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Процедура : 2017/0228(COD)
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Сряда, 3 октомври 2018 г. - Страсбург Редактирана версия

17. Свободно движение на нелични данни в Европейския съюз (разискване)
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  Przewodniczący. – Kolejnym punktem porządku dziennego jest sprawozdanie sporządzone przez Annę Marię Corazzę Bildt w imieniu Komisji Rynku Wewnętrznego i Ochrony Konsumentów w sprawie wniosku dotyczącego rozporządzenia Parlamentu Europejskiego i Rady w sprawie ram swobodnego przepływu danych nieosobowych w Unii Europejskiej (COM(2017)0495 – C8-0312/2017 – 2017/0228(COD)) (A8-0201/2018).


  Anna Maria Corazza Bildt, Rapporteur. – Mr President, the digital revolution is changing all parts of our lives, and we are still only at the beginning of this exciting development. Movement of data will grow in volume and importance, and my vision is for an open, safe and global internet for all. With this regulation we will remove barriers, borders and burdens impeding the free flow of non-personal data. We have, de facto, established the fifth freedom in the internal market – data – next to freedom of movement of people, goods, services and capital. It is a game changer for the digital economy.

The Free Flow of Data (FFoD) Regulation is a regulation to deregulate. We are removing national data localisation requirements and facilitating portability of cloud service providers. Step by step, we are creating a legal framework for the future digital economy. We are creating a level playing field for companies to compete globally. With the USA and China moving fast – as you always point out, Vice-President Ansip – and with much more data available than in Europe, access to data for companies and especially for SMEs is crucial. FFoD has the potential to create efficiency throughout the value chain, to enable economies of scale and to boost innovation, paving the way for artificial intelligence, cloud computing and big data analysis. It is a good example of better regulation, with the clear added value of a Europe that delivers concrete results. The estimated associated GDP growth is EUR 8 billion per year – equal to the two free-trade agreements between the European Union and South Korea and Canada.

So what have we achieved? With the new rules, any data that is non-personal can be stored and processed anywhere in the EU – sales data, revenues, profits, stock prices, balance sheets, product design, price lists – to name but a few. We have succeeded in keeping just one exception: in the case of a threat to public security, the Member States may still allow restriction of data localisation. Companies and public administration will have the possibility to outsource data processes anywhere in the EU, but it is not an obligation. We have clarified that this applies at all levels of government – national, regional and local. Also, public administrations which run in-house cloud service systems, like the Bundescloud in Germany, will be able to use them, and we have succeeded in ensuring that the public procurement of cloud services by Member States will be open to operators from throughout the European Union.

We have also facilitated portability of cloud service providers. It has to be as simple for companies, especially for SMEs, to move, for example, from iCloud to Tieto as it is to change telephone operators from Vodafone to Telia. The market players, which are the ones best suited, will have 18 months to develop and implement codes of conduct to ensure easy switching between cloud service providers.

The new law will not affect citizens’ privacy. The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) will remain untouched. In cases where personal and non-personal data are inextricably linked in a mixed data set, FFoD will not prejudge GDPR. We have clarified the concept and added safeguards to ensure that the rules afford legal certainty and are up to date and fit for purpose, including in the future. We have asked the Commission to present guidelines on how the regulation will apply to mixed data sets, before its entry into force, and we have shortened the review time to four years.

Lastly, competent authorities with a legitimate reason can access company data stored in another Member State via a simplified procedure and a point of single contact. I am proud that we can deliver rules that are simple, net neutral and easy to apply in real life. The time has come to stand up against the data protectionism that is threatening our digital economy and society. And in this case, if I may dare to say so: mission accomplished!



  Andrus Ansip, Vice—President of the Commission. – Mr President, a digital society cannot exist without data. If Europe is to get the best from the opportunities offered by digital progress, data has to flow freely with no obstacles and no constraints. Data feeds into innovation. In turn that makes the kind of technologies possible which bring new jobs and improve our environment and daily lives: the ‘internet of things’, artificial intelligence, fintech, ‘smart cities’ and electronic health systems, to mention just a few.

The new regulation complements the principle of free movement of personal data that is enshrined in the General Data Protection Regulation. It guarantees the free movement of all data and does so by leaving the General Data Protection Regulation completely untouched. This regulation does not cover personal data, but it does for non—personal data what the General Data Protection Regulation has already done for personal data, namely free movement across the European Union.

It has three important elements. Firstly, it prohibits unjustified requirements about where data should be localised. These restrictions are only allowed in exceptional circumstances where this is justified by public security. Secondly, there will be a mechanism to make sure that regulatory authorities still have access to data stored in another Member State. They may also impose penalties on users that do not provide access to data, but they may not deviate from the free flow principle by relocalising the data for a long period without the Commission first giving its permission. Thirdly, the regulation will make the EU market for cloud services more fluid. It allows the industry to develop self—regulatory codes of conduct so that users will be able to move data more easily between IT systems and switch between cloud service providers. This should be done within the next two years.

The Regulation on the Free Flow of non—personal Data has gone through the legislative process at record speed. The Commission only proposed it last September so the time taken to reach this point of conclusion has been a little more than a year. We have been helped enormously by the political will to conclude quickly both in Parliament and the Council, which have been calling for this initiative since the beginning of this Commission’s mandate in office.


  Zdzisław Krasnodębski, autor projektu opinii Komisji Przemysłu, Badań Naukowych i Energii. – Panie Przewodniczący! Panie Komisarzu! Drodzy Koledzy! Bariery w dostępie do danych i w wymianie danych – jak wszyscy wiemy – mogą uniemożliwiać tworzenie innowacyjnych produktów, usług i rozwiązań. Takie praktyki osłabiają wykorzystanie pełnego potencjału gospodarki opartej na danych i tym samym są czynnikiem hamującym wzrost gospodarczy Unii Europejskiej. Dlatego z takim zadowoleniem przyjąłem propozycję Komisji Europejskiej dotyczącą projektu rozporządzenia w sprawie swobodnego przepływu danych nieosobowych, oczekując zdecydowanych kroków mających przeciwdziałać tendencjom zmierzającym do przyjmowania krajowych przepisów zmuszających dostawców do lokowania danych na konkretnym terytorium. Intensywne prace, które prowadziliśmy w Parlamencie Europejskim, to wyraz naszego poparcia dla konieczności szybkiego podjęcia działań legislacyjnych przez Unię, które miały przeciwdziałać nieuzasadnionym przeszkodom dla swobodnego przepływu danych nieosobowych, a także takich jak wymogi lokalizacyjne, oraz popierać samoregulację z określeniem jej ramowych wytycznych w zakresie przenoszenia danych. Dzięki temu projekt rozporządzenia powinien stwarzać bodźce do prowadzenia innowacyjnych rozwiązań, a tym samym zachęcić większą liczbę użytkowników do korzystania z usług dostarczanych przez nowe i małe przedsiębiorstwa wchodzące na nowe rynki.


  Andreas Schwab, im Namen der PPE-Fraktion. – Herr Präsident! Herr Kommissar! Liebe Kolleginnen und Kollegen! Zunächst einmal freue mich sehr, dass es meiner Kollegin Anna Corazza Bildt gelungen ist, tatsächlich mit großer Geschwindigkeit diesen für den digitalen Binnenmarkt wichtigen Vorschlag im Parlament mehrheitsfähig zu machen und eben auch mit dem Rat die notwendigen Trilog-Verhandlungen zügig abzuschließen. Dafür ihr und allen Schattenberichterstattern ein wirklich großes Dankeschön.

Denn es ist richtig – und Vizepräsident Ansip darauf hingewiesen –, dass wir in der Europäischen Union eben nach wie vor das Problem haben, dass Datenlokalisierungsvorschriften es schwer machen, die wirklich volle Wucht des Binnenmarkts für digitale Anbieter nutzbar zu machen. Mit diesem Vorschlag gelingt es uns, im digitalen Binnenmarkt einen großen Schritt nach vorne zu machen. Wir haben ja in den vergangenen Wochen und Monaten eine ganze Reihe von weiteren Richtlinien beschlossen. Ich glaube, dass wir mit diesem Vorschlag deutlich machen, dass der digitale Binnenmarkt allen gutmeinenden, allen seriös arbeitenden Anbietern eine Chance bietet, noch effizienter zu arbeiten.

Die Datenschutzgrundverordnung, die Grundprinzipien des Datenschutzes werden durch diese Richtlinie nicht etwa geschwächt, sondern gestärkt. Sie bleiben unangetastet. Aber wir fördern eben gleichzeitig den freien Datenverkehr in Europa in einer Weise, die es den Mitgliedstaaten ermöglicht, selbst zu entscheiden, welche übernationalen, welche grenzüberschreitenden Dienste sie in Anspruch nehmen wollen. Aber das Prinzip ist eben, dass grundsätzlich europaweit der Markt abgefragt wird. Und das ist eine sehr, sehr gute Nachricht.

Zum Zweiten halte ich es für wichtig, dass wir diese Vorschläge ergänzen. Die Bürgerinnen und Bürger in Europa sehen natürlich mit wachsender Sorge, dass viele der Daten, die sie in öffentlichen Verzeichnissen einstellen, nicht überall so benutzt werden können, wie dies wünschenswert ist. Deswegen ist es wichtig, dass wir in den kommenden Monaten auch den Vorschlag zur Plattformregulierung noch abschließen, damit das Bild insgesamt für den Bürger in Europa verständlich ist.


  Christel Schaldemose, for S&D-Gruppen. – Hr. formand! Hr. kommissær, fru Corazza Bildt, kollegaer. Det er faktisk en stor ting, at vi står her i dag og skal diskutere denne lovgivning om frit flow af ikke-personlige data rundt i EU. Det er et stort skridt fremad, at vi får etableret dette på EU’s indre marked. Det er en del af bestræbelserne på at sikre, at vi også får et digitalt indre marked. Derfor er jeg glad for, at det lykkedes os at finde nogle gode løsninger, der har bred opbakning fra de politiske grupper. Det vil give gode muligheder for rigtig mange virksomheder, og dermed vil det også i sidste ende betyde, at forbrugeren vil få langt bedre valgmuligheder.

Jeg kan nævne, at i mit eget land bygger Apple, Google og Facebook datacentre til den helt store guldmedalje. Der bliver bygget rigtig mange, og det er dejligt, at vi nu også skaber en lovgivning, som gør muligt at tiltrække data til lande, der gerne vil have det - og ikke mindst til lande, som producerer grøn energi. Så jeg er tilfreds. Men jeg vil også gerne sige, at det er vigtigt, at vi i arbejdet med frit flow af ikke-personlige data er meget opmærksomme på at overholde de regler, vi har aftalt. Det er vigtigt, at vi sørger for, at hvor der overhovedet er nogen personlige data involveret, så gælder GDPR. Vi skal også være opmærksomme på - men det har vi også skrevet ind i lovgivningen - at der i stigende grad er mulighed for med teknologi at omdanne ikke-personlige data til personlige data, og her skal vi også sikre os, at GDPR er den lovgivning, der gælder. Men når vi får sikret det, så er jeg meget tilfreds.

Jeg er sikker på, at vi får et bedre velfungerende indre marked, vi får god gang i cloud services, og vi kan være sikre på, at forbrugerne ender med at få bedre tilbud, bedre produkter, fordi de med denne konkurrence også kan få billigere tilbud. Så jeg er vældig tilfreds og takker for det gode samarbejde, ikke mindst til fru Corazza Bildt.


  Daniel Dalton, on behalf of the ECR Group. – Mr President, I want to thank the rapporteur for her work in driving this dossier forward. This was critical in ensuring that we reached a swift agreement.

Ensuring the free flow of data is vital to create a competitive data economy. Without genuine competition in the data processing market, we will all continue to pay more than we should do for slower quality services. A healthy data market is the first requirement for a successful digital single market. At the moment, the free flow of data is hindered by a series of obstacles. Many public authorities and branches of government have unjustifiable data localisation requirements. Their data sets were huge parts of the market and we need them to lead by example.

There’s also a lot of legal uncertainty about what laws apply in storing data across borders. We know that many customers have difficulties in switching providers for cloud storage and that there are some questionable practices in that market. Underpinning all of these obstacles to free flow of data is a lack of trust, a fear that if you store your data across borders you may have difficulties getting it when you need it.

This regulation should be a game changer for the economy. It creates a clear and unambiguous legal regime for the storage of data across borders. It prohibits data localisation except in specific justified cases of a risk to national security, and it gives legal certainty that data can be accessed across borders. It also fosters a cloud market where switching is easy, encouraging competitiveness of cloud service providers.

Let’s make no mistake, this is the biggest success in the digital single market so far and I very much hope that we can use this as a benchmark also for agreements on the free flow of data in future with third countries.


  Dita Charanzová, on behalf of the ALDE Group. – Mr President, Commissioner, this is a regulation that I believe the whole Parliament should support. It is a regulation that I personally fought for, sending a letter with my colleagues to the President of the Commission asking the Commission to act and make a proposal.

I am happy today to see the result that we can confirm the new fifth freedom in the European Union: the free movement of data. The free flow of data is vital to the digital economy and the single market as a whole. The free flow of data is what makes cloud computing services work. Everything from email to accountancy software needs the free flow of data to work. Everything from traffic to weather information needs the free flow of data to work. It was clear that at the European level, we needed to prevent actions which would have put our digital future at risk, including ill—advised national measures restricting this free flow.

This regulation is an example of what the European Union is all about. It is about removing barriers and preventing new ones from arising. It is about making the single market work for everyone – businesses and citizens alike. It is about agreeing common European rules and then treating every Member State equally – rules that allow data to be stored anywhere in Europe without discrimination. It is about adopting simple rules and simple legislation that solve real life problems so consumers and taxpayers can get the best value for their money while facing less red tape and pointless barriers in their daily lives. This is why I was proud to be part of the team and I want to say thank the rapporteur, Maria Corazza Bildt, for her work on this file.


  Marco Zullo, a nome del gruppo EFDD. – Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, grazie alla relatrice per l'ottimo lavoro e la celerità dei lavori portati avanti.

Dopo il regolamento sulla protezione dei dati personali, il regolamento sul libero flusso dei dati non personali rappresenta un altro importante passo verso il completamento di un mercato europeo dei dati, dati sempre più trasparenti, accessibili e allo stesso tempo più tutelati.

Oggi le imprese non possono scegliere i luoghi meno costosi dove archiviare o elaborare i propri dati. I numerosi ostacoli amministrativi presenti rendono difficile cambiare fornitore di servizi o ritrasferire i dati sui propri sistemi informatici. Grazie a questa normativa, le imprese potranno invece evitare la duplicazione dei dati in più luoghi, potranno entrare in nuovi mercati e potenziare le loro attività. I dati circoleranno liberamente in tutta l'Unione europea e verranno abbattute le barriere sui servizi di archiviazione, quei servizi che rappresentano la base di partenza per lo sviluppo di una pubblica amministrazione sempre più aperta e digitale, dove i servizi e i documenti sono a disposizione dei cittadini con un solo click.

Per cogliere l'importanza del fenomeno, basta ricordare che in dieci anni la portata dell'economia dei dati crescerà di quasi venti volte e quindi dopo le persone, le merci, i servizi e i capitali, si aprono le porte alla quinta libertà nel mercato unico digitale, quella dei dati, che favorirà settori come l'internet delle cose, la blockchain, l'assistenza sanitaria, la chirurgia a distanza e le soluzioni di mobilità intelligente, come per esempio le auto a guida autonoma.

Tutto questo, però, avverrà senza indebolire il controllo delle autorità nazionali che potranno esercitare il diritto di accesso ai dati in tutta Europa. Questo controllo sarà fondamentale perché un mondo sempre più digitalizzato è un mondo più vulnerabile ed è nostro dovere adoperarci per tutelare le parti più esposte, ovvero i cittadini, i privati e le imprese.


  Mylène Troszczynski, au nom du groupe ENF. – Monsieur le Président, encore une fois avec cette proposition, vous anéantissez toutes les chances d’obtenir un texte équilibré qui respecterait les intérêts des États membres et leur indépendance.

L’abolition des frontières numériques est une erreur majeure dans des proportions équivalentes à l’abolition des frontières physiques. La fin du géoblocage, exigée une fois de plus, et l’exigence de localisation des données sont des mesures qui viennent encore limiter la souveraineté numérique des États membres.

Les points positifs et importants du texte sont ainsi relayés au second plan, destin tragique de la plupart des textes débattus ici dans cette assemblée. Les enjeux législatifs réels sont pris en otage par des dispositions idéologiques désastreuses. Par exemple, la question de la protection des données mixtes, qui présentent un caractère à la fois personnel et non personnel, méritait d’être réellement défendue de manière pragmatique et ne méritait certainement pas d’être instrumentalisée au profit d’un projet ultralibéral, comme le fait ici le rapporteur qui manque, encore une fois, l’occasion de se montrer raisonnable.


  Róża Gräfin von Thun und Hohenstein (PPE). – Panie Przewodniczący! Ja już ponad dziesięć lat żyję w Schengen, jeżdżę sobie po całej Unii Europejskiej, granic nie zauważam, bo one są niewidoczne, ale dalej są. I to właśnie te bariery sprawiają, że rozwijamy się wolniej, niż byśmy mogli, i dlatego musimy je ciągle, systematycznie, krok po kroku znosić. I dziś właśnie stawiamy kolejny dobry krok w kierunku osiągnięcia prawdziwego jednolitego rynku cyfrowego w Unii Europejskiej.

Usunięcie ograniczeń dotyczących lokalizacji danych przyczyni się nie tylko do wzrostu gospodarczego, ale będzie kolejnym elementem łączącym obywateli w bardzo konkretny i odczuwalny sposób w obrębie naszej Unii. Te nowe przepisy, a w szczególności zasada transgranicznego swobodnego przepływu danych nieosobowych, zapewni przedsiębiorcom ułatwienia w prowadzeniu działalności gospodarczej. Tak, przedsiębiorcy będą mogli efektywniej, łatwiej i taniej prowadzić działalność w różnych krajach i nie będzie im już towarzyszył obowiązek powielania systemów informatycznych i magazynowania ich w różnych miejscach.

Tą regulacją sprawimy więc, że przedsiębiorcy będą czuli się pewniej, wchodząc na nowe rynki, i będą coraz częściej korzystać z usług w chmurze, a badania wykazują, że nowe przepisy dotyczące swobodnego przepływu danych nieosobowych sprawią, że unijna gospodarka będzie generować dodatkowo 8 miliardów euro rocznie.

Więc chciałabym tu skorzystać jeszcze z okazji, żeby podziękować sprawozdawczyni Annie Marii Corazzy Bildt za jej nieustające wysiłki na rzecz harmonizowania jednolitego rynku, za niezwykle efektowną pracę nad tym sprawozdaniem razem z kontrsprawozdawcami, z Komisją Europejską, również z Radą, że w tym rekordowym tempie tak efektywnie została ta sprawa załatwiona. To jest naprawdę wielki krok na wspólnym rynku. A wszystkich kolegów i koleżanki proszę, żebyśmy jutro głosowali za tą regulacją.


  Nicola Danti (S&D). – Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, in apertura fatemi ringraziare la relatrice Maria Corazza Bildt e la nostra relatrice ombra Christel Schaldemose per il lavoro che è stato fatto.

Noi sappiamo che la gestione dei dati, le regole con le quali vengono elaborati, trasferiti, commercializzati e conservati rappresenta una delle sfide più importanti dell'economia digitale. La creazione di uno spazio unico di dati non personali all'interno dell'Unione crea nuove opportunità in termini di occupazione, in particolare per start-up e piccole imprese e, al contempo, aumenta la concorrenza nel settore, accrescendo l'offerta finale a beneficio dei consumatori.

Inoltre, signor Presidente, un quadro giuridico comune renderà più semplice per le autorità pubbliche esercitare controlli di vigilanza a tutela dei cittadini e rafforzerà la disciplina complessiva a protezione dei dati, affiancandosi al regolamento generale sulla protezione dei dati personali, che è già in vigore.

Ritengo che l'approvazione di questo regolamento rappresenti un ulteriore passo avanti verso la realizzazione di un mercato unico digitale europeo, necessario per competere a livello globale.


  Jasenko Selimovic (ALDE). – Mr President, there have always been many obstacles for movement of data across systems in Europe. Businesses were not able to choose the most cost effective locations for IT resources; it was complicated and it was bureaucratic.

Thanks to this regulation we have improved the mobility of non—personal data and made it possible for professional users to choose and switch service providers while, at the same time, ensuring the security of such data. It shows, once again, that the EU can deliver and can make a difference. Removing data localisation restrictions can make our economy grow by EUR 700 million in 2020. This also means that we treat the freedom of establishment very seriously by allowing companies and public administrations to store and process non—personal data wherever they choose in the EU. This regulation is therefore a small, but very crucial victory, for the citizens and businesses of Europe.


  Jean-Luc Schaffhauser (ENF). – Monsieur le Président, chers collègues, ce projet de règlement veut empêcher nos États de réglementer la localisation des données. Il nous soumet au contrôle de la Commission pour savoir quelles données relèvent de la sécurité du pays ou non.

La Commission, cette Commission à la solde des lobbies et de l’oligarchie cosmopolite, va une fois de plus mettre nos États sous domination étrangère, extra-européenne en plus! Elle ne connaît que le coup de force, prétendant vouloir notre bien et, au nom du bien, détruisant de manière systématique notre souveraineté. Les technologies numériques sont non seulement des technologies de souveraineté, mais aussi de domination.

Libre concurrence et marché sans entraves transforment nos États en colonies numériques de multinationales étrangères. La Chine est indépendante, par exemple, car elle a interdit les sociétés étrangères dans ce domaine sur son territoire. Les technologies numériques sont de la coopération libre des États, un point c’est tout!

(L’orateur refuse une question «carton bleu» d’Anna Maria Corazza Bildt)


  Catherine Stihler (S&D). – Mr President, I welcome this proposal on the free flow of non—personal data, which is essential for the success of the digital economy. With this in mind, just a few weeks ago, the UK Government issued a notice to companies to start drawing up standard contractual clauses for data transfers in the case of a no—deal Brexit. Just hours ago, at the Conservative Party conference, the British Prime Minister is still talking of a no deal.

I think this is irresponsible. UK companies doing business in Europe in the new data economy we want to encourage would be the hardest hit with a no deal because data from the EU would not be able to flow into the UK until adequacy arrangements were put in place. This can only lead to higher costs and more uncertainty in an area of the economy which has the greatest chance of growth.

Brexit is nothing about the national interest, but everything about the Tory party interest. I don’t want my country to leave the EU, but if it does, it needs to remain part of the single market and customs union for certainty, stability and security.


  Adam Szejnfeld (PPE). – Panie Przewodniczący! Żyjemy w czasach, w których musimy zwiększać siłę Unii Europejskiej – siłę, która daje podstawy rozwoju, a więc i dobrobytu państw członkowskich i ich obywateli. Swoboda przepływu osób, kapitału czy usług stała się fundamentem wspólnego rynku, ale 60 lat temu i kilka dekad później wszyscy ci, którzy działali na rzecz Wspólnoty, nie mogli przypuszczać, że taką wagę dla rozwoju będą miały dane. Dzisiaj do tego katalogu wspólnego rynku powinniśmy właśnie dołożyć swobodę przepływu danych. Ona jest w dzisiejszych czasach, w czasach gospodarki cyfrowej, właściwie warunkiem sine qua non rozwoju. Rozwój natomiast buduje dobrobyt obywateli Unii Europejskiej. Bariery, które funkcjonują na rynku europejskim do tej pory, nie mają już swojego uzasadnienia. Mało tego, są barierami rozwoju firm europejskich już nie tylko cyfrowych, ale właściwie wszystkich, które funkcjonują w gospodarce. Są także barierą ograniczającą naszą konkurencyjność w skali globalnej. Dlatego, po pierwsze, popieram to dossier. Po drugie, oczywiście serdecznie gratuluję sprawozdawczyni, a po trzecie, uważam, że potrzebujemy dalszych właśnie tego typu rozwiązań, które będą pogłębiały integrację Unii Europejskiej.


  Virginie Rozière (S&D). – Monsieur le Président, je voudrais remercier la rapporteure ainsi que notre négociatrice pour leur travail sur ce dossier important.

L’économie de la donnée est un secteur qui se développe et qui pèse de plus en plus dans notre économie. J’en veux pour preuve qu’en 2020, dans l’Union européenne, plus de 30 milliards de machines connectées seront en circulation.

L’objet de ce texte, c’est de prendre acte de cette situation et de définir le juste équilibre entre deux préoccupations. D’un côté, la libre circulation – en l’occurrence, ici, la libre circulation des données non personnelles – et de l’autre, la protection des intérêts des citoyens européens. Dans ce cas particulier, on parle bien sûr de la protection des données personnelles.

Dans la proposition initiale du texte, il existait des zones d’ombre quant au champ d’application de ce texte et à celui du règlement général sur la protection des données personnelles. Aussi, je me satisfais vraiment du compromis qui a pu être trouvé sur ce texte. Celui-ci grave dans le marbre l’obligation de toujours appliquer un haut niveau de protection des données personnelles dans les situations où la vie privée des citoyens européens est en jeu.

C’est une question sur laquelle, aujourd’hui, l’Union est leader dans le monde, et je pense qu’elle a tout intérêt à le rester.


  Antanas Guoga (PPE). – Mr President, it is always a pleasure to see the Vice—President on the floor – a voice of reason and forward-looking. I would also like to thank the rapporteur for the great work that you are doing. In fact, you have driven it through like a Ferrari, to quote you. I have heard that language being used before.

So we are all European here today, and we’ve got the fifth freedom in the EU. I am hoping that this will really allow free movement of non-personal data, which is a cornerstone of the digital single market that the Vice—President of the Commission is pushing so well. This regulation gives a chance to European businesses to actually experience the opportunities and advantages of the digital economy in Europe. A Lithuanian start—up working with data analytics now has the same opportunities to scale up and reach bigger markets, like Germany or France, as a German start—up, for example.

We have got some fairness. It has been calculated – we’ve heard EUR 8 billion and I’m hoping it’s more, but we’ll take EUR 8 billion – and it brings an enormous boost to European businesses, especially the ones that are working in an artificial intelligence space. AI is a field where this regulation can really push Europe forward. In the artificial intelligence race with the US, and especially with China, we should really take note and action.

We all agree that AI is the future and can create a lot of good, well—paid jobs in Europe. However, we need to invest in research, education and development, and give funding to European companies working in the AI area. These are the key drivers, and it’s crucial for European SMEs and start—ups, which don’t have access to huge streams of data, like big tech companies do – Google or Facebook for example. The free flow of non-personal data regulation gives this opportunity. It unlocks a huge amount of non—personal data, especially from mixed data sets, which have been like a grey zone. It brings legal certainty, which is a business need. AI technology is already here, and it won’t go away. The regulation of the free flow of non-personal data is a great example of such an approach.


  Sergio Gaetano Cofferati (S&D). – Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, Anna Maria Corazza Bildt e i relatori ombra, a cominciare da Christel Schaldemose, hanno lavorato con grande rapidità e soprattutto con estrema sagacia, la materia che dovevano regolare non era semplice, molto delicata, complessa e lo hanno fatto nel modo migliore. Io sono molto contento di quali sono state poi alla fine le soluzioni e i compromessi raggiunti, in particolare per quanto concerne la privacy dei dati personali dei cittadini europei.

L'aver garantito e riconosciuto che hanno questo diritto a priorità rispetto laddove esiste un rapporto di legame con l'insieme dei dati a un diritto di priorità è cosa che dà un senso compiuto al lavoro che è stato fatto, è un po' il cuore della proposta, ma ne esemplifica anche le intenzioni e la capacità conclusiva.

Vorrei dire una cosa da ultimo al signor Commissario, c'è un tema che riguarda la privacy sul posto di lavoro. La raccolta dei dati che avvengono lì e il loro uso non era argomento da affrontare e risolvere in questo contesto, però è molto importante che la Commissione se ne faccia carico e lo affronti rapidamente.


  Eva Maydell (PPE). – Mr President, despite data being one of the most important assets today for a progressive economy, it is only now we are granting the free movement of non—personal data beyond national borders. To be honest, it took us quite some time. Two years ago what was being discussed was non legislative; a cornerstone of the DSM was put into question. For some, the growth generated by the EU data market, which amounts to 7% per year and up to EUR 84 billion by 2020 was not a good enough reason to grant the free movement of non—personal data within the EU. This is why I would like to congratulate Vice—President Ansip for standing firm behind some of us Members of this House, as well as stakeholders, in delivering a very good proposal. My congratulations goes also to the rapporteur and the Estonian and Bulgarian Presidency for their excellent work.

This morning, during the Future of Europe debate, I said something that I want to repeat now: we cannot address people’s concerns and challenges by looking back in time, but only by looking forward. Forward—looking legislation and regulation is what will drive change in Europe and this legislation is one of them – a regulation that will bring innovation to Europe and show that Europe is open for business, for cloud computing and for big data analytics. So stay tuned and watch this space.


Zgłoszenia z sali


  José Inácio Faria (PPE). – Senhor Presidente, Senhor Vice-Presidente Ansip, as exigências territoriais da União determinadas por disposições nacionais, regionais ou locais têm levado a um viés concorrencial entre prestadores de serviços de armazenamento na “cloud”.

Estas políticas de localização têm também comprometido a capacidade de partilha e colaboração de investigadores e cientistas, perdendo—se um potencial inovador na Europa. Para tanto, entendo que será necessário garantir que haja uma harmonização nos critérios mínimos de segurança dos sistemas de alojamento de dados em todos os Estados—Membros.

Por outro lado, o mercado concorrencial tem de salvaguardar a possibilidade de os cidadãos poderem mudar de prestador de forma fácil e transparente e requisitar a portabilidade estruturada dos dados. Para isto, devem ser estabelecidas boas práticas e requisitos de informação aos cidadãos para evitar negócios fraudulentos.

Por isso, quero saudar a relatora Anna Corazza Bildt, por ter conseguido consagrar na legislação os dados mistos, que abrangem dados pessoais e não pessoais, e a forma como se articula com o regulamento geral sobre proteção de dados para uma clara e devida defesa do direito à privacidade dos cidadãos europeus.


  Ruža Tomašić (ECR). – Gospodine predsjedavajući, obveza lokalizacije podataka nekompatibilna je s idejom jedinstvenog digitalnog tržišta, pa je liberalizacija koju predlaže Komisija, a podržava izvjestiteljica, jedini logičan potez. Cilj mora biti potrošačima iz cijele Unije ponuditi bolje usluge za manje novca, što je izravna posljedica povećanja konkurencije uslijed liberalizacije tržišta. Zadovoljna sam što prijedlog nudi i mogućnost izuzeća u iznimnim situacijama ili kad su podaci potrebni javnim tijelima. Pozdravljam i uvođenje kodeksa ponašanja u području prijenosa podataka, ali pod uvjetom da preporuke koje donosi budu obvezujuće, a njihovo kršenje sankcionirano.


  Γεώργιος Επιτήδειος (NI). – Κύριε Πρόεδρε, η ελεύθερη επεξεργασία και διακίνηση των δεδομένων που δεν είναι προσωπικού χαρακτήρα είναι γεγονός ότι συμβάλλει στην ανάπτυξη του εμπορίου, διότι επιτρέπει την ταχεία κίνηση και εκμετάλλευση των πληροφοριών. Αυτή όμως η εξέλιξη πρέπει να τοποθετηθεί και να εξεταστεί υπό το πρίσμα του εάν και κατά πόσον παραβιάζεται η εθνική κυριαρχία ενός κράτους. Ο προτεινόμενος κανονισμός βεβαίως αφήνει το περιθώριο της μη ροής των πληροφοριών που δεν έχουν προσωπικό χαρακτήρα, πλην όμως παραβιάζουν ή θέτουν σε κίνδυνο τη δημόσια ασφάλεια.

Εκείνο το οποίο προβληματίζει επίσης είναι το γεγονός ότι, εφόσον αναπτυχθεί η τεχνητή νοημοσύνη, δεν γνωρίζουμε με ποιον τρόπο αυτή θα χρησιμοποιηθεί. Τέλος, θα πρέπει να λάβουμε υπόψη ότι ο βασικός ανταγωνιστής μας, η Κίνα, δεν επιτρέπει στη χώρα της την εφαρμογή τέτοιων διαδικασιών.


  Seán Kelly (PPE). – Mr President, firstly, allow me to thank Commissioner Ansip and especially my good colleague and friend Anna Maria Corazza Bildt for her good work on this file. Having been involved as a rapporteur in the Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), I know that time and effort and expertise, indeed, is required to bring a file to this level. Well done to Anna Maria and her colleagues.

One of the things about the GDPR which was very interesting was that initially people didn’t want it, but it was interesting that when Mark Zuckerberg came here to the European Parliament he said that it was setting a global standard. The same will apply to Anna Maria’s work in the non—personal data sector. Obviously, things are moving at a rapid pace. We do, as Mr Guoga said, have to allow for artificial intelligence to develop, data analytics, big data of all sorts.

I think this is a very balanced proposal and that it will serve the European Union and our citizens and services very well, so well done to you all.


  Νότης Μαριάς (ECR). – Κύριε Πρόεδρε, είναι δεδομένο ότι οι νέες τεχνολογίες εξελίσσονται. Έχουμε το υπολογιστικό νέφος, τα μαζικά δεδομένα, την τεχνητή νοημοσύνη και είναι προφανές ότι όλα αυτά συμβάλλουν στην ανάπτυξη της οικονομίας. Γι’ αυτό πλέον μιλούμε για την «πέμπτη ελευθερία», που συμπληρώνει την ελεύθερη διακίνηση προσώπων, υπηρεσιών, κεφαλαίων και εμπορευμάτων.

Τι μέτρα πρέπει να ληφθούν σε σχέση με αυτό; Μα νομίζω ό,τι ισχύει και για τις «τέσσερις ελευθερίες», δηλαδή να υπάρχουν οι δυνατότητες παρέμβασης του κράτους για λόγους δημοσίας τάξεως και δημοσίας ασφάλειας, όπως η ρύθμιση αυτή έχει διαμορφωθεί από τη νομολογία του Δικαστηρίου της Ευρωπαϊκής Ένωσης. Τίποτε λιγότερο, τίποτε περισσότερο.

Ταυτόχρονα, είναι προφανές ότι και ο κανονισμός για την προστασία των προσωπικών δεδομένων πρέπει να ισχύσει. Δεν συμφωνώ με το να υπάρχει κώδικας δεοντολογίας για τον έλεγχο που θα κάνουν οι ίδιες οι επιχειρήσεις. Νομίζω ότι η νομολογία του Δικαστηρίου της Ευρωπαϊκής Ένωσης για τις «τέσσερις ελευθερίες» επαρκεί για να εφαρμοστεί και στην «πέμπτη ελευθερία».


  József Nagy (PPE). – Elnök Úr! Gratulálok először is a jelentéstevőnek, Anna Maria, szép munka volt. A személyes adatok védelme mindig nagyon érzékeny téma, ezért is örülök a sikernek, és támogatom az adatok szabad mozgását az Európai Unión belül is. Úgy gondolom, hogy a felesleges és túlzott korlátozások nemcsak rengeteg munkahelyet, de a polgárok szabadságjogát is sérti, és korlátozza, bízom benne, hogy ezen az úton tovább fogunk haladni, és a geoblocking, azaz a mediális tartalmak blokkolását is sikerül eltörölnünk. Ez ugyanis nemcsak a turisták, a külföldi munkavállalók, de a nemzeti kisebbségek érdeke is egyúttal.


(Koniec zgłoszeń z sali)


  Andrus Ansip, Vice-President of the Commission. – Mr President, this regulation is a key pillar of the digital single market. It will bring benefits and immediate business efficiencies, particularly for SMEs, start-ups and scale—ups. It means that there will be no more need to duplicate IT resources across different Member States, a heavy burden for smaller companies. It will be easier for them to enter new markets and scale up. There will be no more constraints on cross-border scaling of innovative technologies that require data storage.

I believe the proposal will have three important effects: legal certainty on the free flow of data in Europe; a higher level of trust between public authorities; and more competitive EU cloud markets. It will lead us closer to a European common data space, in which data is shared, reused and flows freely. However, we still need to update the rules on public-sector information and encourage businesses to share private-sector data. All these elements are necessary to build a strong European data economy. As we all know, the data economy – including artificial intelligence, which was mentioned many times here today – is nonsense without data.

We have to look at the bigger picture. China and global service providers were also mentioned many times today. In China they have huge data sets, they have 1.3 billion images and, of course, it’s much easier for them to create face recognition systems based on artificial intelligence. In the United States they have global service providers. They have Google, Amazon and Facebook. They have huge data sets and they can teach computers.

Even when looking at cloud service providers here in Europe, we have to remember that 50% of those services are provided by Amazon, Microsoft and IBM. They have access to this data and they can teach their computers. Even when thinking about our hospitals or local municipalities, too often global service providers are able to provide services with higher quality at lower prices. The question is about what happens when data is cut off. If they do not get access to a certain data set, that is just another data set for them. The question is how our start—ups and small and medium—sized enterprises will get access to data. In the European Union we already have 56 different rules on data localisation in 21 EU Member States.

Free flow of data is about our jobs. This is about the salaries of our people. It’s a very practical issue. We have to provide access to data, including to our start—ups and our small and medium—sized businesses. I would like to thank Parliament and the Council for their constructive comments and contributions during the negotiation phase of this regulation.


  Anna Maria Corazza Bildt, Rapporteur. – Mr President, I am touched and grateful for the amazing support that I received from colleagues, cross-political groups. Let me tell you, Vice-President Ansip, how much I truly appreciate your commitment and cooperation, together with Commissioner Gabriel and Director-General Viola.

I noticed, Mr President, that only the extreme right populists have been against. They want the next generation to live in the past, instead of the future. They have not given us the answer on how France, for example, under the Front National, would compete alone by closing digital borders with China or the US. As usual, they are attacking without giving any answers. Let me tell you instead that I am proud that we have managed to keep the national exceptions restricted to just one. I am proud that we have succeeded in overcoming the Member States’ concerns that data process outside of the territory would be less safe and accessible.

Tell us please, dear colleagues from the extreme right: how would data be safer in a box in a cellar within a national border instead of in the cloud with the most efficient and safe cloud service providers? If they are not efficient, they are out of a job. And let me tell you that we have seen attacks, Mr President, against central government systems, and it is actually decentralisation more than centralisation of data storage and processing that can provide more security at a time when hackers are proliferating. Wake up to the digital realities.

Many sectors directly benefit from the free data flows. Some colleagues mentioned e—health. The transport sector is a good example. The truck industry, from Scania to Volvo, are depending on the free flow of data to deliver environmentally friendly and innovative solutions and to speed up maintenance at a distance. Mr President, we are only at the beginning of seeing the advantages for public authorities and companies. There is already more efficiency, fewer cars and more climate-friendliness in the use of a cloud provider located in another Member State.

Let me finish by telling you how much I have appreciated the cooperation with the Estonian Presidency, which managed to find a common solution quickly in the Council and the precedent set by Bulgaria for good cooperation in quickly finding a final agreement. A warm thank you to all the shadows: Christian, Daniel, Dita, Julie and Marco, the Commission, Mark from the ENCA secretariat, Silva from the EPP, the legal and policy department and stakeholders for their invaluable contribution. Mr President, together we have truly delivered a Volvo and a Ferrari, ready to drive into the new digital area.


  Przewodniczący. – Jeżeli państwo pozwolą na taką nietypową refleksję: z dużą przyjemnością przewodniczyłem tej debacie. Rzadko, naprawdę rzadko się zdarza, żeby były tak jednomyślne wyrazy uznania pod adresem posła sprawozdawcy, tak wysoka ocena przez posła sprawozdawcę współpracy z kontrsprawozdawcami, żeby konserwatyści oklaskiwali socjaldemokratów, a liberałowie oklaskiwali wystąpienia GUE, żeby pan przewodniczący Komisji Europejskiej oklaskiwał – a zdarzyło się, widziałem przynajmniej dwa razy – wystąpienia poszczególnych posłów i żeby pana wystąpienie było tak gorąco przyjęte oklaskami na tej sali. Bardzo dziękuję! Jednak można coś zrobić razem, można coś robić efektywnie i to nam się udaje.

Zamykam debatę.

Głosowanie odbędzie się w czwartek 4 października 2018 r.

Последно осъвременяване: 9 януари 2019 г.Правна информация - Политика за поверителност