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Środa, 23 listopada 2016 r. - Strasburg Wersja poprawiona

8. Wyniki COP22 w Marrakeszu (debata)
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  Presidente. – L'ordine del giorno reca la discussione sulla dichiarazione del Consiglio e della Commissione sull'esito della COP22 a Marrakech (2016/2995(RSP)).


  Ivan Korčok, President-in-Office of the Council. – Mr President, honourable Members, one year after the Paris Agreement, the conference in Marrakech last week clearly marked a new phase in global climate governance. At the outset, let me highlight that the European Union has shown its strong commitment to climate action by ratifying the Paris Agreement on 5 October 2016. Following the consent given by Parliament, the ratification of the Agreement by the EU, together with seven Member States, triggered its entry into force on 4 November 2016 and confirmed the key role of the European Union in the multilateral process. This was clearly recognised in Marrakech.

Overall, 112 parties ratified the Paris Agreement by 18 November. The European Union can be satisfied with the result of the Marrakech Conference. We witnessed the unprecedented quick entry into force of the Paris Agreement, the progress made on the development of its rules and the major demonstration of activities by non-state actors. This all confirmed the determination of the international community to continue moving forward, with a transition towards a low emission and climate-resilient future.

The European Union’s main objective at the Marrakech Conference was to put on track the swift preparation for the effective and comprehensive implementation of all the elements of the Paris Agreement.

Marrakech demonstrated progress and enabled action in the following areas: First, the subsidiary bodies outlined the work to establish the Paris rulebook, including the progress on the features of nationally determined contributions, the Transparency Framework, the Adaptation Mechanism and the Adaptation Registry.

Other elements to be mentioned are the global stock take, the Sustainable Development Mechanism concerning markets, non-market approaches and the compliance mechanism. The COP also mandated the current and incoming presidencies to start preparations for the 2018 facilitative dialogues. Secondly, progress was made on enhancing action and transparency before 2020, including on the predictability of climate finance flows to developing countries; on loss and damage, namely the review of the Warsaw International Mechanism; on technology development and transfer, capacity-building mechanisms, methodological issues, response measures, as well as on measures concerning gender and indigenous peoples.

Thirdly, the Global Climate Action Agenda was another key part of Marrakech. The Action Agenda builds on the growing momentum from stakeholders to mobilise global action in the water sector and in the areas of oceans, disaster risk reduction, agriculture, forestry, transport, energy and human settlements. All these initiatives by non-state actors support the Convention and the aims of the Paris Agreement.

Amongst many other issues, I would like to highlight the second round of the multilateral assessment process, which took place in Marrakech. Nineteen EU Member States and the European Union successfully completed the process of reviewing the progress made in the implementation of emission reductions and removals related to their quantified economy-wide emission reduction targets. The remaining Member States will follow next year.

And finally, the conference made a high-level political statement, the Marrakech Action Proclamation, which reflects the continuous political commitment towards the implementation of the Paris Agreement and reaffirms the willingness of all participants to fight against climate change and to support sustainable development.


  Miguel Arias Cañete, Member of the Commission. – Mr President, honourable Members, Minister, it is a pleasure to be here today, having just returned from the COP22 in Marrakech, where almost 200 countries met against the background of the early ratification and entry into force of the Paris Agreement.

First, I want to thank the European Parliament’s delegation to COP for their very strong support throughout the conference. This enabled the European Union to stay unified as we forge ahead on global climate action. I also want to take this opportunity, in the presence of the Minister, to thank the Slovak Presidency for the close cooperation, both in the preparations and during the COP22. I will also stress again my appreciation for Parliament’s role in ensuring the early ratification of the Agreement, which enabled the Marrakech Conference to convene the first ever meeting of the parties to the Paris Agreement.

COP22 lived up to expectations as an action and implementation COP. It is true that, in the light of the United States election results, we face political challenges and uncertainties ahead, but the message from Marrakech was nevertheless clear: we will stand by Paris; we will defend Paris; and we will implement Paris.

The Marrakech Action Proclamation reflects the spirit of COP22. It is a statement of global unity, confirming that the parties remain committed to climate action post—Paris and the transition to a global low—carbon economy. Important progress was also achieved under the Paris Work Programme. The parties agreed a clear way forward to ensure that the rule book will be ready by 2018, and advanced on key elements to guide the implementation of the Agreement, including transparency and the five-year ambition cycle.

Solidarity with our international partners is critical if we wish to maintain global momentum on climate action, and the parties welcomed the adoption of the 2020 climate finance roadmap as progress towards the goal of mobilising USD 100 million by 2020.

Member States have also shown their commitment to supporting the most vulnerable countries in dealing with the impacts of climate change. Several European Union Member States announced that new contributions to the adaptation fund, which now stands at USD 81 million, directly supporting developing countries in their efforts to cope with the effects of climate change. In addition, the parties also showed a continued commitment to capacity building and the Warsaw International Mechanism for Loss and Damage. A decision was adopted on the review of the Mechanism, which will result in increasing its potential and effectiveness and confirming the shared commitment of parties to address the concerns of the most vulnerable countries.

On the Action Agenda, COP22 included an impressive range of high—level side—events. This enabled countries, states, regions, cities, the private sector and NGOs to come together under the Global Climate Action Agenda to showcase inspiring climate action initiatives to reduce emissions, transition to a low—carbon economy and support our partners in the mitigation and adaptation efforts. Besides several other major actions, COP22 saw the launch of the international NDC partnership. We will support developing countries in the implementation of the nationally determined contributions to the Paris Agreement.

The European Union played an instrumental role in achieving the Marrakech outcomes, and there was regular effective coordination with Member States, no red lines were crossed and all politically sensitive options were considered carefully and collectively. The European Union Member States negotiated with flexibility, and their commitment to delivering a positive outcome in Marrakech was very clear.

The European Union also demonstrated its determination to making significant efforts to scale up support to climate relevant action. In 2015, the European Union and its Member States provided EUR 17.6 billion to help developing countries tackle climate change. Moreover, the European External Investment Plan expected to trigger public and private investment of up to EUR 44 billion in Africa and the European Union’s neighbourhood area had a very positive reception by our international partners. The High Ambition Coalition – the alliance of developed and developing countries that made possible the Paris Agreement – also convened during COP22. The meeting helped to define our joint negotiation strategy during the COP, as well as to exchange views on the potential impact of the outcome of the United States elections on the United Nation negotiation process. What is clear is that, given the current uncertainties, the High Ambition Coalition has a renewed sense of purpose as we move ahead with the implementation of the Paris Agreement.

Now that we have returned from Marrakech, the hard work does not stop. In the current uncertain geopolitical setting the European Union must, more than ever, remain steady on its course to a low—carbon, energy-efficient future. Marrakech showed us we are not alone. The momentum keeps growing in many of our G20 partners, including China, that are more determined than ever. We have good scope for scaling up international collaboration in terms of bilateral policy dialogues and sharing experiences. I will do the necessary to deliver on this.

I will also work closely with the German G20 Presidency to make sure we exploit the positive opening under the G20 to follow up on the Paris implementation. In addition to strengthening our strategic partnerships, we must continue to demonstrate to the world our commitment to climate action by implementing our NDC. Our proposals on the 23rd legislative framework, including the European Union ETS and LLUCF, are now on the table, and I look forward to working with the Parliament in the months ahead to ensure strict progress on this package.

Implementing the Paris Agreement is an unprecedented opportunity to modernise our economy and create jobs and growth. It is a central element in achieving broad and sustainable development goals as well as the European Union priorities on investment, competitiveness, circular economy research, innovation and energy transition. Therefore, we will also shortly come forward with a package under the title Smart and Clean Energy for all Europeans – a package of proposals which will put energy efficiency first, will reinvigorate our global leadership in renewables and deliver a fair deal for European consumers and citizens, as well as business and industry. Together with existing proposals on the table, this package will ensure a comprehensive and coherent climate and energy policy framework up to 2030. It will deliver on our contribution to the Paris Agreement and will make bigger steps forward towards our overall vision for an energy union.

In conclusion, honourable Members, we have achieved marked progress this year on global climate action. Less than twelve months ago, we adopted the Paris Agreement, and through commitment and hard work ensured its entry into force earlier this month. We still have much work to do to implement our commitments on the ground and I count on your continued support to turn our commitments into reality.




  Giovanni La Via, a nome del gruppo PPE. – Signora Presidente, signor Commissario, signor Ministro, onorevoli colleghi, la conferenza di Marrakech si è conclusa con risultati concreti. La COP22 – ce lo siamo detti sin dall'inizio – era il luogo in cui passare dalle parole alle azioni. E lo abbiamo fatto.

Vorrei ringraziare il Commissario Arias Cañete per la sua azione decisa e per il continuo e costante contatto con la delegazione del Parlamento che ho avuto l'onore di presiedere. Quasi 200 Paesi si sono incontrati in Marocco e tanti sono stati gli impegni della nostra delegazione, che ha avuto modo di confrontarsi con molte altre delegazioni nazionali e personalità di rilievo.

Possiamo sicuramente affermare che i progressi fatti a Marrakech sono la prova che il mondo andrà avanti con la lotta al cambiamento climatico. Con la dichiarazione di Marrakech, infatti, gli Stati hanno dimostrato un'idea di solidarietà e continuità gli uni con gli altri. La COP22 non lascia dubbi: dobbiamo continuare il percorso iniziato lo scorso anno. L'accordo di Parigi non sarebbe stato possibile senza la fiducia tra le parti e noi a Marrakech abbiamo confermato questa fiducia.

Per quanto riguarda l'Unione europea, continueremo a implementare i nostri impegni e raggiungere gli obiettivi che ci siamo posti, qualunque cosa succeda. Si tratta di un problema più grande di un singolo paese o di una singola elezione, anche se questa riguarda gli Stati Uniti. Abbiamo davanti un processo che ci porterà fino alla fine del secolo e che considero irreversibile. Al di là delle incertezze e dei dubbi paventati difenderemo Parigi e implementeremo Parigi.

La transizione verso un'economia pulita è oramai mai iniziata e l'Unione europea continuerà a fare da apripista e leader verso un'economia sostenibile e competitiva.


  Jo Leinen, im Namen der S&D-Fraktion. – Frau Präsidentin, liebe Kolleginnen und Kollegen! Die COP 22 war ein Erfolg.

Für die S&D-Fraktion darf ich der Kommission und dem Rat für die gute Verhandlungsführung und auch für die Einbeziehung der Parlamentsdelegation mit den täglichen Briefings danken. Es ist gut zu sehen in Marrakesch, dass die Weltgemeinschaft zusammensteht und dass alle 195 Staaten bekräftigt haben, das Pariser Abkommen durchzusetzen und sich von der Wahl des neuen amerikanischen Präsidenten Donald Trump nicht verunsichern zu lassen.

Allerdings: Mit der Wahl in den USA brauchen wir eine Neuaufstellung der Leadership in dem weltweiten Klimaschutz. Die EU muss diese Führungsrolle annehmen und – Herr Kommissar, Sie haben es gesagt - wir sollten China als Partner gewinnen und weiter behalten, damit diese Koalition die Agenda von Paris wirklich vorantreiben kann. China wird für neue Technologien, wie auch für einen globalen Kohlenstoffmarkt, nützlich sein.

Die nächste COP, die sehr wichtig wird, ist die COP 24 in zwei Jahren – 2018. Wir brauchen dort die Überprüfung der nationalen Zusagen. Hier wäre meine Frage an Rat und Kommission: Was wird die EU 2018 bieten? Werden wir unsere 2030-Ziele dort auch schon zur Debatte stellen, ob wir uns besser stellen können?

Wir haben in Marrakesch auch gesehen, dass sich 48 Staaten entschieden haben, 100 % auf erneuerbare Energien umzustellen und eine Langfriststrategie zu organisieren. Sind wir auch als EU in der Lage, eine Roadmap 2050, eine 2050-Strategie zu beschließen?

Ich glaube, dass wir jetzt unser Commitment zeigen müssen. Hier gibt es die großen Fragen an das Winterpaket. Sind wir in der Lage, die Erneuerbaren weiter zu fördern, oder bremsen wir sie aus, und sind wir ehrgeizig bei der Energieeffizienz? Das wird die Nagelprobe schon nächste Woche – Herr Kommissar – bei dem Winterpaket, das wir dann von Ihnen bekommen.


  Julie Girling, on behalf of the ECR Group. – Madam President, I would like to express my thanks to Commissioner Arias Cañete for his continuing inclusive style of leadership through COP 22, continuing on from good experiences at COP 21.

It is pretty impossible to ignore, though, the big orange cloud that was hanging over COP 22, and not from the Saharan dust. It is true that the US elections did have an effect, but there were positive outcomes. In a political statement of resolve following the US presidential elections, the Conference adopted a call for all nations to honour promises made in Paris and renew their attempts to limit global warming to well below 2 degrees. Negotiators focused on initiatives to reinforce existing carbon reduction plans, with some countries promising to review ambitions before 2020. Countries also fixed a 2018 deadline for preparing a rule book establishing the rules and processes needed to provide operational guidance for the Paris Agreement and 11 governments, including my own, actually ratified the climate agreement during the COP.

There were, of course, some negative outcomes. Despite strategic funding commitments from the US, Germany and the UK to improve carbon accounting in developing countries, the sums on offer fall well short of the EUR 100 billion a year developed countries have promised to mobilise by 2020 in order to help poorer countries develop their infrastructure on many fronts. I know that the work to increase these new financial pledges will be ongoing, and Mr Arias Cañete is in the forefront with his high ambition coalition.

The issue of loss and damage and how to approach recompense for damage caused by climate change has been put off again for discussions at further dates, but that does not mean that it has been forgotten. Over the past 12 months, we have made rapid and unprecedented progress in laying the foundations for a low-carbon, climate-resilient economy. This COP 22 showed us that progress is never linear, but it does not mean that it is not going on, and it does not mean that it will not be successful.


  Gerben-Jan Gerbrandy, on behalf of the ALDE Group. – Madam President, let me also thank Commissioner Arias Cañete, not only for the way he works very inclusively with Parliament, but also for the way that he is dealing with the other important states in the world, and especially the way he has improved the relationship with China, in particular with President Xi Jinping is very encouraging to see.

At the start of the Marrakech COP I had one hope, and that was that the entire world would send a message to Washington that the Paris Agreement and the process after that would be irreversible, that the world would move towards this zero-carbon economy, and that in the end is exactly what happened. If President-elect Trump has achieved anything, it is that the world is much more united now behind this transition towards a zero-carbon economy, and even countries like India seem to be much more determined now than they were a few months ago – as does China. What happened in Marrakech shows very well how rapidly the geopolitical scene is changing at the moment. It is only two years since President Obama struck the deal with President Xi Jinping on climate with China. Before that, China was one of the biggest obstacles in international climate negotiations, and look at it now. China is now one of the leading countries in the post-Paris process and that is extremely encouraging.

And what about Europe? Of course Europe is still one of the leaders, and we are still leading by example, but we have to be careful. Look at the difficult internal negotiations within Council but also within Parliament on the ETS. Look at the first reactions by almost all Member States on the effort-sharing regulation proposal from the Commission. It is not that long ago that we all laughed about Russia counting every tree in the Kyoto Agreement to try to undermine that, but now all Member States are doing exactly the same. We think that our trees will save us in the fight against climate change and that is not going to happen.

Finally, it is also an economic issue. China is investing two-and-a-half times more on green technology than Europe. As a percentage of GDP, it is even four times as much, so we have to be extremely careful there. This is also a race ....

(The President cut off the speaker)


  Estefanía Torres Martínez, en nombre del Grupo GUE/NGL. – Señora Presidenta, me temo que yo no voy a ser tan optimista como el resto de los colegas.

La Cumbre de Marrakech no nos ha dejado buen sabor de boca porque no hemos dado pasos adelante en la implementación del Acuerdo de París; más bien nos ha quedado el miedo a que se den pasos atrás.

Siento decirle, señor Cañete, que yo no voy a agradecer su papel como Comisario. El poco peso de la Unión Europea en las negociaciones se ha hecho aún más evidente y, dado el nuevo escenario mundial, más preocupante.

Nos preguntamos todavía qué hace un político con intereses en la industria petrolera y lazos con los gigantes del ladrillo —relacionado, además, con escándalos de corrupción como Acuamed o los papeles de Panamá— representando la posición de la Unión Europea en la lucha contra el cambio climático.

Usted se llenó la boca en Marrakech calificando la transición energética de imparable y, sin embargo, el partido al que pertenece ni siquiera ratificó el Acuerdo de París a tiempo, retiró los incentivos a las energías renovables, y, desde que el Partido Popular llegó al Gobierno en España, las emisiones no han dejado de crecer. España es el único país de la Unión Europea que ha aumentado sus emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero desde el año 2013. Me parece que no es este un buen método para hacer la transición energética.

Señor Cañete, la Unión Europea ha estado fuera, ha estado ausente en muchas negociaciones importantes. Esto le debería hacer reflexionar sobre cuál es su papel como Comisario, si está usted a la altura ética del puesto.

Yo, de verdad, creo que, por respeto a la ciudadanía, por respeto al resto de los países, por respeto a la Unión Europea, por respeto a Europa en definitiva, usted debería dimitir.


  Claude Turmes, on behalf of the Verts/ALE Group. – Madam President, as a member of the delegation, I would also like to thank our Chairman, Mr La Via, for the excellent professional organisation. We had a great time and our Commissioner is certainly a good international negotiator. I think it is right that we should point this out.

It was a good COP. We had the impression of a quick ratification, there was unity against Mr Trump and there were a lot of positive vibes, in part because of the positive agenda that the French have started in Paris: energy efficiency in buildings, energy efficiency in transport, renewable energy, interconnectivity, and getting financial markets to understand that it is not black energy but green energy which is the future. All that was around us and is really positive.

I have two critical remarks to make. One, Commissioner, is that I think we in Europe could be better at selling our story. The success story of Europe is that 95% of our climate achievements are in eco-design, labelling, building legislation, energy efficiency legislation, renewables, CO2 and cars. Five percent may be due to the ETS, because the ETS is largely a failure.

So why, at international COPs, do we speak only about carbon markets and why do we hide away our success stories on renewables? Why did nobody from the Commission speak about the Juncker external fund for Africa at a time when we could help Africa to improve and to move much more quickly into renewable energy?

The second criticism concerns early ambition. You will have a difficult time in 2018 if we go with that the Council’s low level of ambition, which was set in the light of Mr Cameron’s veto threat. Forty percent by 2727 is not a story in a 1.5º world nor in a 2º world. Your energy package of next week will be the occasion to show that Europe is a leader and, in that regard, why are you now reducing the investment opportunities for renewables in Europe with low ambition, low governance and the destruction of priority access and despatch?

On the rule book and the support scheme, you have some civil servants who prevent you from doing what you have politically agreed. Why is Mr Timmermans opposing a quota on renewable energy? I hope it is not because we have so many gas lobbyists hanging around. I tell you, and I tell Mr Juncker, if next week is not about Europe being positive, being number one, you will have another blow to European public opinion.


  Marco Affronte, a nome del gruppo EFDD. – Signora Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, la COP22 avrebbe dovuto essere quella dell'azione e invece è stata giocata in difesa. L'ombra delle dichiarazioni preelettorali di Trump era su tutta la conferenza e di fatto da Marrakech è uscita solo una proclamazione, che però ribadisce la volontà di proseguire uniti e compatti nell'attuazione di quanto deciso e stabilito nell'accordo di Parigi, il che non era scontato, per cui comunque è una buona notizia. Vogliamo essere positivi e diciamo che "irreversibilità" e "cooperazione" sono le due parole chiave della COP22.

Irreversibilità, perché la lotta ai cambiamenti climatici attraverso lo sviluppo di un'economia sostenibile è un meccanismo che non potrà più essere fermato. Nemmeno da Trump: i dubbi riguardo all'impegno di Stati Uniti sono stati spazzati dalle parole del Segretario di Stato uscente Kerry, il quale ha spiegato come sarà la stessa economia statunitense, le stesse imprese, a far tornare Trump sui suoi passi. Indietro non si torna. Cooperazione, perché è solo attraverso il sostegno, gli investimenti e il trasferimento di conoscenze fra paesi sviluppati ed economie in via di sviluppo, che la lotta al riscaldamento globale potrà essere vinta.

Ora, con gli Stati Uniti verosimilmente meno motivati e decisi ai tavoli di trattativa, tocca all'Unione europea prendere la leadership nelle negoziazioni e nelle politiche contro il riscaldamento globale. E le azioni sulle quali essere forti e decisi adesso sono soprattutto quelle dei singoli paesi. È essenziale che l'Unione spinga per avere una prima revisione degli NDC, nell'anno cruciale 2018, forte e ambiziosa e mirata a rispettare il limite degli 1,5 gradi stabilito a Parigi. E non può e non deve assolutamente lasciare che i suoi Stati membri – come qualcuno, fra cui l'Italia, sta già facendo – inizino a giocare al ribasso.

È necessario spingere in maniera forte sulla neonata 2050 Pathway Platform, a cui l'Unione europea ha prontamente aderito, per renderla un'occasione per rafforzare le politiche climatiche degli Stati membri, integrandole in un piano più ampio ed efficace. Ma come possiamo essere credibili su questi impegni se l'Europa stessa ancora destina oltre 300 miliardi all'anno per i sussidi alle fonti fossili?


  Angelo Ciocca, a nome del gruppo ENF. – Signora Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, vi invito a riflettere su un detto delle mie parti: "Se ammazzi il cavallo vai a casa a piedi". E riflettiamo sulle costosissime decisioni che colpiscono le famiglie, gli agricoltori, gli artigiani e le imprese e che impoveriscono, ahimè, i nostri Paesi europei.

Ad anni di distanza quali sono gli effetti che si sono creati? Da un lato l'impoverimento del lavoro, l'impoverimento della produzione manifatturiera dei nostri Paesi, delocalizzata appunto in Cina, in India, in Brasile. Ma purtroppo, ahimè, anche l'inquinamento mondiale non si è ridotto. Perché è ovvio che se tu sposti la produzione da una parte all'altra e non agisci sulle cause reali, hai spostato l'inquinamento ma non hai ridotto l'inquinamento. E quindi l'inquinamento continua ad esserci e lo testimoniano, ahimè, le azioni che appunto si vogliono mettere in campo di spesa di oltre 100 miliardi di dollari per ridurre l'impatto ambientale.

L'invito che faccio nel pacchetto che state studiando è di usare queste risorse per riportare la produzione in Italia, per riportare la produzione in Europa, per riportare la produzione là dove c'è la cultura reale del rispetto dell'ambiente, là dove i cittadini, le imprese, i nostri imprenditori hanno la cultura di rispetto e attenzione per l'ambiente.

Ultima riflessione che faccio: siete stati capaci di mettere attorno a un tavolo quasi 200 capi di Stato per decidere il clima dei prossimi anni: perché sull'immigrazione non riuscite a farlo?

(L'oratore accetta di rispondere a una domanda "cartellino blu" (articolo 162, paragrafo 8, del regolamento))


  Claude Turmes (Verts/ALE), blue-card question. – You are saying that we are deindustrialising Europe. Are you aware that electricity prices in Germany today, for example are as low as they are in the USA and that German industry has very good years behind it? Please show me the facts. Today, because we have renewables and energy efficiency, prices for big electricity consumers are relatively low. Be aware also that the Commission, through the Juncker investment fund, is now organising money for precisely what you want to have, which is combating energy poverty in Europe. So be more positive.


  Angelo Ciocca (ENF), Risposta a una domanda "cartellino blu". – Io non ho il dubbio che, magari, la Germania sia stata capace di trarne vantaggi. Purtroppo l'Italia non ha tratto nessun vantaggio: lei pensi che il 50 % della bolletta elettrica è gravata ahimè da questi costi in Italia. Quindi abbiamo il costo di energia elettrica che è 4-5 volte superiore rispetto ad altri paesi europei; è un dato di fatto. Io arrivo dalla Lombardia e ho fatto il presidente della commissione per le attività produttive, quindi parlo a ragion veduta: abbiamo perso purtroppo in questi anni una serie di realtà manifatturiere e io penso che un Paese senza produzione non è un Paese che può guardare al futuro. Non può esserci la politica solo delle banche o della finanza speculativa ma quella della produzione.

(L'oratore accetta di rispondere a una domanda "cartellino blu" (articolo 162, paragrafo 8, del regolamento))


  Giovanni La Via (PPE), Domanda "cartellino blu". – Ho appena sentito parlare, da lei, dei famosi 100 miliardi che si stanno mettendo insieme sul piano internazionale, come delle risorse europee per integrare e investire sul settore industriale. Guardi che quel fondo ha ben altra finalità e quindi la invito a studiare prima di parlare.


  Angelo Ciocca (ENF), Risposta a una domanda "cartellino blu". – Intanto mi sarei aspettato, magari, una spiegazione, visto che c'era questa occasione. Dopo di che, quelle risorse, mi auguro – visto che sono ancora da spendere – che tutti i colleghi pensino di utilizzarle per investire nel generare produzione là dove esiste la cultura del rispetto dell'ambiente e quindi nelle imprese europee e nelle imprese italiane.


  Peter Liese (PPE). – Frau Präsidentin, liebe Kolleginnen und Kollegen! Marrakesch war ein Erfolg, und ich möchte allen danken, die dazu beigetragen haben.

Ich möchte den Kollegen Turmes loben, weil er den Kommissar gelobt hat. Wir sind uns einig in der EVP: Wenn die Grünen Jean-Claude Juncker und Miguel Arias Cañete loben, dann müssen wir das gutheißen.

Die Wahl von Donald Trump war natürlich für alle in Marrakesch ein Schock. Aber es gab von allen übrigen Staaten der Welt eine klare Reaktion. Wenn wir früher die Situation hatten, dass Klimaschutz gegen die USA und China gemacht werden musste, dann haben wir jetzt zumindest die klare Zusage von China, dass es bei der Umsetzung des Abkommens von Paris und bei der Konvention weitermacht.

In den USA gibt es ja Gott sei Dank auch Diskussionen, ob die Ankündigungen von Trump so umgesetzt werden – das wissen wir noch nicht. Aber wir müssen gewappnet sein. Das ist eine wichtige Aussage, die ich hier im Namen der EVP-Fraktion treffen möchte. Wir müssen jetzt nach der Wahl in den Vereinigten Staaten umso mehr darauf achten, dass die Industrie – wenn sie auf dem neuesten Stand ist – geschützt wird. Deswegen wollen wir im Emissionshandel die freie Zuteilung für die Industrie erhöhen.

Wir müssen uns überlegen, was passiert, wenn Trump wirklich aussteigt. Ich war immer – wie viele in meiner Fraktion – gegen Zölle an den Grenzen, gegen carbon border tax adjustments. Aber wenn ein Land aus dem Klimaübereinkommen – aus der Konvention und dem Übereinkommen von Paris – aussteigt, dann müssen wir zumindest überlegen, ob wir dann nicht auch dieses Instrument gegen dieses Land nutzen.

Jean-Claude Juncker hat gesagt: Wir kennen Donald Trump noch nicht. Wir werden ihn kennenlernen. Aber er soll uns auch kennenlernen. Wir werden uns von einer neuen amerikanischen Regierung nicht alles gefallen lassen, sondern unsere Industrie und den Klimaschutz weiter schützen.

(Der Redner ist damit einverstanden, eine Frage nach dem Verfahren der „blauen Karte“ gemäß Artikel 162 Absatz 8 der Geschäftsordnung zu beantworten.)


  Tibor Szanyi (S&D), Kékkártyás kérdés. – Elnök Asszony! Tisztelt Képviselő Úr! Ön azt mondja, hogy duplán kell odafigyelni Donald Trump tevékenységére. Hát én azt hiszem, hogy ezen már túl vagyunk, nagyon nagy figyelem van rajta. Én azt gondolom, hogy sokkal inkább már most Európának akcióba kéne lendülnie, akár ennek az Európai Parlamentnek, hogy egy nagyon-nagyon világos üzenetet küldjünk az új amerikai adminisztrációnak, hogy nem tűrjük azt, hogy ők egymaguk megpróbáljanak világtrendeket megfordítani. Egyetért-e Ön ezzel?


  Peter Liese (PPE), Antwort auf eine Frage nach dem Verfahren der „blauen Karte“. – Wir sollten klar sein in dem Ziel, das Klima zu schützen und die Verträge – den Pariser Vertrag – umzusetzen. Aber wir wissen ja noch nicht, was die amerikanische Regierung wirklich durchführt. Deswegen ist diese Überlegung mit den Schutzzöllen etwas, was wir jetzt sehr vorsichtig angehen müssen. Vielleicht hilft es ja, dass Donald Trump von seinen ursprünglichen Plänen ablässt.

Und ich glaube, eines ist noch sehr wichtig: Die nächste COP wird in Bonn stattfinden, aber die Fidschi-Inseln werden die Präsidentschaft haben. Das ist diese Allianz, die wir brauchen: die Europäische Union und die am meisten gefährdeten Länder gegen rückwärtsgewandte Tendenzen.

(Der Redner ist damit einverstanden, eine weitere Frage nach dem Verfahren der „blauen Karte“ gemäß Artikel 162 Absatz 8 der Geschäftsordnung zu beantworten.)


  Τάκης Χατζηγεωργίου ( GUE/NGL), ερώτηση "γαλάζια κάρτα". – Θα ήθελα να ζητήσω μια απλή διευκρίνιση: είπατε ότι πρέπει να αυξήσουμε τις παροχές προς την ευρωπαϊκή βιομηχανία. Δεν διαφωνώ καθόλου. Όμως, πώς συνδυάζεται αυτό με μείωση των ρύπων στην Ευρώπη; Ή μήπως εννοούσατε κάτι διαφορετικό;


  Peter Liese (PPE), Antwort auf eine Frage nach dem Verfahren der „blauen Karte“. – Ich denke, es liegt ein sehr guter Kompromissvorschlag vom Berichterstatter Ian Duncan für den Emissionshandel vor. Wir werden im Gegensatz zur Kommission der gefährdeten Industrie wie der Stahlindustrie, aber auch anderen Sektoren die Sicherheit geben, dass sie, wenn sie auf dem neuesten Stand der Technik sind, dann die Zertifikate kostenlos bekommen.

Das ist auch gut für den Klimaschutz. Denn wenn Industrie, obwohl sie alles tut, was technisch möglich ist, aus Europa vertrieben wird, dann hilft das dem Klima nicht. Aber diejenigen, die eben nicht auf dem neuesten Stand sind, müssen auch investieren. Und Ian Duncan hat zum Beispiel auch vorgeschlagen, die MSR anzuschärfen, und das würde das richtige Signal geben. Also bitte: Andere Fraktionen, unterstützen Sie diesen Kompromiss, dann wird beides erreicht!


  Kathleen Van Brempt (S&D). – Ik ben deze keer niet meegegaan en ik heb er spijt van. Ik dacht: dat wordt een gewone COP die Parijs gaat implementeren. Maar ik denk dat het door de verkiezing in de Verenigde Staten een bijzonder politieke COP geworden is en ik heb daar heel goede signalen over ontvangen. Want dat hebben al velen gezegd, en dat willen we absoluut ondersteunen: de dynamiek die in Parijs ontstaan is, die is niet gebroken in de COP 22, ondanks de verkiezingen in de Verenigde Staten. En op dat elan moet er worden verder gewerkt. En dan is het uitermate belangrijk dat Europa de historische leidende rol niet alleen vasthoudt, maar verder versterkt en nieuwe bondgenoten zoekt, bijvoorbeeld door naar China te kijken. En dat betekent dat we dat leiderschap ook moeten tonen in ons eigen beleid en ik ondersteun wat collega Turmes daarover gezegd heeft: als het gaat over het winterpakket dat er aan zit te komen, laat dat alsjeblieft, commissaris, het meest ambitieuze zijn dat we naar voren kunnen schuiven als het gaat over energie-efficiëntie, over onze gebouwen en uiteraard over de hernieuwbare energie. Maar het is ook een opdracht voor ons zelf, er is daarnet al een paar keer over gezegd: we zitten in de laatste rechte lijn in het Parlement om te onderhandelen binnen ENVI over ETS. Ook daar, beste collega's, zo ambitieus mogelijk. We moeten nog met de lidstaten gaan onderhandelen. We weten altijd dat dat aanleiding geeft tot nog wat verwatering van de compromissen. Dus leg de lat hoog, laat zien aan de rest van de wereld dat we ons hoofd niet laten hangen. Maar, en dan geef ik eigenlijk ook Peter Liese gelijk, ik vind dat heel bemoedigend en ik vind dat we echt moeten nadenken, over de partijpolitieke grenzen heen, de komende weken en maanden, hoe we dat gaan oplossen. Als, ik zeg wel als, de Verenigde Staten zich op één of andere manier terugtrekken uit Parijs, dan moeten we niet naïef zijn. We moeten én ambitieus zijn, én tegelijkertijd ervoor zorgen dat we onze industrie beschermen. Als we van onze industrie grote inspanningen vragen, wat we moeten doen om ervoor te zorgen dat wij de CO2 aanpakken, moeten we er ook voor zorgen dat we op een goede manier bekijken hoe we ons kunnen beschermen tegen landen die uit het akkoord van Parijs stappen. En ik denk dat we daar moeten nadenken over wat de best mogelijke manier is en dat houdt uiteraard ook verband met een nieuwe visie op handel in de toekomst.


  Peter van Dalen (ECR). – ”He’s got the whole world in his hands”, dat lied gaat over God die de wereld in zijn hand houdt. En hij heeft ons de verantwoordelijkheid gegeven om goed te zorgen voor zijn schepping en ik hoop en ik bid dat aankomend president Donald Trump dat ook zal beseffen en nadrukkelijk ook zal doen. Op de klimaattop in Marokko is gelukkig het klimaatakkoord van Parijs opnieuw bevestigd en iedereen heeft elkaar opgeroepen tot concrete actie. En ik was ook blij dat in Marrakesh ook het bedrijfsleven nadrukkelijk van zich liet horen. En ik vind het hoopgevend dat uitgerekend in de Verenigde Staten er steeds meer bedrijven zijn die opkomen voor duurzaam produceren, duurzaam ondernemen, juist in de tijd dat meneer Trump eraan komt. Die concrete actie, Voorzitter, moet wat mij betreft ook plaatsvinden in de sectoren die buiten Parijs zijn gebleven. En dan denk ik aan de scheepvaart en aan de luchtvaart. Het is zo dat in Montreal de luchtvaart een eerste stap heeft gezet, maar dat is echt verre van voldoende. Er moet veel meer gebeuren. En de scheepvaart werkt inderdaad aan schonere motoren en misschien ook aan retrofits van bestaande motoren, maar harde reductiedoelstellingen blijven uit. Het bedrijfsleven en de overheden moeten in deze sectoren laten zien dat ze klimaatverandering serieus nemen. Want als we de klimaatverandering en de gevolgen daarvan echt willen aanpakken, dan is de inzet van iedereen nodig: én bedrijven én overheden. Let’s all join hands.


  Kateřina Konečná (GUE/NGL). – Závěrečné prohlášení COP 22 charakterizuje uplatňování současného pařížského závazku jako naléhavou povinnost. Dnes více než kdy dříve jen nutné, aby vyspělé země znovu jasně vyjádřily svůj závazek uvést Pařížskou smlouvu v činy a zajistit dostatečné financování, především směrem k rozvojovým zemím.

Minulý rok se nám podařil historický úspěch, dovedli jsme k jednání o klimatu všechny podstatné hráče a to i ty, kteří dlouhodobě nechtěli přijmout svůj díl odpovědnosti za osud světa, mezi nimi i USA. Jejich nový prezident však svými slovy tento úspěch přímo ohrožuje a já pevně doufám, že z jeho strany opravdu zůstane jen u slov.

Prezident Trump by si měl uvědomit, že jeho postoj přímo ovlivní i ostatní velké znečišťovatele. Odstoupí-li od smlouvy USA, odstoupí od ní i zbytek velkých hráčů a s nimi i zbytek světa. Reálně nám hrozí, že Evropa ve svém boji zůstane osamocena. Tohoto konce bych se velmi nerada dožila. Musíme apelovat na pana Trumpa, aby si uvědomil svůj obrovský díl odpovědnosti za osud planety a postavil se mu jako pravý chlap, za kterého se tak rád označuje.


  Bas Eickhout (Verts/ALE). – Madam President, I would like first of all to thank the Council and the Commission for providing good information to the European Parliament’s delegation last week in Marrakech, which kept us informed and made sure that we could follow the negotiations very well. However, we all know also that the negotiations were tedious and very technical, and the big political point was, of course, what is going to happen with the United States. That was the political side of the story which was not in the negotiations room, but was very prominent and visible and you could feel it in the rooms in Marrakech. There, we really have a challenge. What we saw happening in Marrakech is that China is taking the lead. They say that they are going ahead no matter what. So we have left the idea that we are finger-pointing at each other and the idea of ‘we only move if you move’. That is very important, but we also know that it is a delicate balance. For example, a country like India is much more insecure. So this really boils down to ‘what is Europe going to do’? Is Europe going to step in in two ways – dealing with China and also increasing ambition? We need to show that we, as Europe, not only talk the talk but also walk the walk. That is crucial, and that is where Europe is not delivering yet, but it is also now very crucial in the negotiations on ETS, for example. Everyone who is talking about the importance of climate change – and I am looking at my EPP colleagues now – make sure you also deliver on ETS, because in the current negotiations we are only discussing ‘protecting, protecting, protecting’ and forgetting the ambition, and that is making us weak internationally.


  Roger Helmer (EFDD). – Madam President, we have just seen the unedifying sight of 10 000 climate alarmists flying off to Marrakech and emitting thousands of tons of CO2 in the process. And what have they achieved? I will tell you: three parts of not very much. On the vexed question of finance, they agreed to keep talking; on the Adaptation Fund, they failed to reach agreement; on the Facilitative Dialogue, they postponed to 2018; on the rulebook, they reached no real conclusion; and on the vague concept of loss and damage from climate change, they agreed a five-year plan, effectively postponing the decision until 2022. That is failure writ large.

A few weeks ago, I had the pleasure of hosting my friend Marc Morano of the American advocacy group Climate Depot in the Brussels Parliament for a showing of his movie ‘Climate Hustle’, a critical appraisal of climate alarmism. Marc Morano also went to Marrakech, where he symbolically shredded a copy of the Paris Climate Agreement. We were told that the Paris Agreement was legally binding. In fact, it had no binding targets and no sanctions for non-compliance. We now have a new American President who has repudiated that agreement. I think we can now say with some confidence that the Paris Agreement is well and truly dead.


  Olaf Stuger (ENF). – Afgelopen maanden hebben de leden van dit Huis en de leden van de Commissie de heer Trump belachelijk gemaakt, bespot en beschimpt en zich laatdunkend over hem uitgelaten. De heer Verhofstadt noemde hem zelfs een clown. Maar we weten inmiddels, Voorzitter, dat de meerderheid van het volk precies het tegenovergestelde denkt dan het establishment en zij koos de heer Trump als president. Na die verkiezing heeft de heer Juncker tijdens een persbijeenkomst nog een keertje gezegd dat de heer Trump niets begrijpt van de wereld, niets begrijpt van Europa en niets begrijpt van normen en waarden. En de heer Juncker zou het hem wel even gaan uitleggen. Voorzitter, dat lijkt me niet zo slim als je met deze meneer nog heel veel zaken te doen hebt, bijvoorbeeld het uitonderhandelen van een klimaatakkoord. Dus de grootste saboteurs van uw klimaatverdrag wonen niet in China, wonen straks niet in het Witte Huis; de grootste saboteur van het klimaatverdrag houdt zijn kantoor hier een paar honderd meter vandaan, en dat is de incompetente heer Juncker.


  Seán Kelly (PPE). – Madam President, like my colleagues I must say it was a pleasure to attend the Morocco COP22, having been in Paris last year for the historical global agreement. Thanks indeed to the Slovak Presidency, Commissioner Cañete and the Commission, and my colleagues under the chairmanship of the excellent Mr La Via. Also there is thanks due to Morocco itself, it was a good location because they gave an example of moving to low-carbon economy: they have the largest solar plant in the world and electric cars were used to ferry people around from place to place.

Some people were worried about the impact of the presidential elections. I left much less worried then when I went there, for two reasons. Number one: the United States themselves have indicated that in many states there are movements to decarbonise the economy, both at official level and at business level. This is not going to change in states like California, Florida, Pennsylvania, and so on.

Number two: China, in reply to a question I put to them directly as to whether they would use the election in the United States to renege, or to attain the opportunity for global leadership on this issue, they said they would continue with global leadership on the path they promised last year. So I think we can be encouraged.

The word that we can use to describe this movement now is ‘unstoppable’. In answer to Mr Helmer, the climate change movement is alive and well, not dead; it is alive and well and living across the world. It will continue to grow. We have to do an awful lot, especially in relation to the developing countries. The EUR 100 billion fund will have to be attained. Energy use in Africa is going to treble over the next number of years, and double in Southeast Asia. So we have to help those countries, because they are also anxious to move, as they see the actual effects – on a daily basis – of global warming and climate change to their economies.


  Enrique Guerrero Salom (S&D). – Señora Presidenta, el cambio climático es el principal reto que tenemos por delante. No solamente nos jugamos qué tipo de futuro vaya a tener la humanidad, sino el hecho mismo de que la humanidad vaya a tener futuro. Y no tenemos tiempo que perder, ya se ha perdido mucho tiempo. París fue un gran paso adelante, pero en la aplicación del Acuerdo de París es donde nos jugamos realmente nuestra respuesta al cambio climático. Marrakech puede ser visto con optimismo, pero hay algunas reacciones, fundamentalmente las de los Estados Unidos, que nos llevan a la preocupación.

Pero quería subrayar los aspectos humanitarios. El cambio climático intensifica los desastres naturales, acelera la destrucción de los ecosistemas, provoca hambrunas prolongadas, sequías devastadoras, y son los más vulnerables los que sufren esta realidad. Tenemos que acelerar el apoyo financiero a esos más vulnerables. Como ha señalado el ACNUR, en torno a 27 millones de personas se convierten en refugiados cada año por razones climáticas. En pocas décadas puede haber centenares de millones en el mundo. Como ha señalado la Cruz Roja, el cambio político climático es el principal freno a la lucha contra el hambre. Por tanto, no tenemos tiempo que perder; no podemos aceptar frenos cuando se trata de frenar el calentamiento global; no podemos aceptar, mucho menos, pasos hacia atrás.


  Νότης Μαριάς ( ECR). – Κυρία Πρόεδρε, η κλιματική αλλαγή αποτελεί αδιαμφισβήτητα απειλή για το περιβάλλον και τον άνθρωπο. Ο Παγκόσμιος Οργανισμός Υγείας υπολογίζει ότι 12,5 εκατομμύρια θάνατοι ετησίως συνδέονται με τη ρύπανση του περιβάλλοντος, ενώ 6,5 εκατομμύρια από αυτούς σχετίζονται με την ατμοσφαιρική ρύπανση από οικιακές και εξωτερικές πηγές. Επίσης περίπου το ήμισυ του συνόλου των παιδικών θανάτων από πνευμονία οφείλεται στην εσωτερική ρύπανση του αέρα.

Χρειάζονται πιο ολοκληρωμένες πολιτικές. Χρειάζονται λύσεις και μέτρα που να ανατρέπουν την υποβάθμιση του περιβάλλοντος και τα προβλήματα υγείας που προκαλούν. Ένα επιπλέον μείζον θέμα που πρέπει να τεθεί στη συμφωνία του Μαρακές είναι οι πρόσφυγες λόγω κλιματικών αλλαγών που διαρκώς αυξάνονται. Υπολογίζεται ότι μεταξύ του 2008 και του 2013 οι κλιματικοί πρόσφυγες ανέρχονταν σε 166 εκατομμύρια, ενώ ο αριθμός αυτός αυξάνεται.

Τέλος, κύριε Cañete, αναμένω την απάντησή σας στο ερώτημα που σας έθεσα προηγουμένως για την αιθαλομίχλη στην Ελλάδα και την αναγκαιότητα μείωσης του ειδικού φόρου κατανάλωσης στο πετρέλαιο θέρμανσης.


  Νεοκλής Συλικιώτης ( GUE/NGL). – Κυρία Πρόεδρε, με τη Συμφωνία του Παρισιού επιτεύχθηκε ένα σημαντικό πλαίσιο για την αντιμετώπιση των κλιματικών αλλαγών. Ωστόσο, ο σκοπός της 22ης Συνόδου για το Κλίμα, που συνίσταται στην ανάπτυξη εθνικών σχεδίων δράσης και στην προώθηση ειδικότερων στόχων, ώστε να ενισχυθούν οι δράσεις έως το 2020 και να στηριχθεί έτσι η εφαρμογή της Συμφωνίας του Παρισιού, απέτυχε.

Δυστυχώς, στο Μαρακές δεν επετεύχθη η πρόοδος που αναμέναμε για άμεση δράση ούτε τέθηκαν φιλόδοξοι στόχοι βάσει των αναγκών των λαών και όχι βάσει των συμφερόντων των πολυεθνικών και των μονοπωλίων. Για αυτό μείναμε και πάλι στις εξαγγελίες, ενώ δεν λήφθηκαν δεσμευτικές αποφάσεις για ουσιαστική δράση.

Κύριε Επίτροπε, η Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωση και τα πλούσια κράτη, ανεξάρτητα από το τι θα κάνουν οι ΗΠΑ, οφείλουν άμεσα να προχωρήσουν σε συνεργασία με την Κίνα και άλλα κράτη, να στηρίξουν τις αναπτυσσόμενες χώρες, να αναπτύξουν ολοκληρωμένο σχέδιο δράσης για την καταπολέμηση της ενεργειακής φτώχειας, για τον τερματισμό της αλόγιστης χρήσης των φυσικών πόρων και της αποψίλωσης των δασών, για τη μείωση των εκπομπών του θερμοκηπίου και την προώθηση των ανανεώσιμων πηγών ενέργειας.


  Gilles Lebreton (ENF). – Madame la Présidente, il est nécessaire de limiter le réchauffement de l'atmosphère pour préserver l'avenir de l'humanité. 197 États en ont pris conscience et ont signé l'accord de Paris, en 2015, par lequel ils s'engagent à réduire leurs émissions de carbone. La conférence de Marrakech, dite COP22, vient de faire le point sur le lancement des premières mesures concrètes. Le bilan est encore modeste, mais déjà encourageant.

Premièrement, le Fonds vert de 100 milliards de dollars va être utilisé pour aider le Liberia et le Népal à hauteur d'environ 2 millions de dollars chacun. Deuxièmement, une plateforme des stratégies 2050 réunit 22 États, 15 grandes villes, 17 régions et 196 entreprises pour accélérer la réduction des émissions de carbone. Troisièmement, l'Allemagne s'engage à atteindre l'objectif "zéro émission" en 2050 et accueillera la prochaine conférence sur le climat dans un an.

Malgré tout, il est à craindre que nous n'éviterons pas des bouleversements climatiques qui généreront des crises et des migrations. Tous les États, y compris les États-Unis d'Amérique, doivent continuer à coopérer pour en atténuer l'ampleur.


  Jerzy Buzek (PPE). – Madam President, I would like to thank the Commissioner for once again leading the negotiations for the EU successfully. Marrakech was not about ground-breaking issues. It was about how to turn the Paris commitments into reality: that was the main topic. We have a clear message to our partners, especially the major economies: the Paris Agreement is our joint achievement and our joint responsibility. We have to deliver it together.

My question, Commissioner, is this: how did they really answer, and what did you feel? Not only the regional proposals are important but also your general feeling. The second issue is that of our ‘homework’ – the internal responsibility of the European Union with regard to the ETS, proper reform of the ETS system to prevent carbon leakage and stimulate modernisation in a gradual and technological neutral way. We simply have to do this homework: otherwise, firstly, we neglect our share of global responsibility; secondly, we increase global emissions; and, thirdly, we endanger our competitiveness. All three of these are unacceptable.

(The speaker agreed to take a blue-card question under Rule 162(8))


  Michèle Rivasi (Verts/ALE), question "carton bleu". – Monsieur Buzek, vous êtes très sensible au problème du réchauffement climatique – vous voulez des actions –, mais je me pose la question de la compatibilité entre des accords climatiques forts et contraignants au niveau de chaque État et les accords de libre-échange. Ne trouvez-vous pas que des accords tels que le TAFTA et le CETA sont incompatibles avec les accords climatiques? Quelle est votre position à ce sujet?


  Jerzy Buzek (PPE), odpowiedź na pytanie zadane przez podniesienie niebieskiej kartki. – To właśnie jest pytanie również do pana komisarza i do Komisji. Z mojego punktu widzenia powinniśmy przede wszystkim zabiegać o to, żebyśmy nie byli jedyną wielką gospodarką na świecie, która naprawdę walczy ze zmianami klimatycznymi. Na razie jesteśmy dość osamotnieni i nie pomożemy w walce z klimatem, jeśli nadal tak będzie. Nasza sytuacja międzynarodowa i wpływ na nią jest tej chwili najważniejszy, a jeśli dzisiaj spowodujemy wyciek emisji na skutek złych decyzji odnośnie ETS-u – wyciek emisji, czyli wyciek miejsc pracy z Unii Europejskiej – to de facto globalna emisja zwiększy się, a nie zmniejszy, gdyż emisja poza granicami Unii jest większa. A więc ostrożnie z reformą ETS-u, żebyśmy nie zniszczyli własnej gospodarki, gdyż jest to groźniejsze dla zmian klimatycznych niż jakiekolwiek ostre reguły ETS-u.


  Miriam Dalli (S&D). – Fil-fatt, quddiem l-aħħar żviluppi fl-Istati Uniti, COP22 uriet id-determinazzjoni ta' kważi mitejn mexxej minn madwar id-dinja li jridu li l-ftehim ta' Pariġi jkun suċċess. U dak li ġara f'Marakex huwa xhieda oħra ta' kemm il-mudell ta' Pariġi fejn għandek it-tmexxija maqsuma bejn gvernijiet, bliet, reġjuni u kumpaniji privati qiegħed, fil-fatt, jaħdem u huwa b'saħħtu.

Iżda biex tassew jirnexxi, pajjiżi sinjuri u żviluppati jridu jonoraw il-wegħda li jipprovdu sostenn finanzjarju u jassistu lil dawk il-pajjiżi li għadhom qegħdin jiżviluppaw, biex jindirizzaw bis-serjetà t-tibdil fil-klima. Mexxejja minn madwar id-dinja jridu jirrikonoxxu li l-ġlieda kontra t-tibdil fil-klima hija dover urġenti u li d-dinja kollha trid tiġbed ħabel wieħed. Il-messaġġ huwa wieħed ċar. Jekk pajjiż jaħseb li għandu joħroġ mill-ftehim ta' Pariġi u ma jonorax l-obbligi tiegħu, il-pajjiżi l-oħra se jżidu l-pressjoni.

Nixtieq niffoka issa fuq il-ħeffa ta' implimentazzjoni, li s'issa kienet waħda inkonsistenti ħafna. It-tibdil fid-dinja reali qiegħed jiġri b'aktar ħeffa minn dak li qegħdin jimxu bih il-gvernijiet fin-negozjati u t-taħdidiet f'Marakex urew li ma nistgħux immorru lura mit-tranżizzjoni lejn enerġija aktar nadifa.

Huwa evidenti li l-gvernijiet iridu jibdew jiċċaqalqu, iridu jaġixxu aktar malajr biex ikun hemm tranżizzjoni sostenibbli u cost-effective għall-benefiċċju tal-pajjiżi tagħna, tal-ekonomiji tagħna, u taċ-ċittadini tagħna. B'dan il-mod biss nistgħu naċċertaw li mill-kliem, bis-serjetà, ngħaddu għall-fatti.


  Maria Lidia Senra Rodríguez (GUE/NGL). – Senhora Presidente, Senhor Cañete, quero manifestar a nossa preocupação pelo uso que pretendem fazer da agricultara na luta contra as alterações climáticas, dizer-lhe que não aceitaremos que a tornem um elemento contável para manter, ou mesmo aumentar, as emissões.

Não acreditamos em falsas soluções como a chamada agricultura climaticamente inteligente. Também não consentiremos a pressão sobre as terras agrícolas ou a financeirização dos recursos naturais. Para nós, é imprescindível avançar na redução das emissões. E é por isso que defendemos a agricultura baseada na agroecologia, a atribuição de prioridade aos mercados de proximidade e aos circuitos curtos de comercialização como elemento-chave para outra PAC que terá de ser descrita no quadro da soberania alimentar.

Deploramos a instrumentalização da COP22 por parte de Marrocos, condenamos a expulsão da deputada sarauí Selma Beiruk e apoiamos a decisão do Parlamento Pan—Africano de se retirar da COP22.


  Elisabeth Köstinger (PPE). – Frau Präsidentin, sehr geehrter Herr Kommissar! Nach den großen Überschriften, die in Paris beschlossen wurden, geht es jetzt wirklich darum, in Marrakesch eben auch die entsprechende Umsetzung voranzutreiben.

Treibhausgase lassen sich nicht von Grenzen aufhalten, und beim Klima sitzen wir wirklich weltweit alle im selben Boot. Wir können uns leider nicht aussuchen, ob unser Sitznachbar in diesem Boot an den Klimawandel glaubt oder nicht. Ich halte es jetzt für sehr wichtig, auch abseits dieser Spekulationen festzuhalten, dass Europa nicht allein in der Lage sein wird, auch die weltweiten Herausforderungen zu stemmen. Umso wichtiger ist ein starkes gemeinsames Bekenntnis zum Pariser Übereinkommen.

Die Klimafinanzierung und die Aufteilung zwischen Nord und Süd, zwischen Inseln und Festland werden in den kommenden Jahren wirklich massiv unsere Politik prägen. Es ist wichtig und richtig, dass wir hier diesen Weg eingeschlagen haben. Die EU ist auch auf dem besten Weg, ihre 2020- und 2030-Ziele zu erreichen, und mit dem Klimapaket, den Vorschlägen zur Effort Sharing Decision und vielen anderen mehr haben wir auch die richtigen Grundlagen dafür.

Gerade die Landwirtschaft ist massiv von den Auswirkungen des Klimawandels betroffen und es liegt, glaube ich, in unserer Hand, gemeinsam mit der Wirtschaft und den Innovationen in Europa uns für die Klimazukunft zu wappnen. Klimaschulden auf Kosten unserer Enkel müssen wirklich dem Ende angehören.


  Christel Schaldemose (S&D). – Fru formand! COP 22 i Marrakesh markerer tydeligt, at Paris-klimaaftalen er kommet for at blive. Det er både godt og nødvendigt, for klimaforandringerne påvirker millioner af mennesker og miljøet negativt. Så tak for et rigtig godt stykke arbejde i Marrakesh. Men COP 22 må ikke blive en sovepude, for løfter er én ting, handlinger er noget helt andet! Og ikke mindst set i lyset af det amerikanske præsidentvalg tror jeg, at vi i Europa skal spille en endnu større og endnu stærkere rolle, vi skal tage mere ansvar på os. Det betyder, at vi også bliver nødt til at øge vores ambitioner. Derfor henvender jeg mig også direkte til Rådet i dag. Det er særligt vores medlemslande i EU, som er fodslæbende. Det er medlemslande, som ikke reelt vil løfte ambitionerne. Et godt råd: Tag nu ansvar! Gør nu mere! Løft ambitionerne! Det er den eneste måde, vi kan få løst klimaforandringerne på.


  Michel Dantin (PPE). – Madame la Présidente, Monsieur le Commissaire, je tiens tout d'abord à saluer le pays hôte de cette 22e conférence des Nations unies sur l'action pour le climat, le Maroc, qui a œuvré pour que cette COP s'inscrive dans le sillon de l'accord historique qui a été adopté l'an dernier à Paris.

La COP21 a marqué un tournant dans la coopération internationale pour lutter contre le changement climatique. Cet accord est scellé. Chaque État, chaque peuple doit maintenant honorer ses engagements. À Marrakech, cette année, et à Bonn, demain, l'effort doit se concentrer sur la mise en œuvre de l'accord de Paris. Or, nous le constatons, la COP22 a engagé cette dynamique mais les négociations demeurent lentes et difficiles.

Permettez-moi d'attirer votre attention sur le sujet de l'eau. Je constate avec regret que, trop souvent, nous faisons de l'approvisionnement en eau de qualité et en quantité suffisante un acquis. Pourtant, le changement climatique et la croissance démographique sont des menaces sans précédent. 80 % des emplois dans le monde dépendent de l'accès à un approvisionnement en eau. La bonne gestion de l'eau est donc un défi prioritaire. C'est un sujet transversal qui devrait être au cœur de l'action pour le climat.

La COP22 a consacré une journée à l'eau, ce qui constitue une avancée. Cet événement a mis en évidence l'hyperactivité de la société civile qui innove au quotidien, invente et développe pour améliorer la gestion de l'eau et rationaliser les usages. Les acteurs de l'eau sont prêts à relever ce défi.

Ce dont nous avons besoin aujourd'hui, c'est d'un portage politique et d'un cadre d'action pour libérer le potentiel de l'économie bleue. Plusieurs principes clés me semblent prioritaires: mieux prendre en compte l'interaction au climat et généraliser le système des bassins hydrographiques, échelle la plus pertinente pour une bonne gestion de l'eau.

Le succès de la COP dépend d'une meilleure gestion de l'eau. C'est une ressource essentielle à la vie qui mérite toute notre attention dans le cadre de notre action pour le climat.


  Linda McAvan (S&D). – Madam President, I have a question for Commissioner Cañete. As Chair of the Development Committee, I want to ask what link you see, Commissioner, between what we are talking about today and the package adopted by the Commission yesterday? Because the Commission adopted two communications, one on the next steps for a sustainable European future and one on the consensus for development, and it seems to me that the link to be made with Paris is a golden opportunity to have real policy coherence for development. So I hope we will work together in this Parliament, and also that the various parts of the Commission will work together.

The second opportunity concerns energy in Africa and developing countries, and I thank Claude Turmes for talking about the external investment plan because this is an extremely important opportunity, and we have not talked much today about Africa and developing countries. Seventy percent of African energy now comes from renewables, mainly biomass. In Marrakech, 47 developing countries, I think, pledged to invest in renewable energy, and we should be helping them to do that. I hope, Commissioner Cañete, that you will be working with Commissioners Mimica and Timmermans and the others in order to get a coherent EU policy.


Interventions à la demande


  Nicola Caputo (S&D). – Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, il summit di Marrakech avrebbe dovuto occuparsi dell'applicazione dell'accordo di Parigi sul cambiamento climatico. In realtà non è stato così: ancora molte promesse e pochi fatti.

Peccato però che il cambiamento climatico non procede a piccoli passi, visto che l'Organizzazione meteorologica mondiale ha comunicato che il 2016 si avvia a diventare l'anno più caldo dal 1880 ad oggi. Di questo passo l'accordo di Parigi, anche se fosse implementato, nonostante le dichiarazioni di Donald Trump, non basterà a tenerci entro i due gradi di riscaldamento globale. La finanza climatica con fondi come il Green Climate Fund dovrebbe mobilitare finanziamenti per 100 miliardi di dollari all'anno a partire dal 2020, ma finora ha raccolto per l'adattamento climatico solo 81 milioni, e per il 91 % dall'Europa.

Bisogna riequilibrare le risorse destinate alla mitigazione dei cambiamenti climatici con quelle impiegate per le politiche di adattamento. Se non risolveremo questo problema, il rischio sarà quello di dividere la comunità internazionale.


  Izaskun Bilbao Barandica (ALDE). – Señora Presidenta, quiero expresar aquí mi satisfacción por el ritmo y los plazos que se han acordado en la Cumbre de Marrakech para completar las normas del Acuerdo de París y porque, tanto en la ciudad marroquí como en las cumbres de Lyon, París o Quito, se va consolidando el papel regional y local en la lucha contra el cambio climático.

Son las ciudades y las regiones quienes mejor conocen la situación medioambiental de su territorio, quienes son titulares de competencias como el urbanismo o la movilidad y quienes, gracias a su proximidad, impulsan los cambios culturales y de hábitos que son imprescindibles para descarbonizar el planeta.

Por eso espero que, a nivel europeo, se profundice en la consideración institucional de agentes fundamentales para que Europa sea un referente en el planeta, con bajas emisiones. Para ello se han organizado en entidades, como The Climate Group, naciones y regiones para el desarrollo sostenible, por lo que me gustaría saber, señor Cañete, cómo la Comisión está adaptando sus métodos para trabajar con este tipo de organizaciones.


  Laura Ferrara (EFDD). – Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, una delle conseguenze più allarmanti del cambiamento climatico, riconducibile all'azione dell'uomo, sono le migrazioni causate dai disastri ambientali.

Secondo l'Organizzazione internazionale per le Migrazioni, entro il 2050, almeno 200-250 milioni di persone saranno costrette a spostarsi a causa dei cambiamenti climatici; ciò vuol dire una persona ogni 45 nel mondo, una media di 6 milioni di donne e uomini costretti ogni anno a lasciare i propri territori.

Sono numeri spaventosi che potrebbero addirittura raggiungere, se si realizzasse il più drammatico degli scenari immaginati dall'agenzia delle Nazioni Unite, l'impressionante cifra di un miliardo di profughi ambientali. Da questo punto di vista, purtroppo, gli impegni assunti dalla COP22 appaiono ancora deboli.

In attesa che gli Stati diano seguito concretamente agli impegni solennemente assunti a Marrakesh, auspico che il Parlamento europeo sappia cogliere l'occasione offerta dalla riforma della legislazione in materia di asilo per fornire adeguato riconoscimento e tutela ai rifugiati ambientali.


  Ελευθέριος Συναδινός ( NI). – Κυρία Πρόεδρε, στη συνάντηση του Μαρακές στην 22η Σύνοδο της Διάσκεψης των Μερών της Σύμβασης-Πλαισίου των Ηνωμένων Εθνών για την Κλιματική Αλλαγή σηματοδοτήθηκε η στροφή από τα χρόνια της διαπραγμάτευσης στη νέα φάση η οποία επικεντρώνεται στην εφαρμογή, χωρίς βέβαια αυτό να σηματοδοτεί τίποτε το χειροπιαστό ακόμα.

Η μετάβαση είναι μια πρόκληση, μετά και τη Συμφωνία του Παρισιού λόγω της φύσης της διαφοροποίησης μεταξύ των ανεπτυγμένων και των αναπτυσσόμενων χωρών. Απαιτούνται περαιτέρω αποφάσεις για ένα ευρύ φάσμα θεμάτων, μεταξύ άλλων, τον μετριασμό, την προσαρμογή, τη χρηματοδότηση, τη διαφάνεια, τις διαδικασίες, τους μηχανισμούς της αγοράς, την εφαρμογή και τη συμμόρφωση.

Ο νεοεκλεγείς πρόεδρος Trump δεσμεύτηκε για επανεξέταση, ακόμη και για κατάργηση της Συμφωνίας του Παρισιού. Ίσως η νέα Συμφωνία αποτελεί μια χρυσή ευκαιρία για αναθεώρηση των πεδίων πολιτικής εφαρμογής των τομέων της Συμφωνίας.


  Dubravka Šuica (PPE). – Gospođo predsjednice, godinu dana poslije Pariza se dogodio Marakeš. Smatram da je to nova faza i da je dobro da je Pariz stupio na snagu. Indikativna je brojka od 118 potpisnika – to je rok koji je bez presedana. Postignuti su rezultati, sada nam predstoji implementacija. Dakle, najvažnija je implementacija. Ali smatram da je Marakeš bio jaka politička deklaracija kako bi se implementiralo sve iz Pariza.

Dakle, provedba Pariškog sporazuma je vrlo važna, ali treba uzeti u obzir najnovije izjave predsjednika Trumpa i rezultate američkih izbora. Ne vjerujem da će ono što je govorio u predizbornoj kampanji i što ovih dana govori izvršiti, ali u svakom slučaju ostajemo odlučni i hvala vam na tome.

Provoditi sporazum, preuzeti odgovornost, zaštititi zemlju i predati je budućim generacijama. Smatram da je ovo velika prekretnica, jer moramo smanjiti stakleničke emisije, više koristiti obnovljive izvore energije te razmotriti energetsku učinkovitost.


  Jean-Paul Denanot (S&D). – Madame la Présidente, Monsieur le Commissaire, il est clair que l'accord de Paris lors de la COP21 a été un grand moment de prise de conscience du monde sur la question du réchauffement climatique. Sa mise en œuvre effective – et rapide d'ailleurs, après l'accord de l'Union européenne, mais aussi de grands États comme la Chine, désormais moteur dans ce domaine, et les États-Unis –, a été une deuxième bonne nouvelle. La COP22 à Marrakech a confirmé et élargi cet engagement, ce qui est une troisième bonne nouvelle.

Mais il y a aussi une mauvaise nouvelle, celle de l'élection de Donald Trump aux États-Unis, qui a exprimé sa volonté de sortir de l'accord. Les États-Unis font, jusqu'à nouvel ordre, partie intégrante de notre planète. Ils feraient bien de prendre aussi conscience des conséquences du réchauffement climatique sur leur propre territoire, avec notamment les dérèglements climatiques dont ils sont régulièrement victimes.

Si tous les pays se mettent ensemble pour pousser les États-Unis à respecter leur signature, nous avons quelques chances de réussir, mais il faut que tous les pays se mettent ensemble, y compris les ONG et toutes les parties prenantes.


  Karin Kadenbach (S&D). – Frau Präsidentin, Herr Kommissar! Es ist nicht direkt der Klimawandel und es ist nicht direkt die Energieproduktion, mit der ich mich jetzt befassen möchte, aber mit deren Auswirkungen. Wir diskutieren im Moment sehr heftig, dass wir die Fauna-Flora-Habitat-Richtlinie erhalten wollen, wie sie ist. Denn es wird auch in Zukunft von wichtiger Bedeutung sein, wie Artenschutz, wie Biodiversität in der Europäischen Union als Vorbild für andere Länder dieser Erde, aber auch als Rückzugsgebiet von Pflanzen, von Tieren funktionieren. Das heißt: Meine Bitte ist – auch in Betracht der COP 22, der Auswirkungen des Klimawandels auf die Europäische Union und auf unsere Umwelt –, dass wir hier dieses Paket nicht wieder aufmachen, sondern die bestehende Gesetzgebung, die Implementierung und die Kontrolle weiter überwachen. Riskieren wir mit REFIT nicht etwas, was funktioniert!


(Fin des interventions à la demande)


  Miguel Arias Cañete, Miembro de la Comisión. – Señora Presidenta, yo quisiera trasladar mi agradecimiento a todas las señoras y señores diputados que han intervenido en este debate y que ponen de manifiesto el interés de esta Cámara por las políticas de cambio climático.

Es evidente que la Comisión ha desarrollado un papel muy intenso. Lo hicimos en París, poniendo en marcha la ambición de la gran coalición; en Marrakech, en unas negociaciones que son distintas, mucho más técnicas, pero avanzando en la hoja de ruta. Y tendremos que seguir en futuras COP, futuras COP que van a ser muy diferentes, no van a tener ese elemento de negociación política tan acusado que tuvo París, pero van a ser unas COP que técnicamente son importantes para dotar al Acuerdo de París de los instrumentos necesarios para su puesta en marcha y, por otra parte, van a ser COP de implementación, de desarrollar nuestras políticas.

En esta COP lo que hemos visto es que los actores no gubernamentales tenían una presencia muy importante: municipios, regiones, comunidades autónomas, oenegés, sociedad civil, compañías de energía, compañías de energías renovables, de eficiencia energética, actores económicos, actores sociales. Ha sido una COP, como van a ser las COP futuras, de ver las mejores prácticas. Me planteaban la pregunta de cuál es la actitud de la Comisión respeto a los actores no gubernamentales: de máxima colaboración y apertura. Hemos trabajado muy estrechamente con el Covenant of Mayors, porque entendíamos que las ciudades eran un crisol de experiencias de cambio climático muy potente, y seguiremos trabajando con el resto de actores no gubernamentales, con el Comité de las Regiones y con todos estos actores, porque la lucha contra el cambio climático es un bottom up, no es up bottom, y, por lo tanto, tenemos que hacerla de manera enormemente participativa.

Yo quiero decir que 2016 ha sido un año muy positivo para el cambio climático. 2015 tuvo el emblemático Acuerdo de París, pero en 2016 lo hemos ratificado —la Unión Europea y muchos de sus Estados miembros, en este momento dieciséis Estados miembros, ya lo han ratificado—; ha entrado en vigor gracias a la ratificación europea, y hemos desarrollado la COP 22 de acuerdo con las expectativas que estaban encima de la mesa e incluso con el Plan de Acción de Marrakech, que supone el compromiso de todas las partes de mantener la acción a un nivel importante y de ejecutar nuestras políticas.

El señor Helmer ha dicho que París estaba muerto. Pues «los muertos que Vos matáis gozan de buena salud», porque París está vivito y coleando, que se dice en español, en castellano, y, si algo vi en Marrakech era el deseo de todo el mundo de seguir adelante. Y se ha planteado el problema de China. Ante un horizonte de incertidumbre, es evidente que China y la Unión Europea tienen que aproximarse para mantener ese liderazgo permanente en la lucha contra el cambio climático, desarrollando nuestras políticas. Y la Unión Europea puede estar orgullosa y acudir a estas negociaciones teniendo activos muy importantes que justifican que pueda participar en el liderazgo mundial. Porque tenemos el objetivo de reducción de emisiones más ambicioso, como mínimo un 40 % con acción doméstica, no con créditos internacionales. En segundo lugar, somos la única de las partes que, en este momento, ha lanzado (o va a lanzar la semana que viene) toda la legislación necesaria para cumplir sus objetivos climáticos, mediante legislación, no mediante decisiones presidenciales. Y eso es un factor diferencial, porque, al margen de los distintos resultados electorales que pueda haber en los veintiocho Estados miembros, las políticas permanecen constantes, y ese es un valor del que podemos presumir los europeos.

Y, finalmente, tenemos la solidaridad financiera internacional, el respeto de los países en vías de desarrollo. Podemos orquestar grandes coaliciones con países en vías desarrollo porque somos solidarios financieramente; porque somos los que más financiación climática ponemos encima de la mesa, y además, coordinadamente con nuestras políticas de desarrollo. El comisario Mimica y yo trabajamos juntos. Somos los que más aportamos en financiación climática; somos los que financiamos el 50 % del Fondo Verde por el Clima; financiamos el 90 % del Fondo de Adaptación, y nos respetan los países en vías de desarrollo. No es una obra de este comisario, es obra de unas políticas muy consistentes, que justifican que la voz de la Unión Europea pueda sonar fuerte y buscar alianzas que en el futuro serán complejas.

Y tendremos que tender las alianzas a la India, lo ha dicho el señor Eickhout: es fundamental contar con la India, un país que tiene una demografía impresionante y unas emisiones de CO2 igualmente impresionantes, como su demografía. Tendremos que hacer aproximaciones a los grandes emisores, para liberar la reducción de las mismas. Por lo tanto, los retos que tenemos por delante son importantes.

Señor Turmes, a usted le consta que yo lucho por tener el paquete más ambicioso posible, y me conoce bien. Por lo tanto, en este empeño estaremos juntos. Yo lanzaré un paquete importante y luego, como ha dicho aquí la señora Van Brempt, el Parlamento también tendrá sus responsabilidades, empezando por el sistema europeo de derechos de emisión, fundamental para los sectores industriales; siguiendo por los sectores difusos —la agricultura, los edificios, el transporte—; y, finalmente, desarrollando la innovación tecnológica que nos permita liderar los procesos de eficiencia energética y renovables en el mundo.

Para todo esto sé que cuento con este Parlamento. Es muy agradable trabajar en una política que, en un momento de división en la Unión Europea, es una política que concita unidad. Hubo unidad en el Consejo de Medio Ambiente, bajo la Presidencia eslovaca, para lanzar el proceso de ratificación; ha habido unidad en este Parlamento para dar su consentimiento a esa ratificación; ha habido unidad en los Parlamentos nacionales, pues ya dieciséis Parlamentos de la Unión Europea han ratificado este proceso.

Y quería decirle una cosa a la señora Estefanía Torres Martínez —que me parece que no está— cuando criticaba la falta de ratificación en el país que yo conozco: hombre, debería decir toda la verdad. El Gobierno estaba en funciones durante todo el año pasado y un gobierno en funciones, con la Constitución española, no puede ratificar un acuerdo. Pero el primer acto que tomó el Gobierno del país que mejor conozco, tras la investidura, fue lanzar el proceso de ratificación. Lo cual demuestra que en toda la Unión Europea las políticas de cambio climático son políticas que concitan unidad, ambición y esperanza.


  Ivan Korčok, President-in-Office of the Council. – Madam President, thank you and I thank all those honourable Members who have spoken. I will not repeat what I stressed at the beginning of this debate, on behalf of the Council. Instead I would like to consider today’s debate because its title was to assess the outcome of Marrakech. That was extremely important, and many thanks to all those who agreed that Marrakech was a success for the European Union.

But this debate was more than a stocktaking of what happened in Marrakech. For me the political message from here is to maintain the momentum for our common political commitment to continue the work because we know that what matters at the end of the day is implementation.

Secondly, several of you referred to the Council. I dare say that, this year, the Council has delivered, and I thank Commissioner Cañete for reminding us that this was the case. We have been working hard and I am sure I can say that the upcoming Maltese and Estonian Presidencies will be equally committed. By the way, the Slovak Presidency is coming to an end, but we are still working hard and we hope that, at the meeting of the Environment Council in December, we will have an agreement on the ETS.

Fourthly and lastly, I would like to thank Parliament for its cooperation throughout the year, including its committed cooperation on the spot in Marrakech, and in particular to thank Mr La Via, Chair of the Committee on the Environment, Public Health and Food Safety, for his leadership.


  La Présidente. – Le débat est clos.

Déclarations écrites (article 162)


  Nicola Danti (S&D), per iscritto. – Valuto in maniera decisamente positiva l'esito della Conferenza delle Parti recentemente svoltasi in Marocco. Credo che l'adozione di modelli di crescita compatibili con la tutela dell'ambiente sia oggi, come non mai nella storia dell'umanità, una priorità assoluta. La volontà della comunità internazionale di definire, entro il 2018, una road map per dare concreta attuazione all'accordo di Parigi, costituisce un importantissimo segnale di speranza per la salute e il futuro del nostro pianeta.

Sebbene rimangano ancora diversi nodi da risolvere, come le criticità inerenti all'istituzione del Green Climate Fund, sono convinto che il programma di lavoro e le scadenze temporali stabilite siano la testimonianza di una rinnovata sensibilità in materia ambientale da parte dell'intera comunità internazionale che deve renderci ottimisti.


  Benedek Jávor (Verts/ALE), in writing. – At COP22, parties reaffirmed their collective commitment to implement the Paris Agreement – despite the outcome of the US elections.

Unfortunately, the EU has also failed to put forward any new measures to help close the emission gap, to hold global warming to well below 2°C, and to pursue efforts to limit it to 1,5°C. Thus, COP24 in 2018 will be the next moment for countries to increase their ambition and scale up emission reduction pledges, and the EU’s leadership is crucial. We must start walking the talk and prioritise energy transition by ramping up our own policies and inadequate climate and energy targets.

To this end, now we need an ambitious energy winter package for 2030 which promotes energy savings and efficiency measures, high renewables penetration as well as proper governance of the Energy Union. However, it seems that EC rather wants to subsidise new fossil fuel capacities and undermine market access for renewables.

The credibility of the EU and our common future is at stake. We need to take commitments made in Paris seriously: substantially reducing GHG emissions in the short term and bringing emissions to zero in the longer term –it is our only chance.


  Paloma López Bermejo (GUE/NGL), por escrito. – No comparto la valoración optimista de los resultados de esta COP 22. Criticamos el Acuerdo de París por limitarse a compromisos voluntarios y por fijar la reducción de temperaturas a 1,5 °C en lugar de los 2 °C exigidos por la comunidad científica. Esta cumbre no va más allá de estos planteamientos y, en acuerdos concretos, los países más industrializados han demostrado de nuevo su falta de compromiso y de visión. Por el contrario, este ha sido el show de las empresas y las finanzas, con sus macroproyectos y fondos financieros con los que parasitar la economía verde para su propio beneficio. No ha sido ajeno a este giro, tampoco, el anfitrión, el Reino de Marruecos, que también ha utilizado la propaganda verde para normalizar ante la comunidad internacional su ocupación del Sáhara Occidental. Lamento no haber encontrado en sus palabras una condena explícita a los nuevos proyectos verdes que ahondarán en el expolio de los recursos saharauis o contra la expulsión de Sueilma Beiruk, parlamentaria saharaui, que desencadenó la ausencia de toda la delegación de la Unión Africana. Europa falta a sus compromisos climáticos, pero también, a sus compromisos de paz.


  Miguel Viegas (GUE/NGL), por escrito. – Terminou a vigésima segunda sessão da Conferência das Partes - COP 22, em Marraquexe. O objetivo de avançar na definição de regras para a concretização do Acordo de Paris não foi alcançado.

Um evento que devia ter arrancado com medidas para a mitigação das emissões de gases com efeito de estufa e para a adaptação às alterações climáticas acabou por se transformar numa enorme desilusão.

A anunciada Carta de Marraquexe não consegue ir mais além do que reconhecer que é necessário concluir o programa de trabalho no âmbito do Acordo de Paris “o mais rapidamente possível”, colocando como limite temporal a COP 24, que reunirá no final de 2018.

Ficou de novo evidente que o Acordo de Paris, que entrou em vigor no dia 4 de novembro, só passará do papel com uma forte mobilização dos povos e dos trabalhadores em defesa do ambiente e do clima, e pela transformação da nossa sociedade com um outro modelo de desenvolvimento, o socialismo.

Informacja prawna - Polityka ochrony prywatności