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Τετάρτη 31 Μαΐου 2017 - Βρυξέλλες Αναθεωρημένη έκδοση

19. Διάσκεψη υψηλού επιπέδου του ΟΗΕ για την υποστήριξη της υλοποίησης του Στόχου Βιώσιμης Ανάπτυξης 14 (Διάσκεψη του ΟΗΕ για τους ωκεανούς) (συζήτηση)
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  Elnök asszony. – A következő napirendi pont a Linnéa Engström által a Halászati Bizottság nevében a Bizottsághoz intézett, a 14. fenntartható fejlesztési cél végrehajtásának elősegítéséről szóló, magas szintű ENSZ-konferencia (az ENSZ óceánkonferenciája) szóbeli választ igénylő kérdésről folytatott vita (O-000031/2017 – B8-0311/2017). (2017/2653(RSP))

 
  
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  Linnéa Engström, författare. – Fru talman! Tack, kommissionär Vella. Nästa vecka samlas många av världens ledare i New York för att diskutera hur vi ska samordna oss för att förvalta våra hav på ett ansvarsfullt sätt inom ramen för FN:s agenda för hållbara utvecklingsmål. Det är bara ett startskott för ett samarbete som kan bli en kraftsamling för haven, likt det arbete som pågår för att bromsa klimatförändringarna.

I oktober är EU värd för konferensen Our Ocean som ytterligare förstärker samarbetet för att rädda våra hav.

Klimatet på jorden och våra hav är intimt ihopkopplade. Två tredjedelar av vårt jordklot består av hav och en tredjedel av land. Vår planet hade inte varit beboelig om förhållandet hade varit det omvända. Haven behövs för att reglera just klimatet, för att förse oss med livsviktig föda, vatten och inte minst med syre. Vartannat andetag vi tar är syre som har producerats av havet.

För att haven ska kunna leverera alla ekotjänster måste vi behålla dem friska och livskraftiga. Vi får larmrapport efter larmrapport som berättar om avlägsna paradisiska öar i Stilla havet som är indränkta av plast, om plastpartiklar som ökar dödligheten och minskar reproduktionen hos små fiskar och kräftdjur – de som utgör själva basen i havens näringskedja – och om överfiske och illegalt fiske.

Hela 15 %, eller 26 miljoner ton av världens samlade fiske, är illegalt, enligt bedömningar av FN:s livsmedelsorgan FAO. Totalt är fisken värd 23 miljarder dollar. Den ”svarta” fisken skapar oreda på våra marknader och konkurrerar med fisk från fiskeföretag som gör rätt för sig. Dessutom drar det illegala fisket undan mattan för alla ansträngningar att bevara och förvalta våra gemensamma fiskeresurser på ett hållbart sätt. Att inspirera fler länder att ta steget att aktivt bekämpa det illegala fisket blir en av de viktigaste frågorna under nästa veckas FN-konferens.

Mer än tre miljoner människor har fisk som sin huvudsakliga proteinkälla, och i många utvecklingsländer är fisket den viktigaste sysselsättningen och inkomstkälla för miljontals medborgare.

När kampen om resurserna hårdnar måste vi försäkra oss om att vi förvaltar dem på bästa sätt och att de fördelas rättvist. Då finns det ingen plats för illegalt fiske. Utvecklingsländer är särskilt drabbade, eftersom de saknar resurser att kontrollera sina vatten och stoppa olagligt beteende.

EU har de senaste åren tagit fram ett ramverk av regler för att bättre kontrollera fisket utanför unionens gränser. Det innefattar kontrollförordningen, förordningen om olagligt, orapporterat och oreglerat fiske och förordningen om tillstånd för EU:s fartyg att fiska utanför unionens vatten.

Vad gäller den sista förordningen så är jag föredragande, och vi är just nu i slutförhandlingar med rådet om en ny lagtext som är mer omfattande än nuvarande förordning.

Vi tar ett helhetsgrepp på alla EU:s båtar som fiskar utanför unionens vatten, även de som fiskar genom direkta avtal mot tredjeländer och de som fiskar i det öppna havet – något som tidigare varit helt oreglerat. Detta är ett stort framsteg.

Förordningarna får emellertid inte stanna på pappret – de måste följas upp. Kommissionens egen utvärdering av kontrollförordningen och Europeiska revisionsrättens rapport som kom nu i veckan visar med all tydlighet att det fortfarande finns mycket kvar att göra innan vi kan säga att vi har full kontroll på EU:s fiskeverksamhet.

Det är helt oacceptabelt att vissa medlemsländer gör hemläxan medan andra kommer undan med att helt strunta i regelverket. Jag räknar med att kommissionen tar sin roll som väktare av fördraget på allvar och sätter press på dem som ännu inte lever upp till våra standarder.

Samtidigt kan vi med förordningen om olagligt fiske sätta press på de fiskenationer som inte lever upp till sitt ansvar som flaggstat, och som inte kontrollerar sina båtars aktiviteter. I sista hand kan EU stoppa import av fisk.

När EU, som är världens största importör av fisk, stänger sin marknad – då svider det. Tyvärr finns det dock fortfarande allt för många andra marknader som är mindre nogräknade, och den ”svarta” fisken hittar annan avsättning.

Därför vill jag uppmuntra och uppmana andra stater att följa EU:s exempel: att ta ansvar som marknadsstat. Det är dags att helt stänga marknaden för illegalt fångad fisk.

Ett första steg är att fler länder antar och genomför FAO:s avtal om hamnstatsåtgärder som trädde i kraft för precis ett år sedan. Det är ett regelverk som ger stater möjlighet att hålla båtar som fiskar illegalt borta från sina hamnar. Än så länge är det dock bara 46 länder som anslutit sig, och många av de stora marknaderna för fisk, till exempel Kina och Japan, saknas.

Det är nu väldigt bra och glädjande att världshaven och fisket är på den internationella agendan, där dessa frågor hör hemma. EU fortsätter sitt arbete för att komma åt det illegala fisket. Förhoppningsvis sätter sig resten av världen med oss i båten.

Vi måste fortsätta att jobba stenhårt för att bekämpa dem som ser våra världshav som en fristad för illegal verksamhet.

 
  
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  Karmenu Vella, Member of the Commission. – Madam President, I would like to start by thanking Linnéa Engström for the question on the UN Ocean Conference which will be starting in five days in New York. The UN Conference, together with the Our Ocean Conference which will be hosted by the EU this coming October in Malta, will be the most important global ocean events this year. These two conferences are mutually reinforcing each other and will help us all to keep the momentum for action in the interest of our oceans. The UN conference will allow the European Union to showcase its leadership in making oceans safer, more secure, healthier, and above all, more sustainably managed. These are priorities for the European Union and its Member States, as set out in the joint communication on international ocean governance.

Sustainable Development Goal 14 can be a very strong driver for reinforcing ocean governance. This and other goals under Agenda 2030 are being actively pursued through many of the EU's policies, as we established in our communication in November on the next steps for a sustainable European future.

For example, the Marine Strategy Framework Directive provides a comprehensive and integrated approach to the protection of the marine environment and natural resources. This is based on an ecosystem approach aiming to achieve good environmental status of European marine waters. Our birds and habitats legislation provides for protection of the EU sea area through a network of marine protected areas - MPAs - as a part of Natura 2000. The European Union is tackling marine litter and pollution at source through its rules on waste management and prevention and port reception facilities for ship-generated waste and cargo residues, as well as through the circular economy. We have also set up a system for ecosystem-based maritime spatial planning in Europe. We have revised our common fisheries policy, and many stocks are now recovering as a result.

Our rules against illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing ensure that our Member States implement their international obligations, keep illegally caught fish out of the European market and help us improve fisheries governance in third countries. Just last week we again showed our commitment to fight illegal fishing globally. We listed St Vincent & the Grenadines and the Comoros as uncooperative third countries. This is tantamount to issuing a red card which, amongst other consequences, effectively bans trade in fisheries products from these countries to the European Union. And we have also issued a warning, a so-called yellow card, to Liberia to encourage necessary reforms there.

I will also emphasise the importance of fighting IUU at the UN Ocean Conference on 9 June. The day after World Ocean Day I will host an event on the contribution of this fight to ensuring the long-term sustainability of fisheries resources. I will be joined by Ministers from Fiji and Guinea, two countries that benefited from cooperation with the European Union in the past.

Sustainable management and conservation of natural resources, such as biodiversity and fisheries, is also gaining importance in our trade and investment policy. For example we are including dedicated sustainability provisions in the relevant trade and investment agreements and we are also committed to eliminating harmful fisheries subsidies in line with target 6 of SDG 14. And that is why the European Union tabled a specific proposal at the WTO last October. We are now actively involved in WTO negotiations and hope to achieve a multilateral agreement on fisheries subsidies at the WTO eleventh ministerial conference in December in Buenos Aires.

Finally, I am pleased to announce that the Member States and Council two days ago endorsed a list of clear and concrete voluntary commitments that the EU will present at the UN Ocean Conference next week. These demonstrate the European Union's strong and common endeavours to make SDG 14 happen in practice.

 
  
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  Jarosław Wałęsa, on behalf of the PPE Group. – Madam President, coastal and marine resources contribute an estimated EUR 30 trillion to global [inaudible] ecosystem services, but those resources are extremely vulnerable to environmental degradation, overfishing, climate change and pollution. In this context, policymakers all over the world need to find a way to agree to ensure sustainable long-term use of the oceans.

Only yesterday, Members of Committee on Fisheries voted on my opinion concerning an agenda for the future of our oceans in the context of the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals. In this opinion, we recognised that the current framework for oceans governance is not effective enough. We therefore encourage more concrete actions in order to accomplish the Sustainable Development Goals. International oceans governance should apply the principles of decentralisation and regionalisation; it should involve all the stakeholders at all stages, from conception to implementation of the measures, and it should be based on environmental and strategic impact assessment.

 
  
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  Ricardo Serrão Santos, em nome do Grupo S&D. – Senhora Presidente, Senhor Comissário, o mundo comprometeu-se com os objetivos para o desenvolvimento sustentável. Entre estes, o décimo quarto diz respeito aos oceanos.

O desenvolvimento sustentável engloba três pilares não hierarquizáveis. Tal como está previsto no texto integral das Nações Unidas, é necessário dar oportunidades de valorização às comunidades remotas e aos estados insulares.

Na próxima semana, na importante reunião que decorrerá em Nova Iorque, diversos Estados e organizações irão comprometer-se com o uso sustentável dos oceanos. Passar dos compromissos políticos para as ações concretas é essencial. A forma como a União Europeia e os seus Estados—Membros estão a envolver-se, de forma voluntária, fortalece o meu orgulho de ser europeu.

Sabemos que os Estados Unidos da América estão a bloquear entendimentos e decisões comprometidas com o desenvolvimento sustentável. Mais uma razão para que a União Europeia assegure a liderança e o empenho neste dossiê.

Este não é apenas um apelo meu, é um grito das gerações futuras.

 
  
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  Julie Girling, on behalf of the ECR Group. – Madam President, I would like to join with all of my colleagues in wishing the Commissioner, and indeed our team, every success at the Ocean Conference next week.

When I started to look at this, it made me realise how far we have come on this issue of sustainable oceans, and yet also how far we still have to go. We have had a change of mindset. Certainly the common fisheries policy, which has not always been universally admired, is beginning to change, but we need to be very vigilant. Indeed, just in these few weeks when we have been talking about external fishing fleets – as I have been, and the rapporteur, the author of this report, has also been involved – you are reminded, with every article you go through, about how you have to be vigilant and to make sure that you do not slip backwards. We have to go forwards when it comes to sustainable development.

So I would like to welcome this resolution. I welcome the opportunity for a delegation from this Parliament to go to the meeting and I wish them every success.

 
  
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  Norica Nicolai, în numele grupului ALDE. – Doamnă președintă, domnule comisar, Agenda 2030 privind obiectivele de dezvoltare durabilă prezentată de Comisie este o agendă ambițioasă. Cele 14 acțiuni pe care Comisia le propune sunt sustenabile, responsabile și rezonabile, dar trebuie să ținem cont de faptul că în proporție de peste 30 % resursele noastre marine sunt supraexploatate.

Consider că în această agendă două acțiuni sunt vitale pentru viitorul oceanelor noastre: în primul rând, îmbunătățirea cadrului de guvernanță internațională a oceanelor, eliminarea lacunelor care există în cadrul existent și, în al doilea rând, pescuitul ilegal. Cele două acțiuni, în opinia mea, sunt interconectate, dar cred, domnule comisar, că va fi o bătălie foarte dificilă, bătălia cu pescuitul ilegal, în contextul în care există state din afara UE care încă nu au ratificat și aplicat Convenția ONU, și mă refer inclusiv la Statele Unite.

În contextul negocierilor privind viitorul acord internațional privind biodiversitatea marină în zonele din afara jurisdicțiilor naționale, care poate exista doar în contextul Convenției ONU privind dreptul mărilor, aș vrea să știu cum își propune Comisia Europeană să obțină un acord eficient, care să elimine lacunele din dreptul internațional, când știm foarte bine că există state hotărâte să nege existența schimbărilor climatice și nevoia gestionării responsabile a stocurilor de pește.

În ceea ce privește gestionarea sustenabilă a resurselor, din nou vorbim de nevoia unui sistem de organizații regionale de gestionare a pescuitului în baza unor acorduri internaționale care să aibă forță, susținerea și respectul necesar din partea statelor, pentru ca deciziile acestora să fie aplicate. În acest context, aș dori să întreb Comisia Europeană în ce măsură are un plan, altul decât agenda propusă anul trecut, pentru negocierea și înființarea unor organizații în spațiul arctic.

 
  
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  Maria Lidia Senra Rodríguez, em nome do Grupo GUE/NGL. – Senhora Presidente, o objetivo 14 da ONU sobre os oceanos estabelece a prevenção e a redução da poluição marinha de que as pescadoras e os pescadores são as vítimas principais e aos quais não deve ser atribuída toda a responsabilidade de conservação dos recursos pesqueiros.

Neste âmbito, queremos fazer finca-pé, mais uma vez, na necessidade dos elementos de regeneração das rias e na paralisação das obras que ocasionam mudanças das correntes e impactos no meio.

No campo da prevenção, queremos chamar a atenção para os impactos do crescimento azul e incentivar este Parlamento e a Comissão a assumir a necessidade de impedir qualquer atividade que coloque em perigo a pesca.

Pedimos, expressamente, a proibição da mineração nos fundos marinhos, assim como a anulação da concessão mineira nos fundos marinhos em Papua-Nova Guiné e também o fim das prospeções petrolíferas.

Gostaria, Senhor Comissário, que a UE defendesse também esta questão.

 
  
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  Sylvie Goddyn, au nom du groupe ENF. – Madame la Présidente, la question posée met l’accent sur l’aide apportée aux pays tiers pour lutter contre la pêche illégale, en mettant en avant le rôle joué par le règlement sur la pêche illicite, non déclarée et non réglementée.

Mais elle demande surtout de mieux coordonner la lutte contre la pêche illégale et les politiques commerciales. Nous sommes en effet le premier importateur mondial de produits de la mer et il est impératif de fermer notre marché aux produits issus de la pêche illégale.

C’est loin d’être le cas aujourd’hui. La Commission n’interdit pas suffisamment les importations en provenance de pays qui ne luttent pas contre la pêche illégale. Elle émet contre ces pays des cartons rouges, des cartons jaunes, avec parcimonie, alors qu’elle se montre beaucoup plus dure envers les pêcheurs européens qui ne respectent pas les règles.

Enfin, des ONG ont publié un rapport en mars dernier pour souligner la faiblesse des contrôles aux frontières et des vérifications portant sur les certificats de capture.

Je me réjouis, pour ma part, que l’on redécouvre l’intérêt des contrôles aux frontières et j’attends également que l’on améliore ces contrôles.

 
  
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  Francisco José Millán Mon (PPE). – Señora presidenta, celebro que próximamente tenga lugar la Conferencia de Alto Nivel de las Naciones sobre el objetivo 14 de desarrollo sostenible. Los océanos son clave para afrontar retos como el cambio climático y el hambre.

Me detengo ahora en la actividad pesquera para destacar que la flota europea es una de las más reguladas y más respetuosos con los océanos y sus recursos. Otros países también deberían asegurar un mejor control de sus flotas para lograr que, así, aumente el número de stocks explotados de manera sostenible. También, lógicamente, es necesario que las decisiones sobre el acceso a los recursos se basen en estudios científicos rigurosos.

Señorías, uno de los objetivos es acabar en el 2020 con la pesca ilegal no declarada y no reglamentada. La lucha contra la pesca INDNR es una prioridad a la que deben contribuir los Estados de abanderamiento, los ribereños, los Estados rectores de puerto, a través del acuerdo de la FAO, y los Estados de comercialización.

También celebro que otro de los objetivos sea garantizar a los pescadores artesanales el acceso a los recursos y a los mercados. Recuerdo que existen zonas y regiones pesqueras altamente dependientes de este tipo de pesca.

Según los datos de las Naciones Unidas, para más de 3 000 millones de personas, los océanos son su fuente principal de proteína. La sostenibilidad de los recursos es, pues, esencial. Pero también quiero lamentar que en Europa se desaprovechen cada año cuotas de especies que se encuentren en niveles seguros de explotación. Por ello, insisto una vez más en la necesidad de buscar mecanismos que redistribuyan las cuotas no utilizadas dentro de la Unión entre los demás Estados miembros.

 
  
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  Simona Bonafè (S&D). – Signora Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, purtroppo in questa discussione non possiamo non partire dal fatto del giorno: l'annuncio di Trump di sfilarsi dall'accordo di Parigi, una linea che mina le fondamenta non solo della lotta al cambiamento climatico ma, più in generale, il raggiungimento dell'intera agenda per lo sviluppo sostenibile per il 2030, tema al centro della conferenza delle Nazioni Unite che si terrà a New York la settimana prossima e a cui parteciperò con la delegazione del Parlamento.

Doveva essere il primo importante appuntamento per passare da impegni politici ad azioni concrete verso gli obiettivi globali per lo sviluppo sostenibile e adesso, alla luce di quanto è successo, lo sarà ancora di più. Dobbiamo puntare al raggiungimento degli obiettivi che ci siamo dati, convinti che un sistema più sostenibile non fa bene solo all'ambiente ma fa bene anche all'economia, che oggi è sottoposta alla sfida dell'uso efficiente delle risorse.

Se questo discorso è valido in generale, lo è ancora di più per la gestione dei nostri mari. Una gestione responsabile dei mari è l'unica in grado di favorire appieno la biodiversità e al tempo stesso le potenzialità della blue economy: turismo e pesca.

 
  
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  Sirpa Pietikäinen (PPE). – Madam President, in the current political climate and situation, the EU must take the lead on international ocean governance. These two upcoming conferences give us a good chance to take that role and gather broader political support. It could be that maritime ecosystems are actually under much greater stress than land ecosystems and that we are at the limits of the endurance of maritime ecosystems. Both demersal and pelagic systems are on the brink of extinction without the ability to recover and reproduce good and healthy fish stocks for the future. We would actually need a moratorium, at least in half of those systems used. Then there is the issue of micro—plastics, chemicalisation, dumping of waste, use of resources – like deep—sea mining, which was mentioned – and oil drilling. If we do not act now, it might be too late in five or ten years. There are of course the special challenges concerning the Arctic seas, which we discussed earlier here in the Parliament. So I hope that the Commission takes up this task and role.

 
  
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  José Inácio Faria (PPE). – Madam President, dear Commissioner, in 2016 the European Union set out the joint agenda for the future of our oceans. In 2015, the leaders of G7 agreed on a declaration that highlights the importance of oceans governance science? The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development proposes 17 sustainable development goals, amongst them SDG 14 – the oceans goal – which aims to conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development. However, only 2.18% of the world’s oceans have been fully protected as of today.

Our oceans cover more than two thirds of the earth’s surface and contain 97% of our planet’s water. Over three billion people depend on marine and coastal resources for their livelihoods, the majority of world trade is conducted by sea and the importance of the blue economy cannot be ignored. Nevertheless, we take our oceans for granted. Eighty per cent of marine pollution and litter in oceans comes from land-based sources, and maritime CO2 emissions are projected to increase by 50% to 250% in the period up to 2050. Put simply, oceans, seas and coastal areas form an integrated and essential component of the earth’s ecosystem. The ocean is a primary regulator of climate and weather.

Next month in New York the United Nations’ first global conference on the oceans will take place with the aim of developing a robust implementation framework for our oceans. I believe that today, with the United States drifting away, the European Union should play an important role, on the basis of its experience, and not only through its environmental policy, in developing a sustainable approach to ocean management.

 
  
 

„Catch the eye” eljárás

 
  
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  Nicola Caputo (S&D). – Signora Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, la prossima conferenza ad alto livello ONU per sostenere l'attuazione dell'OSS 14 è un'occasione unica per avviare un processo internazionale volto a migliorare la governance globale degli oceani.

Malgrado l'impegno a livello mondiale assunto per ridurre la pesca eccessiva entro il 2015, nel 2002 a Johannesburg il 31,4 per cento degli stock ittici mondiali è ancora oggetto di una pesca eccessiva. La pesca illegale, non dichiarata e non regolamentata, determina gran parte di questo depauperamento e pone in una condizione di svantaggio i pescatori onesti, indebolendo le comunità costiere, soprattutto nei paesi in via di sviluppo.

L'Unione europea ha il dovere di promuovere con più determinazione, nell'ambito della conferenza sull'oceano delle Nazioni Unite, un approccio globale per eliminare le scappatoie che permettono agli operatori illegali di trarre vantaggio dalle loro attività. Solo un approccio precauzionale, basato sulla salvaguardia degli ecosistemi, così come stabilito dai trattati e dalla politica comune della pesca, potrà aiutare il ripristino e il mantenimento degli stock ittici al di sopra dei livelli necessari per assicurare il rendimento massimo sostenibile.

 
  
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  Νότης Μαριάς ( ECR). – Κυρία Πρόεδρε, η βιώσιμη ανάπτυξη αποτελεί κλειδί για την επιβίωση του ίδιου του πλανήτη. Η διάσκεψη υψηλού επιπέδου του ΟΗΕ για τους ωκεανούς αποτελεί σημαντική ευκαιρία για την παγκόσμια κοινότητα να καταδείξει ότι τελικά το διεθνές δίκαιο θα τηρηθεί επιτέλους. Η Ιαπωνία θα πρέπει να αντιληφθεί ότι δεν μπορεί να γίνει ανεκτή η παράνομη φαλαινοθηρία που εξολοθρεύει χιλιάδες φάλαινες. Επίσης, η Κίνα πρέπει να σταματήσει την παράνομη αλιεία και να σταματήσει τη συστηματική εξαφάνιση των θαλάσσιων αποθεμάτων.

Η Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωση οφείλει να λάβει πρακτικά μέτρα για την πλήρη και ολοσχερή απαγόρευση εισαγωγής των ψαριών που αλιεύτηκαν παράνομα. Η κόκκινη κάρτα, κύριε Vella, πρέπει να βγει προς διάφορες χώρες, συμπεριλαμβανομένης και της Κίνας. Μόνο έτσι μπορεί να υπάρξει προστασία των ωκεανών και ενίσχυση του δίκαιου εμπορίου. Μόνο έτσι μπορεί να προστατευθούν, κύριε Vella, οι αλιείς της Ευρωπαϊκής Ένωσης απ’ τις αθέμιτες πρακτικές των τρίτων χωρών. Ενισχύστε λοιπόν, κύριε Vella, τους ευρωπαίους αλιείς, γιατί υφίστανται αθέμιτο ανταγωνισμό από τις τρίτες χώρες που παραβιάζουν το δίκαιο για την προστασία των ωκεανών.

 
  
 

(A „catch the eye” eljárás vége.)

 
  
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  Karmenu Vella, Member of the Commission. – Madam President, I would like to thank honourable Members for their valuable contributions.

Starting with Mr Wałęsa, I agree that it is time to take more concrete action. That was the idea behind Vice—President Mogherini and myself launching the Ocean Governance communication last November. This is a very important way of moving forward, focusing our ocean governance strategy on three areas: first, to strengthen the legal framework; second, to reduce human pressures on the oceans; and, third, to continue investing in more research and more knowledge.

I agree with Mr Serrão Santos that it is important, again, to move from commitment to implementation and for the European Union not to take the lead but to continue to lead, especially in the absence of the USA. I also agree with Ms Girling that we have come a long way but still have a long way to go. This applies not just to the European Union, because this is a global issue and what we are doing is not only within the European Union: we are tackling this at a high global level.

I also agree with Mr Nicolai that Agenda 2030 is an ambitious agenda. I can assure you that, in the same way that we took the lead during the negotiation process, we will continue with that lead, even more importantly during the implementation phase as well. As I mentioned, eliminating gaps in the legal framework is one of our focus areas in the ocean communication.

Fighting illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing (IUU) is another important aspect of our second area of priority, reducing human pressures on the ocean. I also agree that we have to walk the walk when we say that all countries and all continents have to do the same. We cannot possibly move on more, better and stronger legal frameworks if some of us have still not ratified the existing legal framework, such as the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) – and we are doing our best to push the countries in question to start committing to and implementing the existing legal frameworks.

With regard to an instrument on biodiversity beyond national jurisdiction (BBNJ), a lot of progress has been made, and in the coming weeks one of the final preparatory meetings will take place. Again, we are pushing other countries for support.

With regard to international agreements, we all know what is happening in the USA. I have already mentioned elsewhere that international agreements are there to be honoured. We cannot discuss, commit to and then not honour our commitments.

With regard to marine litter, this is a scourge and we are also addressing this, among other things through the new Plastics Strategy, which will be coming out before the end of this year. We are trying not just to address what has already happened in the ocean but to address this issue at source. We call it ‘marine litter’ but it is actually all land litter that ends up in the sea.

Regarding encouraging blue growth, we recognise the ‘blue opportunities’ from the oceans, but we also recognise the environmental responsibilities that go along with this, and these environmental responsibilities come into play when we talk about deep-sea mining, drilling and so on.

Ms Goddyn, with regard to illegal fishing, using the red card is, I think, the most effective tool that we have – and we have used it. It has been effective because, when it comes to trade, we have seen countries which were traumatised when we used the red card but some of which, today, are our best partners when it comes to fighting IUU. Mr Millán Mon, it is true that our industry in Europe is one of the best regulated and, I should add, not just within European Union waters but in our external waters as well. One word of caution: we do, more than anything, want to support small—scale fisheries, but unfortunately – and I say this with a little sadness – small-scale does not always mean sustainable. I think we have to focus on what is sustainable and what is not rather than looking at what is big or small.

With regard to quotas and where stocks are, we are doing our best. At the moment, the only pending issue, where everyone is saying that the stocks are doing well and we can utilise a higher quota, is probably tuna. We are waiting for the new quotas to come out. New scientific advice will be coming out in the next few weeks as well.

Ms Bonafè again mentioned the fact that, unfortunately, President Trump is not complying. It was a very sad statement that we all followed today. My feeling is that this does not reflect what the whole of the USA is thinking because I know that NGOs there are totally supportive, as is a section of the private sector. I know that even some of states within the USA have already come up with their own plans for ocean governance and blue growth. Here again, the European Union is ready to take a stronger lead and I think this is the sentiment when we talk to other continents and other countries. They are not saying that if the USA is not taking on its commitment they will not take on theirs. No, it is the complete opposite of that: the sentiment is that, if a vacuum is created by the USA, we have to work harder and to do better to fill that vacuum.

Ms Pietikäinen, you said the same thing about taking a stronger lead, especially in terms of what we are seeing. I totally agree with you about the ecosystems. Very often, when we talk about ecosystems and biodiversity, we are referring to our biodiversity and ecosystems on land, yet we know that the oceans are home to more than 70% of the planet’s global ecosystem. With regard to the Arctic, we are pushing through our Arctic policy – which we also launched last year – to have a fishing moratorium and to agree that no fishing will take place before there is scientific advice on this.

Mr Faria also mentioned the areas protected in the oceans. When it comes to protected areas, it is true that we have made more progress on land than we have in the ocean. On land we have managed to reach 18% to 20% of the surface area of the EU, whereas in the oceans we have barely reached 60%. So we have to do more work, not just to identify the areas but also to see how we are going to manage those areas because simply identifying the areas without having any management plans at all is not going to get us anywhere.

I agree with Mr Caputo that the coming conference in New York is a unique opportunity for everyone to start showing their commitment. I would add that the conference in Malta in October is also a very important one. As I said in my speech, the two events are complementary and mutually reinforce one another. We are looking forward to the sequence of the other ocean conferences, the fourth one being in October.

Mr Marius, yes, regarding our fight against IUU, you mentioned China. China is a special case because we can see that it wants to be committed and is making positive signs, with a lot of willingness to cooperate. Just to let you know, we have set up the EU-China Blue Year this year, and tomorrow we are going to have a Chinese delegation – another Chinese delegation within a period of three months – to continue working on our EU—China Blue Year and, as I said, we will continue pushing to turn their willingness into action.

I would like to thank everyone involved once again and I would like, in particular, to thank Ms Engström.

 
  
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  Elnök asszony. – Egy állásfoglalásra irányuló indítványt juttattak el hozzám, melyet az eljárási szabályzat 128. cikkének (5) bekezdésével összhangban nyújtottak be.

A vitát lezárom.

A szavazásra 2017. június 1-jén, csütörtökön kerül sor.

Írásbeli nyilatkozatok (162. cikk)

 
  
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  Norbert Erdős (PPE), írásban. – Tisztelt Elnök Úr! Idén, 2017 júniusában az ENSZ magas szintű konferenciát rendez az óceánok világszintű kezelésének fejlesztése érdekében, ami a 14. fenntartható fejlesztési cél végrehajtását segíti elő. Az óceánok és a tengerek központi szerepet játszanak életünkben, és kulcsfontosságúak jólétünk és jövőnk szempontjából. Tudjuk, a johannesburgi csúcstalálkozón a világ elkötelezte magát amellett, hogy 2015-ig visszaszorítja a túlhalászást. A világ halállományának 31,4%-a még mindig túlhalászott. Ez nemcsak egyes tengeri ökoszisztémákat veszélyeztet súlyosan, hanem komoly veszélyt jelent az élelmezésbiztonságra, valamint a part menti közösségek gazdasági és társadalmi fenntarthatóságára. Különösen a jogellenes, nem bejelentett és szabályozatlan halászat jelent komoly veszélyt a halállományokra. Az EU-nak – az Európai Bizottság vezetésével –átfogó megközelítést kellene kezdeményeznie és a partnerországokat meggyőznie az elfogadásáról, hogy hatékonyan vehessük fel a harcot az illegális halászat ellen. Kérem, támogassák az asztalra tett EP-jelentéstervezetet, amely a helyes irányt mutathatja meg az ENSZ-Óceánkonferencia résztvevőinek.

 
  
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  João Ferreira (GUE/NGL), por escrito. – O Objectivo de Desenvolvimento Sustentável 14, definido pela ONU, diz respeito à «conservação e uso sustentável dos oceanos, dos mares e dos recursos marinhos para o desenvolvimento sustentável». Esta é uma daquelas áreas em que se torna evidente a necessidade de esforços coordenados e partilhados no plano internacional. Os oceanos e os mares são, de facto, fundamentais para a nossa vida, para o nosso bem-estar e para o futuro da Humanidade e do planeta, tal como o conhecemos.

Os problemas em discussão – como o aquecimento e a acidificação dos oceanos, o branqueamento de corais, a pressão crescente sobre as populações de peixes e a quantidade cada vez maior de resíduos marinhos – são pertinentes e exigem discussão e ação, tendo em vista a proteção dos oceanos.

Sem aceitar que se erija a UE e suas políticas em paradigma de sustentabilidade, bem pelo contrário, acompanhamos a preocupação que está na origem deste debate, que consideramos necessário. Exige-se uma visão ampla sobre o conjunto de interações entre o homem e os mares e oceanos, bem como sobre as atividades que lhes estão associadas. A pesca é apenas uma das atividades a ter em conta. Outras existem, como a exploração de recursos minerais, entre outros exemplos, que têm vindo a ganhar acrescida centralidade.

 
  
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  Carolina Punset (ALDE), por escrito. – Cuando hablamos del planeta nos olvidamos de que sus tres cuartas partes son mares y de que el calentamiento global afecta extremadamente a los océanos. Las corrientes marinas son el regulador térmico del planeta y pueden cambiar bruscamente el clima. El aumento de la temperatura, la acidificación, la subida del nivel y la acumulación de residuos y contaminantes en los fondos y superficies marinas afecta irreversiblemente a nuestro modo de vida, arriesgando la subsistencia de millones de personas. La falta de jurisdicción agrava el problema de la sobreexplotación de recursos, la pesca ilegal y los vertidos de todo tipo de residuos y contaminantes, y las autoridades internacionales no tienen los suficientes instrumentos legales para castigar estas acciones. Los avances tecnológicos, que permiten conocer de cerca el estado de los mares, son clave para la gobernanza de los océanos y tendrán que ser desplegados como medio de supervisión y control. La convocatoria urgente de la Conferencia de Alto Nivel de la ONU, centrada en la necesidad de actuar a escala planetaria para mitigar el impacto de las actividades humanas en los océanos, debería ser una señal clara para que los legisladores se conciencien ante el grave estado del medio marino.

 
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