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PV 15/09/2016 - 8.2
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Neljapäev, 15. september 2016 - Strasbourg Uuendatud versioon

8.2. Somaalia
Sõnavõttude video

  Presidente. – L'ordine del giorno reca la discussione su sette proposte di risoluzione sulla Somalia.


  Ignazio Corrao, author. – Mr President, Somalia’s long-running conflict situation continues to leave civilians dead, wounded and displaced in large numbers. In July the UNHCR reported that forced evictions due to an ongoing military offensive resulted in almost 28 000 new displacements. International human rights and humanitarian organisations continue to report serious abuses against people living in informal displacement camps and in government-controlled areas, including rape and forced evictions. According to international human rights organisations and the UN mission in Somalia, journalists continue to be killed, threatened, arbitrarily detained and denied due process or fair trial guarantees.

This is an issue of major concern, particularly given the fact that elections should take place very soon. We think that the European Union should support any effort to protect the population. We should also assist the Government of Somalia in its work to build peace and stability. On the other hand, the EU should better monitor the situation in order ensure accountability for abuses committed, fair and timely elections and legal reforms in order to secure respect for human rights. We hope that this joint resolution can help in this.


  Charles Tannock, author. – Mr President, nearly five years on since the expulsion of Al—Shabab from Mogadishu, the security situation in Somalia has clearly improved. As we now head towards democratic elections, those developments are clearly very welcome.

However, the picture is still mixed. Whilst yesterday leaders from neighbouring countries attended a summit hosted in Mogadishu for the first time in decades, this cannot allow us to ignore the fact that, only two weeks earlier, at least ten people were killed in a terrorist attack outside the presidential palace. Continued and improved EU support for the African Union Mission to Somalia (AMISOM) is therefore vital, just as it is important to ensure the political support for the hugely anti-piracy and very successful CSDP mission EU NAVFOR Atalanta in the Indian Ocean off the coast of Somalia. This should be strengthened.

I also take this personal opportunity to encourage official talks between the Somaliland authorities in Hargeisa and the Government in Mogadishu. The union was never approved by a referendum and it is only right that the re-recognition of an independent Somaliland can remain open politically through peaceful negotiation. The status quo in place since 1991 is to the detriment of both sides and of course to the long-term stability of the Horn of Africa.


  Tunne Kelam, author. – Mr President, Somalia’s position is a strategic one. Restoring stability and securing this region from terrorist attacks is especially vital after two decades of civil war and Al—Shabab terrorism. The country is on the right path out of crisis now, but nothing is yet guaranteed. The 30 August and 26 July terrorist attacks in Mogadishu show that Al—Shabab is still active. Therefore, efficient support for the positive political process that was launched four years ago is needed.

It is still a long way to the 2020 elections. Political parties have yet to be started, but first of all the inclusion of all interested actors, freedom of expression and the creation of an independent Human Rights Commission will be vital. The continued presence of African Union peacekeeping forces will be important as the security situation remains precarious in different parts of the country. As our report says, there cannot be security without development and development without security. To break this cycle there need to be joint efforts by the EU and the international community.


  Dita Charanzová, author. – Mr President, after decades of conflict the people of Somalia are still suffering. It is true that Somalia’s problems are more contained than ten years ago but Somalis still cannot feel safe in their country. The only way to change this is through a democratically elected government, a government that has the power to guarantee the safety and the rights of its citizens and is complemented by stable and legitimate institutions that uphold the rule of law. The upcoming elections, which must be transparent and fair, are the first step towards achieving this. Somalia is going through an important political transformation. The international community must under all cirumstances remain engaged in the country. To pull out now would unravel the progress that has slowly been made. We cannot risk Somalia falling into the hands of terrorists.


  Jordi Sebastià, Autor. – Señor Presidente, señor Comisario, la situación es insostenible en Somalia. La presión de grupos terroristas como Al-Shabab, la falta de seguridad generalizada han provocado más de un millón de desplazados internos y un millón de refugiados en países vecinos.

Con la excusa de la lucha contra el terrorismo, el Gobierno aplica medidas extraordinarias, detiene periodistas, coarta la libertad de expresión y bloquea el acceso a internet. No hay, además, tribunales fiables para juzgar esas detenciones que, si llegan a ser juzgadas, acaban en tribunales militares, sin ninguna garantía.

El drama humano es inmenso y las víctimas más débiles son los niños, reclutados como niños soldados por las diferentes facciones. La Unión Europea se ha implicado a través de un fondo de desarrollo y de ayuda para la seguridad, pero desde aquí le pedimos más implicación y control efectivo sobre el uso de esos fondos.

Esta declaración nos parece necesaria y además equilibrada, porque además denuncia los abusos cometidos por las fuerzas que deberían instalar la seguridad, como las de la Misión de la Unión Africana en Somalia, especialmente los casos de violencia sexual y la utilización de las mujeres como arma de guerra en estos conflictos.

Pedimos aquí, finalmente, que Somalia no caiga en el olvido, que pase a ser un país importante en nuestra agenda europea de Asuntos Exteriores y que hagamos una llamada efectiva y clara a los países que acogen a sus refugiados para que actúen en consecuencia y sean realistas y no los fuercen a volver a un país que hoy es de todo menos seguro.

(El orador acepta responder a una pregunta formulada con arreglo al procedimiento de la «tarjeta azul» (artículo 162, apartado 8, del Reglamento))


  Doru-Claudian Frunzulică (S&D), blue-card question. – Mr Sebastia, yes there is a terrible situation in Somalia and I refer to a special subject: the killing of children. More than 2 000 died last year. Do you not think, as we have Commissioner Stylianides with us here today, that the European Union should launch a programme for the benefit of the Somali children – an EU programme for their education and health mainly?


  Jordi Sebastià, blue card answer. – I must agree with you because this is a priority for us. It must be a priority for the European Union to take care of these children who are recruited as soldiers, who are fighting in a war, who are using terrible weapons and who are losing their childhood and the capacity to be normal people in the future. So I think this programme must of course be a priority for the European Union.


  Pier Antonio Panzeri, autore. – Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, il conflitto armato che da tempo affligge la Somalia continua a causare grandissimi problemi. Nonostante gli impegni presi dal governo somalo, la costante situazione di instabilità politica impedisce al paese di avviare i processi di riforme necessari, soprattutto nel settore della giustizia e della sicurezza. Numerosi giornalisti hanno subito minacce e arresti mediante processi svolti secondo norme che non sono in linea con gli standard previsti dal diritto internazionale.

Nel gennaio 2016 il presidente somalo ha sottoscritto una nuova legge sui media e l'informazione che contiene ancora diverse restrizioni alla libertà di espressione. La necessità del popolo somalo di avere media liberi è particolarmente importante in vista del prossimo processo elettorale e per questo è giusto chiedere un'attenzione, anche a livello internazionale, affinché il governo della Somalia tuteli e protegga i giornalisti e riveda la legislazione in modo da consentire un'effettiva libertà di stampa e di informazione, nel rispetto del diritto alla libertà di espressione e più in generale di tutela dei diritti umani che sono stati ampiamente trascurati e a lungo violati.


  Lola Sánchez Caldentey, autora. – Señor Presidente, señor Comisario, se estima que en Somalia 4,7 millones de personas —que significa el 38 % de la población— viven con necesidad de ayudas por sequías, hambrunas o migraciones forzadas. Este es el perfecto caldo de cultivo para la inestabilidad y la violencia, en el que piratas y grupos terroristas campan a sus anchas. Además, la violencia de género en Somalia existe a niveles inaceptables y debe ser contenida. La Misión militar de la Unión Africana no solo es cómplice sino que, en algunos casos, la perpetúa.

La Unión Europea debería jugar un papel de promoción de estas políticas públicas. Sin embargo, nuestro apoyo a misiones militares dista mucho de ello y simplemente responde a la promoción de intereses geoestratégicos y comerciales. Seamos coherentes pues, como recuerda la Resolución, la estabilidad y la paz solo se pueden lograr mediante la cohesión social, el desarrollo sostenible y políticas basadas en los principios democráticos, en las que la dignidad y los derechos humanos sean plenamente respetados.


  Pavel Svoboda, za skupinu PPE. – Pane předsedající, pane komisaři, v případě Somálska mluvíme o státu, který se v posledních desetiletích prakticky rozložil a jehož občané se tudíž nemohou a nemohli dovolat žádných práv. Myslím, že v tomto případě je třeba především pomáhat zajistit elementární bezpečí tak, aby se základy společnosti mohly vůbec znovu obnovit. Evropská unie by tedy měla spolu s regionálními partnery Somálska, např. s OSN, pracovat na tom, aby se Somálsko postupně stalo státem, který je schopen plnit své základní funkce a jehož vlastní občané nejenže se ho nemusejí bát, ale mohou s jeho pomocí počítat, např. ve chvíli, kdy jejich životy ohrožuje soukromá armáda ovládající to které území. Musíme pomáhat budovat Somálsko jako stát, kde dodržování lidských práv bude agendou tohoto státu, nikoliv pouze agendou mezinárodního společenství. Nadcházející volby v roce 2020 jsou k tomu dobrou příležitostí.


  Neena Gill, on behalf of the S&D Group. – Mr President, with elections this year, Somalia is in a crucial period of transition. It is in all our interests that it does not miss its date with history, yet no ballot can bring about improvement unless fundamental rights are respected and there is minimal degree of stability.

We need to make sure that the African Union's peacekeeping force AMISOM does its job protecting civilians and that accountability is insured for all allegations of abuse, indiscriminate killings and sexual exploitation. As the biggest contributor to AMISOM, the EU can play a key role by monitoring programmes and bolstering investigation and prosecution capacity. I also urge Somalian authorities, federal and regional, to put an immediate stop to harassment of journalists and protect them from terrorist attacks carried out by Al-Shabab. Crucially, if there is any hope for Somalia to have a bright future it starts with its younger generation.


  Francisco Assis (S&D). – Senhor Presidente, Senhor Comissário, nos meses de julho e agosto, o grupo fundamentalista islâmico Al-Shabab foi responsável por vários ataques mortíferos na Somália. Um dos ataques mais deploráveis foi dirigido contra uma base da União Africana, de que resultaram treze mortos, incluindo, aliás, funcionários da ONU.

Ora, como sabemos, a luta contra o Al-Shabab e outros grupos armados depende, em grande parte, da missão de paz da União Africana. É por isso que é vital apoiar essa missão, bem como todas as iniciativas em prol da estabilização e da reconciliação nacional.

A União Europeia é o principal financiador da missão da União Africana, com um valor alocado de 286 milhões de euros até 2020. Esse apoio deve ser assegurado e até eventualmente reforçado, mas é preciso, em contrapartida, uma maior transparência.

A União Europeia não pode tolerar que forças de manutenção de paz, por si apoiadas e financiadas, sejam frequentemente alvo de acusações de abusos dos direitos humanos, incluindo assassínios indiscriminados de civis e violência sexual. A União Europeia tem de exigir com firmeza que estes crimes sejam investigados e que os seus eventuais responsáveis não permaneçam impunes.


Procedura catch-the-eye


  Jiří Pospíšil (PPE). – Pane předsedající, já chci podpořit své předřečníky. Je velmi dobře, že v tuto chvíli projednáváme usnesení o Somálsku, protože – jak už bylo řečeno – bude zde probíhat reforma v personálním složení parlamentu na přelomu měsíce září a října a následně pak volba nové hlavy státu. Já jsem přesvědčen, že debaty, které zde obecně vedeme o tom, že je třeba ekonomicky podpořit tuto zemi, podpořit zvláště trpící děti v Somálsku, jsou velmi správné, ale podle mého názoru by měly být podmíněny tím, že demokratický proces v této zemi bude pokračovat. Počkejme například na to, jak proběhne reforma v parlamentu, jak proběhne volba hlavy státu a jak se budeme blížit k roku 2020, kdy mají proběhnout nové volby. Pokud demokratizační a stabilizační vztahy budou pokračovat, pak je správné, aby Evropská unie tuto zemi podpořila, podpořila trpící obyvatelstvo a děti na prvním místě.


  Νότης Μαριάς ( ECR). – Κύριε Πρόεδρε, υποστηρίζω το ψήφισμα, το οποίο άλλωστε έχω υπογράψει. Το 2016, κλείνουμε 25 χρόνια από την ανατροπή του δικτάτορα Barre στη Σομαλία, ανατροπή που, δυστυχώς όμως, άνοιξε έναν νέο κύκλο αίματος ο οποίος παραμένει ανοικτός. Αποτέλεσμα αυτών των 25 χρόνων της διαφυλετικής βίας, είναι η Σομαλία να αποτελεί μια από τις πιο φτωχές χώρες της Αφρικής, με προσδόκιμο ζωής μόλις τα 55 χρόνια και το ένα έκτο του πληθυσμού να ζει εκτός των συνόρων της.

Οι επερχόμενες εκλογές, που κανονικά πρέπει να διεξαχθούν μέχρι το τέλος του έτους, δεν δείχνουν να μπορούν να βελτιώσουν την κατάσταση στη χώρα. Το μείζον ζήτημα για τα κράτη της Δύσης είναι, συνεπώς, να κρατήσουν μακριά από την εξουσία τους ισλαμιστές της Αλ Σαμπάμπ. Ωστόσο, με τις επεμβάσεις τους οι ξένες δυνάμεις δεν επιδρούν εποικοδομητικά, όπως δείχνει και η εμπειρία των τελευταίων 25 χρόνων. Το καλύτερο που έχει, συνεπώς, να κάνει η Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωση είναι να μείνει μακριά και να μην αναμειχθεί στα πολιτικά παίγνια που δεν την αφορούν. Καμιά συμμετοχή στα βρώμικα παιχνίδια που λαμβάνουν χώρα στο Κέρας της Αφρικής. Αλληλεγγύη σε χριστιανούς θύματα της ισλαμικής τρομοκρατίας.


(Fine della procedura catch-the-eye)


  Christos Stylianides, Member of the Commission. – Mr President, we had very productive and constructive discussions, and I know Somalia because I visited the country and I met the Minister and other officials. Regarding education, let me confirm that I have already put in place emergency projects for education in the country, which we want to sustain and expand. You know that I focus on education – and especially in this area in Somalia – and I think it is important to insist on this project.

Somalia often hits the headlines, seldom positively. However, following decades of civil war in the area, over the past few years we have witnessed progress – albeit a bit slow – towards state building and democratisation. The forthcoming electoral process will not take the form of universal suffrage, the electoral form familiar to us. Some 14 000 people will be involved and, while they will represent only a fraction of the population, it is an improvement from 2012 when 135 clan elders selected the members of parliament. This should be a stepping stone to ‘one person, one vote’ elections in 2020.

Female participation and representation are paramount. The EU has, throughout, consistently insisted on securing a Somali commitment to 30% female representation in parliament. More than two decades of civil war have had a devastating effect on respect for human rights. Women, children and minorities in general, displaced persons and persons with disabilities have often paid the highest price. Abuse, domestic violence and discrimination against women are flagrant and, although Somalia has ratified the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, children remain victims of all the parties to the armed conflict.

The EU delegation started implementation of a new set of measures in 2016 through the European Instrument for Democracy and Human Rights (EIDHR), specifically targeting the nexus between human rights and security. One of the main aims is to develop a better connection between human-rights activists and organisations and the government, including the police, the legal profession and the judiciary, in order to provide high-quality, accountable and rights-based safety and security services for victims of sexual and gender-based violence, and thereby break the culture of impunity for the perpetrators of such crimes.

On the death penalty also, it is disturbing that Somalia has ended the de facto moratorium. Capital punishment is a serious violation of human rights and dignity. As Somalia embarks on the electoral process, the UN published last month a timely report on the right to freedom of expression. Freedom of expression is key in building a democratic nation, and even more so in times of political transition, with a view to providing space for public debate. Somali journalists censured for such debate are continually attacked, and harassed and sometimes arrested. Media outlets are being closed and proper investigation and prosecution remain rare – leading to a general sense of impunity.

These and other issues confirm that building functioning justice institutions is one of the most important tasks in terms of ensuring the rule of law in Somalia. Communities in areas recovering from the activities of al-Shabaab must benefit from peace dividends, including in the form of justice delivery after decades of being left at the mercy of these militants. The European Union is closely working with Somalia to address these matters and we remain committed to continuing to do so with the new leadership.


  Presidente. – La discussione è chiusa.

La votazione si svolgerà alle 12.00.

Dichiarazioni scritte (articolo 162)


  Bogdan Brunon Wenta (PPE), na piśmie. – 4 lata po mianowaniu 275 członków parlamentu Somalia konsekwentnie podejmuje działania odbudowy instytucji państwowych. Pracuje nad ustawą o partiach politycznych i utworzeniu niezależnej narodowej Komisji Praw Człowieka, a także przygotowuje się do wyborów parlamentarnych i prezydenckich jesienią tego roku. Ważne jest, aby proces wyborczy był przejrzysty i demokratyczny, oraz aby zagwarantowana była wolność słowa i pluralizm mediów. Niestety terrorystyczne ugrupowanie Asz-Szabab destabilizuje kraj, przeprowadzając częste ataki na kontrolowanych przez siebie obszarach, a także w samym Mogadiszu. To także jeden z powodów, dla których i tym razem wybory nie będą miały powszechnego charakteru. 11-milionowy naród reprezentować będzie 14 tysięcy elektorów. Mam nadzieję, że UE będzie aktywnie wspierać Somalię w budowaniu demokracji i zapewnieniu bezpieczeństwa w kraju, oraz że w 2020 r. obywatele będą mogli wziąć udział w wyborach powszechnych.

Õigusteave - Privaatsuspoliitika