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Mercredi 1 février 2017 - Bruxelles Edition révisée

17. Tolérance zéro pour les mutilations génitales féminines (débat)
Vidéo des interventions
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  Preşedintele. – Următorul punct de pe ordinea de zi este dezbaterea privind Declarația Comisiei referitoare la toleranța zero față de mutilarea genitală a femeilor (2017/2524(RSP)).

 
  
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  Věra Jourová, Member of the Commission. – Mr President, honourable Members, female genital mutilation (FGM) is one of the most serious grievous forms of violence against women. I am strongly committed to eliminating this practice. I stand for zero tolerance for it and I call on all of you to join me in this. I welcome the opportunity to discuss it with you today, ahead of the International Day of Zero Tolerance for FGM on 6 February.

The estimated figures are really shocking, with half a million women and girls being victims of FGM in Europe, and 125 million worldwide. Thousands of girls are at risk of FGM.

I would like to update you today on what the Commission has done in this area since we last discussed this serious issue in 2015. We have been following the 2013 action plan, the Communication ‘Towards the elimination of FGM’, and its five defined priorities: improving data collection and knowledge, prevention, prosecution, protection and eliminating FGM worldwide. In the strategic engagement for gender equality we commit ourselves to continue with the implementation of the measures set out in the communication.

I am proud to announce that this week a complex web-based knowledge platform, which serves as an online EU-wide multilingual resource and education centre for professionals, has been launched. It provides easily—accessible and culturally—appropriate information and support to professionals from diverse backgrounds across the EU. The aim is to raise awareness of FGM, to effectively deliver victim support and to protect women and girls living with, or at risk of, FGM. We reach out to all relevant professionals, including nurses, doctors, midwives, lawyers, judges, prosecutors, police officers, asylum officers, teachers, social workers, child protection professionals and also reporters and journalists. This project has gone live, also due the commitment of Parliament to this cause. I count on your further support to ensure a wide dissemination of the information on this new tool.

In addition, together with the European Institute for Gender Equality, we have developed a methodology to estimate the risk of FGM in different Member States, and we have funded a prevalence study to get more understanding of the phenomenon. We are working on the revision of the EU guidelines on the promotion and protection of the rights of the child. Preventive and protective measures against FGM are foreseen to be part of the recommendations towards Member States, notably with regard to children in migration. We are enforcing a correct and timely implementation of the Victims’ Rights Directive, which is of particular importance for victims of gender-based violence, including FGM, as it ensures access to free-of-charge and confidential specialist support services, including trauma support and counselling.

In the proposed amendments to the Common European Asylum System we strengthen the safeguards for protection of persons with specific needs, including women applicants who have experienced gender-based harm. Access to medical care, legal support and appropriate trauma counselling and psychosocial care is to be ensured. The European Asylum Support Office has developed a practical support tool for the identification of persons with special needs and applies a training module on gender, gender identity and sexual orientation to officers.

Last, but not least, we are funding transnational projects that combat harmful practices such as FGM, both in the EU and beyond. In concrete terms, this means EUR 4.5 million in the Rights Equality and Citizenship Programme and EUR 11 million in the UNICEF Joint Programme on the abandonment of FGM.

Last year, I visited NGOs that help victims and support women who have undergone FGM and that focus on the prevention of girls from being cut. I have spoken to the women and men dedicated to ending this practice and listened to their concerns. One of the recurring issues was the prevailing lack of knowledge and understanding of professionals. This impedes girls and women in Europe from getting the best possible care and from having all their rights respected. If a doctor is surprised or horrified when an infibulated woman visits him or her, this can cause shame and certainly it would be a hurdle for visiting again and receiving appropriate care. If a police officer believes this is just a part of the culture, rather than a serious infringement of rights, coming forward can become so much harder. If a teacher has never heard of FGM, it will be impossible to pick up any signals and prevent a young girl from being cut. Hence, it is important to encourage all relevant professionals to act accordingly and provide care, protection and prevention. I believe the FGM platform we are launching these days, calling to unite to end FGM will be an important contribution to end this practice in Europe.

Finally, as you know, I have dedicated this year as a year of focused actions to combat violence against women. I will continue to fight harmful practices such as FGM as part of it, and count on your support.

 
  
  

PRZEWODNICTWO: BOGUSŁAW LIBERADZKI
Wiceprzewodniczący

 
  
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  Constance Le Grip, au nom du groupe PPE. – Monsieur le Président, Madame la Commissaire, chers collègues, ce que nous dénonçons aujourd'hui est une véritable horreur qu'ont connue 500 000 femmes qui vivent aujourd'hui en Europe, au nom de prétendues pratiques traditionnelles, sociales, culturelles, religieuses. Dans le monde, d'après les chiffres de l'OMS, quelque 140 millions de femmes, de jeunes femmes, de jeunes filles, de petites filles, ont subi l'une ou l'autre forme de mutilations génitales féminines.

Le 6 février – vous l'avez dit, Madame la Commissaire  – est la journée internationale dédiée à la tolérance zéro à l'encontre des mutilations génitales féminines. Le Parlement européen s'est toujours engagé avec beaucoup d'opiniâtreté et de constance, au long des années passées, afin d'alerter l'opinion publique, de faire preuve de détermination et d'engagement dans la lutte contre cette forme absolument intolérable de violence faite aux femmes, dont – nous le savons bien maintenant, toutes les études concordent – les effets sur la santé, le bien-être, mais également sur les parcours de formation et d'éducation, sur les parcours professionnels, se font sentir très longtemps chez les victimes. Les mutilations génitales féminines constituent vraiment une atteinte intolérable à la dignité humaine, à l'intégrité du corps de la femme.

Vous nous avez annoncé, Madame la Commissaire, un point très précis sur les actions engagées, ainsi que sur la plateforme qui vient d'être installée. Nous vous remercions pour ce point très précis, pour l'intensité de l'engagement, de la mobilisation dont vous faites preuve. Nous continuons à vous soutenir, à vous encourager, à aller toujours plus loin et, notamment, à mettre la pression – si vous me permettez cette expression – sur les États membres qui n'ont pas encore, pour ce qui les concerne, très concrètement et de manière très organisée, décliné un plan d'action volontaire contre cette pratique, encore une fois, intolérable.

 
  
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  Iratxe García Pérez, en nombre del Grupo S&D. – Señor presidente, comisaria. Hoy este Parlamento tiene que servir de altavoz para denunciar una práctica, para denunciar una tortura de las mujeres, una violación de los derechos humanos como es la mutilación genital femenina; una realidad que afecta a más de medio millón de mujeres en la Unión Europea y a cerca de 140 millones de mujeres en el mundo. Por lo tanto, damos la bienvenida a las propuestas que ha trasladado la señora comisaria sobre cómo prevenir, cómo luchar contra la mutilación genital femenina, porque creo que es fundamental exigir responsabilidades a las instituciones públicas en todos los niveles.

Y no olvidemos que no estamos hablando exclusivamente de las mujeres de la Unión Europea, que también podemos contribuir a luchar contra esta práctica en el ámbito internacional. Por eso, en la política exterior y en la política de cooperación de la Unión Europea tengamos en cuenta esta situación para poder erradicar esta realidad.

Y tengamos en cuenta también una cosa, y es que las tradiciones y la cultura tienen un límite y ese límite es el respeto de los derechos humanos, el respeto de los derechos de las mujeres.

 
  
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  Jadwiga Wiśniewska, w imieniu grupy ECR. – Panie Przewodniczący! Szanowni Państwo! Ponad 140 milionów kobiet na świecie – to są oficjalne dane – doznało okaleczenia narządów płciowych, ponad pół miliona kobiet w Unii Europejskiej. To jest niesamowity problem: w XXI w. kobiety doświadczają takich cierpień!

W Parlamencie Europejskim jest Komisja Praw Kobiet i Równouprawnienia. Chcecie państwo dowiedzieć się, czy w opinii na temat poszanowania praw człowieka, którą w ubiegłym roku przygotowała ta komisja, znalazł miejsce ten problem? Pewnie pomyślicie: na pewno tak, znaczna część tej opinii pewnie była poświęcona temu barbarzyństwu. Otóż chcę państwa wyprowadzić z błędu: ani jednego słowa o okaleczaniu kobiet. Zajmijmy się tymi realnymi problemami. Te okaleczone kobiety krzyczą i proszą o pomoc. Nie spotykajmy się na seminariach i debatach – piękne panie z bogatych państw współczujące tym obrzezanym kobietom. Podejmijmy realne działania. Mówmy o tym, co dla tych kobiet jest najważniejsze. One czekają na naszą pomoc, one wołają – kobiety i małe dziewczynki, które również doświadczają tego cierpienia. Nie gadajmy, róbmy, pomagajmy! W sposób realny zauważajmy problemy kobiet. Apeluję do moich koleżanek z Komisji Praw Kobiet i Równouprawnienia: wy znacie tę opinię i nie wniosłyście tam poprawek dotyczących tej kwestii.

 
  
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  Angelika Mlinar, on behalf of the ALDE Group. – Mr President, I think we can all agree here that there is no reason for young girls to suffer genital mutilation. There is no place for such a practice in any civilised society. This so—called tradition, like many others, is nothing but a violation of women’s rights which goes back many centuries, and we can no longer tolerate it happening in the 21st century. We should be committed every day, not just on the International Day of Zero Tolerance for Female Genital Mutilation as such.

The EU has been advancing on this file. However, we should strengthen the instruments at our disposal. As regards supporting victims of FGM, the provisions of the EU Directive on Victims’ Rights apply to all victims of crime, including FGM. The signing of the Directive on Victims’ Rights meant that tremendous progress was made in strengthening victims’ rights. The European Parliament, as co—legislator, had as a clear objective to seriously recognise the needs of victims in criminal proceedings.

We now need to focus on the implementation of this important piece of EU legislation, which should have been transposed into national law by all EU Member States by November 2015. However, progress made on the transposition front is very disappointing. I would like to ask the Commissioner about the state of play of implementation. Another complementary tool in the fight against FGM was the Istanbul Convention as it was the first treaty to recognise that FGM exists in Europe and needs to be systematically addressed. I would therefore repeat my call on the Commission and on the Council to undertake whatever is needed to make the EU accession to the Istanbul Convention happen as soon as possible.

 
  
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  Malin Björk, on behalf of the GUE/NGL Group. – Mr President, the cutting of women’s genitals and clitorises is a very serious form of violence against women. As colleagues have said, approximately 130 to 140 million women and girls have been victims of FGM. FGM is older than Christianity or Islam. It has nothing to do with religion, but it has all to do with patriarchy. It is also symptomatic for me that the clitoris almost everywhere has been systematically neglected and erased. Many people don’t even know what it looks like, and the dictionaries in 2017 still get it wrong. This is what it looks like, a real-sized clitoris. This is a simple 3D print that I think every woman should be proud to be in possession of, because knowing your body is also a way to take back control, to take back power. This is being used by many FGM activists that fight against FGM, and it gives us the power to protect it.

Saying a firm ‘no’ to FGM for me also means that we have to have protective laws and we have to provide strong support to the grassroots organisations that work on this. But saying no to FGM also demands that we say no to all forms of patriarchal control of our bodies. Today we see the attacks on women’s bodies from the likes of Trump with his awful gag rule that wants to threaten women’s sexual and reproductive health and rights worldwide.

Colleagues, Commission, our message must be clear. These struggles are linked. We say no to FGM, support grassroots organisations. We say no to all forms of patriarchal control over our bodies, and we say yes to sexual freedom and choice for women and for proper sexuality education where we can learn about our rights, our women’s rights and our bodies, and about the clitoris.

 
  
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  Terry Reintke, on behalf of the Verts/ALE Group. – Mr President, defending women’s and girls’ rights has actually become even more urgent in the last week, most recently when Donald Trump signed an executive order to reinstate the Global Gag Rule. This rule will not only cut funding for family planning organisations that give consultations on safe abortion but will also cut funding for very important things like HIV prevention, medical care and helping victims of female genital mutilation (FGM).

Now is the time for the European Union to step up and say that it is going to counterbalance what is being cut by the American administration, not only financially but also organisationally, and is going to support giving consultation and all medical care to victims of female genital mutilation, because female genital mutilation is a deeply traumatising form of sexualised violence.

We need to step up our efforts to fight against all forms of violence against women. I must say that I am very surprised by our colleagues on the right, who are now claiming that we never speak about FGM because actually the ratification of the Istanbul Convention would be a very important step to do exactly that. So once again the International Day of Zero Tolerance for Female Genital Mutilation should be a reminder to you Commissioner, and also to all Member States, to ratify the Istanbul Convention and take these very decisive steps not only against FGM, but against all forms of violence against women.

 
  
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  Mylène Troszczynski, au nom du groupe ENF. – Monsieur le Président, Madame la Commissaire, nous sommes tous d’accord pour dire que les mutilations génitales féminines sont des pratiques atroces et barbares et qu’elles vont à l’encontre de nos cultures et de notre civilisation européenne.

Selon les derniers chiffres fournis par l’Unicef en 2016, 200 millions de femmes et de filles en sont victimes dans le monde, soit 70 millions de plus qu’en 2014.

En France, on évalue le nombre de femmes et de fillettes victimes de cette pratique barbare entre 45 000 et 60 000. Ceci est intolérable.

J’imagine que, comme moi, vous souhaitez que ces pratiques dangereuses aux conséquences très graves pour les femmes et jeunes filles qui en sont victimes cessent définitivement.

Mais quelle est votre réponse ?

Dans le rapport de Mme Honeyball sur la condition des femmes réfugiées, au paragraphe 15, il est dit: «il faut garantir une protection pour les victimes des mutilations génitales féminines (MGF) par l'intermédiaire de procédures d’asile systématiques».

Vous qui vous mêlez de tout dans les pays qui ne vous demandent rien, vous faites une fois encore preuve de lâcheté sur ce sujet et ne faites rien pour endiguer ce phénomène dans les pays concernés.

En réalité, ce que vous allez créer, c’est une nouvelle voie d’accès à l’immigration.

Encourager l’immigration massive, comme le fait l’Union européenne depuis des décennies, sans exiger l’assimilation des populations, revient à instaurer un communautarisme qui ne permet pas de protéger chez nous toutes ces femmes victimes de mutilations génitales.

Dénoncer les mutilations génitales en cet hémicycle ne suffit pas, tout comme il ne suffit pas d’envoyer une enveloppe de dix millions d’euros à l’Égypte pour que cette pratique cesse.

Laissons aux États membres, dont c’est la compétence exclusive, le soin d’agir. Apportons toute l’aide que nous pouvons aux pays qui luttent contre ces pratiques barbares et cessons cette politique migratoire destructrice, tant pour les femmes victimes de mutilations que pour nos pays.

 
  
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  Diane James (NI). – Mr President, a case of female genital mutilation (FGM) in England is reported every 109 minutes. Just think of what that means in terms of incidence. The fact that there such a level of FGM is an absolute outrage, but practices based on cultural or quasi-religious beliefs are difficult to eradicate, and when family members are involved it is actually near impossible.

When authorities want to stop FGM being undertaken, but in many instances are prevented from doing so, then a resolution to the problem becomes that much more difficult. In the United Kingdom, I welcome and applaud the fact that schoolteachers, border officers and many public servants are now at the forefront of resources to stop FGM. This is not an EU matter: this is an issue for Member States, whose internal systems are best placed and can be directly resourced to thwart and stop this cruel and unimaginable horror – an affront to human decency.

The European Union call for zero tolerance for FGM is, as always, words. Nothing that this particular proposal identifies can be delivered because it all contradicts the EU stance on human rights, that is to say interference in travel freedoms, the right to exercise cultural practices, recognition of cultures and societies. But Member States can actually do something and that is what I want to see happen. If zero tolerance is achieved, it will be achieved by national governments.

 
  
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  Anna Maria Corazza Bildt (PPE). – Mr President, Madam Commissioner, female genital mutilation is a crime and it should be treated as such. These barbaric practices, as my colleagues have said, still affect millions of girls around the world and in Europe, and more are at risk. We are talking about serious breaches of the rights of girls, some of whom are aged as young as two years old, causing physical and psychological damage.

Commissioner, I welcome your commitment and action. It is time for the Member States to do more to enforce the existing legislation, to ratify and enforce the Council of Europe’s Istanbul Convention on Violence against Women, and to accelerate EU accession to the Istanbul Convention. The Convention specifically criminalises female genital mutilation and provides specific measures for prevention and protection of victims, such as the training of judges and healthcare for victims.

To eradicate FGM we need to eradicate impunity and ensure that the perpetrators, and even the guilty parents, are prosecuted. Let us say it loud and clear: child abuse and gender-based violence can never be justified by any religion, any tradition or any culture.

The EU must do more in its external and humanitarian action. We have to support awareness-raising, education on child rights and the medical risks, and support the adoption of national laws banning this practice. We also have to work with activists in civil society at grassroots level to empower women and girls to speak up in their communities. It is about recovering their dignity and it is about respecting the integrity of girls’ bodies.

I will finish by saying this: let us continue to join forces in tirelessly repeating that we have to stand up for zero tolerance for female genital mutilation, for as long as it takes.

 
  
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  Liliana Rodrigues (S&D). – Senhor Presidente, Senhora Comissária, Caros Colegas, em 2015, no Quénia, Barack Obama disse o seguinte: “Não há desculpa para a agressão sexual ou a violência doméstica. Não há razão para que jovens meninas sofram mutilação genital.” Essas tradições podem ter séculos, dizia Barack Obama, mas não têm lugar no século XXI.

No próximo dia 6 de fevereiro, assinalamos mais um Dia Internacional de Tolerância Zero à Mutilação Genital Feminina e o problema persiste. Faz agora um ano que a União Europeia reiterou o seu compromisso com a eliminação desta prática.

Esta violência escondida nada tem a ver com cultura. É pura tortura. É preciso um compromisso da comunidade internacional para a criminalização desta prática em todos os países. Quem trata mal as suas mulheres e crianças, não pode ser, de facto, um parceiro credível.

Agradeço à Senhora Comissária a indicação do que tem sido feito mas tenho algumas perguntas concretas que gostava de ver respondidas.

Que resultados há nas comunidades que levam a cabo esta prática? Como está a recolha e o tratamento de dados dentro e fora da União Europeia? E que medidas de punição estão a ser previstas? Por fim, que força temos nós para, em termos de política externa, combatermos precisamente este flagelo?

 
  
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  Anneleen Van Bossuyt (ECR). – Ik ben blij dat we hier vandaag het debat hebben over genitale verminking. Europa mag het hoofd niet afwenden van dit probleem. Het is een vorm van geweld tegen vrouwen die niet alleen buiten onze Europese grenzen plaats vindt. Het is hier al aangehaald, onderzoek wijst uit dat het jammer genoeg ook in vele Europese lidstaten voorkomt, onder andere ook hier in België zelf.

2017 is het Europees jaar van de strijd tegen geweld tegen vrouwen en als we hier echt gevolg aan willen geven, moeten we ons ook inspannen voor de meisjes en voor de vrouwen die het slachtoffer zijn van genitale verminking. Het gaat om mensen die hun land hiervoor zelfs ontvluchten. We hebben ook betere zorg nodig voor de meisjes en de vrouwen die het slachtoffer zijn geworden van genitale verminking en ik ben dan ook erg blij dat mijn voorstel voor een proefproject voor clitorale reconstructie voor vrouwen die het slachtoffer waren van genitale verminking, dit jaar Europese middelen zal krijgen. Dus dank u wel daarvoor.

 
  
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  Γεώργιος Επιτήδειος ( NI). – Κύριε Πρόεδρε, ο ακρωτηριασμός των γυναικείων γεννητικών οργάνων χωρίς να συντρέχουν ιατρικοί λόγοι αποτελεί μία απαράδεκτη, αναχρονιστική και βάρβαρη πρακτική η οποία πρέπει όχι μόνο να καταδικαστεί αλλά και να εξαλειφθεί πλήρως. Αποτελεί ντροπή για την πολιτισμένη ανθρωπότητα, τον 21ο αιώνα, να επιτρέπει να παραβιάζονται τα ανθρώπινα δικαιώματα των γυναικών και να ανέχεται να υπάρχουν κράτη τα οποία αντιμετωπίζουν τα κορίτσια και τις γυναίκες σαν ζώα, να αποδέχεται ή να αδιαφορεί για την κακοποίηση τους και για τα βιολογικά και ψυχολογικά προβλήματα τα οποία δημιουργούνται σε αυτές, προβλήματα από τα οποία ουδείς γνωρίζει πότε και αν ποτέ θα απαλλαγούν. Σύμφωνα με τα υπάρχοντα στοιχεία, 140 εκατομμύρια κορίτσια και γυναίκες σε χώρες της Αφρικής, της Μέσης Ανατολής αλλά και 500 χιλιάδες σε χώρες της Ευρωπαϊκής Ενώσεως έχουν πέσει θύματα αυτής της βάρβαρης πρακτικής. Κατά ποια έννοια λογικής και ηθικής ανεχόμαστε να αφαιρείται από τα κορίτσια για τις γυναίκες αυτές το ιερό δικαίωμα στη μητρότητα; Ως Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωση, οφείλουμε να ενεργήσουμε άμεσα ούτως ώστε να τιμωρηθούν παραδειγματικά οι δράστες αυτών των εγκλημάτων και να εξαλειφθεί πλήρως από όλες τις χώρες του κόσμου αυτό το απαράδεκτο έθιμο.

 
  
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  Teresa Jiménez-Becerril Barrio (PPE). – Señor presidente, señora comisaria, la mutilación genital femenina consiste en amputar total o parcialmente el clítoris. Si lo visualizamos, entenderemos más claramente la barbarie que sufren doscientos millones de mujeres y niñas en más de treinta países. Reconozco que no es fácil enfrentarse a este complejo entramado de discriminación, de costumbres, de desconocimiento y de religión que esclaviza a tantas niñas inocentes que sufren en silencio una mutilación que las marcará el resto de su vida.

Es necesario cambiar la mentalidad para conseguir el abandono del cuchillo, que pone en peligro no solo la integridad física sino también la psicológica. Nuestra acción no debe ser agresiva, sino que tiene que apuntar a la sensibilización de las comunidades que lo practican y a la educación, ya que es la mejor manera de combatir esta lacra, que tiene una resistencia cultural muy fuerte. Las mujeres lo asumen, pero los impulsores son los hombres, evidentemente porque no los mutilan a ellos. Desgraciadamente, una mujer no mutilada es considerada impura, con lo cual sufre exclusión social.

Sumo mi voz a todas las campañas de tolerancia cero contra la mutilación genital, que, aunque se practica mayormente fuera de Europa, también nos afecta aquí, ya que existen en nuestros países muchas niñas en riesgo, debido a las creencias familiares, aunque estos casos no siempre salen a la luz. Aunque hay signos de esperanza, ya que hay países africanos que han prohibido la ablación por ley, la realidad es que aún se sigue practicando clandestinamente.

El camino es largo, pero todo el esfuerzo es poco para devolver la dignidad a tantas niñas indefensas, víctimas de una gravísima violación de los derechos del niño, o mejor dicho, de los derechos de las niñas.

 
  
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  Julie Ward (S&D). – Mr President, I am proud to stand here with colleagues to reaffirm that the EU will continue to fight to end violence against women and girls, including the appalling practice of female genital mutilation (FGM), and this is another issue where European cooperation makes a real difference. We know that every year 180 000 young women and girls are at risk of FGM, so tackling that phenomenon must be a women-led effort in intercultural dialogue, actively supported by men in the community. We must support grassroots efforts working directly with communities, with mothers, grandmothers and sisters, to change attitudes and break a harmful cycle.

We need to fund and empower the social services needed to support victims as well as community activists. The fight against FGM must be a vehicle for women’s empowerment and social inclusion, and I would like to extend my thanks to all the civil society organisations, and especially the End FGM network, who work on the ground and bring their advocacy and expertise to the European Parliament. Without you we could not do our work.

 
  
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  Mariya Gabriel (PPE). – Monsieur le Président, les chiffres sont choquants, oui, mais aujourd'hui, nous sommes aussi la voix de ces 200 millions de femmes et de filles qui ont subi une forme de mutilation génitale féminine. Il n'y a pas d'excuse, ni culturelle, ni religieuse, qui puisse justifier cela.

D'abord, nous prêtons tous attention aux lois. Oui, des mesures légales ont été adoptées par un certain nombre de pays. Il faut les encourager, mais il faut surtout veiller à la mise en œuvre et à la sensibilisation.

Pour ce qui est de la mise en œuvre: il est absolument nécessaire de continuer à insister sur la collecte de données. Cela nous donnera une idée de plus en plus claire de l'étendue du problème, cela nous permettra de recenser les bonnes pratiques, cela nous permettra de mettre en avant le mot "prévention".

J'insiste beaucoup sur la sensibilisation et les campagnes d'information. Ne perdons pas de vue ces instruments non conventionnels, qui ont des retombées positives: des pièces de théâtre dans les villages, la sensibilisation menée auprès des hommes par des imams au Mali, des bandes dessinées au Sénégal. Sensibiliser, dès le plus jeune âge, les filles et les garçons, œuvrer au dialogue entre les générations, assurer des formations pour éviter les mutilations génitales médicalisées, voici quelques-uns des défis que nous pouvons relever.

Pour terminer, une question: comment pourrions-nous collaborer avec des organisations régionales, telles que l'Union africaine, afin de créer des synergies dans ce combat commun? Volonté réelle et coordination des actions sont indispensables. Le mot-clé, c'est "tolérance zéro".

 
  
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  Edouard Martin (S&D). – Monsieur le Président, «Je suis excisée et je ne veux pas que ma fille subisse cette pratique à son tour.»

«Ma femme a accouché d’une petite fille, comment faire pour la préserver de l’excision? On aimerait la protéger, mais ma belle-mère insiste pour qu’elle soit excisée.»

Ces témoignages sont réels et de telles pratiques se perpétuent hélas.

En 2017, refuser l’excision reste encore un acte de bravoure. L’exciseuse qui enterre son couteau, la mère qui dit non à sa belle-famille, le médecin qui refuse d’être complice: toutes et tous prennent un risque en disant non aux mutilations.

La pression sociale est très forte au nom de la tradition. Je ne vais pas rappeler ici l’horreur insoutenable de ces mutilations. Je ne vais pas non plus rappeler que ce Parlement a décerné le prix Sakharov à un homme remarquable, le Dr Denis Mukwege.

Ici, je veux humblement dire bravo à toutes ces femmes et ces hommes qui ont dit: «Non, ces traditions ne passeront pas par moi». À notre tour de les aider en disant non.

Madame la Commissaire, ces femmes comptent aussi sur vous. Proposez-leur des solutions maintenant, car comme vous l’avez dit, il reste encore beaucoup à faire.

 
  
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  Adam Szejnfeld (PPE). – Panie Przewodniczący! Omawiamy dzisiaj zjawisko jednoznacznie karygodne i to nie tylko ze względu na wartości, które my tutaj w Europie wyznajemy. Mówimy o zjawisku, które jest de facto powiązane również z ograniczeniem wolności seksualnej kobiet i to ograniczenie jest uzasadniane najczęściej tradycją i religią, ale w zasadzie według mnie jest to uzasadnienie najczęściej nieprawdziwe. De facto chodzi o takie barbarzyńskie władztwo mężczyzn nad kobietami. Są to tacy mężczyźni, którzy chcą tę sferę seksualności kobiet mieć tylko i wyłącznie dla siebie i zasłaniając się religią czy tradycją, kultywują to barbarzyństwo, o którym mówimy. Ale tym trudniej jest z tym walczyć, bo z czymś, co jest uprawiane pod szyldem religii, a także tradycji bardzo ciężko wygrać.

Dlatego potrzebne są działania na różnych niwach, na różnych płaszczyznach, nie tylko prawnych, bo de facto, z przykrością muszę to powiedzieć, prawo zawsze przegra z tradycją i z religią. Potrzebna jest edukacja społeczna, potrzebne jest zaangażowanie społeczeństwa obywatelskiego, organizacji pozarządowych, ale także wreszcie wciągnięcie we wspólne działania Unii Europejskiej i państw członkowskich także tych państw, w których ten proceder jest realizowany. Tego bym się spodziewał po Komisji Europejskiej.

 
  
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  Viorica Dăncilă (S&D). – Domnule președinte, doamnă comisar, practicile de mutilare genitală constituie o formă gravă de violență împotriva femeilor și fetelor, reprezintă o încălcare inacceptabilă a dreptului lor la integritate fizică. Asemenea practici nu trebuie să fie justificate niciodată, nici de religie, nici de cultură și nici de tradiție.

Doamnă comisar, salut angajamentul Comisiei în facilitarea schimbului de experiență și de bune practici pe probleme de mutilare genitală între statele membre. Utilizarea fondurilor Uniunii Europene pentru prevenirea acestor practici joacă un rol vital în protecția femeilor și fetelor, identificarea victimelor și în luarea de măsuri de combatere. Prevenirea mutilării genitale este o obligație internațională în materie de drepturile omului pentru fiecare stat membru și este nevoie de o abordare fermă și de o vigilență maximă pentru combaterea acestor practici.

 
  
 

Zgłoszenia z sali

 
  
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  Nicola Caputo (S&D). – Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, in Europa mezzo milione di donne e ragazze vivono con le conseguenze fisiche e psicologiche di pratiche di mutilazioni genitali, eppure tanti Stati membri non hanno ancora un piano d'azione al riguardo. Occorrono una proposta di atto legislativo che istituisca misure di prevenzione contro ogni forma di violenza nei confronti delle donne e, come indicato nel programma di Stoccolma, una strategia che includa ulteriori piani d'azione comuni e strutturati per porre fine alle mutilazioni genitali femminili.

Gli Stati membri dovrebbero far ricorso ai meccanismi esistenti, per esempio la direttiva 2012/29/UE, per proteggere donne e bambini e perseguire, condannare e punire i responsabili di reati di mutilazioni genitali femminili, anche se commessi al di là dei confini dello Stato membro interessato. È necessario dunque che il principio di extraterritorialità sia incluso nelle disposizioni di tutti gli Stati membri in materia di diritto penale affinché il reato possa essere perseguito allo stesso modo nei 28 Stati membri.

 
  
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  Νότης Μαριάς ( ECR). – Κύριε Πρόεδρε, σύμφωνα με έρευνα της UNICEF τουλάχιστον 200 εκατομμύρια κορίτσια και γυναίκες έχουν υποστεί ακρωτηριασμό των γεννητικών τους οργάνων σε τριάντα χώρες του κόσμου. Η Σομαλία, η Γουινέα, το Τζιμπουτί, η Σιέρα Λεόνε, η Αίγυπτος και η Ερυθραία είναι οι χώρες στις οποίες πραγματοποιείται πιο συχνά αυτή η απαράδεκτη και απάνθρωπη τακτική. Η μόνη θετική εξέλιξη σημειώνεται τελευταία στην Αίγυπτο, όπου η κυβέρνηση αποφάσισε να σκληρύνει τη στάση της απέναντι σε αυτό το βάρβαρο έθιμο και θέσπισε νόμο που προβλέπει επτά χρόνια κάθειρξη για όσους ασκούν τέτοιου είδους επεμβάσεις. Στην Ευρώπη, παρά τη ρητή απαγόρευση της συγκεκριμένης πρακτικής, ο αριθμός των γυναικών που έχουν υποστεί ακρωτηριασμό των γεννητικών τους οργάνων ανέρχεται, σύμφωνα με υπολογισμούς, σε μισό εκατομμύριο. Μερικές φορές o ακρωτηριασμός των γεννητικών οργάνων πάει χέρι-χέρι με τους αναγκαστικούς γάμους, κάτι που παρατηρείται στο Ηνωμένο Βασίλειο και σε άλλες περιοχές. Η Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωση πρέπει να λάβει μέτρα για να εξαλειφθεί πλήρως αυτού του είδους η απάνθρωπη μεταχείριση.

 
  
 

(Koniec zgłoszeń z sali)

 
  
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  Věra Jourová, Member of the Commission. – Mr President, just like the last time when we had a heated discussion, today I feel very strong support from Parliament for all the strong and efficient measures we have taken against this barbarian habit – or to call it by its proper name, crime and torture. Thank you for this, because it is very encouraging.

I would like to comment on some of your proposals or comments. I spoke to many professionals, including the people working in the FGM Network, which was mentioned here by Ms Ward, and they always speak about very complex phenomena. Of course, I always say that we should do more law enforcement, and fight against this crime by means of criminal justice. But I always hear horrible stories about the custom of taking a girl to Africa for a summer holiday and then doing it to her there in Africa. When she comes back and the parents or the granny are on European soil could and should be prosecuted, the professionals tell me it would be further trauma for the girl. There are many stories of this kind, so we need to understand very well the complexity of this phenomenon and to use really efficient measures which will bring about a difference.

We speak about ‘zero tolerance’: there are several factors which are necessary. The first thing is political will. We must be absolutely clear that there is no excuse for it, based on some something like tradition or culture. This must be absolutely clear to everyone – all politicians, all influential people must know that this is a crime which must be punished. To my taste, we suffer from too much relativism in many other important things. Here, we should not do this.

The second thing – and I spoke about it before – is that professionals, from teachers to nurses, doctors, police and prosecutors, must understand what this is about and how to fight against it and engage with it. Thirdly, the law enforcement side, which I have also mentioned: there must be no excuse, but there must also be proper provision of care to the victims, because this must be balanced. And the fourth thing, which I find the most difficult but also the most important factor, is that we here with a kind of taboo. In violence against women, we fight against the fact that quite a large part of our societies think that it is normal. With FGM, we see that we have to fight against a taboo. I myself go to many conferences, I speak to many people, and I always mention FGM because it must be heard by hundreds of thousands of people in Europe, and I always receive the same reaction: ‘What? FGM in Europe in the 21st century?’ There is such a low awareness about this phenomenon that we have to do more, and I agree with some of the comments I heard here that it must not be at our seminars and conferences where the people who know about it are participating. We must not invade the open door – we have to address the communities where this barbaric habit is being carried out.

As you know we are now running a campaign against violence against women. To my disappointment, the Member States where we have identified high numbers – France, Portugal, UK, Sweden, Belgium, Cyprus, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands and Spain, and I am naming without shaming but we must be aware of where this happening – have not asked for money to fight against this. But I don’t want to say that they are not doing anything, because they have their own policy, and it was said here clearly that first of all it is the task of the Member States to take the necessary action against this. But, coming back to the need to address the communities, we have opened the call for proposals for the NGOs, and I will encourage the NGOs from these countries which I mentioned to ask for the funding and to go more closely into the communities and to work on the ground. This is to be closed on 8 March. There is EUR 6 million. If you know about those NGOs who could help, please let them know. This is now a practical thing.

I know I have been speaking for too long, but I will finalise quickly. I have mentioned the Member States where we see high figures, but the statistics are still very inaccurate. We still do not have proper data collection, and this is also connected with the taboo factor. We have to be much better, and as I said we are working with the Agency on Gender Equality.

We are also pushing for the adoption of the Istanbul Convention. I will talk about it tomorrow with Maltese Minister Ms Helena Dalli, who is very much engaged with it. I hope we can achieve it at the March Council or in June. We have the signatures of 28 Member States, but the ratification of only 14, unfortunately.

Ladies and gentlemen, thank you very much for your support. FGM is one of those matters where I will always feel we do not do enough, that we need to do more, and that if we do it together it will be more successful. Thank you very much for your future cooperation.

 
  
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  Przewodniczący. – Pani komisarz Jourová, bardzo dziękuję, szczególnie za to ostatnie pani wystąpienie. Każda minuta, przez którą pani słuchaliśmy, była dla nas minutą zyskaną. Otrzymała pani na tej sali nie tylko wsparcie, o które pani się zwróciła – otrzymała pani zachętę, wręcz apel, i to ponad podziałami. Proszę działać, byle skutecznie. Bardzo dziękuję.

Zamykam debatę.

Oświadczenia pisemne (art. 162)

 
  
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  Carlos Coelho (PPE), por escrito. – No próximo dia 6 de fevereiro assinala-se, uma vez mais, o Dia Internacional da Mutilação Genital feminina. Estima-se que existam, pelo menos, 200 milhões de meninas e mulheres que foram alvo desta prática, em clara violação dos seus direitos fundamentais. Na União Europeia apenas, dados de 2013, são ainda 180 000 meninas que, todos os anos, correm o risco de ser mutiladas.

Desde 2013, foram já dados alguns passos. Recentemente, a título de exemplo, este Parlamento apelou à ratificação da Convenção de Istambul. Mas ainda muito está por fazer: políticas de proteção internacional adequadas, informações sobre as políticas nacionais, estatísticas mais regulares. É importante também avaliar o estado de implementação do plano de ação de combate. É por isso que o Parlamento deve - uma vez mais - assinalar esta data e apelar a um esforço reforçado.

 
  
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  Andi Cristea (S&D), în scris. – Mutilarea genitală feminină constituie o încălcare a dreptului fundamental la viață al fetelor și femeilor, la siguranță, demnitate, egalitate între femei și bărbați, la nediscriminare, precum și la integritate fizică și emoțională. La nivel global, se estimează că între 100 milioane și 140 milioane de fete și femei au fost supuse unei forme de mutilări genitale feminine, și, în cazul în care tendințele actuale continuă, încă 15 milioane de fete cu vârste cuprinse între 15 si 19 ani vor fi supuse acestei cruzimi până în 2030. Este esenţial ca executivul european și SEAE să includă problema mutilării genitale feminine în cadrul dialogurilor anuale ale UE cu organizațiile societății civile în țările partenere în care există această practică şi să continue să promoveze asigurarea unei protecții internaționale a femeilor expuse riscului de a fi supuse mutilării genitale în întreaga lume, în cadrul relațiilor lor cu țările terțe și în cadrul forurilor internaționale. De asemenea, este necesară o strânsă colaborare cu Uniunea Africană și cu Grupul african în cadrul ONU pentru adoptarea de noi inițiative care să consolideze lupta la nivel mondial împotriva mutilării genitale feminine și să sprijine inițiativele în materie de consolidare a capacităților organizațiilor publice și ale organizațiilor societății civile.

 
  
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  Mireille D'Ornano (ENF), par écrit. – Les mutilations génitales féminines affecteraient, selon l’Organisation Mondiale de la Santé, 100 à 140 millions de filles et de femmes dans le monde, essentiellement dans certains États d’Afrique ou d’Asie. Profondément ancrées dans certaines traditions ancestrales, ces mutilations constituent une forme extrême de discrimination, voire de persécution, à l’égard des femmes et des enfants, puisqu’elles sont réalisées généralement sur des jeunes filles de moins de quinze ans.

C’est sans compter leurs complications parfois fatales puisque seules 18 % d’entre elles sont pratiquées par des professionnels de santé. En Europe, un demi-million de femmes et de filles ont subi, ou courent le risque de subir, ce type de mutilation dans l’Union européenne, selon une résolution du Parlement européen du 24 mars 2009. Ainsi, Madame le député, Malin Björk soulignait-elle dans un entretien en date du 6 février 2017 le risque pour certaines femmes migrantes de subir de telles mutilations en Europe, à moins qu’elles ne les aient subies dans leurs pays d’origine.

Si la prévalence globale de ces mutilations tend à décliner, leur recrudescence en Europe souligne la dégradation de la condition féminine et appelle à une réponse pénale implacable des juridictions nationales.

 
  
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  Anneli Jäätteenmäki (ALDE), kirjallinen. – Tyttöjen ympärileikkaus on yleinen käytäntö. Sitä tapahtuu Afrikassa, mutta on rehellistä todeta, että tyttöjä silvotaan myös Euroopassa. Perinne on karmaiseva ja aiheuttaa tytöille ja naisille elämänmittaista kärsimystä. Tilanteeseen ei kuitenkaan puututa sormea heristämällä vaan paremmalla koulutuksella ja yhteistyöllä. EU:n pitää nostaa tyttöjen silpomisen kitkeminen ulko- ja kehityspolitiikan kärkitavoitteeksi. Tähän tarvitaan tiivistä instituutioiden välistä yhteistyötä. Parlamentin valtuuskunnilla olisi hyvä olla yhteinen linja komission, ulkosuhdehallinnon ja EU:n edustustojen kanssa. Viestin ja toimintatavan pitää olla yhteisesti sovittu ja selkeä. Tavoitteena pitää olla tyttöjen ympärileikkausten kieltäminen lailla ja perinteen kitkeminen kaikkialla.

 
  
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  Daciana Octavia Sârbu (S&D), în scris. – Conform Organizației Mondiale a Sănătății, aproximativ patru milioane de fetițe suferă anual mutilare genitală. Această practică face parte din ritualurile și obiceiurile culturale locale în diferite comunități sau țări din Africa și Orientul Mijlociu, însă, din păcate, continuă să existe inclusiv în locuri unde este interzisă de legislația națională. Este nevoie de mai multă acțiune din partea Comisiei Europene. Aceasta trebuie să condiționeze ajutorul pentru dezvoltare de eforturile țărilor în curs de dezvoltare de a elimina acestă practică barbară. Astăzi, cer Comisiei să acorde o atenție deosebită cazurilor care au loc pe teritoriul statelor membre și să colaboreze strâns cu autoritățile locale și naționale pentru a combate ferm acest obicei. Nicio fetiță care trăiește pe teritoriul UE nu trebuie să sufere mutilare genitală.

 
  
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  Igor Šoltes (Verts/ALE), pisno. – Vsak dan in v vsakem delu sveta, v bogatih ali revnih državah, v vseh starostnih skupinah in vseh družbenih slojih se ženske in dekleta soočajo z nasiljem, predvsem s strani moških. Pohabljanje ženskih spolnih organov obsega vse spremembe in poškodbe ženskih spolnih organov za nemedicinske namene in je ena najhujših kršitev človekovih pravic, saj povzroča resne zdravstvene zaplete, vključno s smrtnimi žrtvami. Po podatkih Svetovne zdravstvene organizacije je vsako leto prizadetih od 120 do 140 milijonov žensk, 3 milijone deklet pa je v nevarnosti. To odraža globoko zakoreninjene neenakosti med spoloma in predstavlja skrajno obliko diskriminacije žensk in deklet. Obenem sta močno kršeni tudi njihova pravica do varnosti in pravica do življenja, kadar to nezaslišano ravnanje vodi v smrt.

Da bi preprečili in dolgotrajno izkoreninili pohabljanje ženskih spolnih organov, so potrebni sistematični in usklajeni ukrepi s sodelovanjem in opolnomočenjem celotnih skupnosti, da se sproži jasen družbeni dialog, ki temelji na varovanju človekovih pravic in spodbujanju enakosti spolov. Ne glede na vrsto nasilja nad ženskami in dekleti sta ključnega pomena tudi močna politična podpora in usposabljanje družbe za reševanje problema, da se dokončno ustavi storilce in ženskam in dekletom po vsem svetu zagotovi varnost, enakopravnost in dostojanstvo.

 
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