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Ketvirtadienis, 2018 m. rugsėjo 13 d. - Strasbūras Atnaujinta informacija

6.3. Kombodža, ypač Kemo Sokhos atvejis
Kalbų vaizdo įrašas
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  Przewodniczący. – Kolejnym punktem porządku dziennego jest debata nad sześcioma projektami rezolucji w sprawie Kambodży, w szczególności sprawy Kema Sokhy (2018/2842(RSP)).

 
  
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  Mark Demesmaeker, Auteur. – Voorzitter, sta me toch eerst even toe om de Cambodjaanse delegatie met oppositieleider Sam Rainsy te verwelkomen, die vanaf de tribune dit debat volgt. Van harte welkom, vrienden!

Als je het karakter van een mens wilt leren kennen, moet je hem macht geven. Dat wist lang geleden Abraham Lincoln al. We hebben de Cambodjaanse premier Hun Sen leren kennen. De langst regerende premier van deze aardbol is zo machtsbelust dat hij alle middelen gebruikt om nog eens tien jaar aan te blijven. Daarvoor schuift hij al wie in de weg staat meedogenloos opzij, zoals Kem Sokha, gewezen leider van de grootste oppositiepartij, CNRP, onder druk ontbonden in de aanloop naar de verkiezingen. Autocraten dulden geen tegenspraak. De democratie is doodgeknepen. De regering Hun Sen mist elke legitimiteit en alle internationale kritiek daarop heeft nog altijd niets uitgehaald.

Een Vlaams spreekwoord zegt: Wie niet horen wil, moet voelen. Het is tijd dat dit regime voelt dat het menens is. Hoog tijd dus voor sancties, visumsancties, handelssancties. Ik zie geen enkele reden om daarmee nog langer te wachten.

 
  
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  Barbara Lochbihler, Verfasserin. – Herr Präsident! Danke an Sie, Frau Mogherini für Ihr Statement, das generell sehr unterstützend war für den internationalen Strafgerichtshof.

Zu Kambodscha: Die Wahlen in Kambodscha waren weder frei noch fair und haben im Ergebnis das Land zu einem autokratischen Einparteienstaat gemacht. Der Preis dafür war hoch: Die größte Oppositionspartei im Land wurde praktisch ausgeschaltet, unabhängige Journalisten und Menschenrechtsverteidiger eingeschüchtert und eingesperrt. Wir fordern, dass die Regierung die Anklage gegen Oppositionsführer Kem Sokha und andere Oppositionspolitiker umgehend fallen lässt, die Auflösung der CNRP rückgängig macht und den Dialog mit der Opposition sucht.

Wir fordern ebenso von der Regierung, mit der Verfolgung und Gängelung der Menschenrechtsaktivisten und Organisationen aufzuhören. Zudem ist es geboten, die Vereinbarung mit dem Büro des Hohen Kommissars für Menschenrechte zu verlängern, die im Dezember ausläuft.

Es gibt zahllose ungelöste Landkonflikte in Kambodscha ,und es ist zu begrüßen, dass die Regierung einigen Familien mittlerweile für verlorenes Land Entschädigung gegeben hat. Diese Entschädigungen finden aber nicht systematisch statt, und nach wie vor ist Straflosigkeit für Enteignung weit verbreitet. Insbesondere sollte die EU darauf drängen, die Vorgaben von 2015, insbesondere die Zucker-Lizenzen, zu überprüfen, die im Zusammenhang sind mit Landrechtskonflikten.

 
  
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  Josef Weidenholzer, Verfasser. – Herr Präsident! Kambodschas jüngste Geschichte ist geprägt von unglaublichen Verbrechen. Die Roten Khmer haben Millionen Menschen ermordet, und die Schatten dieser Vergangenheit sind noch allgegenwärtig. Lange Zeit hatte es den Anschein, dass das Land zu einer demokratischen Normalität zurückkehren könnte. Bedingt durch eine rasante wirtschaftliche Entwicklung begannen immer mehr Menschen, sich politisch zu engagieren, und diese Veränderungen haben das Regime von Hun Sen verunsichert. In den letzten Jahren wurde immer rigoroser gegen NGOs und oppositionelle Politiker vorgegangen. Sie wurden unter fadenscheinigen Vorwürfen verhaftet und mussten ins Exil gehen. Ich bin sehr froh, dass heute einige von ihnen unserer Debatte folgen können.

Es war richtig, dass sich die EU nicht zur Legitimierung der gefälschten Wahlen missbrauchen ließ und eine Teilnahme an der Wahlbeobachtung verweigerte. Das war ein glasklares Zeichen. Europa muss jetzt zusätzliche Aktivitäten setzen – kompromisslos, rasch und mit Fristsetzungen. Im wirtschaftlichen Bereich gibt es da viele Möglichkeiten, wie in unser Entschließung aufgezeigt wird. Das sind wir den Menschen in diesem geplagten Land schuldig.

 
  
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  Marie-Christine Vergiat, auteur. – Monsieur le Président, les élections législatives de juillet dernier ont, comme nous le craignions, vu le parti majoritaire remporter l’ensemble des sièges. C’est dire l’état de la régression des libertés dans ce pays, sa transformation de fait en un système de parti unique, la suppression de la liberté de la presse, l’emprisonnement des opposants politiques et la dissolution du principal parti d’opposition.

La libération de Kem Sokha, emprisonné depuis un an, est donc une bonne nouvelle, même si sa libération reste très conditionnelle, que sa liberté demeure très limitée et que le nombre de ceux qui sont toujours en prison, subissant des restrictions de liberté et des intimidations, est toujours aussi important.

Je voudrais cependant insister sur la situation des syndicalistes et de ceux qui luttent contre l’accaparement des terres, qui dépasse toutes les limites dans ce pays, au bénéfice principalement de l’industrie sucrière, y compris européenne.

Des milliers de personnes sont ruinées et / ou déplacées pour le plus grand profit des dirigeants du pays. Nous ne devons pas nous taire là-dessus non plus. Les droits de l’homme sont indivisibles et je voudrais, Madame la Haute représentante, avoir votre point de vue sur ce point précis.

 
  
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  Tomáš Zdechovský, Autor. – Pane předsedající, jsem rád, že se nám podařilo vyjednat velmi dobrý kompromis. Nicméně podobnou rezoluci už jsme přijali v září 2017, v prosinci 2017 a jaké jsou výsledky? Nula. Vážení kolegové, situace v Kambodži se vůbec nezměnila. Naopak, ta krize, která tam v současné době je, se ještě více eskaluje. Jsem rád, že jsme konečně přistoupili k daleko restriktivnějšímu a silnějšímu textu. Vyzýváme Komisi, aby vyvodila důsledky z toho, co se v současné době v Kambodži děje, aby vytvořila seznam zodpovědných osob, na které budou uvaleny sankce v podobě zákazů udělení víz do EU, a dala tak jasný signál členským státům, aby s tou situací začaly něco dělat. Je neakceptovatelné, abychom opravdu přijímali jednu deklaraci za druhou a situace se stávala horší a horší, proto je nutné, abychom spolupracovali – všechny složky EU – Komise, vysoká představitelka pro zahraniční politiku a bezpečnost – a donutili vládu Kambodže ke spolupráci. Evropská unie musí využít všechny své nástroje, aby pomohla situaci v Kambodži v současné době řešit.

 
  
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  Petras Auštrevičius, author. – Mr President, Madam High Representative, first of all I want to welcome Sam Rainsy and his delegation into this hall and I appreciate their uncompromising fight for the democratic future of Cambodia. Those people really deserve all kinds of support, from us and from the free world in general.

Despite the recent releases of a few political prisoners, including Kem Sokha, the situation in Cambodia is deteriorating further. Elections in July were nothing but a farce. All the seats went to the ruling party. What do they say about this? They appreciate it, they like it, they call it ‘elections’. There cannot be another scenario from our side: we must firmly demand that the Cambodian Government give back the voice and the rights of its people. We must put an end to impunity. To achieve this, the European Union has to finally move from statements to actions. Cambodia cannot benefit any longer from GSP Plus trade preferences. Those responsible, Mr President, must be identified and punished by banning them from travelling to Europe and by freezing their assets.

 
  
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  Csaba Sógor, on behalf of the PPE Group. – Mr President, although the 23—year—long rule of the Cambodian People’s Party (CPP) has led to significant economic development in Cambodia, recent trends in the country’s political development are extremely worrying.

The entrenchment of the CPP’s political dominance over the past few years has led to serious concerns for democracy. The last elections are very instructive in this regard, being widely considered by foreign observers as an undemocratic charade. And there are plenty of other concerns, too: the arrest and detention of Kem Sokha is just the latest in a series of crackdowns on political and other human rights.

If the country’s government does not step back from dismantling democratic rights the EU would be well advised to launch an investigation under the mechanisms provided for in the framework of the Everything But Arms agreement and to consider reviewing the trade preferences Cambodia enjoys.

 
  
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  Julie Ward, on behalf of the S&D Group. – Mr President, I was very happy to hear about the release of Kem Sokha. For us to know that a political prisoner is out of arbitrary detention is always a relief. Although this development is positive, the situation in Cambodia is still extremely serious, given the gross disregard of its international human rights obligations and the serious attacks on democracy, namely the complete silencing of political opposition along with the broader climate of shrinking space for civil society.

I’m particularly worried by the situation of human rights defenders, especially in light of the charges against five members of the Cambodian Human Rights and Development Association. As Europeans, we must always be aware of the violations conducted by our own companies in Cambodia. Attacks against indigenous peoples, including land-grabbing, affect many communities.

It’s our responsibility to develop a trade policy that prevents corporations from harming these less developed countries and fragile states. Following the EU’s decision to suspend direct budget support to Cambodia, I wish to remind this House, and the EU in general, of the importance of dialogue and people—to—people contact in these contexts.

 
  
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  Ramon Tremosa i Balcells, on behalf of the ALDE Group. – Mr President, I welcome this new strong resolution against Prime Minister Hun Sen and his government’s repeated actions and violations of basic democratic principles. I want to welcome Sam Rainsy, a friend and a great leader, who does not give up in his struggle for more justice and democracy for the Cambodian people. The elections last July in Cambodia were a farce, the party of Hun Sen, in power for 33 years now, obtained 100% of all contested seats in the national assembly and the senate. The opposition was banned and declared illegal. The government of Hun Sen is illegitimate and I would like the EU and Ms Mogherini to recognise and acknowledge this fact.

The EU gives a lot of money to Cambodia and we cannot continue doing business as usual. Cambodia benefits from the most favourable regime available under the US Generalized System of Preferences. Under Article 19 of this regulation, in case of serious human rights and labour rights violations the EU should suspend the preferential tariffs temporarily. If the EU wants to save its credibility we cannot do business as usual. I call on the Commission to publish immediately the conclusions of the last EU fact-finding missions and I invite the Commission to report these conclusions as soon as possible to Parliament.

 
  
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  Angelo Ciocca, a nome del gruppo ENF. – Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, circa quaranta giorni fa sono stato appunto in Cambogia e ho documentato e denunciato l'assenza totale dei diritti umanitari in quel paese. E l'Europa che oggi piange, che cerca di riflettere sui problemi cambogiani, nella realtà è stata complice ed è complice di questa situazione.

Allora, se l'Europa vuole realmente guardare alla Cambogia e alle tematiche e alle problematiche dell'assenza di diritti umanitari nel Sudest asiatico, deve chiudere quegli accordi, ad esempio l'accordo EBA, che dopo diciotto anni non ha portato nessuna opportunità ai popoli cambogiani, ma ha addirittura danneggiato pesantemente il paese Italia e la nostra agricoltura. Va chiuso quell'accordo, vanno chiuse e fermate le invasioni di prodotto per evitare lo sfruttamento in Cambogia, per evitare di uccidere l'economia e l'occupazione del riso italiano e per evitare di avvelenare anche le nostre tavole.

Questo è un dato che ci deve far riflettere: la speranza di vita in Cambogia è di 64 anni. Noi non dobbiamo importare questa disperazione in Europa, non dobbiamo importare questa problematica in Italia, ma dobbiamo affrontarla semmai in Cambogia.

Signor Presidente, concludo con un appello velocissimo: mi rivolgo a coloro che oggi stanno mancando proprio di diritti umanitari nello sfrattare un uomo di 90 anni che si chiama nonno Mariano nel nostro paese Italia.

 
  
 

Zgłoszenia z sali

 
  
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  Krzysztof Hetman (PPE). – Panie Przewodniczący! Ostatnie wydarzenia w Kambodży, a przede wszystkim wybory, w których partia rządząca otrzymała sto procent głosów, czy rozwiązanie partii opozycyjnej jasno wskazują na bardzo smutną prawdę: Kambodży nie możemy postrzegać w kategoriach państwa demokratycznego. W tym kontekście uważam, że nie wystarczą już wezwania rządu kambodżańskiego do przestrzegania demokracji i poszanowania zasad państwa prawa. Aby ochronić naród kambodżański przed rządami autorytarnymi i łamaniem praw człowieka, musimy sięgnąć po bardziej zdecydowane środki. Dlatego w pełni popieram decyzję o wstrzymaniu pomocy Unii Europejskiej na wsparcie wyborów. Dodatkowo uważam, że należy rozważyć cofnięcie preferencji handlowych dla Kambodży, jak również wprowadzić ograniczenia wizowe dla osób odpowiedzialnych za łamanie praw człowieka w tym kraju.

 
  
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  Javier Nart (ALDE). – Señor presidente, estamos condenando unas elecciones fraudulentas y estamos condenando violaciones de derechos humanos. En Camboya el presidente Hun Sen, un antiguo comandante jemer rojo, genocida, y el presidente del Partido Popular de Camboya. ¿Dónde se incardina el Partido Popular de Camboya? ¡Ah, caramba! Se incardina en la Internacional Demócrata de Centro. ¿Y quién está en la Internacional Demócrata de Centro? El Partido Popular Europeo.

Así que comencemos por casa. Por coherencia, por decencia, por ética y por estética, lo primero que debería hacer el Partido Popular Europeo es pedir la expulsión de ese indecente partido con ese indecente presidente que es Hun Sen. Y algo que también nos corresponde a nosotros: no se trata de suspender la ayuda económica a las elecciones fraudulentas, que ya es suficiente, para decir que son inaceptables. Lo que hay que hacer es suspender toda ayuda a Camboya que no pase por las organizaciones internacionales creíbles. Lo demás es pura música, pura fanfarria.

 
  
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  Fabio Massimo Castaldo (EFDD). – Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, lo scorso 10 settembre è stato liberato su cauzione Kem Sokha, leader dell'opposizione cambogiana, arrestato con l'accusa di tradimento nonostante godesse dell'immunità parlamentare, e detenuto senza processo in maniera arbitraria per più di un anno. Come lui, tanti altri oppositori politici, attivisti e giornalisti sono finiti nel mirino di Hun Sen, il Primo ministro sempre più determinato a prolungare i suoi 33 anni al potere.

In un clima solo apparentemente democratico, il regime cleptocratico di Hun Sen ha censurato la rete e imbavagliato la stampa, assestando un duro colpo all'ultima parvenza di democraticità con la farsa delle ultime elezioni.

Quello che noi dobbiamo fare, cari colleghi, è sospendere immediatamente ogni forma di aiuto che non sia garantita dalle organizzazioni internazionali, e prendere finalmente la decisione di avere un atteggiamento consono nei confronti di questi regimi che ancora oggi intrattengono con noi rapporti commerciali, anche a tassi vantaggiosi, senza lasciare che le egoistiche ambizioni di un uomo rovinino il sogno e il bisogno di democrazia dei cittadini cambogiani che ancora escono e sanano le ferite del terribile periodo dei Khmer rossi.

 
  
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  José Inácio Faria (PPE). – Senhor Presidente, Senhora Alta Representante, obrigado pelas palavras simpáticas que nos dirigiu há pouco. Depois de, no ano passado, o Supremo Tribunal cambojano ter extinto o CNRP, o partido opositor que nas eleições de 2013 obteve 44 % dos votos, de ter detido o seu presidente e interditado a atividade política a mais de uma centena dos seus membros, as eleições de 2018 para o Senado e para o Parlamento não foram mais do que uma farsa para permitir que o partido do Primeiro—Ministro Hun Sen, no poder desde 1985, conquistasse todos os lugares destes dois órgãos de soberania e se perpetuasse no poder.

Senhora Alta Representante, tenho quase sempre elogiado o seu trabalho mas preciso, no caso do Camboja, dizer-lhe que a União Europeia, o segundo parceiro comercial do Camboja, foi lenta a reagir ao colapso do pluralismo e da democracia naquele país e, por isso, não pode agora deixar de aplicar sanções individuais aos responsáveis por esta deriva autoritária e continuar a manter acordos preferenciais de comércio desenvolvidos no esquema de “tudo menos armas” com um regime que viola as suas obrigações internacionais em matéria de direitos civis, políticos e laborais dos seus cidadãos, incluindo a Convenção contra a tortura.

 
  
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  Ilhan Kyuchyuk (ALDE). – Mr President, for over three decades Cambodia has been ruled by an authoritarian leader, Hun Sen. Prime Minister Hun Sen and his party use violence, politically motivated prosecutions and widespread corruption to intimidate and suppress any kind of political opposition. Fear of losing the national elections in July 2018 prompted a major crackdown. The primary opposition, the Cambodia National Rescue Party, has been dissolved by the courts, with a leader, Sam Rainsy, forced into exile and another, Kem Sokha, jailed. The government restricts independent media and civil society groups through forced closures, threats, intimidation and arbitrary detention. I call on the Cambodian authorities to put end to all forms of harassment, abuse and politically motivated criminal charges against members of the political opposition, human rights defenders, trade unions, labour rights advocates and other civil society activists, and journalists of course. We need to use our diplomatic tools to protect the fundamental rights of Cambodian people to elect and to be elected, to guarantee pluralism and democratic principles.

 
  
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  Ignazio Corrao (EFDD). – Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, la velocità del crollo verticale della democrazia e dei diritti fondamentali in Cambogia è veramente sorprendente. In un solo anno, infatti, l'unico vero partito di opposizione, il Cambodia National Rescue Party, è stato sciolto e il suo leader Kem Sokha è stato incarcerato con false accuse.

Cosa ci ricorda lo scivolamento verso un partito unico, il culto della personalità del leader, la repressione e l'ossessione verso qualsiasi tipo di opposizione? A me ricorda Pol Pot e la terribile dittatura dei Khmer Rouge, durante la quale ogni singola norma aveva l'obiettivo di distruggere, torturare ed estirpare chiunque venisse anche solo sospettato di non essere allineato al regime.

Vogliamo ricordare che il Primo ministro Hun Sen e due alti ufficiali sono ex membri dei Khmer Rouge? Quanta differenza troviamo oggi tra il Cambodian People's Party e il Communist Party of Kampuchea di Pol Pot? La caccia al dissidente è rimasta praticamente la stessa. La memoria storica è importante affinché la storia non si ripeta, e la Cambogia oggi rischia proprio questo.

Invito pertanto la Commissione a sospendere con la Cambogia il programma di accesso preferenziale al nostro mercato unico e renderlo condizionale al rispetto dei diritti umani e civili.

 
  
 

(Koniec zgłoszeń z sali)

 
  
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  Federica Mogherini, Vice-President of the Commission/High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy. – Mr President, last year saw significant steps backwards for Cambodia’s fragile democracy. One-party rule, authoritarian tendencies that have gained more ground in the country, and the space for political opposition and civil society has not so much shrunk as simply closed.

At the general election in July following the enforced dissolution of the main opposition party, the ruling party won all seats in the National Assembly. The election took place in a highly restrictive environment and it was clearly not representative of the democratic will of the Cambodian citizens.

Last February, at the European Union Foreign Affairs Council, we stressed that the Cambodian electoral process could not be considered legitimate after the arbitrary exclusion of the main opposition party, and so we suspended the European Union financial assistance to the Cambodian National Election Committee and we declined to observe the July elections.

Over the last year the legal system has increasingly been used by the authorities in the country to suppress critical voices, not only from the opposition but also from civil society and the media, and at the Foreign Affairs Council in February, we stated that we may consider specific targeted measures if the situation had not improved. So, the situation has not improved and we are now considering the possibility of further measures that, as you know, would require the Council to take a unanimous decision.

We also recall that the respect of human rights and fundamental freedoms, including labour rights, is essential for maintaining EU trade preferences. For this reason we sent already in July a fact-finding mission to Cambodia to evaluate the situation on the ground, and the decisions on any further steps will be based on the information gathered during this mission.

The European Union has been working with and for the people of Cambodia since the end of the war. At first we helped rebuild the country. We helped clear it of landmines and restart fundamental economic activities. Today we support job-creation and vocational training and we would like this partnership to continue, in order to continue to benefit the people of Cambodia. But it is clear that the Cambodian Government must reverse the current trend, otherwise this would not be possible.

The recent release on bail of opposition leader Kem Sokha is a positive first step, even though he was released under very restrictive conditions. We now expect the dropping of all charges and the removal of all restrictions placed upon him and we invite the Prime Minister and the leader of the opposition to start a dialogue on the way forward.

We urge the Cambodian authorities to drop all remaining politically motivated charges against activists and lift the ban on the political activity of 118 senior opposition members. Local councillors from the opposition who were elected in June last year should be reinstated. We also call on the Cambodian Government to guarantee the safe return of all exiled opposition politicians, civil society activists and human rights defenders who have fled the country to avoid arrest.

The laws and regulations that have been used to restrict opposition and civil society must be reviewed and amended.

At the 1991 Paris Peace Accords the Cambodian Government agreed to a legally binding obligation to maintain a pluralistic and democratic system, so we now expect the Cambodian authorities to restore free political debate and competition, and to respect the space for a free and independent civil society.

If we continue to see this negative trend without any changes, as I said, we are ready in the Council to take appropriate measures.

(Applause)

 
  
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  Przewodniczący. – Zamykam debatę.

Głosowanie odbędzie się po zakończeniu debat.

 
  
  

(Posiedzenie zostało zawieszone o godz. 11.39 w oczekiwaniu na wystąpienie premiera Zorana Zaeva)

 
  
  

PRESIDENZA DELL'ON. ANTONIO TAJANI
Presidente

 
Atnaujinta: 2019 m. sausio 7 d.Teisinis pranešimas - Privatumo politika