Texte intégral 
Jeudi 15 décembre 2016 - Strasbourg Edition révisée

4.1. Les cas de l'académie bouddhiste tibétaine Larung Gar et d'Ilham Tohti
Vidéo des interventions

  Elnök asszony. – A következő napirendi pont vita hat, a Larung Gar tibeti buddhista akadémia és Ilham Tohti ügyével kapcsolatos állásfoglalásra irányuló indítványról (2016/3026(RSP)).


  Charles Tannock, author. – Madam President, China’s destruction of certain buildings at the Larung Gar Buddhist Academy is just the beginning of a plan that will see the influential centre reduced in size by half. Such wanton destruction is totally unwarranted and represents part of an incredibly hard-line approach taken towards the Tibetan question under President Xi Jinping.

Early in September, we witnessed that the postponement of the European Parliament delegation visit to the PRC in response to the visit of the Dalai Lama to Brussels and his meeting with President Schulz. More recently, we have seen ties between Mongolia and China being strained after the Dalai Lama visited Ulaanbaatar last month.

China has responded by closing and disrupting travel at the border between these two countries, in a move that threatens the important economic links that they share. As the direction of US policy towards China becomes increasingly unpredictable, following the election of Donald Trump and his pledge to scrap the Trans-Pacific Partnership, we will see a more assertive stance from the PRC in the region. Such an approach can only be detrimental to Tibet and Xinjiang, where unfortunately Ilham Tohti – who is also in the resolution – is in prison for his advocacy rights for the Uyghur minority, and of course Taiwan. So clearly things are looking extremely uncomfortable in Tibet right now.


  Fabio Massimo Castaldo, author. – Madam President, once again we take note of this serious violation and restriction that the Chinese Government casually adopts in the implementation of its policies to all those who stand apart from and oppose the line dictated by the state.

In Tibet the latest violation is this time against nuns and monks who inhabit one of the most representative Buddhist institutions, that of Larung Gar. Here the Chinese authorities have decided to reduce the number of inhabitants by more than half, which amounts to nearly 10 000, and then to begin on major indiscriminate demolition work.

I would also recall here the case of Ilham Tohti, the Uighur university professor sentenced to life imprisonment by the Chinese authorities, who on 11 October was awarded the 2016 Martin Ennals Award for Human Rights Defenders. He was also a victim of the tyrannical intransigence of the Chinese Government and he gave voice to the Uighur people, which is a Muslim minority in the Xinjiang region strongly discriminated against by the central government.

It seems that the Government always decides to respond with extreme and unsuitable means when it comes to situations of political dissent. This is highly unacceptable. For years, China has made a mockery of international treaties aimed at the defence and protection of human rights and mocks its own Constitution. We must ensure that they are fairly respected instead and, to do so, bring our political dialogue with this country to a new level.


  Molly Scott Cato, author. – Madam President, with strong cross-party agreement this resolution draws attention to human rights abuses for which the People’s Republic of China is responsible. The two cases highlighted, the Tibetan Buddhist Academy of Larung Gar and the Uighur intellectual, Ilham Tohti, reveal the continuing failure of the Chinese Government to live up to its international responsibilities for human rights.

The destruction of the Larung Gar Buddhist Academy is an example of the way that China, as an occupying power, engages in attacks on Tibetan religion and culture to try to break the spirit of the Tibetan people. Subjecting former monks and nuns to so-called ‘patriotic education exercises’ is a failure to respect freedom of religion and an unacceptable humiliation. For this year’s Sakharov Prize I was proud to nominate Ilham Tohti, an economics professor and member of the Muslim Uighur minority in western China. Following a flawed legal process where he did not have a proper defence, he is serving a life sentence. We call for his immediate release.

This resolution reminds European governments of their responsibility to address human rights abuses when engaging with the Chinese Government, giving human rights a priority over economic interests – a principle that the British Government has forgotten in recent years. Earlier this year, I was honoured to meet His Holiness the Dalai Lama, whose example of peaceful resistance offers important lessons to a world in turmoil. Our resolution calls on the Chinese Government to reopen the high-level dialogue with his representatives that was unilaterally suspended in 2010.


  László Tőkés, szerző. – Elnök Asszony, 1989. december 15-én, éppen a mai napon vette kezdetét a temesvári magyar református templom előtt az a tiltakozás, mely a románok és a nemzeti kisebbségek összefogásával a romániai forradalom kirobbanásához, a kommunista diktatúra bukásához vezetett. Milyen érdekes, hogy Ceaușescu diktátor ottani látogatása nyomán a kínai modellt honosította meg Romániában, amikor is a kisebbségellenes homogenizációs politikájával olyan módon igyekezett megtörni az erdélyi magyarokat és Székelyföldet, mint a kínai kommunista rezsim a tibetieket. Azóta közel három évtized telt el. A Larung Gar tibeti buddhista központ lebontására és megsemmisítésére irányuló kínai merényletkísérlet a román nacionálkommunista diktátor hírhedt falurombolási tervére emlékeztet. Mai sürgősségi határozatunk arra figyelmeztet, hogy az Uniónak és a Parlamentnek folytatnia kell a küzdelmet a tovább élő totalitárius kommunista rezsimek isten- és embertelen uralma ellen. Ez alkalommal külön is felemelem a szavam a Szaharov-díjra javasolt ujgur ellenzéki harcos, Ilham Tohti szabadon bocsátása érdekében.


  Nathalie Griesbeck, auteur. – Madame la Présidente, la résolution concerne surtout et avant tout la question clé qui est celle du respect des droits des minorités en Chine et du souhait réitéré du dialogue constructif et inclusif entre la Chine et les minorités.

Leur situation est très inquiétante après la démolition de la plus grande académie bouddhiste au monde, après les campagnes de rééducation forcée dites «patriotes» ou encore l’emprisonnement à vie et sans procès d’Ilham Tohti, après les restrictions constantes des libertés fondamentales de réunion, de religion, de pensée, d’expression et toutes les arrestations arbitraires.

Je vous demande, Monsieur le Commissaire, au nom de la Commission, de faire de ces violations des droits de l’homme et des droits fondamentaux des éléments et, surtout, même, des priorités du dialogue Europe-Chine en demandant à la Chine de respecter ses engagements.

Au Tibet, avec toutes ces brimades et ces violations, on assiste à une multiplication des immolations, en particulier des jeunes. En même temps que les menaces à la culture tibétaine, toutes ces répressions expliquent le désespoir du peuple tibétain, qui ne demande que son autonomie territoriale et le respect de sa culture.

La résolution est donc un appel à la solidarité, à la résistance, c’est un appel contre l’oppression et les violations des droits de l’homme.


  Jo Leinen, author. – Madam President, the Constitution of China gives the right of freedom of cultural expression and religious belief, freedom of speech and expression, and the right to peaceful assembly and association. The reality in China is, of course, a completely different one. There is an increasingly suppressive system that affects minorities in particular. Under the pretext of counter-terrorism, there is a package of laws that again is restricting civil society and putting minorities under special control.

We asked the Chinese Government to revise these laws and to give more space and more freedom to civil society, religious communities and minorities. They should continue to take up dialogue with representatives of the Tibetan people. It is not good, neither for Beijing nor Tibet, of course, that they have no dialogue and are not speaking with each other. In the case of Ilham Tohti, we asked for his release, for the release of his supporters, and for him to have permission to teach again. It is very arbitrary that this man is in prison, and both the Commissioner and I have asked the EU to have this issue as a priority in dialogues with China in all forms and all formats.


  Cristian Dan Preda, au nom du groupe PPE. – Madame la Présidente, le groupe PPE a insisté pour l’adoption d’une résolution d’urgence sur la démolition, par la Chine, de l’académie tibétaine bouddhiste de Larung Gar. Sous prétexte de pallier un problème sanitaire, la Chine viole l’un des principes fondamentaux inscrits dans sa propre Constitution, c’est-à-dire la liberté religieuse. Il s’agit encore d’une attaque directe portée à la religion et à la culture tibétaine.

La situation des droits de l’homme au Tibet ne cesse de se dégrader, et la Chine vient d’adopter tout un arsenal juridique de lois sécuritaires, qui lui permet de s’en prendre aux minorités, telles que les Tibétains et les Ouïghours. Pour ce qui est d’Ilham Tohti, sa place n’est pas en prison, mais à l’université, où il s’est efforcé d’enseigner et de promouvoir les valeurs de tolérance et de vivre-ensemble entre les différentes communautés.

Je déplore le fait que le dialogue sur les droits de l’homme entre l’Union européenne et la Chine n’ait pas eu lieu en 2016, alors que les sujets de discussion ne manquent pas. Il semblerait que l’une des raisons en soit la visite du dalaï-lama en septembre dernier à Strasbourg, qui a suscité, à juste titre, un intérêt formidable de la part de nos collègues.


  Lidia Joanna Geringer de Oedenberg, w imieniu grupy S&D. – Pani Przewodnicząca! Buddyzm jest integralną częścią tybetańskiej tożsamości, dlatego wielce niepokojące są ostatnie doniesienia o ograniczeniu wolności wyznania w tym rejonie. Na wniosek rządu w Pekinie rozpoczęła się rozbiórka największego tybetańskiego ośrodka studiów buddyjskich w Larung Gar w Seczuanie. Chińskie władze grożą kompletną rozbiórką obiektu, jeżeli nie zmniejszy on o połowę liczebności mnichów i mniszek w ramach tak zwanej restrukturyzacji buddyjskich ośrodków. Do tej pory zostało wysiedlonych około tysiąca osób. W proteście przeciwko niszczeniu tybetańskiej kultury i religii mnisi coraz to dokonują dramatycznych samospaleń. W czasie chińskich rządów zburzono w Tybecie większość z ponad 6250 klasztorów.

Oczekujemy, że władze chińskie zaprzestaną bezpodstawnej rozbiórki Larung Gar i eksmisji mieszkańców, przywracając poszanowanie wolności wyznania zgodnie z międzynarodowymi standardami praw człowieka. Zbyt rzadko poruszamy sprawę Tybetu na forum Parlamentu Europejskiego, podczas gdy łamanie praw człowieka stało się tam codziennością. Mam nadzieję, że społeczność międzynarodowa dołoży większych starań na rzecz przywrócenia poszanowania prawa i swobód obywatelskich w Tybecie.


  Monica Macovei, în numele grupului ECR. – Doamnă președintă, cel mai mare centru budist din lume este în curs de demolare de către autoritățile chineze. Până acum au fost evacuate din acest centru peste 4 500 de persoane și aproximativ 1 500 de locuințe au fost distruse. Mulți dintre cei evacuați, mai ales copiii, sunt duși la școli unde li se predă numai în limba chineză, ies de la școală fără a mai cunoaște limba tibetană și unde, practic, sunt spălați pe creier, cum se spune.

Se încearcă distrugerea unei culturi, se încearcă crearea unei generații care să nu mai aibă memoria culturii tibetane. Generațiile acestea trebuie salvate și acest lucru depinde și de Uniunea Europeană în relațiile cu China.

Aș vrea să spun că, de fapt, ceea ce China face de ani de zile, de foarte mulți ani de zile, este să ducă un război împotriva culturii tibetane, pentru a o anihila și sper să nu fie nevoie, ca în 2011, ca oamenii să își dea foc pentru ca vocea lor să fie auzită.


  Ilhan Kyuchyuk, on behalf of the ALDE Group. – Madam President, unfortunately the cases of the Larung Gar Tibetan Buddhist Academy and Professor Ilham Tohti, who was nominated for the Sakharov Prize, once again show us that China systematically violates a wide range of fundamental human rights, including freedom of expression, association, religion and minority rights.

I therefore call on the Chinese authorities to end all cases of human rights violations, and particularly arbitrary arrests, political intimidation and violations of freedom of expression. China is an important partner of the EU but the country has to respect and protect the rights and freedoms of its citizens and stop the persecution and the marginalisation of Tibetan and Uighur people, and all ethnic minorities. In light of this, I urge the EU to bring the protection of freedom of religion and language, and the cases of Larung Gar and of Ilham Tohti, to the top of the agenda of the next EU-China dialogue on human rights.


  Gerolf Annemans, namens de ENF-Fractie. – Alleen totalitaire regimes of politieke structuren met totalitaire trekjes kunnen het zich permitteren om de nationale identiteit van mensen die onder hun gezag wonen, te miskennen of agressief te bejegenen. Dat is zeker het geval voor communistische regimes is en het is mede een van de redenen waarom ik altijd anticommunist ben geweest. In deze jaren van historische veranderingen met de groeiende inbreng van nationale identiteit in een steeds kleiner wordende wereld moeten wij aan de kant staan van het Tibetaanse volk, dat vreedzaam poogt zijn ondergang te verhinderen tegenover een Chinees regime, waar wij slechts met grote terughoudendheid zowel letterlijk als figuurlijk zaken mee mogen en kunnen doen.


  Diane James (NI). – Madam President, thank you very much once again for addressing this subject. Now we all agree that respect for religious belief and culture and language are fundamental human rights that should be protected and respected across the world; yet again we are here, we are talking shop and we are addressing an issue. Where that does not happen, of course, we then have an individual that we want to cite and I am going to give that recognition to Mr Tohti for his incarceration, which is just unfounded and unjustified.

But what is the issue here? It is this issue of China, the big global elephant in the room. Even this week, in terms of Mr Juncker’s speech in this Chamber, he did not once mention that country. Now we could take a leaf out of Mr Trump’s lexicon and I am no big supporter of Mr Trump, but in the last few weeks he has actually challenged the ‘One China’ policy, which is universally recognised around the world, and he is prepared to actually stand up to that country. I am going to cite that in this Chamber this morning and suggest that if the EU is serious about this, it needs to take a leaf out of that book and learn from it.


  Thomas Mann (PPE). – Frau Präsidentin! Der sogenannte Acht-Punkte-Plan der Chinesen hat zu einer Tragödie in Tibet geführt – Kollegen haben darauf hingewiesen.

Das weltweit bedeutendste und einflussreichste Institut des Buddhismus, Larung Gar, wurde zu großen Teilen zerstört. Unter dem Vorwand, die Brandschutzregeln seien nicht eingehalten worden, wurden Nonnen und Mönche gezwungen, das Kloster zu verlassen. Seit Juli sorgen lokale Behörden dafür, dass Gebetsräume und Häuser dem Erdboden gleichgemacht werden. Ausgerechnet an dieser Stätte, wo der Buddhismus friedvoll praktiziert wird. Der Versuch, die widerrechtliche Vorgehensweise zu vertuschen, misslang gründlich. Trotz der Blockade von Informationen gelangten Fotos an die Öffentlichkeit. Die Interessengruppe des Europäischen Parlaments unterstützt ausdrücklich die heutige Entschließung, welche die chinesischen Verantwortlichen auffordert, endlich die Aktivitäten einzustellen. Freie Religionsausübung ist ein Grundrecht: Repressionen gegenüber den Tibetern müssen aufhören. Willkürliche Festnahmen, Zwangsumsiedlungen und die sogenannte patriotische Umerziehung rauben den Tibetern jegliche kulturelle Identität. China muss endlich Einsicht zeigen.


  Michaela Šojdrová (PPE). – Paní předsedající, podporuji výzvu k zastavení demolic v tibetském Larung Garu. Se znepokojením pozorujeme, jak se Čína pokouší omezit svobodný rozvoj náboženství a nezávislého duchovního života nejen zde, ale i jiných náboženství a právě také v tomto ohromném institutu, klášterním městě Larung Gar.

Demolice a vyhánění mnichů pod záminkou sanace přelidněného místa je vážným narušením tibetské kulturní autonomie. Pokud bychom si mysleli, že kláštery za hranicemi tibetské autonomní oblasti se těší větší svobodě, není tomu tak. Jako místopředsedkyně Výboru pro kulturu a vzdělávání vnímám nejen lidskoprávní aspekt tohoto problému, ale také kulturní dimenzi. Tibetská kultura, tibetský budhismus a místa s nimi spojená jsou významným světovým kulturním dědictvím a inspirací pro mnoho lidí i na Západě. Čína by si měla uvědomit, že s těmito statky nemůže nakládat svévolně, ale musí je chránit a pečovat o ně.

Takzvaný tibetský separatismus, o kterém Čína pořád mluví, je ve skutečnosti jen nenásilnou snahou o kulturní a náboženskou autonomii, která má naši podporu.


  Csaba Sógor (PPE). – Madam President, when the Chinese authorities began arbitrarily bulldozing thousands of homes in Larung Gar, it was not only buildings that were destroyed in the process but, more importantly, thousands of lives.

At least 2 000 residents have been expelled without any compensation and forced to sign documents pledging that they will not return. Many of them were forcefully evicted to far-off desolate camps. Nuns Rinzin Dolma, Semga and Tsering Dolma, who committed suicide because of harassment by the authorities, were only the last to join the depressing numbers of victims of Chinese repression – including more than 140 Tibetans who have set fire to themselves since 2011.

The European Parliament is right in urging the Chinese government to reverse course, stop the demolitions and evictions and permit the practice of Buddhist faith and Tibetan culture without interference.


„Catch the eye” eljárás


  Νότης Μαριάς ( ECR). – Κυρία Πρόεδρε, ήθελα να πω στην κυρία Vallina, η οποία δεν είναι εδώ, ότι αυτό που δεν έκανε ήταν να εγγράψει και να αναφέρει στην έκθεσή της τις δραστηριότητες που κάναμε για τις γερμανικές αποζημιώσεις. Δεν έγραψε λοιπόν τίποτε για την απόρριψη των προτάσεών μου σε σχέση με τη δημόσια ακρόαση για τις γερμανικές αποζημιώσεις και δεν έγραψε τίποτε για την απόφαση της Επιτροπής να προχωρήσει και να θεωρηθεί παραδεκτή η αναφορά για τις γερμανικές αποζημιώσεις μετά από πρότασή μου τον Οκτώβριο του 2015.

Κυρία Πρόεδρε, όταν σας ζήτησα τον λόγο, σας ζήτησα τον λόγο επί προσωπικού και όχι για διαδικαστικό και έπρεπε να μου δώσετε τον λόγο. Εσείς αντί να βάλετε τάξη στους συναδέλφους οι οποίοι δεν με άφηναν να μιλώ, μου κάνετε και παρατηρήσεις ότι δήθεν αμαυρώνω τη συζήτηση! Αυτό δεν είναι ορθή διαδικασία από την πλευρά σας, διότι εγώ ήθελα να υπερασπιστώ εν προκειμένω την τιμή μου και την υπόληψή μου από αυτά που είπε η κυρία συνάδελφος.


  Elnök asszony. – Természetesen meg kellett volna védenem Önt. Természetesen most meg le kellett volna állítanom Önt, hiszen ez a téma nem az a téma, amihez Ön „catch the eye” eljárásban jóhiszeműen tőlem szót kapott, és visszaélt azzal, hogy én a szót megadtam, de Önnek képviselőként joga van arról beszélni, amiről óhajt egyébként a „catch the eye” eljárásban természetesen.

Most pedig a listámon még Turmes képviselő úr van felírva. Ön jelentkezett hozzászólásra, vagy csak félreértelmeztük a jelzést?

Igen, rendben van.


  Claude Turmes (Verts/ALE). – Madame la Présidente, chers citoyens de la Chine, chers dirigeants chinois, le XXIe siècle sera un siècle avec beaucoup de tensions, de stress, de bouleversements et d’accélérations.

Des lieux où l’on peut s’asseoir et respirer calmement, où l’on peut s’enraciner, où l’on peut sortir du tracas de tous les jours, où l’on peut méditer, ce sont des lieux qui sont importants et, cher peuple chinois, vous qui sortez d’une tradition spirituelle millénaire, vous, qui – peut-être plus que tout autre peuple – êtes propulsés avec une vitesse incroyable dans une modernité frénétique, en détruisant les monastères, en persécutant ceux qui, au Tibet, ne font rien d’autre que de chercher la spiritualité, le calme, un meilleur monde, vous êtes en train de détruire ce dont vous avez, vous, en tant que peuple chinois, peut-être le plus besoin demain.


(A „catch the eye” eljárás vége)


  Vytenis Povilas Andriukaitis, Member of the Commission. – Madam President, honourable Members, the European Union is concerned at the deteriorating status of human rights in China, not least with regard to the rights of ethnic and religious minorities in Tibet and Xinjiang. The European Union upholds its one-China policy, while regularly calling upon the Chinese authorities to address the concerns of Tibetans and Uighurs through dialogue. This includes non-use of force, allowing peaceful protest and respecting human rights.

The European Union has continued to emphasise to China the importance of fostering dialogue with, and between, different ethnic groups and, in the case of Tibet, of resuming a meaningful dialogue with the Dalai Lama’s representatives.

The demolition of the Larung Gar Buddhist academy and the expulsions and so—called ‘patriotic re-education’ of monastic individuals are a matter of considerable concern to us. According to the Chinese authorities, the demolitions are for health and safety reasons. However, the religious leaders and the monks and nuns concerned were not consulted. The lack of information and dialogue, and the restrictions placed on access to Larung Gar and on the movement of nuns and monks in the area, have been causing much distress in the community and have even prompted suicides.

The European Union underlines that, while safety and health concerns may be legitimate, they should not be used as a pretext for repression or forced displacements of religious adherents.

What about Ilham Tohti? Professor Tohti worked peacefully within Chinese law to promote equality and understanding between different ethnic groups. The European Union believes that the charges against him were unwarranted and that the due process of law was not respected during his trial, especially regarding his right to a proper defence. The European Union considers his life sentence for separatism to be completely unjustified. We call for the immediate and unconditional release of both Professor Tohti himself and the students detained in connection with his sentencing.

We urge the Chinese authorities to respect the rights to freedom of expression, religion and belief of all persons belonging to minorities in line with Chinese international and human rights commitments and its own constitution.


  Elnök asszony. – A vitát lezárom.

A szavazásra a viták végén kerül sor.

Avis juridique - Politique de confidentialité