Teljes szöveg 
Eljárás : 2017/0017(COD)
A dokumentum állapota a plenáris ülésen
Válasszon egy dokumentumot : A8-0258/2017

Előterjesztett szövegek :


Viták :

PV 11/09/2017 - 20
CRE 11/09/2017 - 20
PV 11/12/2017 - 18
CRE 11/12/2017 - 18

Szavazatok :

PV 13/09/2017 - 9.7
CRE 13/09/2017 - 9.7
A szavazatok indokolása
PV 12/12/2017 - 5.3
A szavazatok indokolása

Elfogadott szövegek :


Az ülések szó szerinti jegyzőkönyve
2017. szeptember 11., Hétfő - Strasbourg Lektorált változat

20. Az EU kibocsátáskereskedelmi rendszere (EU ETS): A légi közlekedési tevékenységekre vonatkozó hatály jelenlegi korlátozásainak folytatása és egy globális piaci alapú intézkedés 2021-től történő végrehajtásának előkészítése (vita)
A felszólalásokról készült videofelvételek

  Przewodniczący. – Kolejnym punktem porządku dnia jest sprawozdanie sporządzone przez Julie Girling w imieniu Komisji Ochrony Środowiska Naturalnego, Zdrowia Publicznego i Bezpieczeństwa Żywności w sprawie unijnego systemu handlu uprawnieniami do emisji (EU ETS): kontynuowanie obecnego ograniczenia zakresu działalności lotniczej i przygotowanie do wdrożenia globalnego środka rynkowego od 2021 r. (COM(2017)0054 - C8-0028/2017 - 2017/0017(COD)) (A8-0258/2017).


  Julie Girling, rapporteur. – Mr President, aviation accounts for approximately 2.1% of global CO2 emissions. In the EU, direct CO2 emissions from aviation account for approximately 3% of the total. With the anticipated growth in air traffic, emissions in 2050 are expected to be seven to ten times higher than in 1990. This is according to the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) and their projections. Clearly such a growth necessitates a policy response. In this Parliament we have taken the view that we must reduce the carbon impact of the growth in air travel. We all know the history of how we arrived where we are with ‘stop the clock’, so I do not intend to expand on that, but I do want to emphasise Parliament’s commitment to working with ICAO to find a mutually acceptable position.

To this end, during 2016, I led three separate delegations from Parliament to ICAO in Montreal. This represents an unprecedented level of commitment from the Committee on the Environment, Public Health and Food Safety and we were very pleased to see an agreement in October 2016 to establish an offsetting system to deliver carbon neutral growth in the aviation sector. As a consequence, the Commission was required to adopt a proposal for a regulation amending the 2003 Emissions Trading System (ETS) Directive with respect to aviation and this was presented earlier this year.

Since then we have moved at a fast pace in Parliament with a view to reaching an agreement between co-legislators before the end of this year. Under the EU ETS aviation provisions – they have never applied in their original international scope due to legal challenges by third countries on the applicability of EU legislation to their airlines – only intra-EEA flights are fully covered.

In its proposal, the Commission extends this derogation beyond 2017 and there is clarity about the new ICAO offsetting scheme and how it should apply to international flights when it enters into force in 2021. Moreover, the Commission text includes a review clause requiring it to report to Parliament and the Council on relevant developments in ICAO’s work and, if appropriate, propose to amend, delete or extend the derogation.

In my report I fully support the Commission’s approach, namely that we await progress on the global market-based measure (the GMBM). It is untrue and misleading to imply that my report does not take this position. As the rapporteur, I have proposed to augment the original proposal by adding a time limit on the latest derogation, aligned to fit with ICAO’s own decision—making deadlines. This reflects legitimate concern over the GMBM and whether it will deliver on its commitment to ensure carbon neutral growth from 2020.

At present, based on the current negotiations within ICAO – and they are very current and going on as we speak – progress on the offsetting provisions has been painfully slow, with some parties – and I mention China in particular – now objecting to ICAO’s role in setting the rules for the GMBM.

I believe it would be remiss to make a decision on the future of the ETS in support of a GMBM that is, for the time being at least, vague and imprecise in its framework. A time—limited derogation is therefore required to maintain political pressure on the Council, and indeed the Commission, to develop a long—term regulatory solution. We must learn from the issues encountered with previous iterations of the legislation and provide the sector with much needed investor certainty as soon as work is completed on the GMBM’s reporting provisions on the transparency and the environmental integrity of the offset registry.

The Environment Committee’s report also provides for the designation of revenues generated by auctioned allowances to climate finance, aircraft design and fuel-efficient technologies, plus a schedule for the Commission’s review report and what it needs to include as a minimum, as well as stressing the need for enhanced transparency of ICAO’s work in preparing and implementing the scheme. The report carries over amendments pertinent to the aviation sector in the wider ETS Phase IV proposal, including an increase in the number of auctioned allowances, provisions already voted on in this House.

For all these reasons, I think it is vital that Parliament pursue the time limit on the derogation. Details of the scheme from ICAO are not well enough advanced to be able to say with any certainty that they will be exactly as we currently see them. ICAO is a large international organisation with almost 200 member states and their internal negotiations are not yet complete. I do not believe that Parliament should be complicit in undermining our own negotiating position and recommend that we vote accordingly.


  Miguel Arias Cañete, Member of the Commission. – Mr President, it is a pleasure to be here today and to take part in your deliberations on the proposal on the European Union emissions trading system for aviation. I appreciate the hard work of the rapporteur Ms Girling on this proposal and would like to thank her for her efforts. I would also like to thank the shadow rapporteurs for their valuable contributions and their support for a swift and a smooth process.

Aviation greenhouse gas emissions are growing sharply and clearly have the potential to put at risk the achievement of the climate targets we committed to in Paris two years ago if they are not adequately addressed. The European Union has taken the lead in addressing these emissions by covering them under its Emissions Trading System and is also working hard at the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) for effective global measures. Precisely, this Commission proposal we are debating today follows the adoption by the ICAO Assembly in October last year of a resolution on the so-called CORSIA (Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme), a global measure to offset aviation emissions beyond 2020 levels after many years of efforts and following up on the Paris Agreement sealed a year before.

As we already recognised, this was an important and welcome first development to address aviation emissions globally, despite being below the European Union ambition. We must acknowledge, however, that a lot of work is still needed to make CORSIA operational by 2021, namely, agreeing the CORSIA rule book in the form of standards and recommended practices presently under negotiation in Montreal and then the adoption of national measures for its concrete implementation.

The Commission proposal duly takes this dynamic context into account. First, to facilitate the operationalisation of CORSIA, it maintains the intra—EEA scope for aviation from 2017 onwards. On the other hand, the proposal foresees a new review once there is more clarity as regards international developments for the operationalisation of the global scheme, namely, ICAO rules and how they will be implemented. And finally, it contains an empowerment to adopt delegated acts on monitoring, reporting and verification of emissions in order that the European Union is ready to implement CORSIA in that regard.

I want to remind you all of the imperative need for swift progress on this file, paving the way for a final text before the end of the year. If the amendment to the Directive does not enter into force by early 2018, the full scope, covering all flights to and from third countries, will kick off again, and this situation will be problematic.

I would like to underline as well that, in our view, extension of the intra-EEA scope, combined with a review, will allow the European Union to rightly deal with the situation we will face in the coming years. On the one hand, we need to facilitate international developments and get ready to implement CORSIA. On the other hand, we will have to discuss the future rules for the European Union ETS in a context where CORSIA becomes a reality.

I am glad to see that the report you are voting on today shares this basic approach of continuing the intra-EEA scope, to then undertake a new review once there is more clarity on international developments. Let me, however, provide some comments on two key aspects of the rapporteur’s final proposal which raise some concerns on our side.

First, I would like to warn against an automatic return to the full scope right after 2020 in the absence of a new review. That threat could create difficulties with third countries which are now positively involved in ICAO negotiations and are a priori committed to CORSIA implementation. Let’s face it. ICAO has been given little time to complete the negotiation process and it will need to be followed by domestic implemented measures.

We in the European Union are well equipped since it will have to take place through the ETS, but others have much more to develop domestically. So one cannot exclude some delay in the operationalisation, but this would not by itself be enough in our view to trigger an automatic return to full scope and thereby lose years of efforts in the ICAO.

In addition, the automatic snap-back to full scope as soon as in 2021 would put the European Union in a difficult and time-constrained situation again when we undertake the necessary review, making it more difficult to duly take into account and discuss all the intricacies of the post-2020 period.

Even in the best case scenario, let us remember that compliance with the so-called ‘pilot phase’ obligations will only happen in 2024, at least if all goes as planned and there are no delays. We may need, therefore, some time to have a clear picture of how CORSIA performs and delivers. We have to bear in mind as well that in the context of the future review we can always decide to go back to a wider scope or cover certain routes to third countries in the light of the international situation at that moment. But this is something that would deserve appropriate analysis and decision at the right time once we know whether and how CORSIA is implemented.

My second comment is on the rules for the period up to 2020. We understand the willingness to strengthen the system and bring it closer to the regime for stationary installations. That said, our view is that these aspects should be addressed in the next review, taking due account of the need for aviation to contribute its fair share at European Union level. Anticipating this now could be premature. In that context, we welcome the amendments aiming at better framing the review. We believe that this is the right way of addressing some of the concerns over the future regime.

The Commissioner is encouraged by the quick progress achieved on this file and is confident that an agreement on this proposal could be reached this year. I look forward to continuing to work with you on the ETS aviation proposal and bringing it to a successful conclusion.


  Werner Langen, Verfasser der Stellungnahme des mitberatenden Ausschusses für Industrie, Forschung und Energie. – Herr Präsident! Der Industrieausschuss hat sich mit dem Thema befasst und unterstützt weitgehend die Haltung der Kommission. Wir haben einige Änderungsanträge eingebracht, aber den wesentlichen Punkt, dass wir Wettbewerbsverzerrungen zu Lasten der europäischen Luftfahrt verhindern wollen und deshalb auf internationale Vereinbarungen setzen, unterstützen wir voll und ganz. Wir sind auch dagegen, dass 2020 – falls die Verhandlungen nicht ausreichend schnell vorankommen – das alte System wieder in Kraft tritt. Insofern unterstützt der Industrieausschuss die grobe Linie.

Wir wollen allerdings auch sicherstellen, dass die Kommission bei der Umsetzung der weiteren Rechtsvorschriften nicht einfach einen delegierten Rechtsakt erlässt, sondern, dass das Parlament weiterhin voll und ganz beteiligt wird, um die Einzelheiten vorzuschlagen. Und wir wollen prüfen, ob im Falle des Scheiterns neben dem europäischen System möglicherweise auch CORSIA gleichzeitig in Kraft treten kann. Das ist ein Versuch, ich weiß nicht, ob es gelingt. Aber wenn wir den Druck erhöhen, kann dieser Bericht einen vorübergehenden Fortschritt für die europäische Luftfahrtwirtschaft bringen und gleichzeitig wird der Druck auf die internationalen Verhandlungen erhöht. Insofern hat der Industrieausschuss mit 51 Jastimmen und 5 Neinstimmen bei 0 Enthaltungen seine Stellungnahme verabschiedet.


  Jacqueline Foster, rapporteur for the opinion of the Committee on Transport and Tourism. – Mr President, first I would like to thank my shadow rapporteurs on the Transport Committee and other Members who have been extremely supportive of our position. The Committee on Transport and Tourism (TRAN) has supported for many years a single, global emissions scheme. It is imperative, Commissioner, that the EU allows time for the ground-breaking International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) negotiation discussions to be concluded. As we know, constructive talks are already underway and it is vital that countries such as the US, China, India and others are included as they are major players in this field.

I would note that the US can still be part of CORSIA as neither the aviation nor the maritime sectors are included in the COP. To avoid duplication and excessive bureaucracy, the global scheme must include all international intra-EEA and domestic flights. To date, as you know, more than 70 countries have voluntarily signed up to the scheme, which between them emit nearly 90% of aviation CO2 emissions worldwide. We believe that all future revenues should be ring-fenced by Member States, and must be reinvested by an R&D project, such as Single European Sky, Clean Sky, SESAR and others.

To avoid the risk of a future snapback to the EU emissions trading system (ETS), which severely damaged our international relations and our aerospace industries, it is vital that our proposed TRAN text amendments be supported. This will be the best opportunity that we have had for the European Union to be part of a global solution, supported by Member States, the Commission, including Commissioner Bulc, and industry, and bringing all key world players onside. Of course, Commissioner, it is absolutely vital that we stop the clock.


  Peter Liese, im Namen der PPE-Fraktion. – Herr Präsident, Herr Kommissar, liebe Kolleginnen und Kollegen! In den letzten Tagen hatten wir leider wieder traurigen Anlass, über den Klimawandel zu sprechen. Man kann nicht sagen, dass einzelne Naturkatastrophen direkt durch den Klimawandel hervorgerufen werden, aber die Überschwemmungen in Südasien und die Wirbelstürme in der Karibik und den USA zeigen, dass wir hier ein Problem haben, denn alle seriösen Forscher sagen: Solche Ereignisse nehmen zu, wenn wir nichts gegen den Klimawandel tun. Und nun sagt man beim Flugverkehr, das seien ja nur zwei Prozent oder in der EU nur drei Prozent. Aber erstens wächst der Anteil, und zweitens muss man das mal ins Verhältnis setzen: Wenn man die Emissionen der 129 Staaten, die sich in Paris verpflichtet haben – und dazu gehören durchaus auch die Mitgliedstaaten der Europäischen Union und andere Industriestaaten – addiert, dann kommt man auf den gleichen Wert wie beim internationalen Flugverkehr. Wir haben hier also ein Problem, und deswegen müssen wir es anpacken, am besten international. Aber dieses Parlament hat sich schon vor einigen Monaten zu CORSIA geäußert und gesagt: Das ist enttäuschend, es ist noch nicht das, was wir brauchen, um wirklich das Problem anzupacken. Aber jetzt den ursprünglichen Anwendungsbereich wieder herzustellen, würde dieses zarte Pflänzchen zerstören und wäre auch nicht umsetzbar.

Deswegen danke ich Julie Girling für ihre Arbeit und für den aus meiner Sicht in vielen Teilen ausgewogenen Bericht. Wir als EVP wollen das aber gerne noch ausgewogener machen. Wir haben zum Beispiel mit Änderungsantrag 36 einen Kompromiss zwischen ENVI auf der einen Seite und ITRE und TRAN auf der anderen Seite vorgelegt. Und ich bitte die Kolleginnen und Kollegen, der EVP-Linie zu folgen, dann haben wir einen guten Kompromiss.

Zum Schluss ein Wort zu Änderungsantrag 47: Hier dreht es sich um den Brexit. Wir wollen natürlich keinen harten Brexit. Wir wollen, dass Großbritannien möglichst im Binnenmarkt bleibt, auf jeden Fall im ETS. Aber wir müssen leider vorbereitet sein, was man im Moment hört, ist nicht so positiv. Deswegen wollen wir mit Änderungsantrag 47 hier eine Vorbereitung treffen und bitten Sie auch da, uns zu unterstützen.




  Seb Dance, on behalf of the S&D Group. – Mr President, I would like to also join in thanking Rapporteur Girling for the excellent work that has taken place amongst all the groups. I think we have here a very balanced report and something that reflects the consensus on an issue as serious as this. As Mr Liese has just pointed out, we are no longer in a position where we can pretend that climate change isn’t happening. We are all very privileged in this place to be able to do something about it and we will not be thanked by future generations if we stand idly by.

The truth of course is that many, many sectors are reducing their emissions but it is not the case in the aviation sector. The global-based market solution does make sense on paper and as many of the colleagues here who joined me and others on the trip to Montreal will know, the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) is very good at handling this process and we have a lot of faith in its ability to take us forward, but we do need that added pressure. We cannot just sit back and hope for the best and think that the carbon neutral growth proposed from 2020 will be sufficient. We have to see what the proposals will look like in concrete terms, and that is what this report does, of course, it gives the Commission the criteria to judge the success or otherwise of ICAO’s process and it does, of course, send a strong signal that we do not want to undermine Parliament’s existing stance on Phase 4 of the Emissions Trading System.

Our group supports this proposal and I hope very much that Parliament’s vote will reflect the strong consensus that we have been able to achieve.


  Mark Demesmaeker, namens de ECR-Fractie. – Om de doelen van het Klimaatakkoord van Parijs te bereiken moeten alle sectoren een inspanning leveren, ook de luchtvaartsector. En mijn delegatie is altijd voorstander geweest van de opname van de luchtvaart in het emissiehandelssysteem. Met de uitzondering voor internationale vluchten waren we veel minder tevreden. Deze uitzondering is immers nadelig voor het klimaat, is nadelig voor het milieu. Vandaag zijn er echter twee nieuwe belangrijke elementen in dit dossier die een laatste verlenging van de uitzondering voor internationale vluchten rechtvaardigt. Ten eerste is er inderdaad het ICAO-akkoord van oktober 2016 dat we alle kansen op slagen willen geven. En ten tweede maakt het Parlement eindelijk duidelijk dat deze laatste uitzondering voor internationale vluchten uiterlijk in 2020 stopt. Zo houden we de druk op de ketel en de stok achter de deur. Ik wil collega Julie Girling feliciteren met haar doordachte aanpak en we zullen haar verslag voluit steunen.


  Gerben-Jan Gerbrandy, on behalf of the ALDE Group. – Mr President, what a moment to discuss this important file. As we speak, the results of climate change are hitting the Caribbean with unprecedented force. The central question today is of course: how do we judge the ICAO decision to tackle the problem of climate change? Is it the strong and decisive step of the aviation sector to freeze its emissions globally at 2020 levels and compensate for all additional emissions, or is it a cunning attempt by the aviation industry to buy more time and to accommodate unlimited growth in the future?

I think it is neither of the two. My judgment is that it is a promising step forward, but at this stage, it is still limited to an intention. It is based on a resolution, and in the coming years it will be implemented on a voluntary basis. Rules on the global trading registry, criteria for offsets and monitoring of emissions still have to be agreed and implemented by participating countries. It is clearly promising, but at a very early stage. A lot of work and conviction is still necessary to make it a success. Political pressure will be greatly needed, and the question is whether that is by a time limit on the derogation or an indefinite limit on the derogation. I strongly support Julie Girling’s report on this. We very badly need a time limit on the derogation in order to make the ICAO process a success.


  Merja Kyllönen, GUE/NGL-ryhmän puolesta. – Arvoisa puhemies, hyvät kollegat, lämpimät kiitokset hyvästä yhteistyöstä monessa valiokunnassa. Pidän tärkeänä, että me kykenemme löytämään globaalin, yhteisen ratkaisun lentoliikenteen hiilidioksidipäästöjä koskevaan asiaan. Miksi näin? Koska maailmanlaajuisen päästöjen hyvitysjärjestelmän CORSIAn yksityiskohdista sopimisesta kansainvälisen siviili-ilmailujärjestön ICAOn neuvotteluissa on kuitenkin asia, joka johtaa potentiaalisesti parhaaseen lopputulokseen niin ilmaston, ihmiskunnan kuin lentoliikenteenkin osalta.

Olen itse päässyt mukaan muutamiin neuvotteluihin ICAOn osalta ja todennut sen, että mitä useammasta suunnasta haastetaan positiivisella tavalla, sitä paremmassa hengessä mennään eteenpäin. Kaikki erilaiset painostusliikkeet ovat tahtoneet johtaa siihen, että syntyy erilaisia blokkeja, jotka estävät prosessin kunnollisen etenemisen.

Järkevintä on tässä tapauksessa mennä eteenpäin yhdessä CORSIAn hengessä. Kansainvälisestä hyvitysjärjestelmästä tulee saada mahdollisimman laaja-alainen, syrjimätön, ympäristöllisesti ja ilmastollisesti tehokas, ja sitä työtä meidän kaikkien on fiksua tukea.


  Bas Eickhout, on behalf of the Verts/ALE Group. – Mr President, it feels a bit like Groundhog Day here, since we are discussing aviation and climate change again and again. For those who are not aware, back in 2008 the EU promised – with unanimous support from the Council – to get aviation to fall within the scope of the Emissions Trading System (ETS) by 2012. This is for those who say that we have to take our time, and to the Commissioner who said: ‘well, let’s see how we judge the International Civil Aviation Organisation’s (ICAO) progress.’

In 2012, we had already said that it would fall within the scope of the ETS. Then we were promised by ICAO that there would be a global deal in 2016. Yes, that global deal is there, but we have not seen anything yet on how it will work. It is carbon-neutral growth, so that is far from being enough for implementation of Paris. For those who say that aviation is not falling within the scope of the Paris Agreement: that is nonsense, because the Paris targets are economy-wide. Every sector has to work, and until now we have had discussions on many sectors that needed to deliver, aviation was always out and they are still out.

What we are seeing now is that it is finally time for ICAO to live up to its promises, but then they really have to make sure that their so-called compensation projects are really compensation and not just fake, as the case could be. In that sense, it is about time for aviation to pay for its emissions like all the other sectors. We have given them enough time, and now we are going to do it again until the end of 2020? How long are we going to have that debate and give them a free ride?


  Λάμπρος Φουντούλης (NI). – Κύριε Πρόεδρε, το γεγονός πως διεξάγεται αυτή τη στιγμή συζήτηση για τη μείωση των εκπομπών διοξειδίου του άνθρακα από τις αεροπορικές μεταφορές είναι από μόνο του εξαιρετικά θετικό. Με την αλματώδη αύξηση των αεροπορικών μεταφορών τα τελευταία χρόνια έχει δημιουργηθεί ένας επιπλέον σοβαρός κίνδυνος για το περιβάλλον και δυστυχώς δεν υπάρχουν εύκολες λύσεις. Όλες οι εκτιμήσεις προβλέπουν προς το άμεσο μέλλον ο αριθμός των πτήσεων να αυξηθεί ακόμη περισσότερο, ενώ η τεχνολογία δεν μας προσφέρει προς το παρόν κάποια βιώσιμη εναλλακτική.

Σχετικά με το σύστημα εμπορίας εκπομπών, έχω επαναλάβει πολλές φορές, πως δεν αποτελεί πραγματική λύση. Στην πραγματικότητα, απλά μεταφέρει το πρόβλημα και αναβάλλει την αντιμετώπισή του. Επιπλέον, με τον ρυθμό ανάπτυξης που έχουν οι περισσότερες από τις τρίτες χώρες, σύντομα το συγκεκριμένο σύστημα θα καταστεί άνευ ουσίας. Στην πράξη, καθίσταται ένα καθαρά εισπρακτικό μέσο, χωρίς ιδιαίτερες περιβαλλοντικές επιπτώσεις. Μόνο μία τεχνολογική επανάσταση θα λύσει το πρόβλημα. Έτσι θέλω να πιστεύω πως τα ποσά που θα προκύψουν από τους πλειστηριασμούς δικαιωμάτων θα δοθούν στην έρευνα και την ανάπτυξη τεχνολογιών. Μέχρι τότε όμως καλό θα ήταν να περιορίσουμε όλοι μας τις αεροπορικές μεταφορές στο ελάχιστο δυνατό, επιλέγοντας τρόπους μεταφοράς φιλικότερους προς το περιβάλλον.


  Ivo Belet (PPE). – Julie Girling heeft het perfect samengevat: de luchtvaart is op weg naar grote exponentiële groei van de emissies ten gevolge van de grote expansie de komende jaren. Dus ik denk dat we het er allemaal over eens zijn dat luchtvaart onvermijdelijk een grotere milieu-inspanning moet leveren. Maar we moeten dat uiteraard niet blind doen. De maatregelen die nu voorliggen, garanderen dat de concurrentiekracht van de Europese luchtvaartbedrijven overeind blijft en ze creëren – dat is hier eigenlijk nog niet veel gezegd – misschien ook wel ruimte om die industriesectoren die op het terrein wel inspanningen moeten doen en die geconfronteerd worden met die zware concurrentie internationaal, om die misschien ook wel wat te ontlasten. Het is ook een boodschap aan de consumenten. Sommigen zeggen dat de ticketprijzen de pan zullen uitswingen. Ik denk dat we met z’n allen weten dat dat niet het geval is. Men spreekt over 1 à 2 % extra kost voor de reizigers, voor de tickets. Dus ik denk dat we weten dat ook de reizigers, dat ook de consumenten ervan overtuigd zijn dat de luchtvaart en dat we met z'n allen een inspanning moeten leveren, precies om dat Akkoord van Parijs tot een succes te maken. De luchtvaart kan daar niet langer aan ontsnappen.


  Miriam Dalli (S&D). – Mr President, the Paris Agreement requires action from all sectors and aviation should be no exception. This is amply evident at this point in time with all the natural events happening around us right now.

The emission reduction and efforts that different EU industries make should be brought in line and the aviation sector has to take its share. A sound comparison of the overall ambition of the Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation (CORSIA) with the EU Emissions Trading System (ETS) is required and this can only be done against definite and agreed criteria. Only through this can we ensure and determine an adequate scope for 2019. It is high time also for the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) to prove that it is a proactive stakeholder, that can adopt effective climate measures that can be implemented by the industry and will really make a positive difference.

Here is a sincere appeal for more transparency. Only full transparency can ensure trust and put everyone’s mind at rest on the reliability and quality of the information provided. I understand that the airline industry, like many other industries, operates on thin margins and obviously needs to stay on top of any financial risk. This is the balancing act that needs to be achieved as more industries understand that they need to act and invest now to be prepared for the upcoming challenges.


  Gesine Meissner (ALDE). – Herr Präsident! Es ist etwas ungewöhnlich, dass eine Liberale bei der Argumentation einer linken Kollegin ansetzt. Aber ich muss sagen, was Merja Kyllönen gesagt hat, kann ich voll unterstreichen. Merja hat gesagt: Wir brauchen ein effizientes, umweltfreundliches, globales – globales hat sie nicht gesagt, das habe ich hinzugefügt – System, und es lohnt sich, dafür zu kämpfen. Ich glaube, das sehen wir alle so, dass wir das brauchen – auch für den Luftverkehr, für die Emissionen – gerade jetzt angesichts dessen, was in der Karibik den Menschen an schlimmen Dingen passiert. Das ist eine Klimawandelauswirkung, die wir bekämpfen müssen – vollkommen richtig.

Die EU ist seit 10 Jahren Vorreiter bei einem EU-ETS-System und hat damit auch jetzt diese globale Diskussion ausgelöst. Wir haben aber gemerkt, dass es nichts bringt, die anderen zu zwingen. Es gab die Moskau-Erklärung 2012, bei der sich sogar Obama und der US-Kongress und Russland dagegen gewehrt haben, dass die EU hier diktiert, wie es weitergehen soll. Wir müssen doch jetzt sehen: Dem Klima ist am besten geholfen, wenn wir tatsächlich ein globales System haben. Ich befürchte, genau wie der Herr Kommissar, dass wir das gefährden, wenn wir jetzt zu stark versuchen, den anderen Daumenschrauben anzulegen. Darum bin ich für die ITRE- und TRAN-Variante.


  Kateřina Konečná (GUE/NGL). – Pane předsedající, snižování emisí z letecké dopravy je jednou z největších výzev, kterým evropská environmentální politika v současnosti čelí. Tento sektor je totiž tím, který se z hlediska podílu emisí nejvíce rozrůstá, a to z 1,5 % v roce 1990 na 4,5 % v roce 2015.

Evropská unie totiž nebrala na leteckou dopravu v rámci vytváření efektivní klimatické strategie zřetel a navíc se snažila tento sektor co nejvíce liberalizovat. Jak úspěšné mohou být politiky Evropské unie, když neřeší takové významné problémy komplexně, ale vybírají si, kterými se chtějí zabývat a kterými ne?

Pokud nezačneme konat, a to v tuto chvíli a ihned, hrozí, že se emise z letecké dopravy zvednou do roku 2050 až o 300 %. Potom budeme horko těžko naplňovat klimatickou dohodu z Paříže, do které sama Evropská unie a my všichni jsme vložili tolik práce a nadějí. Prosím, už konečně přestaňme pouze mluvit a začněme něco dělat. Letectví musí být součástí systému, letectví musí být součástí environmentální strategie Evropské unie.


  Wim van de Camp (PPE). – Wij praten vanavond over een gevoelig maar ook ambitieus dossier, zeker als het gaat over de transportsector. Wij hebben elkaar beloofd dat we de uitstoot zullen reduceren of transport nu wel of niet onder COP21 valt. Wij willen die ambitie waarmaken. Maar we zitten met een moeilijke verhouding tussen Europa en de rest van de wereld. Aan de ene kant stimuleren wij ICAO met de CORSIA-aanpak. Aan de andere kant willen wij dat vluchten uit derde landen in de EU de eigen EU-regels niet verstoren. En voorzitter, laat ik duidelijk zijn, mag de EU vooroplopen? Graag. Mag de EU ICAO stimuleren, zelfs forceren? Prima, maar uiteindelijk geen Europese Alleingang. Ik heb geen mooier woord dan dit Duitse woord: geen Alleingang en dat is ook de manier waarop wij binnen de Transportcommissie het stop-de-klok-dossier hebben behandeld. Laten we ambitieus zijn, laten we duidelijk zijn, maar ook bijvoorbeeld naar de Golfstaten toe, geen Alleingang, om ervoor te zorgen dat Europa niet lijdt, maar een voortrekkersrol op zich blijft nemen.


  Isabella De Monte (S&D). – Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, la riduzione globale delle emissioni nazionali di gas a effetto serra è un obiettivo fondamentale della politica dell'Unione europea. In tal senso il sistema ETS è uno strumento essenziale per una riduzione economicamente efficiente di tali emissioni.

È necessario approvare in tempi rapidi il regolamento, viste le attuali incertezze all'interno dell'ICAO circa l'adozione di una misura mondiale volta ad affrontare a livello globale l'aumento delle emissioni.

Dobbiamo dare certezza e chiarezza di diritto agli operatori aerei e al contempo rispettare gli obblighi di conformità previsti dal sistema ETS dell'Unione europea.

Sarà inoltre importante la piena realizzazione del cielo unico europeo per il raggiungimento degli obiettivi fissati dall'accordo di Parigi e per la riduzione del 40% dei gas a effetto serra entro il 2030. Ciò è essenziale per evitare la frammentazione dello spazio aereo e per ottimizzare il flusso del traffico, con conseguenti benefici per l'ambiente.


  Markus Ferber (PPE). – Herr Präsident, Herr Kommissar, liebe Kolleginnen, liebe Kollegen! Ich bin doch etwas überrascht, dass für den Luftverkehr nur ein System der Reduktion von CO2-Emissionen heute im Mittelpunkt steht, nämlich der Zertifikatehandel, obwohl im Luftverkehr ja auch eine Reihe von anderen Möglichkeiten zur Verfügung stehen, die auch in der Vergangenheit schon genutzt wurden. Also bitte belügen wir uns nicht gegenseitig, dass ohne ETS im Luftverkehr nichts gehen würde. Neue Triebwerkstechnologien, neue Flugzeuge mit ganz neuen Flügeltechniken, die geräuschärmer und emissionsärmer sind: Ein europäischer Luftraum würde viel dazu beitragen, dass wir weniger CO2-Emissionen haben. Oder Investitionen in Infrastrukturen, wie ich das jetzt in Frankfurt erlebe: Früher hat man Frankfurt von allen Seiten bewundern dürfen, wenn man angeflogen ist. Durch den Bau einer neuen Start- und Landebahn ist es deutlich reduziert worden. Alles das sind Maßnahmen, die CO2-Emissionen reduzieren.

Außerdem müssen wir schon aufpassen, dass wir als Europäer nicht soviel Vorbild sind, dass gar keiner mehr folgen will. Und wir haben ja deswegen die Uhr angehalten, weil die Drittstaaten nicht folgen wollten und weil wir ihnen ein System aufstülpen wollten, das eben nicht dazu beiträgt, Emissionen wirklich zu reduzieren im Verhältnis zu den Maßnahmen, die ich benannt habe. Deswegen ist es richtig, die Uhr weiter anzuhalten, bis alle mitmachen, aber natürlich auch sich anzustrengen, dass alle mitmachen. Das ist der Ansatz, den wir im Verkehrsausschuss vertreten haben, und ich hoffe, dass er morgen bei den Abstimmungen auch die notwendige Mehrheit findet. Verantwortung übernehmen, aber international!


  Gilles Pargneaux (S&D). – Monsieur le Président, Monsieur le Commissaire, grand absent de l’accord de Paris, le transport aérien est pourtant le mode de transport le plus polluant par passager et par kilomètre parcouru. En effet, un vol aller-retour Londres-New-York représente autant d’émissions de CO2 que le chauffage par l’énergie fossile d’une maison pendant une année.

Avec un taux de croissance du trafic de 5 % par an, les émissions polluantes du transport aérien pourraient être multipliées au minimum par trois d’ici à 2050. Il nous faut donc adopter un mécanisme mondial de régulation pour compenser l’augmentation de ces émissions de CO2 des compagnies aériennes. Hélas, le mécanisme CORSIA ne sera juridiquement contraignant qu’à partir de 2027.

Face à cette urgence climatique, nous devons ainsi, Monsieur le Commissaire, limiter la prolongation du «Stop the clock» à 2020, il y va – je crois – de la défense en matière de lutte contre les changements climatiques des Européennes et des Européens et, au-delà, de l’ensemble de celles et de ceux qui subissent ces changements climatiques.


  Damiano Zoffoli (S&D). – Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, il settore del trasporto aereo deve contribuire in maniera adeguata ed efficace al conseguimento degli obiettivi climatici dell'accordo di Parigi. Il trasporto aereo è attualmente responsabile del 4,5% delle emissioni all'interno dell'UE, emissioni che continueranno a crescere se non si interviene.

Il sistema CORSIA proposto dall'ICAO, peraltro di carattere volontario, ad oggi presenta molti limiti e aspetti sconosciuti. Serve più trasparenza: bene, perciò, la proposta della relatrice Girling, che fissa date precise e modalità per aggiornare periodicamente il Parlamento. Fondamentale è la richiesta alla Commissione di proporre misure per affrontare gli effetti del trasporto aereo sul clima dovuti agli ossidi di azoto e alle scie di condensazione, oltre che alla CO2.

Inoltre, si chiede alla Commissione di incoraggiare la ricerca sull'uso nel settore aereo dell'energia fotovoltaica e sui combustibili...

(Il Presidente interrompe l'oratore)


Catch-the-eye procedure


  Franc Bogovič (PPE). – Letalstvo je sektor, kjer je rast izpustov toplogrednih plinov najhitrejša.

Če govorimo o dveh do treh procentih v svetovnem merilu, petih procentih v evropskem merilu, se moramo zavedati, da je to približno četrtina ali pa celo tretjina tistega, kar ustvarja kmetijstvo, ki prehranjuje celotno človeštvo.

Zato je nujno, da tudi letalski sektor pristopi k zmanjševanju izpustov toplogrednih plinov, kot pa je bilo že danes v razpravi in tudi kot je v poročilu zapisano in kakor je stališče Komisije zelo jasno, Evropa kot tista, ki na okoljskem področju vodi to pionirsko bitko, sama na tem področju ne more zmagati.

Zato podpiram usmeritev poročila, usmeritev Komisije, da poskušamo s svojim zgledom in z aktivnim delom pridobiti na našo stran tiste, ki so največji onesnaževalci na tem področju, se pravi Združene države Amerike, Kitajska in Indija. Skupaj smo lahko uspešni, sami pa moramo biti v tem vodilni.


  Tibor Szanyi (S&D). – Mr President, I would also like to remind you that aviation activities are an important factor in greenhouse gas emissions and their level is constantly increasing, despite some good practices by some major airlines.

Various reports, such as the one on the aviation strategy for Europe in 2016, and the connected opinions, such as the opinion of the Committee on the Environment, Public Health and Food Safety, recall that any amendment to the existing legislation on including aviation in the EU ETS can only be considered if the so-called global market—based measure is ambitious and if it can be carried out as soon as possible.

In my opinion, any kind of derogation from extra EEA flights should be limited, for example in time, and the environmental integrity of the new scheme has to be properly assessed before any further derogations from the EU ETS are granted.


  Nicola Caputo (S&D). – Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, il trasporto aereo è responsabile del 4,5% delle emissioni di CO2 prodotte nell'Unione europea. La misura globale proposta dall'ICAO è un primo punto di partenza per 191 paesi ma molti aspetti di essa restano sconosciuti.

Per questo non ritengo opportuna un'ulteriore proroga dell'esenzione per i voli da e verso l'Europa in vista dell'adozione di uno schema di provvedimento globale. Se ne potrà discutere quando saranno più chiari dettagli i fondamentali, quali la qualità di compensazione, la trasparenza e l'applicabilità della nuova misura, la cosiddetta CORSIA.

Va aumentata almeno al 50% la quota di emissioni messe all'asta, visto che al momento il trasporto aereo riceve gratuitamente l'85% delle sue quote di emissioni, nonostante la valutazione d'impatto ammetta che il settore non presenti rischi di riallocazione delle emissioni di carbonio.

Mantenere il trasporto aereo in un sistema ETS riformato costituisce uno strumento efficace per garantire che il settore contribuisca alle politiche climatiche dell'Unione europea, così come sono tenuti a fare tutti gli altri settori.


  Maria Grapini (S&D). – De la bun început vreau să spun că apreciez munca făcută de cele două comisii (eu fac parte și din Comisia TRAN), poziția raportoarei, prudența cu care a finalizat acest raport. Eu cred că nimeni dintre cei ce suntem în Parlamentul European, dar nici din afara Parlamentului, nu conștientizează că protecția mediului reprezintă una dintre cele mai importante probleme. Însă trebuie să ne gândim cum să facem. Sigur, fiecare sector de activitate este responsabil pentru emisii, deci nici sectorul aviatic nu poate să fie exceptat. Dar cred că, până nu găsim o posibilitate de a corela puterea noastră de negociere cu țările non-europene, pentru că aici este o problemă globală, nu europeană, nu putem să ne stabilim niște măsuri prin care să punem din nou în dificultate sectorul aviației din Uniunea Europeană. Și, de aceea, eu cred că raportul, așa cum este făcut și sper să și fie votat, să aducă schimbări importante, însă în ritmul în care putem să facem negocierea globală, altfel vom fi într-o situație necorespunzătoare …

(Președintele întrerupe vorbitorul)


  Νότης Μαριάς (ECR). – Κύριε Πρόεδρε, το 1/3 των παγκόσμιων εκπομπών διοξειδίου του άνθρακα προέρχονται από τις διεθνείς αερομεταφορές. Μάλιστα, καθώς αυξάνονται οι αερομεταφορές, οι παγκόσμιες εκπομπές διοξειδίου του άνθρακα θα αυξηθούν κατά 700 % μέχρι το 2050. Η παγκοσμιοποίηση του τομέα των αεροπορικών μεταφορών επιβάλλει στη διεθνή κοινότητα να διαμορφώσει ένα παγκόσμιο σύστημα ρύθμισης των εκπομπών του CO2 στον τομέα αυτόν. Μέχρι στιγμής όμως, Ηνωμένες Πολιτείες, Κίνα και οι άλλοι διεθνείς ρυπαντές κωφεύουν και δεν προσέρχονται σε μια διεθνή δέσμευση και μάλιστα σε μια φάση που στις Ηνωμένες Πολιτείες έχουμε σημαντικές φυσικές καταστροφές, ακριβώς λόγω της υπερθέρμανσης του πλανήτη. Απαιτείται λοιπόν μια συνεκτική διεθνής στρατηγική και τα ποσά που θα καταβάλλουν οι αεροπορικές εταιρείες λόγω της εμπορίας των ρύπων θα πρέπει να πάνε στην έρευνα και στη δημιουργία καθαρών τεχνολογιών. Επιπλέον, δεν θα πρέπει οι αεροπορικές εταιρίες να μετακυλίσουν τα κόστη τους στους καταναλωτές, καθώς έτσι θα βρεθούν σε δυσμενή θέση απομακρυσμένες χώρες της Ένωσης, όπως είναι η Ελλάδα η οποία εξαρτάται τουριστικά από τα τσάρτερ.


(End of catch-the-eye procedure)


  Miguel Arias Cañete, Member of the Commission. – Mr President, I have listened very carefully to the debate today and I appreciate the engagement of the Members of Parliament and their commitment to bring this proposal forward in a swift manner. Political pressure has been mentioned by many of you – Ms Girling, Mr Lange, Mr Gerbrandy, Mr Eickhout, amongst others – and it is our intention to keep an ambitious position in the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO). The outcome of ICAO does not fully meet European ambitions. An offsetting mechanism was not Europe’s first option for aviation and we would have preferred a carbon-trading system. But the ICAO process is a complex one and an offsetting mechanism was the maximum our international partners were ready to accept.

We are very well aware of the weaknesses of international credits. However, we are working hard in ICAO to define robust eligibility criteria for emission units so only those that deliver real and additional reductions can be used under the Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation (CORSIA).

We have nevertheless to give CORSIA an opportunity to deliver, and some implementing rules which are still being finalised from several aspects such as monitoring, verification, transparency and eligibility of units or alternative fuels are key for ensuring environmental performance.

We need to know the final features of the scheme first and then see whether and how it is implemented by third countries before carrying out a final assessment. As foreseen in our proposal, we will come up with a new review at a new time when there is more clarity on the operation of CORSIA. In that review we will address the post-2020 situation in detail.

There was a very specific remark made by Mr Zoffoli related to non-CO2 gases from aviation and their impact on climate. Climate impacts from aviation’s non-CO2 gases are relevant. However, we will still need some research to better know how they operate and what the magnitude is. NOx emissions, water vapour or contrails may have different effects that could result in warming effects, but the magnitude depends also on the altitude or atmospheric conditions. That makes it also difficult to quantify their impact and to address them through market measures.

In any case, we remain committed to continue studying the effects of those emissions and assess measures to address them in the most effective manner.

I would like finally to thank all of you for taking this important step in Parliament which provides crucial political momentum for this proposal. I am glad to say that the discussions have progressed well in the Council as well, so we should be ready to start the trilogue soon, and the Commission stands ready to engage in the discussions and will do its best to facilitate an agreement before the end of the year.


  Julie Girling, rapporteur. – Mr President, it is often said that we are united by more than that which divides us. I think that is the case here, despite two very clear points of view. There is a broad consensus on the need for climate change action in the aviation sector. That is clear. Nobody stood here and said that we should do nothing.

The main bone of contention seems to be the timing of – and indeed the confidence in – the ICAO process. So for those of you here who say that we should be cutting ICAO some more slack – and there do seem to be a number of ambassadors for ICAO here with us today – let me just say this. ICAO have known since 2008 that the EU wants to take action and we have been waiting for them to catch up. We have been doing exactly what we have been urged to do today: not leading too fast and making sure that there is time for details to be sorted out. We have been doing that since 2008.

In 2013, they said they would be ready by 2016. In February 2016, I and many colleagues here went to Montreal and they were talking about 2021. By September 2016, when we went back to Montreal, they were talking about a voluntary scheme in 2021 and a possible mandatory scheme five or so years later. Do not underestimate their ability to procrastinate. Please do not throw away our leverage. We have to hold onto it. It would be – and I use this term which I hear all the time in the UK – an act of self-harm to do so. Please, I appeal to colleagues, do not do it. It really will not get us anywhere. We must be firm.


  President. – The debate is closed.

The vote will take place on Wednesday, 13 September 2017.

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