket van het volk. Een pakket van grenzen sluiten, de-islamiseren en de Europese Unie verlaten. Liever vandaag dan morgen.

 
  
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  Carlos Coelho (PPE). – Senhor Presidente, Senhor Comissário, temos de ser claros no essencial: não podemos confundir migração económica com refugiados. E temos de combater a migração ilegal e o tráfico de seres humanos e regular a migração legal. E no âmbito da migração económica, como o Senhor Comissário disse, é claro que a Europa tem de ser capaz de atrair os melhores do mundo e de promover a mobilidade interna.

Questão diferente é o acesso legal e seguro de pessoas que fogem à guerra e procuram proteção no nosso território. Iremos evitar milhares de mortes no Mediterrâneo, enquanto combatemos traficantes de ser humanos. Iremos gerir melhor o influxo de pessoas. Mas temos de ser sérios: mecanismos de reinstalação só cumprem o seu objetivo com números que vão de encontro à realidade. E não substituem outros instrumentos de acesso, como vistos humanitários.

Ora, é evidente que o sucesso de mecanismos de reinstalação depende da colaboração com países terceiros. Mas também aqui, um aviso à navegação: mais financiamento não pode ser mais frontloading, ou seja, fazer face ao presente com o que estava destinado ao futuro. Não podemos chegar a 2017 e ser confrontados com uma nova emergência, porque não soubemos acautelar os gastos antecipados.

Uma nota final sobre a política de integração. O meu país, Portugal, foi considerado o 2.º melhor país do mundo na integração de migrantes em 2015. Apesar disso, sabemos que ainda há muito trabalho pela frente. No plano europeu o que falta fazer é, infelizmente, muito mais.

 
  
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  Tanja Fajon (S&D). – Ne dvomim, da je uspešna vključitev migrantov v države Evropske unije, v evropsko družbo, naš skupni cilj. Za ta namen potrebujemo skupna, uravnotežena, enotna in celovita evropska pravila, ki jih bodo brezpogojno izpolnjevale vse evropske države.

Modra karta kot legalni instrument preseljevanja je orodje, ki je bilo do sedaj – podobno kot humanitarne vize – uporabljeno veliko premalokrat, čeprav bi lahko rešilo številne probleme.

Modra karta zmanjšuje delo na črnem trgu, od katerega profitirajo samo dobičkarji, pozitivno prispeva k integraciji in zmanjšuje diskriminacijo migrantov. Enakovredna obravnava in enako plačilo ni le pot za zagotavljanje socialne integracije migrantov, temveč na splošno prispeva k boju proti socialnemu dampingu.

A potrebujemo enotno modro karto, ki bo pokrila celoten evropski trg, ne 28 držav.

Delovni in življenjski pogoji ter dostop do izobraževanja za delavce migrante in njihove otroke, ne glede na njihov status, so esencialni dejavnik njihove integracije v socialno in gospodarsko sfero države gostiteljice, ukrepi za to pa morajo biti izvedeni na nacionalni, regionalni in lokalni ravni.

Vendar je sprejemanje pravil ali ukrepov nesmiselno in vnaprej obsojeno na neuspeh, če vemo, da so razdrobljena in prepuščena v presojo posameznim državam, in če vemo, da se jih določene države ne držijo in to celo odkrito napovedujejo.

Če samo omenim preselitve: Madžarska in Slovaška še vedno nista izrazili pripravljenosti, da bi preselili ljudi. Nekatere države, denimo Češka, Bolgarija, Estonija, prošnje za preselitev zavračajo brez utemeljenih razlogov. Poljska uveljavlja zamrznitev, ki ji ni bila nikoli dodeljena.

To je preprosto nedopustno in na tak način ne bomo oživili Evrope.

 
  
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  Branislav Škripek (ECR). – Je rozhodujúce, mám také presvedčenie, aby sme v tejto migračnej kríze správne nastavili vstupný integračný proces, pre tých, komu priznáme azyl a pobyt v Európskej únii. Adepti musia podstúpiť zovrubný sociálny program s výukou jazyka, porozumenia našej kultúre, histórii, morálnym zásadám a základom kresťanskej duchovnej tradícii, čo ich pripraví na ich azylačný pobyt. Musia pochopiť, že pod našou strechou sú naše pravidlá. Nemôžu tu vznikať cudzinecké getá s uzavretou štruktúrou, nemôžu nám diktovať, ako my budeme žiť, zvlášť nemôžu prinášať náboženskú neznášanlivosť voči kresťanským symbolom a tradíciám. Rovnako tu musia byť varovaní, že zvrhlé správanie ako napádanie bezbranných žien, ako to bolo v Kolíne na začiatku roka, bude prudko odsúdené a potrestané. Úcta k ženám, deťom a slabším je základnou európskou a kresťanskou hodnotou. Mnohí utečenci prichádzajú z krajín, kde sa trestá konverzia. Lenže my v Európe hlásame slobodu, a preto nebudeme kresťanské posolstvo skrývať. Naše zásady tolerancie, pomoci a rešpektu vychádzajú z evanjelia Ježiša Krista, ktoré kedysi z Grécka doniesli Cyril a Metod, a preto dnes kresťanské skupiny v Európe pomáhajú tým, ktorí sú v núdzi a ťažkostiach. Ale nemôžu to zneužívať.

 
  
  

VORSITZ: ULRIKE LUNACEK
Vizepräsidentin

 
  
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  Cecilia Wikström (ALDE). – Fru talman! Vi måste komma ihåg att varje människa är, har varit eller kan, om livet vill så, tvingas bli migrant. Och tack vare de teknologiska landvinningar som vi ser och tack vare det globaliseringens tidevarv som vi lever i så är det enklare för människor att röra sig på jordklotet. Detta ställer naturligtvis stora krav på våra samhällen, att hantera migrationsflödet. Det må vara asylmigration eller laglig migration – vi måste bli bättre på att integrera dem som har kommit.

Allt annat är att slösa med människor. Med deras kompetens, med deras kunskaper, erfarenheter, ambitioner och vilja att bidra. Tyvärr har vi gjort detta i alldeles många länder, däribland Sverige, där det har tagit bortemot sju år för en människa att bli självförsörjande och leva på inkomsterna av sitt eget arbete. Det är inte acceptabelt längre. Integration måste däremot, menar jag, byggas från grunden, byggas lokalt. Det kan inte lyckas för att det kommer ett dekret uppifrån.

Däremot så kan medlemsländerna bygga en lyckad integration på att dela erfarenheter, både goda och mindre goda, med varandra. Lära av varandra, för en integration som kan leda till ökad tillväxt, till nytänkande och kreativitet. Det behöver vi runtom i EU.

Migration plus en lyckad integration. Det kan bli ett nytt liv, nya möjligheter och nya framgångar. Och det behöver vi, så vi behöver verkligen klara av detta med integration på djupet.

 
  
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  Tania González Peñas (GUE/NGL). – Señora Presidenta, Señorías, no se puede establecer un doble rasero a la hora de aceptar integrar a las personas que vienen a Europa huyendo del terror o huyendo de la miseria. Adoptar medidas opuestas en función de las cualificaciones profesionales que estas personas posean no significa ser solidarios, significa dar cobertura legal a la fuga de cerebros, que solo consigue esquilmar una fuente de riqueza intelectual en los países de origen.

Necesitamos planes de integración, está claro, y recursos destinados a ello. Sin embargo, eso pasa por no recortar en el Estado del bienestar. Todo lo contrario, pasa por invertir en Estado del bienestar. Por invertir en derechos sociales y en servicios públicos. Lo contrario no solamente hace cada vez más pobres a los ciudadanos que ya viven en Europa, sino que hace cada vez más difícil la integración de los que vienen.

Por otro lado, de poco sirve que hablemos de planes de integración si lo que hacemos es expulsar a través del acuerdo Unión Europea-Turquía, o través de un nuevo pacto migratorio, en este caso una mala copia para Oriente Próximo y África, que hace recaer la responsabilidad del control y la gestión de los flujos migratorios sobre terceros países, la gran mayoría de ellos dictaduras.

 
  
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  Bodil Valero (Verts/ALE). – Fru talman! Under tiden den förra debatten pågick så kom kommissionens förslag. Jag kunde läsa det här i min telefon. Med så lite tid att förbereda så är det klart att det är svårt för oss alla, men samtidigt så är det rätt lätt att gissa sig till vad kommissionen skulle föreslå.

Jag är lika besviken som jag trodde att jag skulle vara när jag sedan läste förslaget, det om blåkortsdirektivet tänker jag på i synnerhet. För det handlar ju även fortsättningsvis bara om de som är högutbildade och de som vi tror ska kunna bidra till konkurrenskraften i Europa.

Det är något bättre än förut, och det är ju bra, men det är inte tillräckligt. Vi hade ju hoppats på att kommissionen också passat på att inkludera också dem med lägre utbildning, de som idag också riskerar livet på Medelhavet i stället för att kunna få ett jobb, eller söka jobb, få ett jobb och kunna ta sig hit med färjan, båten, tåget, flyget eller någonting.

Det enda som kommissionen ger den gruppen är svaret att vi ska skicka hem dem så fort som möjligt, eller till det land som de senast passerade. Vi måste också ha en lösning för dem som riskerar livet på vägen hit, de så kallade ekonomiska migranterna eller arbetssökande. De är inte irreguljära migranter.

 
  
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  Gilles Lebreton (ENF). – Madame la Présidente, le 7 juin 2016 restera comme une date intéressante dans l'histoire de l'immigration en Europe. Ce jour-là, la Commission de Bruxelles a annoncé son plan pour augmenter l'immigration légale. Elle propose d'améliorer la carte bleue européenne, créée en 2009 pour attirer une main-d'œuvre qualifiée. L'objectif dévoilé par le commissaire Avramopoulos lors de sa conférence de presse est de faire venir 20 millions d'immigrés légaux, en plus des illégaux. De mon point de vue, c'est un progrès, car il y a un an tout juste, le même commissaire avançait le chiffre de 50 millions.

Les succès du Front national en France et du FPÖ en Autriche nous ont donc déjà fait gagner 30 millions d'immigrés en moins. Encore quelques succès des patriotes et nous arriverons à un chiffre beaucoup plus bas. Nous nous y emploierons, Monsieur Avramopoulos, car la vraie solution pour vaincre notre déficit démographique est d'encourager les États à développer des politiques natalistes et non à faire venir des immigrés.

 
  
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  Ivo Belet (PPE). – Eén woordje nog over het investeringsplan voor Afrika. Dit plan is vitaal om te vermijden dat mensen een uitzichtloze en gevaarlijke reis naar Europa beginnen. Wij geloven er samen in dat dit Marshall-plan een strategisch partnerschap moet inluiden voor Europa en voor Afrika, en dat het moet lukken.

Ten tweede, de legale migratie naar Europa met de versoepeling van de blauwe kaart is een van de essentiële instrumenten om die migratie in goede banen te leiden, in tegenstelling tot wat de vorige spreker zei. Het is extreem belangrijk dat we eindelijk werk maken van één model voor die blauwe kaart zodat u, commissaris, er inderdaad in slaagt om met onze hulp een eind te maken aan de versnipperde toestanden met 28 verschillende kaarten. Dat zou een enorme stap vooruit zijn.

Dat het aantrekkelijker wordt voor migranten met een specifieke scholing om naar Europa te komen, dat is uiteraard niet alleen heel belangrijk voor de migranten zélf, maar dat is ook van levensbelang voor onze economie. De vorige spreker heeft dit kennelijk niet helemaal in de gaten. De strijd om het talent op het mondiale niveau wordt vandaag niet bepaald in het voordeel van de Europese Unie beslecht. Dat moeten we echt wel veranderen.

En tot slot, laten we niet uit het oog verliezen dat we tegelijkertijd alles op alles moeten zetten opdat de jongeren die in de Europese Unie op zoek zijn naar werk, zoveel mogelijk begeleid worden in hun zoektocht naar een baan.

 
  
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  Jutta Steinruck (S&D). – Frau Präsidentin! Manches ist schon unerträglich, was hier gesagt wird. Europäer zwingen, Kinder zu kriegen und Menschen im Mittelmeer ertrinken zu lassen. Ich weiß nicht, ob das wirklich menschliche Vorschläge sind. Tatsächlich müssen wir die gesellschaftliche Eingliederung und die Integration von Flüchtlingen in den europäischen Arbeitsmarkt als eine der großen Herausforderungen in Europa betrachten. Europa darf an dieser Aufgabe nicht scheitern. Arbeit ist der Schlüssel zur erfolgreichen Integration und gibt den Geflüchteten die Möglichkeit, selbständig zu werden und wirtschaftliche Unabhängigkeit zu erlangen. Sie gibt ihnen Menschenwürde und Selbstwertgefühl. Durch den Umgang mit Kolleginnen und Kollegen am Arbeitsplatz werden Freundschaften geknüpft und soziale Integration ermöglicht. Die Blue Card ist vom Grundsatz her keine schlechte Idee, aber sie ist nicht die Lösung für die Flüchtlingskrise in Europa. Das müssen wir noch mal sagen.

Der Beschäftigungsausschuss hat in einem Initiativbericht gefordert: die Erhöhung des Europäischen Sozialfonds auf 25 % im Rahmen der Kohäsionspolitik, um Integrationsmaßnahmen zu ermöglichen, die schnellere Bearbeitung von Anträgen, denn je länger Geflüchtete auf ihren Aufenthaltsstatus warten, umso schwieriger wird auch gerade die berufliche Integration, sowohl für den Geflüchteten als auch für die Arbeitgeber. Und wir brauchen eine schnelle Erfassung und Anerkennung der Qualifikationen. Wir fordern guten, gleichen Zugang zu Bildung, Weiterbildung, Wohnraum, gesundheitlicher Betreuung und zum Arbeitsmarkt und zum Sozialschutz.

 
  
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  Franz Obermayr (ENF). – Frau Präsidentin! Ja, wir haben ein neues Wundermittel: Die Migrationsagenda ist da und soll als neues geniales Konzept und Rezept die unkontrollierte Migrationsflut nach Europa bewältigen. Frontex wird wieder einmal eine große Rolle spielen – Frontex, ein armer Papiertiger, der bisher als Wasserrettung agieren durfte, letztes Jahr 900 000 Grenzübertritte registrieren durfte, davon geradezu lächerliche 3 665 Rückführungen durchführte. Meine Damen und Herren, das ist eine Quote von 0,4  Prozent.

Es liegt somit die Schlussfolgerung klar auf der Hand: große Sprüche – keine Lösung. Europa – und das prophezeie ich – wird auch dieses Jahr von Flüchtlingen überrannt werden, aber offensichtlich ist das ja auch der Wunsch von Herrn Timmerman, der so groß von einer EU-Mischkultur schwärmt. Ich, meine Damen und Herren, will das nicht, ich sehe darin eine reale Gefahr, eine reale Bedrohung des sozialen Friedens in Europa.

 
  
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  Salvatore Domenico Pogliese (PPE). – Signora Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, io ho ascoltato con grande attenzione le comunicazioni che la Commissione ha esternato oggi all'interno di quest'Aula sul tema dell'immigrazione, dal Migration Compact al pacchetto migrazione legale, e le accolgo con moderata soddisfazione, nella consapevolezza che bisogna agire a monte e non certamente a valle. Ecco perché ben venga il piano di investimenti straordinario per l'Africa, nella consapevolezza che possa permettere il miglioramento delle condizioni economico-sociali di quegli Stati e, al tempo stesso, possa permettere la fattiva collaborazione di questi Stati sul tema del controllo delle frontiere e dei rimpatri, alla stregua di quello che è accaduto con la Turchia e di quello che è accaduto qualche anno prima con la Libia, quando il governo italiano stipulò quell'accordo che ha prodotto eccezionali risultati.

Qualche perplessità permettetemi di esternarla sul tema della migrazione legale. Io credo che noi dobbiamo essere assolutamente solidali nei confronti dei profughi, dei migranti che scappano dalle guerre e dalle persecuzioni, ma non possiamo permetterci di incentivare la migrazione economica in un contesto di gravissima crisi economica, sociale che sta attraversando il nostro continente – basti pensare al tasso disoccupazione giovanile che è del 22 % in Europa, che nella mia nazione, l'Italia, ha raggiunto il 35,9 %, e nella mia terra, la Sicilia, ha raggiunto il 55,9 % – a meno che non siamo in presenza di alcune figure altamente specializzate che non si riescono a trovare all'interno del mercato del lavoro interno, lasciando però esclusivamente agli Stati membri la facoltà di individuare il numero massimo di migranti economici da poter accogliere.

(L'oratore accetta di rispondere a una domanda "cartellino blu" (articolo 162, paragrafo 8, del regolamento)

 
  
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  Bill Etheridge (EFDD), blue-card question. – Thank you for accepting the blue card, sir. I understand from your speech that we may have room for some agreement, so I just wish to get some clarification from you. Would you agree with me that the only real benefit that comes to anyone from getting so many new people into the labour market so quickly goes to large employers, who manage to drive down the cost of labour and stop people being able to earn the kind of money they once did, and that is the real reason why there is such a drive to try and get more people into the labour market in Europe? Would you agree with that?

 
  
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  Salvatore Domenico Pogliese (PPE), risposta a una domanda "cartellino blu". – Io credo che noi possiamo permetterci di accogliere esclusivamente la manodopera altamente specializzata. Se il datore di lavoro è un grande industriale o il titolare di una piccola e media impresa poco importa. Io credo che non possiamo permetterci di accogliere tutti ma dobbiamo limitare esclusivamente ad alcune figure altamente specializzate la possibilità di accoglierle all'interno del nostro continente.

 
  
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  Victor Boştinaru (S&D). – Mr President, please allow me to speak in Romanian.

Doamnă președinte, domnule comisar, vorbim astăzi despre un cadru european comun care va putea securiza frontierele Uniunii prin European Border and Coast Guard, va stabili criteriile de acceptare pe baza unor standarde comune și va face posibilă gestionarea fluxurilor de migranți legali. În acest sens, în documentul de poziție al grupului meu, am inclus o serie de propuneri inspirate pe baza bunei practici din cadrul mai multor state europene, între care Germania, și care au obținut și sprijinul deschis al Ministerului de Externe al țării mele.

Propun astfel introducerea unei declarații individuale cu caracter legal pe care solicitanții trebuie să o semneze la accesul în zonele de filtrare, hotspoturi, sau la frontiera externă a Uniunii Europene. Declarația ar impune recunoașterea și asumarea Convenției europene a drepturilor omului, recunoașterea valorilor europene sociale și, așa cum sunt ele specificate în cadrul Constituțiilor statelor membre în care sunt direcționați sau relocați, atât în termeni de respectare a normelor statului de drept, dar și a ordinii publice, în țările în care azilantul-migrantul este locat sau relocat, recunoașterea imperativă a caracterului secular al statelor europene și al cadrului laic al societăților noastre, interdicția de a desfășura orice formă de prozelitism sau militantism cu excepția activităților politice legal recunoscute, precum și neimplicarea în niciun fel de activități cu caracter radical sau religios care duc la radicalizare și recrutare.

De asemenea, consider necesare integrarea în cadrul legal al dreptului penal european a dreptului de expulzare a migranților legali condamnați penal, inspirat de soluția din cadrul statului german. Nu în ultimul rând, subliniez susținerea statului român și a grupului meu pentru dezvoltarea unor proiecte de integrare cu statele moderate musulmane.

 
  
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  Jeroen Lenaers (PPE). – Dank aan commissaris Avramopoulos voor zijn presentatie vandaag. We hebben de laatste tijd veel tijd besteed aan achterstallig onderhoud en het oplossen van problemen van vroeger op het gebied van het migratiebeleid. Ik ben blij dat we vandaag ook eens kunnen praten over wat meer toekomstgerichte plannen.

Over het eerste punt hebben we het vanmiddag al gehad, namelijk afspraken maken met Afrikaanse landen, handelsvoorwaarden, investeringen koppelen aan samenwerking op het gebied van bijvoorbeeld terugname van illegale migranten en grenscontrole. Mijnheer Avromoupoulos heeft terecht opgemerkt dat integratie en legale arbeidsmigratie twee cruciale onderdelen vormen van een holistische aanpak van migratie.

Over het tweede aspect heb ik twee korte vragen. Allereerst, we weten dat het blauwekaartsysteem niet populair is. In 2014 is van dit systeem 13000 keer gebruik gemaakt, waarvan 12000 keer door Duitsland. Wat ik in dit voorstel mis is: wat zit er nu concreet in om het voor die andere 27 landen aantrekkelijker te maken? Want aan de ene kant gaan we volgens uw voorstel deze landen straks wel verplichten om aan dit systeem deel te nemen, terwijl misschien de basisproblemen van de blauwe kaart nog niet helemaal zijn opgelost.

Mijn tweede vraag is gekoppeld aan de noodzaak van maatschappelijke en economische ontwikkeling in Afrika. Juist hooggeschoolde arbeidsmigranten zijn belangrijk om daar ter plekke de samenleving weer op te bouwen. Op welke manier houdt u daar in dit voorstel rekening mee?

 
  
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  Cécile Kashetu Kyenge (S&D). – Signora Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, nessuna politica, nessuno strumento, nessun accordo, se presi singolarmente, assicurano da soli una risposta al fenomeno migratorio. L'abbiamo ribadito solo poche settimane fa, adottando la risoluzione sull'approccio olistico al fenomeno migratorio. Gestire questo fenomeno significa anche e soprattutto aprire dei canali legali di immigrazione e garantire in seguito l'adozione di misure e politiche ambiziose dirette all'integrazione dei migranti nel tessuto sociale, economico e politico dei paesi ospitanti. La Commissione fa un passo avanti verso le nostre richieste, prendendo atto che l'Europa può prosperare solo se agevola la mobilità delle conoscenze e delle persone. Bene la proposta legislativa sulla modifica della carta blu. Tuttavia, le sfide demografiche e le molteplici carenze di manodopera impongono all'Europa di andare oltre il concetto di lavoratore altamente qualificato. Dobbiamo rispondere ai bisogni e alle nuove esigenze del mercato del lavoro e dei diversi Stati membri investendo sul capitale umano.

(L'oratore accetta di rispondere a una domanda "cartellino blu" (articolo 162, paragrafo 8, del regolamento)

 
  
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  Krystyna Łybacka (S&D), pytanie zadane przez podniesienie niebieskiej kartki. – Czy nie uważa Pani, że nieodzownym środkiem integracji umożliwiającym pełne uczestnictwo w społeczeństwie uchodźców – zarówno uciekających przed wojną, jak i tych z emigracji zarobkowej – jest edukacja?

 
  
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  Cécile Kashetu Kyenge (S&D), risposta a una domanda "cartellino blu". – Sì, l'istruzione è uno strumento fondamentale per l'integrazione. Come ho detto all'inizio del mio intervento, nessuna politica, nessuno strumento e nessun accordo, se presi singolarmente, assicurano da soli una risposta al fenomeno migratorio, per cui quando si dà una risposta a una politica anche di integrazione bisogna tenere in considerazione diversi fattori che devono includere proprio il sociale, economico, politico ma anche culturale.

 
  
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  Die Präsidentin. – Eine kurze Anmerkung. Frau Łybacka, ich hatte übersehen, dass Sie aus derselben Fraktion sind wie Frau Kyenge. Normalerweise nehme ich blaue Karten aus derselben Fraktion nicht an, das auch für die anderen Kolleginnen und Kollegen zur Information. Ich denke, wenn Sie aneinander Fragen haben, dann können Sie das innerhalb der Fraktion machen, aber hier im Plenum sind blaue Karten dazu da, den Kolleginnen und Kollegen der anderen Fraktionen Fragen zu stellen. Das zur Klärung.

 
  
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  Anna Maria Corazza Bildt (PPE). – Madam President, I welcome the action plan to improve Member States’ integration of migrants and the revision of the Blue Card Directive. The time has come to change our rhetoric and recognise that Europe needs workers to sustain our economy and our welfare. We have to move from crisis response to managing flows according to our needs. For this, the EU—Turkey action plan is a crucial way to have an effective migration policy. We need to save and protect people fleeing conflict, but not all migrants are refugees. Those who do not need international protection must be returned safely.

Developing tools for legal migration to Europe is also a way to combat irregular migration. It is a way to prevent people from risking their lives at sea in the hands of criminals who exploit them. I call on Member States to fully implement the labour migration tools that exist: the Seasonal Workers, the Intra-Corporate Transferees and the Students and Researchers Directives.

Skill development and access to the labour market are the highway to integration, and early integration is key to effective integration. The sooner children go to school and migrants work and contribute to our society, the sooner they will feel part of our society and respect our system and values. This is why it is also important that refugees – in particular women – have access to work to ensure empowerment and social inclusion.

In the global fight for talents, Europe needs common, clear and simple rules to attract skilled workers and match the needs of our economies. It is not about migrants taking our jobs, but it is about migrants contributing to new...

(The President cut off the speaker)

(The speaker agreed to take a blue-card question under Rule 162(8))

 
  
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  Tibor Szanyi (S&D), Kékkártyás kérdés. – Egy fájó ügyet szeretnék fölvetni Önnek, kérdésként, hogy vajon elfogadható-e az Ön számára például az, amikor egy tagállam kormánya – konkrétan a magyar kormány – deklaráltan azt mondja, hogy ő aztán egyetlen egy embert sem akar befogadni. Se menekültet, se legális bevándorlót, senkit. Hogy ezzel a hozzáállással Ön szerint mit lehet kezdeni?

 
  
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  Anna Maria Corazza Bildt (PPE), blue-card answer. – I have said many times in this House that solidarity must include all 28 Member States, and that we must go from a voluntary system of redistribution of those who have the right of international protection in Europe to a more binding system for all the Member States, because this is the basis of our common European solidarity.

 
  
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  Brando Benifei (S&D). – Signora Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, la sfida avanzata dai flussi migratori verso l'Europa richiede un approccio olistico e globale europeo. Ben vengano dunque le proposte odierne della Commissione, anche nel solco della proposta italiana del Migration Compact. Le approfondiremo e ci lavoreremo come Parlamento europeo con la massima attenzione.

In sede di commissione per l'occupazione abbiamo approvato a larga maggioranza una relazione d'iniziativa sull'integrazione dei rifugiati nel mercato del lavoro europeo, di cui sono stato relatore e che sarà votato in quest'Aula il prossimo mese. Possiamo partire da qui. Nella relazione, tra le altre cose, si afferma chiaramente la necessità di estendere la Blue Card anche ai beneficiari di protezione internazionale, in linea con ciò che oggi ci propone la Commissione.

Permettetemi, in spirito di piena collaborazione fra le varie parti della società, rifugiati e migranti inclusi, di poter dire un messaggio chiave, anche qui in plenaria. No a un'integrazione lesiva della coesione sociale delle nostre comunità, no al dumping sociale fra le fasce vulnerabili, sì ad adeguate risorse economiche, anche tramite il Fondo sociale europeo rafforzato nel quadro di revisione del Quadro finanziario pluriennale che andremo ad affrontare, che devono essere investite in quella che a tutti gli effetti deve essere considerata un'opportunità. È un banco di prova essenziale, non dimentichiamocelo, per i nostri valori di umanità e solidarietà come europei.

 
  
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  Marita Ulvskog (S&D). – Fru talman! I den socialdemokratiska partigruppen ser vi vikten av invandring till Europa i fler former än bara asylinvandring. För att motverka människosmuggling måste vi se till att det finns andra möjligheter att lagligt och organiserat ta sig in i Europa. Till exempel bör blåkortsdirektivet utökas utöver kategorin utbildad arbetskraft. Arbetskraftsinvandring kan inte bara vara aktuellt för personer med högre utbildning, men självklart måste alltid ett sådant kort ske under sådana former, ges under sådana former, att arbetstagare inte kan utnyttja människor, så att vi inte hamnar i mer social dumping.

Jag är i likhet med många andra ledamöter följaktligen besviken över att detta förslag inte finns med i det förslag som kommissionen alldeles nyss presenterat. I sysselsättnings- och sociala utskottet betonar vi alltid att arbete är det absolut bästa sättet att komma in i samhället, följaktligen …

 
  
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  Péter Niedermüller (S&D). – Elnök Asszony! Az elmúlt hetekben egy sor olyan jelentés készült el, illetve van előkészületben, amelyek mintegy pilléreit alkotják a közös európai menekültügyi politikának. Az integrált európai határvédelem, az Európai Menekültügyi Hivatal átalakítása, a dublini egyezmény megreformálása mind azt a célt szolgálják, hogy ellenőrzött, szabályozott keretek között, az alapvető jogokat és az emberi méltóságot tiszteletben tartva történjék meg a menekültkérelmek elbírálása, a bevándorlás.

Alapvető fontosságú, hogy most a Bizottság egy további lépést tett, és hozzálátott az európai integráció stratégia kialakításához. Ha ezt nem tudjuk létrehozni, ha nem tudunk értelmes jövőt, reményt és esélyt kínálni az ideérkező menekülteknek, akkor az egész európai menekültügyi politikának nincs értelme. Befogadó társadalmat, társadalmi kohéziót erősítő rendelkezésekre van szükség, és arra, hogy szembeszálljunk az idegengyűlölettel, a populista politikával, ami sajnálatos módon ebben a Parlamentben is hangot kap.

 
  
 

Catch-the-eye-Verfahren

 
  
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  Juan Fernando López Aguilar (S&D). – Señora Presidenta, hace una hora debatíamos en este Pleno el paquete sobre migración, y ahora debatimos iniciativas orientadas a fomentar, de una vez, una mirada positiva hacia la migración regular. Es el camino correcto, pero, al mismo tiempo, es una enmienda a la totalidad a la situación descrita en el presente, que no es la ausencia de Europa sino la negación de la Unión Europea por los Estados miembros, incumpliendo sus propios acuerdos, desunidos ante la adversidad y en un estado de pánico, en particular ante la mal llamada «crisis de los refugiados».

Claro que sí. Claro que hay que fomentar las vías de inmigración regular. Claro que hay que fomentar una política coordinada y coherente que tenga sentido a escala europea. Claro que hay que acompañarla de la Guardia Europea de Fronteras y Costas, y de una gestión integrada de las fronteras exteriores de la Unión. Pero sobre todo, hay que dotarla de los recursos necesarios para que la tarjeta azul y las herramientas de fomento de la inmigración regular tengan sentido también en los presupuestos de la Unión Europea. Con bonos europeos, como se ha propuesto aquí esta tarde, en esta sede. Con bonos europeos que fomenten la inmigración regular y que financien adecuadamente esta nueva política que supone una enmienda a la totalidad a la actualmente vigente.

 
  
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  Νότης Μαριάς ( ECR). – Κυρία Πρόεδρε, κύριε Αβραμόπουλε, διαφωνώ κάθετα με την πολιτική παροχής άδειας εργασίας σε πολίτες τρίτων χωρών, όσο η Ευρώπη και ιδίως οι χώρες του ευρωπαϊκού Νότου μαστίζονται από τη φτώχεια και την ανεργία. Η δρομολόγηση νόμιμων μεταναστευτικών ροών θα οδηγήσει σε ακόμη μεγαλύτερη ανεργία, σε μείωση μισθών και σε διάλυση του κοινωνικού κράτους. Οι νόμιμοι μετανάστες που εγκαθίστανται στην Ένωση πρέπει να ενσωματώνονται. Αυτό σημαίνει αποδοχή και σεβασμό του συνταγματικού πλαισίου και των νόμων του κράτους υποδοχής, όχι γκετοποίηση, και εγκατάλειψη διάφορων απαρχαιωμένων κοινωνικών πρακτικών και αντιλήψεων. Γι’ αυτό χαιρετίζω τη γνώμη του Γενικού Εισαγγελέα του Δικαστηρίου της Ευρωπαϊκής Ένωσης, που θεωρεί σύννομη την απαγόρευση της ισλαμικής μαντίλας στους χώρους εργασίας. Τέλος, πρέπει να θεσμοθετηθούν ρήτρες κατανομής νόμιμων μεταναστών σε επίπεδο Ένωσης με βάση τον πληθυσμό, την έκταση, το ΑΕΠ, τον ρυθμό ανάπτυξης και το ποσοστό ανεργίας σε κάθε κράτος μέλος.

 
  
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  Ivan Jakovčić (ALDE). – Gospođo predsjednice, prethodna je rasprava jasno pokazala da nam treba jasna kratkoročna, dugoročna, ali ja bih rekao trajna, doslovno trajna politika za Afriku. Zato nam s druge strane trebaju i legalni kanali migracije jer isključivo ako budemo uveli prave legalne kanale migracije, možemo očekivati i integraciju migranata u naše društvo. Sve ostalo bit će jedna preopaka, preozbiljna improvizacija i zato pozdravljam ovaj prijedlog koji Komisija iznosi jer ide u tom pravcu, jer ide u pravcu da se stvore legalni kanali migracije, ali pozivam da se obavezno maksimalno, osim naravno država članica, uključe i lokalne i regionalne vlasti jer i one moraju biti uključene u taj legalni proces uključivanja migranata.

 
  
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  Κώστας Χρυσόγονος ( GUE/NGL). – Κυρία Πρόεδρε, οι μετανάστες που φεύγουν από τις πατρίδες τους είναι συνήθως λαμπρά μυαλά και χαρισματικοί άνθρωποι. Αναρωτιέμαι κατά πόσο η νέα πρόταση που παρουσιάζει σήμερα ο αρμόδιος Επίτροπος, κύριος Αβραμόπουλος, εκ μέρους της Επιτροπής, για την προσέλκυση στην Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωση ατόμων με υψηλό επίπεδο δεξιοτήτων μέσω της διαδικασίας της μπλε κάρτας δεν θα ενισχύσει το φαινόμενο του λεγόμενου «brain drain», δηλαδή της διαρροής εγκεφάλων από τις πατρίδες τους. Kαι θα ήθελα να επισημάνω ιδιαίτερα ότι το ζήτημα έχει και μια ενδοευρωπαϊκή διάσταση, διότι υπάρχουν χώρες που πλήττονται από την οικονομική κρίση και στις οποίες το φαινόμενο αυτό παρουσιάζει ιδιαίτερη έξαρση, όπως συμβαίνει και στην Ελλάδα. Θα ήθελα επ’ αυτού μια απάντηση.

 
  
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  Γεώργιος Επιτήδειος ( NI). – Κυρία Πρόεδρε, δεν χρειάζεται να εξετάσει κανείς με ιδιαίτερη προσοχή την πρόταση την οποία μας έφερε ο κύριος Αβραμόπουλος, για να διαπιστώσει ότι αυτή δεν ικανοποιεί και δεν αντιμετωπίζει κάποιο πρόβλημα αλλά εξυπηρετεί σκοπιμότητες. Γνωρίζετε ότι στην Ευρώπη υπάρχουν 23 εκατομμύρια άνεργοι. Αυτοί δεν είναι κατάλληλοι ή μεταξύ αυτών δεν υπάρχουν οι κατάλληλοι ούτως ώστε να καλύψουν τα κενά τα οποία υποτίθεται ότι θα καλύψουν όσοι έρχονται από τρίτες χώρες; Λένε ότι γηράσκει ο πληθυσμός της Ευρώπης και, αντί να αντιμετωπίσουμε το φαινόμενο της υπογεννητικότητας, καλούμε άλλους να καλύψουν το κενό. Στην Ελλάδα, κύριε Αβραμόπουλε, οι νέοι, οι ταλαντούχοι, οι μορφωμένοι και γενικώς όσοι πληρούν υψηλές προδιαγραφές δεν είναι κατάλληλοι να καλύψουν αυτές τις θέσεις; Θα τις καλύψουν όσοι έρχονται παράνομα από τις τρίτες χώρες; Αυτοί σας δίνουν την εντύπωση ότι είναι εκείνοι τους οποίους θέλετε εσείς να επιλέξετε; Και ένα τελευταίο: Πώς είναι δυνατόν αυτοί να ...

(Η Πρόεδρος αφαιρεί τον λόγο από τον ομιλητή.)

 
  
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  Silvia Costa (S&D). – Signora Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, ritengo molto importante una cosa. L'educazione e le vie legali per accedere alla formazione, all'educazione e al lavoro si rivelano come una strategia "win-win", quella cioè che consente a molte di queste persone, immigrati o anche in condizioni di emergenza rifugiati, di poter accedere a un'opportunità di vita, ma anche alle nostra società invecchiate di avere competenze in internazionalizzazione e capacità di accogliere le competenze di cui abbiamo bisogno.

Vorrei ricordare anche che è stato importante, per esempio, approvare la direttiva, l'altro giorno qui in plenaria, sulla possibilità, certo non permanente, ma almeno finalmente si aprono le porte per i ricercatori, gli studenti, i volontari e i tirocinanti. Ma ora si tratta di rendere questo più strutturale come elemento fondamentale dell'integrazione e dell'innovazione. Penso, da questo punto di vista, che sia stato molto importante avere previsto nelle forme di accesso legale anche i corridoi educativi studenti rifugiati nelle nostre università.

 
  
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  João Pimenta Lopes (GUE/NGL). – Senhora Presidente, Senhor Avramopoulos, a União Europeia insiste em empurrar com a barriga a grave crise humanitária com que se confronta. Externaliza as suas fronteiras esperando conter o êxodo de refugiados, no qual tem responsabilidades diretas, força da sua política de ingerência e agressão no Norte da África e no Médio Oriente.

A vossa criminosa política de migração e o acordo com a Turquia militarizaram a resposta a um drama humanitário, com a presença da NATO no mar Egeu. Criaram campos de concentração e deportação, onde se atenta à dignidade humana e se espezinham direitos humanos. Desviaram a rota migratória para o Mediterrâneo Central, com consequências trágicas expectáveis.

Dois mil oitocentos e catorze mortos registados só este ano, dez mil nos últimos três anos, entre homens, mulheres e crianças. Uma verdadeira tragédia que se agravará e que transforma o Mediterrâneo numa autêntica vala comum. As terríveis imagens de corpos que dão à costa são hoje uma expressão evidente do caráter de classe desta União Europeia e dos que a legitimam. Que vos pese na consciência!

 
  
 

(Ende des Catch-the-eye-Verfahrens)

 
  
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  Dimitris Avramopoulos, Member of the Commission. – Madam President, allow me to start by expressing my thanks to all the Honourable Members for their valuable contributions and the interesting debate. I am really pleased to see that many of you recognise the importance of these issues in the context of a migration crisis where we continue to deal with the immediate challenges, as Mr Coelho rightly pointed out. One does not compete with the other. We must continue to find immediate solutions while making our policies future-proof. Let me address some of your comments and concerns.

On the Blue Card, the scope remains only for highly skilled employees. This is the purpose of the Blue Card. For other skill types we have existing instruments, such as the Single Permit and the Seasonal Workers Directive. In the coming months, we will focus on making sure they are implemented properly, but we will also make a comprehensive evaluation of all existing legal migration instruments to see if there are any shortcomings.

On refugees, Mrs Valero, actually this is the only element that challenges the scope because we do allow those who have received international protection in an EU Member State to apply for the Blue Card, if, of course, they fulfil all the conditions. As you know, the rights of asylum seekers are laid down in the EU asylum legislation and they have access to the labour market no later than nine months after they submit their application. For highly skilled potential asylum seekers outside the European Union, they can simply apply for the Blue Card if they secure a job offer.

On the single scheme, how can we ever have a truly internationally competitive scheme like the United States’ Green Card if we continue to have more than 20 different systems? Let us be very clear on what we are putting on the table. Member States still decide on the volumes, and they have safeguards to protect their labour markets when there are sudden moments of high unemployment through the labour market test, as well as safeguards against abuse. An EU scheme will help to increase our competitiveness and create opportunities for more investment and jobs in the European Union.

Some words about the brain drain that concerns many of you, justifiably: our proposal includes a mechanism to limit brain drain. Firstly by promoting ethical recruitment: Member States may refuse a Blue Card if an applicant comes from a sensitive sector – for example, health care in a developing country. Secondly, by promoting circular migration: a Blue Card makes it easier to go back and forth for periods of time. A well-managed policy leads to a win—win situation. It has benefits for receiving countries but also for the countries of origin, such as remittance payments and the return of migrants with new skills and networks. This will turn the brain drain into a brain gain. I hope you will agree with me that the status quo on the Blue Card was not sustainable. It had to be improved and we have been as ambitious as possible. We count on you to take this work forward now with the Council.

On the integration action plan: as Claude Moraes stressed, integration is not an option. I think we all agree that it is in the ultimate economic – but also social – interest of everyone in the European Union to integrate third country nationals fully and as soon as possible. Of course, this is – and remains – a national competence, but our action plan aims to support Member States towards building more cohesive and, ultimately, stronger societies.

This is not about creating pull factors or spending money disproportionately. This is precisely about making that investment in the beginning so that the returns are bigger in the end for everyone. Building on the action plan, we will continue to mainstream the priority of integration, non—discrimination and inclusion into all relevant policy actions and areas. Finally, we will regularly review the implementation of the actions presented in this action plan and the progress achieved in Member States, identify additional actions needed for the future, and report to the Parliament and the Council.

Now allow me to say some words in Greek, answering the question put by my compatriot, Mr Chrysogonos.

Κύριε Χρυσόγονε,

καταρχήν να σας ευχαριστήσω για την ερώτησή σας. Είπα μερικά πράγματα πρωτύτερα για το «brain drain», για τη διαρροή εγκεφάλων. Εκτίμησή μου, και το εννοώ, είναι ότι η προσέλκυση ατόμων με υψηλό επίπεδο δεξιοτήτων στην Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωση θα έχει τελικά ευεργετικά αποτελέσματα για όλους μας: την Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωση, τα κράτη μέλη, τους ίδιους τους κατόχους των μπλε καρτών και βέβαια τις πατρίδες τους.

Μίλησα νωρίτερα για τα οφέλη της Ευρωπαϊκής Ένωσης και βεβαίως των κρατών μελών. Θέλω να τονίσω με την ευκαιρία που μου δίνεται ότι τα άτομα αυτά –μην έχετε καμία αμφιβολία– θα αποκτήσουν νέες δεξιότητες, θα βελτιώσουν αυτές που ήδη έχουν. Μην έχετε καμία αμφιβολία επίσης ότι, σαν έρθει η ώρα να επιστρέψουν στην πατρίδα τους, θα επιστρέψουν καλύτερα καταρτισμένοι, έτοιμοι να συνεισφέρουν στην ανασυγκρότηση των χωρών τους. Πολλοί εξ αυτών προέρχονται από χώρες που έχουν κυριολεκτικά καταρρεύσει και διαλυθεί. Σαν έρθει λοιπόν εκείνη η ημέρα θα είναι μία έμμεση συνεισφορά της Ευρώπης και θα συνιστά επένδυση η παρουσία τους κοντά μας. Πραγματικά το εννοώ αυτό γιατί πιστεύω πράγματι ότι όλη αυτή η πρόταση συνεισφέρει θετικά για όλους και για την Ευρώπη και για τα κράτη μέλη αλλά και για τις τρίτες χώρες. Τα κράτη μέλη θα είναι αυτά που θα καθορίζουν τον αριθμό των εξειδικευμένων μεταναστών που χρειάζονται και που είναι σε θέση οι χώρες να απορροφήσουν.

Αυτό που σήμερα παρουσιάσαμε είναι μία δυναμική κίνηση προς τα εμπρός, με δεδομένη την εμπειρία που αποκομίσαμε όλον αυτό τον καιρό από την μεταναστευτική και την προσφυγική κρίση. Αλλά ήταν καιρός και η Ευρώπη να ανοίξει νόμιμους διαύλους. Μέχρι πριν από λίγα χρόνια η Ευρώπη δεν είχε καν μεταναστευτική πολιτική παρά μόνο κάποια ψήγματα διεσπαρμένα σε διάφορες Διευθύνσεις της Επιτροπής. Τώρα είναι και ολιστική και συγκροτημένη και έρχεται να απαντήσει στο τρέχον μεγάλο πρόβλημα κάτω από την ασφυκτική πίεση των προσφυγικών και των μεταναστευτικών ροών. Αλλά ήρθε να δημιουργήσει και ένα νόμιμο πλαίσιο, γιατί στο μέλλον –το είπα πρωτύτερα– η Ευρώπη θα χρειαστεί εργατικό δυναμικό. Και να μην ανησυχεί κανείς για το τι θα συμβεί μέσα στην Ευρώπη, διότι σε λίγο καιρό από τώρα –θα ήθελα να σας το γνωστοποιήσω από σήμερα– θα παρουσιάσουμε ένα ολοκληρωμένο σχέδιο, για να χτυπηθεί επιτέλους και το φαινόμενο της ανεργίας. Η Ευρώπη είναι εδώ, παρούσα, και τα κράτη μέλη προσδοκούν πολλά από εμάς και την απάντηση και τη βοήθεια θα την έχουν πολύ σύντομα.

Αλλά το ότι η Ευρώπη θα χρειαστεί στο μέλλον εργατικό δυναμικό όλοι το ξέρουν, και μιλάμε για πάρα πολλά εκατομμύρια, που εκ των πραγμάτων θα προκύψει ως ανάγκη στο μέλλον. Η Ευρώπη γερνάει. Το ξέρουμε και το επαναλαμβάνουμε συχνά στις συζητήσεις μας εδώ. Μακάρι να ήταν σε θέση να μπορέσει να ανταποκριθεί από μόνη της. Θα χρειαστεί όμως εργατικό δυναμικό και γι’ αυτό τον λόγο σήμερα δημιουργούμε το νόμιμο περιβάλλον, τις νόμιμες συνθήκες, έτσι ώστε να προχωρήσουμε ανταποκρινόμενοι στις απαιτήσεις των καιρών και κυρίως των μελλοντικών αναγκών. Αν υπήρχε πριν από δύο χρόνια αυτό που σήμερα παρουσιάζουμε, θα ήταν διαφορετική και πιο αποτελεσματική η αντιμετώπιση ακόμα και της μεταναστευτικής κρίσης, όπως αυτή εκδηλώθηκε μέσα από τις ροές μεταναστών κυρίως, σε πρώτη φάση, και προσφύγων αργότερα.

Θέλω να πιστεύω ότι αυτό που κάνουμε πραγματικά ανταποκρίνεται στο δικό μας χρέος αλλά και στις δικές σας προσδοκίες, για να θυμίσω παλαιότερες συζητήσεις μας σε αυτή την αίθουσα όπου πάντοτε μας παροτρύνατε να φτάσουμε σε αυτό το σημείο. Και σήμερα με ικανοποίηση βρισκόμαστε εδώ μπροστά σας, λέγοντας ότι όχι μονάχα το πράξαμε αλλά επιπλέον ότι οφείλουμε πολλά και στο Ευρωπαϊκό Κοινοβούλιο, που μας έδωσε την ώθηση, την ενθάρρυνση, να προχωρήσουμε σε αυτό το αποτέλεσμα. Ευχαριστώ πολύ για την προσεχή σας.

 
  
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  Die Präsidentin. – Die Aussprache ist geschlossen.

Schriftliche Erklärungen (Artikel 162 GO)

 
  
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  Филиз Хюсменова (ALDE), в писмена форма. – Уважаеми г-н Председател, Хуманизмът, върху който е изградена Европа, изисква от нас да подадем ръка на бягащите от ужасите на войната. Само предоставянето на убежище обаче не е достатъчно. Приветствам намерението на Комисията да активизира усилията си по отношение на интеграцията. Надявам се на този важен аспект на миграционната политика да бъде отделено нужното внимание и адекватно финансиране. Защото възпитаването в разбиране на културните различия, в разбиране, но най-вече уважение към ценностите ни, както и предоставянето на равни шансове и възможности са дългосрочните мерки, които могат да гарантират толерантността, справедливостта и мирното ни съвместно съществуване. Само успешната интеграция ще гарантира свободата да бъдем различни в името на пъстроцветната ни заедност, като противовес на езика на омразата, социалната изолация и радикализирането.

 
  
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  Barbara Kappel (ENF), schriftlich. – Unkoordiniertes Vorgehen in Bezug auf die Migrationsfrage hat zu einem großen Vertrauensverlust bei den Bürgern Europas geführt. Mitgliedstaaten wie Österreich, Deutschland und Schweden haben pro Kopf die meisten Flüchtlinge aufnehmen müssen, während es verabsäumt wurde, eine Lösung zur Bewältigung der Flüchtlings- und Migrationskrise zu finden. Es folgte das umstrittene Türkei-Abkommen, welches sich bisher in der Umsetzung als wenig zielführend erweist und die EU in eine gefährliche Abhängigkeit von der türkischen Regierung drängen kann.

Die nachhaltige Bekämpfung von Fluchtursachen seitens der EU hätte bereits vor Jahren beginnen müssen, sei es in materieller oder diplomatischer Hinsicht. Ebenso hätte ein erweitertes Frontex-Mandat das Schlepperwesen unterbinden und den gewaltigen Migrationsströmen entgegenwirken können.

Die Kommission bemüht sich erst jetzt, Verhandlungen mit Regierungen in Afrika und dem Nahen Osten aufzunehmen, um Migrationsabkommen abzuschließen. Den hauptbetroffenen Staaten werden Milliarden an Finanzmitteln zugesagt. Ein neuer Fonds soll mit 62 Milliarden Euro dotiert werden und als Motivation für eine rasche und nachhaltige Umsetzung dienen. Länder hingegen, welche nicht kooperieren, sollen mit massiven Kürzungen im Bereich der Entwicklungszusammenarbeit sanktioniert werden. Ob die erstrebte Zusammenarbeit jedoch zu den erwünschten Rückführungen bzw. der Reintegration von Migranten aus Europa führen wird, das darf mit Skepsis beobachtet werden.

 
  
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  Christine Revault D'Allonnes Bonnefoy (S&D), par écrit. – Les propositions de la Commission visant à réformer la carte bleue n’auront qu’un impact limité pour renforcer le dynamisme économique européen. Ce dispositif restera insuffisant tant que seront visés uniquement les ressortissants de pays tiers hautement qualifiés. Au contraire, cette réforme devrait être l’occasion de dépasser l’approche trop restrictive des politiques européennes en matière de migrations légales. Aussi, nous avons besoin de mettre en adéquation la politique d’immigration économique de l’UE avec les lacunes constatées sur le marché du travail européen. Au lieu de partir du principe qu’il faille attirer des travailleurs avec des compétences élevées, il importe de cibler tout type de compétence dans les secteurs où il manquerait de la main-d’œuvre et où les ressortissants européens ne répondraient pas à l’appel. De surcroît, la carte bleue pourrait devenir un permis de travail unique permettant la libre circulation au sein de toute l’UE. Fermer la porte à cette possibilité freinerait notre potentiel de croissance, ce qui serait d’autant plus préjudiciable compte tenu des défis démographiques que nous connaissons. Ainsi, la Commission aurait dû proposer un cadre global qui encadre le séjour des ressortissants de pays tiers dans l’Union, afin de pouvoir répondre pleinement aux besoins du marché du travail européen.

 
  
  

(Die Sitzung wird kurz unterbrochen.)

 
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