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Giovedì 31 maggio 2018 - Strasburgo Edizione rivista

5.3. Sudan, in particolare la situazione di Noura Hussein Hammad
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  Presidente. – L'ordine del giorno reca la discussione su sei proposte di risoluzione sul Sudan, in particolare la situazione di Noura Hussein Hammad (2018/2713(RSP)).


  Charles Tannock, author. – Mr President, Noura Hussein Hammad was just a teenage girl when she entered into a forced marriage with a man who brutally raped her. Tragically, she stabbed her husband to death in self-defence and now faces the death sentence for what the Sudanese authorities claim to be a premeditated murder. In the light of these events, I join the one million people currently petitioning for justice for Noura, calling for the rescinding of her death sentence and a free and fair retrial.

As tragic as Noura’s story is, however, it is but one in an ongoing pattern of constant human rights violations, particularly against women, that happens in Sudan on a daily basis. I therefore strongly support today’s resolution urging the Sudanese Government to stand by their international human rights commitments, seriously address the patterns of human rights violations in that country, and outlaw the unacceptable practices of child marriage, forced marriage and violence against women, both inside and outside of marriage.


  Jordi Solé, author. – Mr President, yesterday we debated a resolution on gender equality and women’s empowerment through EU external relations and today we have another horrible case of clear violation of the rights of women and girls.

The role of the European Union in Sudan raises serious concerns. It looks like the European Union is only concerned with migration flows. However, the EU and individual Member States that cooperate with Sudan have the responsibility to urge the regime to respect human rights, particularly the rights of women and girls, and to call on the Sudanese Government to reform its legal system in accordance with international human rights standards.

My Group is committed to the promotion, protection and guarantee of human rights. We therefore tabled an amendment to highlight how the EU is abandoning its core values in its relations with Sudan and I hope that all the Groups will be willing to support this justified criticism.


  Soraya Post, author. – Mr President, I call on the Sudanese authorities to remove the death sentence on Noura Hussein. This is an inhuman and unjust sentencing of a girl, a child bride who was physically and psychologically abused by her family and raped by her husband. Noura was defending herself from being raped again by a man she was forced to be married to when she was only 16. In its judgment, the court did not take into account forced marriage, rape and other forms of gender-based violence as evidence, so Noura did not even get a fair trial. Marital rape is illegal, child marriage is illegal, violence against women is illegal. Noura was acting in self-defence. She is the victim. She deserves full respect for her right to a fair trial and appeal, in line with international standards, not to be judged to that sentence.


  Joachim Zeller, Verfasser. – Herr Präsident! In diesem Monat erschreckte die internationale Öffentlichkeit das Schicksal von Noura Hussein Hamad, einer jungen Frau aus dem Sudan. Als Minderjährige von ihren Eltern zwangsverheiratet mit einem Mann, den sie nicht liebte, wurde sie von ihrem Mann und seinen Verwandten mehrfach vergewaltigt. Aus Notwehr verletzte sie den Mann tödlich, worauf ein Gericht in Omdurman sie zum Tode verurteilte, weil – so die Begründung – es Vergewaltigung in der Ehe nicht gebe.

Dieses Urteil und das, was Noura widerfahren ist, wirft ein grelles Schlaglicht auf die Lage vieler Mädchen und junger Frauen im Sudan, aber auch in vielen anderen Ländern, in denen Zwangsverheiratung und Gewalt gegen Frauen in der Familie gang und gäbe sind und eine mehr als fragwürdige Rechtsprechung das auch noch deckt. Es ist unsere Pflicht, Gerechtigkeit, die Achtung der Würde von Noura Hussein Hamad und die Aufhebung des Todesurteils zu verlangen. Der Sudan empfängt trotz eines fragwürdigen und repressiven Regimes viele Hilfen von der EU. Wir sollten gleichzeitig die Achtung der universalen Menschenrechte von den sudanesischen Machthabern einfordern.


  Miguel Urbán Crespo, autor. – Señor presidente, Nura Huseín fue obligada a casarse con dieciséis años. Violada, maltratada y ahora condenada a muerte por matar a su marido mientras este la violaba. No es un caso aislado. En Sudán las mujeres pueden ser obligadas a casarse con diez años. Sufren violencia sexual y física, como latigazos por no vestir adecuadamente, mientras que los responsables disfrutan de una impunidad total. Y esto pasa con una Unión Europea que se dice garante de los derechos humanos y que financia proyectos por 275 millones de euros de ayuda al desarrollo, asistencia humanitaria y operaciones de control fronterizo en Sudán.

El matrimonio forzado es una de las causas más frecuentes de persecución por motivos de género que alegan las mujeres como Nura cuando solicitan asilo en Europa. Y se les deniega. Los derechos de las mujeres no pueden seguir siendo derechos de segunda división. Mientras negamos pasajes seguros para todas aquellas que huyen de la guerra, la miseria y la violencia patriarcal, pagamos a dictaduras como Sudán para que nos hagan de policía de fronteras, perpetuando la violencia estructural contra las mujeres.

Exigimos a la Unión Europea ser consecuente con sus discursos y condicionar sus fondos y relaciones comerciales al respeto de los derechos humanos. Desde aquí exigimos el indulto para Nura y la libertad para todas las Nuras que en Sudán siguen oprimidas y excluidas.


  Urmas Paet, author. – Mr President, it is imperative that Sudan overturn the death sentence on Noura Hussein Hammad, ensure her safety and give her access to psychological help. Hopefully the movement ‘Justice for Noura’ and the international attention this case has been given will help in Noura’s case, but will also spread wider knowledge in Sudanese society about the rights of women and children that need to be upheld.

The Sudanese authorities are the ones that need to review and reform the laws in Sudan as regards the rights of women and children. The age of marriage needs to be raised. All cases of gender—based violence and sexual violence need to be prosecuted and their perpetrators held liable. The implementation of laws which already exist must be enforced. Forced marriage and marital rape is a deep-rooted problem in Sudanese society and regarded as something normal. This needs to be tackled at the highest level, starting with the President of Sudan, who should also finally acknowledge the role of the ICC.


  Cristian Dan Preda, în numele grupului PPE. – Domnule președinte, drepturile femeilor au fost pe agenda discuțiilor pe care le-am avut în cadrul delegației Subcomisiei pentru drepturile omului, care s-a deplasat la Khartoum în decembrie 2017. Am putut, cu această ocazie, vizita și închisoarea Omdurman. În această închisoare se află și Noura Hussein Hammad, a cărei situație a mobilizat, pe bună dreptate, publicul la nivel mondial. Așa cum au spus și colegii mei, această tânără a fost măritată cu forța la doar 16 ani și apoi violată de către soț cu ajutorul rudelor. Noura Hussein Hammad și-a apăra viața și demnitatea, motiv pentru care astăzi, iată, e condamnată la moarte.

Din păcate, justiția din Sudan nu a luat în seamă împrejurările, dea dreptul revoltătoare, pe care le-am amintit aici. Vreau să insist, așa cum au făcut și colegii mei, pentru comutarea sentinței primite de Noura Hussein Hammad. Reamintesc, în primul rând, faptul că Uniunea Europeană are o poziție fermă față de pedeapsa cu moartea. În plus, potrivit regulilor internaționale, atunci când pedeapsa capitală e pronunțată împotriva dovezilor clare de legitimă apărare, ea poate fi asimilată unei execuții arbitrare. De aceea, rog oficialitățile din Sudan să ia în seamă solicitările pe care le facem astăzi, iată, toate grupurile politice din Parlament.


  Julie Ward, on behalf of the S&D Group. – Mr President, Noura Hussein Hammad was sentenced to death by the Sudanese authorities because she killed her rapist husband. She isn’t the first woman to find herself in this situation, and I fear she won’t be the last. The fact that Noura was forced to use deadly violence to defend herself demonstrates the appalling state of affairs regarding women’s rights around the world.

Forced marriage and conjugal rape are two ways in which patriarchy operates and gives power to men over women’s bodies and consciences. Noura was married at the age of 16 against her will and subjected to sexual violence and humiliation. She deserves to have access to a fair and transparent trial that gives her the opportunity to defend herself. As part of the European Union struggle for gender equality, I urge the High Representative to use all the means at her disposal to prevent the Sudanese authorities from executing Noura, who was a victim of sexual violence. She is our sister in the global struggle to end gender-based violence.


  Jacques Colombier, au nom du groupe ENF. – Monsieur le Président, victime d’un mariage forcé, immobilisée par deux membres de sa belle-famille, puis violée à 19 ans par l’homme à qui on la destinait, la faute de Noura Hussein Ahmad fut de ne pas accepter cette violence, de résister et d’avoir tué son violeur. Son sort mérite notre condamnation sans appel. Nous devons la sauver, par tous les moyens, de la peine de mort que lui promet le régime soudanais. Depuis Hassan Al-Tourabi, ce régime fonde ses principes sur l’islam le plus radical qui soit.

Nombre d’européistes ne sont pas choqués de voir la charia infester nos sociétés, de Molenbeek à Birmingham, des banlieues françaises à celles de Rotterdam. À tel point qu’en 2004, il a fallu réformer le Code civil français pour faire remonter l’âge de la nubilité des femmes en France de 15 à 18 ans, pour éviter les dizaines de mariages forcés ou arrangés, désormais imposés par des mœurs totalement étrangères à notre civilisation.

Le cas de cette jeune femme n’est que l’expression la plus dramatique d’un plan que nombre d’entre vous feignent ici d’ignorer. L’islamisation à marche forcée de nos sociétés, c’est une réalité que nous devons combattre à tout prix.


  Dobromir Sośnierz (NI). – Panie Przewodniczący! Będę głosował przeciwko tej rezolucji i namawiam wszystkich do tego, nie dlatego, że zgadzam się z wyrokiem na Nourę Hussein Hammad, bo jest on prawdopodobnie niesłuszny. Ale po pierwsze, Parlament Europejski ma stanowić prawo w Europie, a nie recenzować wyroki sądów w Sudanie. Jest to niedopuszczalne wychodzenie poza swoje kompetencje. Nie macie do tego wiedzy ani uprawnień.

Po drugie, wzywacie Sudan do zmiany wyroku sądowego, co jest prawdopodobnie nielegalne, jest złamaniem prawa. Jest niedopuszczalne, żeby władza wykonawcza wtrącała się w działania władzy sądowniczej.

Po trzecie, żeby zmniejszyć szanse na poważne potraktowanie, pouczacie Sudan, jak ma reformować swoje państwo. Po co?

Po czwarte: ustęp 2: „... orzekanie kary śmierci na podstawie wyraźnych dowodów na obronę konieczną stanowi arbitralne zabójstwo, zwłaszcza w przypadku kobiet.” Jak to „zwłaszcza w przypadku kobiet”? Co to znaczy? To „wszystkie zwierzęta są równe, ale świnie są równiejsze od innych”? Dlaczego wartościujecie życie ludzkie na podstawie płci? To jest oburzający seksizm. Dlatego będę głosował przeciwko.


  Cécile Kashetu Kyenge (S&D). – Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, la Costituzione del Sudan stabilisce che lo Stato protegge le donne dalle ingiustizie e promuove l'uguaglianza di genere.

Ci rivolgiamo alle autorità sudanesi affinché questo principio trovi piena applicazione, e anche nel rispetto delle disposizioni contenute nel protocollo di Maputo, anche per quelli che sono gli accordi di Cotonou che ci legano con i paesi ACP – Africa, Caraibi e Pacifico – affinché tutte le donne possano vedersi riconosciuti i loro diritti fondamentali, affinché non ci siano più casi di stupro coniugale, che è e resta una forma di violenza sessuale e di genere.

Ci aspettiamo un segnale forte da questo paese, ribadendo la nostra più ferma opposizione alla pena di morte in tutti i casi e in tutte le circostanze. Il Sudan dimostri a quest'Aula e alla comunità internazionale che lo stupro e la violenza di genere vanno contro i principi imposti dalla stessa Costituzione.

Il Sudan dia prova di clemenza, salvando la vita di una giovane donna, Noura Hussein Hammad, la cui vita è stata già peraltro distrutta dagli abusi e dalle violenze subite.


  Andrejs Mamikins (S&D). – Mr President, when I heard the story of Noura Hussein Hammad, I was deeply hurt because it is not only her who has suffered such cruelty; this cruelty is part of society in Sudan.

Our resolution may raise awareness among some of the officials there and may bring to light the atrocities of women’s lives in Sudan, but it will barely diminish the culture of cruelty. Hussein, a girl only 16 years old, suffered too many atrocities inflicted by society, to become a martyr. There is no honour in honour crimes. Hussein suffered extreme loneliness as nobody, not even her family, protected her. What we must do is to show our solidarity and provide assistance to such women in Muslim countries. The culture of cruelty is not a fate. We can change it with difficulty, but still we can make a small change by giving a voice and a face to such victims.


Procedura "catch the eye"


  Νότης Μαριάς (ECR). – Κύριε Πρόεδρε, υποστηρίζω το ψήφισμα, το οποίο άλλωστε έχω συνυπογράψει. Η τραγική υπόθεση της Noura Hussein Hammad αναδεικνύει το σοβαρό πρόβλημα των καταναγκαστικών γάμων των γυναικών, που υπάρχει στο Σουδάν και σε άλλες μουσουλμανικές και αφρικανικές χώρες. Η κινητοποίηση ενός εκατομμυρίου συμπολιτών μας, που ζητούν δίκαιη δίκη και ταυτόχρονα μη εκτέλεση της θανατικής ποινής κατά της Noura, δείχνει ένα μεγάλο κίνημα συμπαράστασης. Κίνημα συμπαράστασης, το οποίο εκτείνεται και εδώ στο Ευρωπαϊκό Κοινοβούλιο. Είναι δεδομένο ότι πρέπει αυτός ο αναχρονιστικός και καταναγκαστικός θεσμός των αναγκαστικών γάμων, που αναγκάζονται τα κορίτσια από δέκα, δώδεκα, δεκατριών ετών να παντρεύονται χωρίς καν να το επιθυμούν, πρέπει να σταματήσει και, φυσικά, να μην μπορεί να περάσει ούτε στην Ευρώπη αλλά να μην ισχύει και σε συγκεκριμένες χώρες στις οποίες εφαρμόζεται. Κύριε Επίτροπε, σταματήστε να δίνετε κονδύλια στο Σουδάν.


  Fabio Massimo Castaldo (EFDD). – Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, povera, giovane, ma soprattutto donna. Esserlo in Sudan è un po' come una condanna, una condanna a essere considerata come schiava del proprio padre, del proprio marito, della propria tribù. Una condizione agghiacciante ma normale per le donne e le bambine sudanesi, spesso costrette dagli stessi genitori a sposarsi a partire dall'età di dieci anni.

Noura ne aveva 16 quando ha dovuto sposare Abdulrahman, un marito-padrone che, dopo averla violentata con l'aiuto dei fratelli e del cugino, avrebbe voluto abusare di lei anche una seconda volta. Ma quel giorno Noura non si è piegata alla paura del marito stupratore, ha reagito per proteggere il suo corpo, ma soprattutto la sua mente dalla minaccia dell'ennesimo sopruso. Oggi il prezzo che Noura deve pagare per una legittima difesa sfociata nella morte del suo oppressore è però molto e troppo alto: non solo la perdita della libertà, ma anche quella della vita stessa.

Chiediamo al Sudan di annullare immediatamente la sentenza di morte, tenendo conto dei fatti, di innalzare l'età del matrimonio a 18 anni e riconoscere la violenza sessuale come reato anche all'interno del matrimonio. E chiediamo all'Unione europea di sospendere immediatamente i fondi che sono erogati finché questo paese non si conformerà a quel minimo di diritti umani che dovrebbero far parte di qualsiasi comunità su questo pianeta.


  Stanislav Polčák (PPE). – Pane předsedající, Súdán zde probíráme skutečně rovněž opakovaně a je to neustále o tomtéž, porušování práv žen, dětské otroctví, dětská nucená práce, dětské sňatky a nyní hovoříme o trestu nejvyšším. Trest smrti za znásilnění, které bylo objektivní, ta žena říkala ne a ne je ne. Kolikrát se zde budeme ještě věnovat Súdánu?

Já jsem přesvědčen, že my musíme vyvolat opravdu diplomatický tlak na tuto zemi a naším nejzazším možným opatřením je případné omezení rozvojové podpory a věnování těchto prostředků neziskovým organizacím, které třeba v daném prostoru působí. Takže ano, prosím, zvyšme diplomatické úsilí.

V tom čase, který mi zbývá, bych chtěl hluboce odsoudit to, co tady řekl kolega Sośnierz, to je skutečně obrovská ostuda, jaká slova zde volil, a já si myslím, že je to stejně odsouzeníhodné jako postup Súdánu.


(Fine della procedura "catch the eye")


  Christos Stylianides, Member of the Commission. – Mr President, the human rights situation in Sudan remains a continuing worry for the European Union. The shrinking space for civil society organisations and restrictions on freedom of expression and assembly remain among the main areas of our concern.

I personally raised this issue during my visit to Sudan last October, but the case of Noura Hussein, who has been sentenced to death at the tender age of 19 after being forced into marriage at the age of 16 and raped, brings to the forefront many of the country’s complex and interrelated human rights problems, ranging from sexual violence, child and forced marriage to the continuing use of capital punishment. Consequently, Noura’s story has caused public outcry not only internationally but, more importantly, also within Sudan.

Criminal justice systems ought to offer prevention and protection for women and girls against all forms of violence. This is sadly not the case in Sudan. Rape, including by habitual or cohabiting partners, should never be tolerated under any circumstances. Moreover, Sudan’s Personal Status Law, allowing for child marriage without the consent of the intending spouses, needs urgent revision.

As reiterated in the local statement issued by the EU on the case, the European Union is opposed to the death penalty under all circumstances and in all cases, with no exception, and aims at its universal abolition. The EU is also concerned at the recent news of attempts by the state security apparatus to intimidate Noura’s defence team, and it calls on Sudan to allow the lawyers to work without fear of reprisals.

The EU will continue to make use of the various means at our disposal to promote and protect girls’ and women’s human rights in Sudan. This includes by enhancing the access of women and girls to good-quality education and healthcare services, raising awareness on girls’ and women’s rights among communities, in particular with a view to reducing harmful practices such as female genital mutilation (FGM), as well as supporting women’s economic empowerment through relevant training and micro-credit programmes.

The EU also calls on the Government to take the necessary steps to accelerate the ratification and the full, effective and non-discriminatory implementation of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) in order to advance the equal recognition, enjoyment and exercise of all the human rights of women. In this regard, the EU welcomes the Sudanese Government’s intention to ratify the Convention, as announced by the Minister of Justice this week.

I would like to assure you that the EU will continue closely to follow the case of Noura and to raise it with the relevant authorities. We will also continue to team up with women’s human-rights defenders and women’s organisations to tackle the underlying causes leading to cases such as that of Noura.


  Presidente. – Grazie al Commissario, anche per essere stato con noi gran parte della mattinata.

La discussione è chiusa.

La votazione si svolgerà oggi, giovedì 31 maggio 2018.

Dichiarazioni scritte (articolo 162)


  Rolandas Paksas (EFDD), raštu. – Manau, kad bausmė privalo būti adekvati, proporcinga padarytam nusikaltimui. Sudano valdžia turėtų imtis neatidėliotinų veiksmų, siekiant užtikrinti tinkamą žmogaus teisių standartų laikymąsi šalyje, garantuoti teisę į teisingą bylos nagrinėjimą, peržiūrėti už nusikalstamas veikas numatomas bausmes ir užtikrinti jų adekvatumą, proporcingumą padaryto nusikaltimo atžvilgiu. Nepritariu mirties bausmės taikymui visais atvejais ir visomis aplinkybėmis. Bet kokia nežmogiška prievarta, nehumaniškas, žiaurus elgesys, kankinimai yra nepateisinami. Prievarta santuokos sudarymo kontekste yra nepateisinama, asmuo privalo turėti galimybę pats apsispręsti šiuo klausimu. Ypatingą dėmesį noriu atkreipti į tarptautinius įsipareigojimus. Todėl labai svarbu, kad Sudanas ratifikuotų Konvenciją prieš kankinimą ir Konvenciją dėl visų formų diskriminacijos panaikinimo moterims ir užtikrintų visapusišką vietos įstatymų ir tarptautinių įsipareigojimų laikymąsi.


(La seduta è sospesa dalle 11.43)



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