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Štvrtok, 8. februára 2018 - Štrasburg Revidované vydanie

8.2. Popravy v Egypte
Videozáznamy z vystúpení

  La Présidente. – L’ordre du jour appelle le débat sur sept propositions de résolution concernant les exécutions en Égypte (2018/2561(RSP)).


  Laima Liucija Andrikienė, author. – Madam President, Egypt has gone through several difficult challenges since the 2011 revolution, and the international community is supporting the country in its economic, political and security challenges.

Frequent terrorist attacks, for example on the Sinai Peninsula, and all other acts of terrorism against Egypt, as well as the constant attacks on Christian Copts, imply a worrying development. Nevertheless, this cannot be an excuse for the Egyptian authorities to continue carrying out capital punishment, which is inhuman and degrading. I am seriously concerned about the mass trials conducted by Egyptian courts and the large number of death sentences.

I urge the Egyptian authorities to put an immediate and definitive end to such practices and to reverse the death sentences that have been handed down. I call on the authorities to establish immediately an official moratorium on executions, as a first step towards abolition. We, the EU, strongly condemn the use of the death penalty. I call on the Egyptian authorities to stick to their international commitments in the field of human rights.


  Charles Tannock, author. – Madam President, as Egypt makes its transition to democracy, it faces a very serious internal security threat, as illustrated by the large number of devastating ISIS terrorist attacks that were seen across the entire country, particularly in the Sinai and aimed at the Copts.

As we have seen in our own countries, finding the balance between ensuring security and honouring civil liberties in these circumstances is always difficult. Nevertheless, we are right to raise our human-rights concerns with such an important international partner. The continuing use of military courts for trying civilians, the reported use of torture to obtain confessions and the increasing use of capital punishment are all causes for grave concern.

Finally, I would like to welcome the calls in the resolution today for further investigation into the killing of Italian researcher and British resident, Giulio Regini, and the call for greater cooperation in this regard from the Egyptian authorities.


  Judith Sargentini, Indiener. – Voorzitter, de vorige spreker had het over een transitie richting democratie in Egypte. Dat is niet hoe ik de situatie in dat land zou betitelen. De president, die met een coup aan de macht is gekomen, heeft er de laatste maanden immers zeker 23 mensen vermoord.

De doodstraf is iets waar wij als Europa ons al heel erg lang tegen verzetten. Wij wijzen er ieder land ook elke keer opnieuw op als vanuit instituties mensen worden vermoord. Dat is hier het geval. En dat vlak voor de verkiezingen, waar eigenlijk geen serieuze keuze is, want je kunt alleen maar stemmen op meneer Sisi of een vriend van meneer Sisi.

Voorzitter, de vraag van de Groenen is: waarom heeft vicevoorzitter Mogherini deze moord door de regering-Sisi nog niet veroordeeld? Wij staan altijd vooraan. Deze keer niet. Het is nú zaak dat de Europese Commissie hier helderheid over geeft.


  Ignazio Corrao, autore. – Signora Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, oggi ci troviamo a discutere di un paese che ha oltrepassato ogni limite nella violazione dei diritti umani, al punto che non si può più parlare di Stato di diritto. Da quando El-Sisi è al potere, il governo egiziano non solo ha ricominciato a comminare sentenze di morte, cosa che non accadeva più sotto i governi passati, ma anche ha iniziato ad eseguirle.

Come se non bastasse, negli ultimi mesi questo fenomeno sta crescendo a ritmi vertiginosi. Questo è solo il più grave sintomo dello scellerato inasprimento della violenza e del totale crollo dei valori dello Stato di diritto a cui si sta assistendo in Egitto. È questo il contesto in cui un mio connazionale, Giulio Regeni, è stato rapito, torturato e barbaramente ucciso. Un nostro cittadino che non riusciamo a difendere neanche da morto, perché siamo troppo deboli per farlo o perché forse sono troppo forti gli interessi economici di partenariato con l'Egitto.

Se le autorità egiziane hanno permesso che fosse fatto questo a un ricercatore, coscienti che avrebbero avuto i riflettori dell'Occidente puntati su di sé, non riesco neanche a immaginare la triste sorte che tocca quotidianamente ai cittadini egiziani inermi e in totale balia di un despota. Quali altri diritti umani, quali altre norme internazionali deve violare l'Egitto prima che l'Unione europea e gli Stati membri inizino a fare qualcosa che vada oltre indignazione e dibattiti? Perché l'Alto rappresentante per i diritti umani tiene un tono dimesso su quello che sta accadendo in Egitto? Il nostro ruolo come garante dei diritti umani e dello Stato di diritto deve tradursi in fatti, siamo qui per questo.


  Marietje Schaake, author. – Madam President, the repression in Egypt under General Sisi creates a ticking time bomb. Has no one learned from history? On top of stifling dissent, free speech and restricting NGOs, a shocking number of executions – over 2 000 sentenced since 2014 and at least 81 executions carried out – comes on top of these systematic repressions. The circumstances for those facing trial include torture, forced confessions and ill treatment. Yes, Egypt faces security challenges from terrorism, but the answer is never state terror. It is high time that the High Representative as well as Member State leaders speak out and unequivocally condemn these abuses. The silence in fact is deafening. It is interesting to talk about a partnership, but we have to be realistic. If this partnership is not founded on principles that we share, minimum principles and values, then we have to wonder what the added value is, and I think we have to be crystal clear as the EU.


  Soraya Post, author. – Madam President, today we are debating the executions in Egypt. Capital punishment constitutes a violation of the right to life. It is the ultimate cruel, inhumane and degrading treatment against a human being. No challenges, no circumstances whatsoever can motivate the killing of a human being. The position of the European Parliament is global abolishment. We stand for that. The doubling of executions in Egypt in one year is not an exception. Authoritarian regimes use military courts that have harsher sentences than civilian courts, and they use laws on terrorism to specifically target their activities on human rights defenders. Many have been denied access to lawyers during their trials and they have been forced to confess through torture. They have been put in solitary confinement and they have been denied the most basic privileges. I call on President el-Sisi to immediately stop all executions and to abolish the death penalty in your country. I say to Ms Mogherini, you have to stand up for the values of the European Union and condemn the executions.


  Marie-Christine Vergiat, auteure. – Madame la Présidente, toutes les ONG nous alertent. Les droits de l’homme n’ont jamais été autant bafoués en Égypte.

On parle de plus de 600 000 arrestations depuis le coup d’État militaire, de plus de 15 000 civils jugés par les tribunaux militaires, dont plus de 150 enfants, au cours des trois dernières années. Disparitions forcées, exécutions judiciaires, aveux sous la torture sont le lot quotidien. Défenseurs des droits, journalistes, LGBTI, ONG en général sont des cibles privilégiées, y compris quand ils osent venir témoigner au Parlement européen.

Le recours à la peine de mort ne semble plus avoir de limites. Terrorisme, atteintes à la sécurité nationale, trafic de drogue, meurtres, viols, enlèvements, la liste envoyée par l’ambassade d’Égypte est longue, loin des normes internationales, c’est un véritable contre-argumentaire. Comment des élections démocratiques peuvent-elles avoir lieu dans un tel contexte, alors que les candidats crédibles ont tous été écartés?

L’Égypte s’enfonce dans un état de non-droit et l’Union européenne ferme les yeux au nom d’un partenariat stratégique, qui reste à démontrer.


  Seán Kelly, on behalf of the PPE Group. – Madam President, I think this is a very balanced resolution. It recognises the difficulties Egypt has, especially in relation to ruthless terrorist attacks, where we saw recently attacks on the Coptic Orthodox Cathedral and a mosque in North Sinai killing hundreds and hundreds of people. So in some respects, it may be understandable that the authorities would be over anxious and overreact. Nevertheless, it’s not acceptable when you have mass trials, hundreds of crimes eligible for the death penalty, people being kept in prison for a long time before their trial comes up – and of course all of this is in breach of the International Covenant on Political and Civil Rights, especially Article 14. So it is right we should encourage the Egyptians to look at this and to have a moratorium for the death penalty with a view to abolition, while at the same time standing with the Egyptian people in both having trade with them and in the fight against terrorism.


Elnökváltás: JÁRÓKA LÍVIA
alelnök asszony


  Pier Antonio Panzeri, a nome del gruppo S&D. – Signora Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, nel quadro del partenariato 2017-2020 con l'Unione europea, l'Egitto si era impegnato a promuovere democrazia, libertà fondamentali e diritti umani, in linea con la sua Costituzione e le norme internazionali. Questo impegno non è stato mantenuto e lo dimostrano le numerose sentenze capitali ed esecuzioni, più di venti nell'ultimo mese, che hanno portato alla morte di cittadini, prima sottoposti a torture e trattamenti disumani e giustiziati senza notifica preventiva e con processi farsa davanti a tribunali militari.

Durante la presidenza di El-Sisi questo tragico bollettino ha subito un'accelerazione senza precedenti. L'Unione europea ha più volte riaffermato la sua condanna contro la pena di morte e appare evidente che non è possibile costruire un partenariato solido con questo paese alla luce di quanto sta avvenendo a meno che, sull'altare della Realpolitik, ci disinteressiamo dei diritti umani e diventiamo così moralmente corresponsabili di queste brutalità.

È chiaro che serve un impegno chiaro e preciso per cambiare da parte dell'Egitto e del suo Presidente, senza il quale non si può aprire un capitolo nuovo di questo partenariato. Colgo infine l'occasione per sottolineare ulteriormente il comportamento recidivo di questo regime. Noi stiamo ancora aspettando verità e giustizia per Giulio Regeni, assassinato due anni fa al Cairo. Anche da questo si misura la mancanza di credibilità dell'attuale classe dirigente egiziana.


  Anders Primdahl Vistisen, for ECR-Gruppen. – Fru formand! Dagens debat viser igen ganske akkurat, at EU stod på den forkerte side under det såkaldte arabiske forår. Vi har i al for lang tid med det blinde øje for kikkerten accepteret at samarbejde med kræfter som Det Muslimske Broderskab. Det nuværende egyptiske regime er ikke uden fejl, men det er fuldstændig ude af alle proportioner at bruge så meget tid på at debattere Egypten, når man så, hvor meget stilhed der sænkede sig over de europæiske hovedstæder under de meget nylige optøjer i Iran, og hvad det var for en respons, der i sidste ende kom fra EU på den situation.

Derfor synes jeg, at de folk, der har meget travlt i dag med at snakke om dødsstraf, skulle bruge lige så meget energi på at tale om Iran, Kina, USA, men det er ikke en debat, vi har her hver anden-tredje måned. Så måske skulle folk prøve at sætte dette i perspektiv og anerkende den egyptiske kamp mod terrorisme, som vi deler med dem, og som er en bekymring, som vi har både her i EU og i Egypten.


  Miguel Urbán Crespo, en nombre del Grupo GUE/NGL. – Señora presidenta, después del golpe de Estado de 2013, en marzo habrá elecciones presidenciales en Egipto; unas elecciones donde, posiblemente, no haya oposición, porque los candidatos se han retirado por intimidaciones y arrestos.

Bajo el paraguas de la lucha contra el terrorismo se cometen todo tipo de violaciones de derechos humanos y de actos de represión contra periodistas, sociedad civil y, en particular, contra el movimiento obrero, que, a pesar de ello, continúa organizando de forma habitual manifestaciones y huelgas. Un país donde el último mes veintitrés personas han sido ejecutadas tras haber sido juzgadas por tribunales militares sin ninguna garantía. A pesar de ello, la Unión Europea decide mirar hacia otro lado y reanudar las relaciones, a pesar de la flagrante falta de respeto de los derechos humanos.

Por ello, exigimos que la Unión Europea se pronuncie sobre estas violaciones. Que prohíba la exportación de armas a Egipto y que se abstenga de legitimar un resultado electoral obtenido sin respetar los derechos democráticos más básicos.


  Barbara Lochbihler, im Namen der Verts/ALE-Fraktion. – Frau Präsidentin! In den letzten vier Jahren wurden in Ägypten über 2 000 Menschen zum Tode verurteilt und mindestens 81 von ihnen wurden bereits hingerichtet. Es steht zu befürchten, dass die Zahl der Hinrichtungen weiter massiv ansteigen wird.

Zudem ist die Menschenrechtssituation in Ägypten dramatisch schlecht: Regierungskritiker werden bedroht und verhaftet – darunter Anwälte, Journalisten, Menschenrechtsverteidiger –, Menschen werden willkürlich verhaftet und verschwinden. UN-Experten berichten, dass Gefangene systematisch gefoltert werden.

Es ist beschämend, wie zurückhaltend die EU angesichts der fortdauernden massiven Menschenrechtsverletzungen in Ägypten agiert. Das im Juni 2017 angenommene Abkommen der Partnerschaftsprioritäten zwischen der EU und Ägypten enthält zwar beidseitige Bekenntnisse zu Menschenrechtsstandards. Aber angesichts ber dieser massiven Menschenrechtsverbrechen und einer Verschlechterung der Situation in Ägypten darf sich die EU nicht hinter diesen schönen Worten verstecken, sondern muss wirklich entschieden Druck auf die ägyptische Regierung ausüben.


  Fabio Massimo Castaldo, a nome del gruppo EFDD. – Signora Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, era il 26 dicembre 2017 quando quindici uomini accusati di terrorismo venivano mandati al patibolo per ordine di un tribunale militare egiziano. Quel giorno l'Egitto di El-Sisi ha battuto un nuovo record, quello del più alto numero di esecuzioni sommarie in un solo giorno dal 1953. Dei condannati, dall'ascesa al potere del generale, non restano che dei corpi senza vita, ricoperti di bruciature, ferite e mutilazioni, segni evidenti di una tortura raccapricciante, brutale e inaccettabile.

Alle uccisioni sommarie si intrecciano le sparizioni forzate di giornalisti, oppositori politici e semplici intellettuali, proprio come il nostro Giulio Regeni, la cui morte resta ancora avvolta da un silenzio agghiacciante. Le gang omicide dei militari non provano pietà neanche davanti ai bambini innocenti, come Yasser e Hamza, di 13 e 15 anni, rapiti nelle loro case e ritrovati morti, qualche giorno dopo, in una strada del loro villaggio.

Le armi che usano sono anche armi europee. Il commercio e la Realpolitik giustificano il silenzio complice dei nostri paesi? È questa la cooperazione per la sicurezza e la stabilità che vogliamo con l'Egitto? Io dico no! Dobbiamo levare alta la nostra voce, chiedere un embargo dell'export di armi e continuare a chiedere verità e giustizia per Giulio Regeni e per tutte le vittime innocenti di questo regime brutale.


  Josef Weidenholzer (S&D). – Frau Präsidentin! Es ist nicht das erste Mal, dass wir eine Debatte zur Menschenrechtssituation bei unserem Nachbarn Ägypten führen. Wir sollten nicht locker lassen, dies zu tun, bis sich die Lage entscheidend verändert hat. Alles andere wäre fahrlässig. Es ist eine trügerische und gefährliche Illusion zu glauben, dass Stabilität durch systematische Repression erreicht werden kann. Wir sind mit Ägypten schicksalhaft verbunden; alles, was in diesem Land passiert, hat unmittelbare Auswirkungen auf uns in Europa.

Rechtsstaatlichkeit, Demokratie und Menschenrechte sind der beste Garant für Stabilität. Deshalb sehen wir mit großer Besorgnis die geradezu obsessive Anwendung der Todesstrafe und die systematische Beschränkung der Meinungs- und Versammlungsfreiheit. Wir appellieren an Präsident Sisi, die Verhängung der Todesurteile auszusetzen und die kommenden Präsidentschaftswahlen zum Anlass zu nehmen, endlich demokratische Alternativen zu ermöglichen.


  Lynn Boylan (GUE/NGL). – Madam President, again we are discussing human rights in Egypt. Today we rightly condemn not only the use of the death penalty in Egypt but its escalation under President Sisi. The Egyptian judicial system has many flaws. The young Irishman, Ibrahim Halawa, can testify to that.

Between 26 December and 30 January, 26 people were executed, 24 of whom were sentenced by military courts using confessions extracted through torture. Even more disturbing, the lawyers of those executed were not notified in time to lodge appeals, the families of those hanged were not permitted to say goodbye, and many now are still trying to find out how they can reclaim their relative’s body.

It is not good enough that we come here and condemn Egypt. We need action. Egypt has human rights obligations under its EU-Egypt Association Agreement and President Sisi’s crack-down on all forms of civil society is undermining stability not increasing it. Egyptian civilians are looking for us to speak up, because they can’t.


  Neena Gill (S&D). – Madam President, when we debated Egypt last October the Commission outlined the aspirations of the Egyptian people for security, for democracy and economic growth. I had real reservations about the nature of our partnership then, and have even more so now. We raised our concerns about gross human rights violations, but how does the Sisi regime respond? Almost 30 Egyptian civilians executed in a month; 24 sentenced to death by military courts. Therefore my questions to the Commissioner are, will you clearly outline the repercussions if the Egyptian authorities fail to impose an immediate moratorium on the use of death penalty, and review legislation to meet fair trial standards? When will Member States take measures to stop companies selling equipment to Egypt that helps them repress their citizens. And how will we insist that March elections in Egypt are free and fair, and leverage our EUR 11 billion in aid, if we are not even drawing a line in the sand on capital punishment, a key objective of our human rights policy?


„Catch the eye” eljárás


  José Inácio Faria (PPE). – Senhora Presidente, Senhor Comissário, Caros Colegas, em 2011, milhares de manifestantes na simbólica Praça Tahrir, no Cairo, mostraram ao mundo a vontade de lutar pela democracia e pelo respeito dos direitos humanos. Passados sete anos, praticamente nada sobra do otimismo daqueles dias.

À beira de eleições presidenciais, anunciadas para o final de março, vive-se uma atmosfera repressiva em larga escala e assiste-se a perseguições de jornalistas e ativistas LGBTI e dos direitos humanos. Regista-se um número sem precedentes de desaparecimentos forçados, de confissões obtidas sob tortura, de julgamentos arbitrários e, o mais grave de tudo, a um alarmante aumento das sentenças de morte e execuções, especialmente desde a chegada ao poder do Presidente El Sisi.

Com a justificação do combate ao terrorismo, os tribunais proferiram, em 2017, 186 sentenças de morte, o triplo das impostas em 2016, e, só no passado mês de janeiro, 22 civis foram enforcados depois de condenados à morte por tribunais militares.

Senhor Comissário, a União Europeia, que é o primeiro parceiro económico do Egito, tem que instar as autoridades egípcias a cumprirem com as obrigações internacionais assumidas em matéria de direitos humanos, condenar veementemente a aplicação da pena de morte naquele país e apelar à suspensão de todas as execuções iminentes.


  Isabella De Monte (S&D). – Signora Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, oggi approveremo una risoluzione comune dai contenuti chiari. Nel Terzo Millennio in nessuno Stato del mondo possono ancora esserci torture, esecuzioni sommarie e mancato rispetto dei diritti umani. L'Unione europea è il primo partner economico dell'Egitto, ma non possiamo chiudere gli occhi dinanzi a trattamenti crudeli e disumani.

Parliamo di Giulio Regeni, un giovane ricercatore barbaramente torturato e poi ucciso in Egitto, che era figlio di questa Europa fondata su diritti e libertà che sono stati calpestati. Forse qualcuno sperava che dopo poco tempo tutto sarebbe stato dimenticato. Ma come Parlamento europeo non intendiamo tacere e chiederemo sempre e con forza che su questo omicidio si faccia chiarezza. Le autorità egiziane dopo due anni devono ancora dare una risposta chiara, che va data ai familiari, agli amici di Giulio, ma anche a 500 milioni di cittadini europei. Diversamente non potremo pensare che l'Egitto sia ancora un buon partner e una destinazione sicura dove andare.


  Stanislav Polčák (PPE). – Paní předsedající, i já se připojuji ke svým kolegům, pokud namítali zásadní nepřípustnost trestu smrti a uváděli ty konkrétní případy. Já bych se chtěl ve své minutě zaměřit na něco jiného a to je na roli diplomacie. Myslím si, že je v diplomatických možnostech právě institucí Evropské unie, aby zásadně zatlačily nejen na egyptskou vládu, ale i otevřely toto téma nepřípustnosti trestu smrti na mezinárodním poli. My bohužel na mezinárodním poli v této otázce nemáme příliš partnerů a myslím, že by slušelo právě Evropské unii, aby tuto otázku zásadním způsobem posunovala dál.

A potom bych rovněž zdůraznil určitou teorii podmíněnosti pokračování spolupráce a podpory. Myslím si, že je třeba i v tomto zásadním požadavku, který je zde zmíněn napříč všemi politickými frakcemi, podporovat ty státy, které v dané otázce nepřípustnosti trestu smrti jaksi ukážou jistou ochotu spolupracovat. A potom by se to mělo projevit i na naší podpoře, kterou jim adresujeme.


(A „catch the eye” eljárás vége)


  Christos Stylianides, Member of the Commission. – Madam President, the European Union is definitely following the situation in Egypt very closely. Our position on the death penalty is well known. The European Union opposes capital punishment under all circumstances and I completely agree with you that, for us, it represents an unacceptable denial of human dignity and integrity.

At the meeting of the EU—Egypt Subcommittee on Political Matters, Human Rights and Democracy, which took place in Cairo last month, the Union shared its concerns with the Egyptian authorities. This was about the recent execution of more than 20 people, and we reiterated our principled position against the death penalty. We have called on Egypt to commute death sentences whenever possible and to establish a formal moratorium with a view to the abolition of capital punishment. Furthermore, we encourage Egypt to take concrete steps to end military trials for civilians, and, in accordance with international standards for a fair trial, to retry in civilian courts citizens convicted by military courts.

At the same time, I would like to mention a number of other issues concerning websites and human rights organisations. The EU raised, in its position for the EU—Egypt Association Council of July 2017, clear concerns regarding the blocking of websites and the ongoing pressure on human rights organisations and defenders. That position was also expressed in the recent EU statement at the Human Rights Council under item 4, as well as during the latest meeting of the EU—Egypt Subcommittee on Political Matters, Human Rights and Democracy, in January.

Egypt is a key partner for the EU and a significant regional player. The sustainable stability and security of this country are crucial, not only for all Egyptians but also for the entire region, for the European Union and for our Member States. It is our firm conviction that democracy, human rights and fundamental freedoms are crucial for this purpose, especially in the context of the many challenges that Egypt is facing. We appreciate the difficulties and we stand side by side with Egypt in addressing them. This view is based on universal values and we regularly discuss these with our Egyptian counterparts within the framework of the new Egypt partnership priorities that were adopted in July 2017.

The protection and promotion of human rights, democracy and the rule of law are guiding principles for EU external action. You can count on us to continue actively to promote and defend these principles in our engagement with Egypt, as we do with all our neighbours and partners around the world. This is the situation, and we are trying hard to exert pressure in relation to these very important issues.


  Elnök asszony. – A vitát lezárom.

A szavazásra 2018. február 8-án, csütörtökön kerül sor.

Írásbeli nyilatkozatok (162. cikk)


  Mark Demesmaeker (ECR), schriftelijk. – Sinds 2014 werden 2116 mensen terechtgesteld door het regime van generaal Abdul Fatah al-Sisi, 891 mensen wachten nog op hun terechtstelling. Het is erg gesteld met de mensenrechtensituatie in Egypte. Folteringen, onmenselijke behandelingen en terechtstellingen van minderjarigen zijn maar enkele van de technieken die de Egyptische overheid hanteert om de spanningen in het land onder controle te houden. Terreur, onlusten en criminaliteit houden Egypte in een houdgreep. Toch is voor de N-VA het toepassen van de doodstraf en het miskennen van de fundamentele mensenrechten onder geen enkele omstandigheid geoorloofd. Wij zijn daarom bezorgd over deze situatie en steunen de voorliggende resolutie, waarin deze praktijken scherp worden veroordeeld. Wij zullen ons blijven verzetten tegen de doodstraf en roepen de Egyptische regering op om al haar mensenrechtenverplichtingen na te komen.

Posledná úprava: 15. mája 2018Právne upozornenie - Politika ochrany súkromia