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Πέμπτη 15 Νοεμβρίου 2018 - Στρασβούργο Προσωρινή έκδοση

4.3. Η κατάσταση των ανθρωπίνων δικαιωμάτων στο Μπανγκλαντές
Βίντεο των παρεμβάσεων
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  Πρόεδρος. – Το επόμενο σημείο στην ημερήσια διάταξη είναι η συζήτηση επί επτά προτάσεων ψηφίσματος σχετικά με την κατάσταση των ανθρωπίνων δικαιωμάτων στο Μπανγκλαντές (2018/2927(RSP)).

 
  
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  Charles Tannock, author. – Mr President, Bangladesh has, for many years, struggled with the problem of terrorist threats. Given the similar problems we see in our own countries, we are only too aware that preventing threats from turning into attacks is a difficult and costly business, so we do so with the benefit of more resources in the European Union, better intelligence and fewer potential threats. Despite the progress Bangladesh has made in recent years, it remains one of the poorest countries in the world, with a population of over 150 million people. As such, we must therefore remain cautious when criticising its efforts to tackle clear and present threats.

Nevertheless, this cannot be routinely offered as a blanket universal explanation, and in cases such as the jailing of the photographer Shahidul Alam we cannot deny that the provisions of the Information and Communication Technology Act (ICT Act) are, at times, being used inappropriately by the government.

I welcome therefore today’s resolution and, as a close friend of Bangladesh, call for the authorities there to avoid bringing its counterterrorism measures into disrepute. Finally, as we approach the elections next month, I call on all parties to participate peacefully and hope that we will not see a repeat of the violence that we saw five years ago.

 
  
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  Ignazio Corrao, autore. – Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, signor Commissario, il Bangladesh aveva intrapreso un percorso virtuoso, migliorativo, soltanto che l'avvicinarsi delle elezioni probabilmente ha fatto precipitare di nuovo la situazione, quindi con una lotta a qualsiasi forma di dissenso, una riduzione delle libertà fondamentali, una lotta alla libertà di informazione e quindi un atteggiamento da parte del governo da parte nostra inaccettabile.

La cosa che poi stupisce, di cui secondo me dobbiamo parlare, è che il Bangladesh è anche diventato membro dello Human Rights Council. Vista la presenza al suo interno di Arabia Saudita e Filippine, dovremmo chiederci se questo Consiglio dei diritti umani non è il Consiglio dei violatori dei diritti umani, forse una riflessione andrebbe fatta. Ricordiamoci che il Bangladesh beneficia del regime preferenziale nel programma "Everything but arms" in cui è previsto il rispetto dei diritti fondamentali, quindi facciamo in modo di utilizzare la nostra pressione per farli rispettare.

 
  
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  Soraya Post, author. – Mr President, we in the EU must remind Bangladesh of its international human rights obligations. There is a visible increase in attacks on, and arrests of, journalists, students, human rights defenders and members of the political opposition. This crackdown on civil society must stop. Bangladesh must safeguard media freedom and freedom of expression and release all activists, journalists and students. The rates of early marriage are still alarmingly high in Bangladesh. It has one of the highest rates of child marriage in the world. Bangladesh has to ensure that the minimum age of marriage for women is 18, without exceptions. I also urge the Government of Bangladesh not to return thousands of Rohingyas living in the refugee camps in Cox’s Bazar to Myanmar against their will and in spite of objections by the UN.

 
  
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  Jean Lambert, author. – Mr President, I speak as the Chair of Parliament’s Delegation for relations with the countries of South Asia, which covers Bangladesh. As we know, it’s a relatively young country still facing many difficulties and is looking forward to its full graduation from ‘least-developed country’ status. Part of that graduation is due to the ready—made garment sector, and government and manufacturers know that change is needed. So we’re concerned that the government has decided not to take full advantage of all that the accord offers in terms of assisting that change and building on progress to safe and inclusive working environments.

We also recognise, as my colleague has said, the government’s zero—tolerance policy towards terrorism. But that approach has to be built on human rights, and we’re concerned about continuing unexplained disappearances, extrajudicial killings and the direction of legislation at the moment. Lastly, I too would echo the call for an open and inclusive, peaceful election – in which all parties participate – to give the people of Bangladesh a full and meaningful choice.

 
  
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  Miguel Urbán Crespo, autor. – Señor presidente, desapariciones, ejecuciones, torturas, detenciones arbitrarias, represión sindical y de prensa. Esto pasa hoy en Bangladés, uno de los principales socios comerciales de la Unión Europea. Un país que ha acordado con Myanmar/Birmania el inicio del retorno forzado de las y los rohinyás y que ha mandado al ejército a los campos de refugiados para intimidar aún más a esa población. Un país que no quiere renovar el Acuerdo sobre Prevención de Incendios y Seguridad que firmó tras el incendio y el crimen del Rana Plaza. ¡Qué rápido olvidamos las tragedias!

Rechazamos el acuerdo de repatriación forzada y exigimos que Bangladés acepte la extensión del Acuerdo sobre Prevención de Incendios y Seguridad. Una vez más, llamamos a que la Comisión inicie una investigación sobre el incumplimiento de los convenios internacionales y que proponga una legislación vinculante sobre obligaciones de diligencia debida para las cadenas de suministro del sector de la confección. No podemos seguir mirando hacia otro lado. Tenemos que tener exigencias claras.

 
  
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  Marietje Schaake, author. – Mr President, Shahidul Alam is well-known photographer and a human rights defender, and under the controversial Digital Securities Act and ICT Act for online speech, he is now accused of ‘speech that hurts the image of the nation in Bangladesh’, while we consider it to fall under his right to freedom of expression. We call for his release and for the dropping of all charges against him.

Sadly, Alam is not the only one repressed in Bangladesh. There is a pattern of harassment, arrests and enforced disappearances, and we call on the High Representative to assess whether Bangladesh still complies with the trade arrangements we have under the ‘anything but arms’ agreement, because conditionality and accountability are very important when it comes to human rights and we must do what we can to improve the situation.

 
  
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  Tomáš Zdechovský, Autor. – Pane předsedající, pane komisaři, Evropská unie dlouhodobě patří mezi jedny z největších a nejstabilnějších partnerů a podporovatelů mladého státu, jako je Bangladéš.

Myslím si, že právě ta otevřenost dialogu by měla být daleko větší, a to především v oblasti lidských práv. Evropská unie nesmí zavírat oči před tím, co se děje v Bangladéši. Už proto, že v rámci skupiny pro dobré vládnutí a lidská práva máme mandát dohlížet na to, co se v zemi děje. I přesto dochází v této zemi ke zneužití státní moci. Vláda nechává zmizet novináře a aktivisty, kteří proti ní vystupují. Myslím si, že je to absolutně nepřípustné a je nutné se proti tomu opakovaně ozvat. Novináři, aktivisté, právníci, obhájci lidských práv, ti všichni jsou v současné době oběťmi režimu.

Rezoluce se týká dvou konkrétních případů novináře a právníka, kteří bojovali za lidská práva. Oba tito lidé zmizeli ze světa a nikdo neví, kde se tito aktivisté v současné době nachází. Existuje důvodné podezření, že vláda zatčené mučí či dochází k mimosoudní likvidaci těchto osob. Musíme bezodkladně vyzvat vládu k vyjádření k těmto případům a vést aktivní dialog o dodržování mezinárodních závazků. Zejména práva na spravedlivý proces, práva na obhajobu, práva na přístup k soudu, který musí být dodržován. Aktivisté a bojovníci za lidská práva jsou velmi důležitou součástí jakékoliv demokracie a je nezbytné, aby měli v tomto systému své místo.

 
  
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  Krzysztof Hetman, w imieniu grupy PPE. – Panie Przewodniczący! Nie ulega wątpliwości, że wymuszone zaginięcia, czyli zwykłe porwania dokonywane przez aparat władzy są jedną ze strategii siania terroru oraz wymuszania uległości w społeczeństwach. Dzięki wywoływaniu poczucia niepewności i zastraszaniu władze mogą w łatwiejszy sposób kontrolować społeczeństwa oraz wymuszać uległość. Niestety, pomimo deklaracji Bangladeszu o wzmocnieniu współpracy z Unią Europejską w zakresie ochrony praw człowieka praktyka ta jest w dalszym ciągu stosowana w tym kraju, co potwierdza chociażby zaginięcie Szahidula Alama.

Stosowania wymuszonych zaginięć nie usprawiedliwiają żadne wyjątkowe okoliczności, ale w sprawie Alama jeszcze bardziej bulwersujący jest powód, dla którego do niego doszło. Warto przypomnieć, że ten obrońca praw człowieka skrytykował rząd i stanął w obronie osób domagających się zwiększenia bezpieczeństwa na drogach. Nie ma naszej zgody na takie działania i nie powinno być zgody Unii Europejskiej na zastraszanie i torturowanie politycznych oponentów.

 
  
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  Agnes Jongerius, on behalf of the S&D Group. – Mr President, the collapse of the Rana Plaza factory was a wake—up call for the whole world to improve the working conditions in the ready—made garments industry. Unfortunately, at the end of the month, due to a highly questionable verdict, the Bangladesh Accord will be thrown out of the country. This means that the safety of thousands of workers in the garment industry in Bangladesh is at stake.

As we all know, the Government of Bangladesh is not yet capable of taking over the inspections of the garment factories, and, as we all know, the labour law reform in the country is still pending. As we also all know, freedom of association is not guaranteed in Bangladesh. Therefore, let us be clear to the Bangladeshi authorities that they need to get serious about workers’ rights and safety. If you want to use the EU trade preferences, you have to fulfil the commitments we agreed upon.

 
  
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  Sajjad Karim, on behalf of the ECR Group. – Mr President, I speak as Chair of the South Asia Trade Monitoring Committee. We have constantly been appealing to the Government of Bangladesh to make progress on its commitments under the Everything but Arms scheme, to democracy, human rights and the rule of law. Whilst we can see that there has been an improvement, more needs to be done. The accord is at a critical juncture, and commitments from the Government of Bangladesh towards the Sustainability Compact are highly insufficient, as demonstrated by the technical status report recently published.

The roadmap is here, requirements are on the table, and now we need to see tangible results and steps in the right direction. It must be clear that we are at a crucial stage, and we are moving ever so slowly from issuing further notifications for action to actual action. It has been initiated in terms of investigative reviews for withdrawal of Generalised Scheme of Preferences (GSP) mechanism for Myanmar and Cambodia. Bangladesh could be next on the list.

 
  
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  Petras Auštrevičius, on behalf of the ALDE Group. – Mr President, freedom of expression in Bangladesh is under attack. This is no surprise, as this year Bangladesh is ranked 146 out of 180 on the World Press Freedom Index. We see visible signs that the authorities have increased their crackdown on civil society and government critics, with such means as detentions, enforced disappearances and the use of violence. In addition, on 5 August, writer, former journalist and activist Shahidul Alam was imprisoned after speaking out against state violence on the student protest in Dhaka. This must stop. I call the government to repeal its Digital Security Act used to crack down on dissidents and human rights defenders and immediately release Shahidul Alam. I call on the Commission to assess if the tariff preferences that Dhaka enjoys for the time being under the Everything but Arms agreement should not be put under question. The EU cannot be just a watcher in this regard.

 
  
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  Marie-Christine Vergiat, au nom du groupe GUE/NGL. – Monsieur le Président, nous allons envoyer un message d’alerte au Bangladesh, à la veille des élections de décembre. Les voyants sont au rouge. Les violences, les arrestations, les détentions arbitraires et exécutions extrajudiciaires se multiplient. La guerre contre le terrorisme et la guerre contre la drogue ont bon dos. Le photographe Shahidul Alam, le blogueur Limon Fakir ou, pire, Shahzahan Bachchu, assassiné en juin dernier, n’en sont malheureusement que quelques exemples.

Sur le plan social, ce n’est guère mieux. Après l’horreur du Rana Plaza, peu de choses ont changé malgré les engagements. Les ouvrières du textile restent parmi les plus mal payées du monde, les conditions de sécurité restent catastrophiques et un nouveau drame est possible à tout moment. La Fast Fashion continue de faire la loi et les multinationales européennes en sont toujours les grandes bénéficiaires.

Enfin, en deux mots, j’associe notre voix à celle de ceux qui demandent aux Bangladais de ne pas mettre en œuvre l’accord sur les Rohingyas. Ce serait les envoyer à la mort, ce n’est donc pas possible.

 
  
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  Fabio Massimo Castaldo, a nome del gruppo EFDD. – Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, il 30 dicembre si terranno in Bangladesh le elezioni generali. Quando queste scadenze si avvicinano, emerge la vera natura di chi al potere potrebbe perdere il suo ruolo in caso di sconfitta.

Il Bangladesh è un paese che, pur con tutta una serie di problemi, incassava lo scorso maggio i complimenti dell'ONU che, nell'Universal Periodic Review, valutava i progressi di Dacca come notevoli. La situazione è cambiata molto e molto velocemente. Assistiamo a una violenta repressione della libertà di espressione dei media e delle opposizioni, nonché ad arresti, sparizioni forzate, uso della tortura. È un caso emblematico quello del fotogiornalista Shahidul Alam.

Colleghi, l'UE ha con il Bangladesh l'"Everything but arms",un'esenzione tariffaria che concediamo su tutti i beni, armi escluse, a paesi in via di sviluppo. Ebbene, questo meccanismo delle clausole di sospensione legate al rispetto dei diritti umani, ma se non abbiamo il coraggio di menzionare quelle clausole, di attivarle quando è il caso, sembreremo sempre un gigante dai piedi d'argilla, un grande mercato del business as usual e nulla di più. È questa l'immagine che vogliamo dare dell'Europa nel mondo?

 
  
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  Josef Weidenholzer (S&D). – Mr President, the situation in Bangladesh is very worrying. The country is facing growing repression against civil society, political activists and human rights defenders. There are reports of extrajudicial executions, mass arbitrary arrests and enforced disappearances. Press freedom is under attack and bloggers are increasingly intimidated. General elections are due by the end of this year, but freedom of expression, which is a prerequisite for fair elections, does not exist. The Opposition is fundamentally constrained and its leader, Khaleda Zia, has been barred from contesting these elections and sentenced on politically motivated charges.

The forthcoming elections set the country at a crossroads. This is a last chance: either return to democracy and the rule of law, or slip into lawlessness and chaos. Europe will be faced with the consequences if this happens. I appeal to the authorities to establish conditions where people can freely speak out and can prepare for fair elections.

 
  
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  Πρόεδρος. – Ολοκληρώθηκε ο κατάλογος των εγεγραμμένων ομιλητών. Προχωρούμε στη διαδικασία του catch-the-eye. Έχω δεχθεί επτά αιτήματα. Κανονικά, υπό την προϋπόθεση ότι οι ψηφοφορίες αρχίζουν στις 12.00, θα έπρεπε να δεχθώ μόνον τα δύο από αυτά, όσων δεν έχουν μιλήσει με τη διαδικασία του catch-the-eye. Με ενημερώνουν όμως οι συνεργάτες μου από τις υπηρεσίες ότι ακόμη δεν έχει ολοκληρωθεί η Διάσκεψη των Προέδρων. Κατόπιν αυτού, προχωρώ με τη διαδικασία για έναν από κάθε πολιτική ομάδα, έτσι ώστε να μην αδικηθεί κανένας συνάδελφος.

 
  
 

Διαδικασία catch-the-eye

 
  
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  Bogdan Andrzej Zdrojewski (PPE). – Panie Przewodniczący! Przy tej okazji chciałem zwrócić uwagę na jeden, bardzo ważny element: na inflację podobnych rezolucji. Proszę zauważyć, że w sprawie Bangladeszu mieliśmy rezolucje z listopada 2015 r., z kwietnia 2017 r., z czerwca 2017 r., oświadczenie z września 2018 r. i sprawozdanie także z tego roku. Z powodów oczywistych zagłosuję za tą rezolucją, natomiast zwracam uwagę na to, że liczba tych rezolucji nie przekłada się na faktyczną zdolność Parlamentu Europejskiego czy naszych instytucji do wywierania określonego nacisku na władze Bangladeszu, aby rzeczywistość w tym kraju zmieniała się zgodnie z wartościami, które są nam najbliższe.

 
  
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  Juan Fernando López Aguilar (S&D). – Señor presidente, la primera vez que oí hablar de Bangladés, yo era un niño. El legendario concierto para Bangladés de George Harrison nos dio noticias a quienes no sabíamos nada de un país donde había derramamiento de sangre, guerras, catástrofes naturales e inundaciones. Y más de cuarenta años después, la situación no es mucho mejor.

Oímos hablar de Bangladés en relación con desapariciones forzadas, torturas, abusos policiales, discriminación contra el colectivo LGTBI, explotación de mano de obra infantil y matrimonios infantiles; y por la tragedia del Rana Plaza en 2013, que motivó un acuerdo transversal de seguridad en los edificios, que debe ser cumplido en todos sus términos. Por haberlo defendido está detenido Shahidul Alam.

Y es imprescindible que la Unión Europea, que es el primer socio comercial de Bangladés, emplee toda la fuerza diplomática no solamente para conseguir la liberación, sino el restablecimiento del acuerdo en todos sus términos, y que la Unión Europea garantice que su diplomacia y su cooperación al desarrollo son influyentes para la protección de los derechos fundamentales de los más vulnerables, en un país que continúa dando malas noticias por sus catástrofes y sus desastres.

 
  
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  Νότης Μαριάς (ECR). – Κύριε Πρόεδρε, το Μπανγκλαντές είναι ο παράδεισος των πολυεθνικών: υπερεκμετάλλευση των εργαζομένων, υπερκέρδη, μισθοί πείνας, καμία ρύθμιση και καμία προστασία των εργαζομένων. Είχαμε την περίπτωση του Rana Plaza, με 1127 νεκρούς και 2500 τραυματίες –όλοι εργαζόμενοι–, διότι δεν τηρούνται οι προδιαγραφές υγείας και προστασίας της ασφάλειας των εργαζομένων. Και, φυσικά, περνούμε πλέον σε ένα αυταρχικό καθεστώς. Δεν υπάρχει ελευθερία έκφρασης, διώκονται οι ακτιβιστές, δεν έχουν δίκαιη δίκη, και έχει αρχίσει πλέον να επιβάλλεται και η θανατική ποινή, η οποία πρέπει να καταργηθεί. Ταυτόχρονα, έχει ξεκινήσει πλέον επίθεση και στους ίδιους τους Rohingya. Απαιτείται να υπάρξουν εργασιακά δικαιώματα, το δικαίωμα του συνεταιρίζεσθαι και, φυσικά, να σταματήσει η προνομιακή εμπορική μεταχείριση της Ευρωπαϊκής Ένωσης προς το Μπανγκλαντές, για να μπορέσουμε έτσι να επιβάλουμε συμμόρφωση των αρχών.

 
  
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  Kateřina Konečná (GUE/NGL). – Pane předsedající, považuji za důležité, že se zde každý štrasburský týden ve čtvrtek sejdeme a pohoříme zde o stavu lidských práv v jiných zemích. Jsem přesvědčena, že je nutné se ptát bangladéšské vlády na to, proč nezlepšuje podmínky zaměstnanců ve vlastní zemi, je nutné vědět, proč vláda dlouhodobě zastrašuje a zatýká odborové předáky a neudělala zásadní reformy, které by umožnily bangladéšským zaměstnancům bojovat za svá práva.

Zároveň je však nutné podívat se k nám domů, do našich obchodů s oblečením. Pokud tak učiníme, musíme se ptát na to, proč tolik evropských firem stále neřeší, že jejich dodavatelé z Bangladéše ignorují nejzákladnější sociální, environmentální a lidská práva. Odpověď je jasná: Proč si nenamastit kapsu na levné práci? Staré pravidlo kapitalismu totiž říká: „Levně nakoupit a draze prodat.“ a v této rovnici není pro lidská práva a lidskou důstojnost místo.

 
  
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  Julie Ward (S&D). – Mr President, the arrest, detention and alleged torture of the award—winning photographer Shahidul Alam shines a light on the poor human rights situation in Bangladesh. Alam is the founder of many important cultural, media and training initiatives in South Asia. He’s also a visiting professor at Sunderland University in the UK. His arrest, 100 days ago, for criticising the government’s response to the Bangladesh road-safety protests, points to the worrying global trend of many governments to silence artists and journalists.

So I call for the immediate and unconditional release of Shahidul Alam and for all charges against him to be dropped. I also call for the Bangladeshi authorities to provide him with the urgent medical assistance he needs. These attacks on freedom of expression and assembly in Bangladesh, as well as women’s, girls and LGBTIQ+ rights give wider cause for concern. The High Representative should take all necessary diplomatic steps to put pressure on the Bangladeshi government to improve its human rights record, starting with the release of Shahidul Alam.

 
  
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  Wajid Khan (S&D). – Mr President, Bangladesh is approaching general elections under the worst circumstances. The government has embarked on a campaign of intrusive surveillance upon its own citizens. It is monitoring social media and curtailing freedom of expression in the name of national security. The Digital Security Act has gagged the media and all those who criticise the government and the harassment and intimidation of journalists and activists grows on a daily basis.

Peaceful political dissent should not be silenced or criminalised. We urge the government to revise the Digital Security Act, halt the crackdown on freedom of expression and conduct investigations into the cases of enforced disappearances. We want Bangladesh to progress towards a functioning democracy, not drift into an authoritarian police state.

 
  
 

(Λήξη της διαδικασίας catch-the-eye)

 
  
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  Christos Stylianides, Member of the Commission. – Mr President, the European Union has a substantial and long-lasting relationship with Bangladesh. Our political dialogue has intensified over the past months in the context of the refugee crisis.

We appreciate the Government’s and people of Bangladesh’s efforts to host the Rohingya refugees. The return of the refugees to their place of origin remains the objective, but it must be voluntary, safe, sustainable and dignified. It should not go against those fundamental requirements. It is important that the return of refugees is conducted in line with international law and with the involvement of UNHCR. It is critical that the conditions in Rakhine State are conducive for a safe and sustainable return.

Human rights are a key priority of our dialogue with Bangladesh. The EU regularly expresses its concerns on the situation of human rights, and we see it as a positive development that the Government of Bangladesh is engaging with the EU on this issue.

In joint press statements adopted at the Sub-group on Good Governance and Human Rights in April, and at the Diplomatic Consultations held in Dhaka in July, the authorities undertook to address the shortages and enforce policies respectful of human rights, fundamental freedoms and democracy. However, the situation is of serious concern and more needs to be done: human rights and fundamental freedoms are being increasingly challenged as parliamentary elections are coming close.

While continuing its dialogue with the Government of Bangladesh, together with EU Member States and other like-minded partners on the ground, the EU has addressed this in a number of recent public statements. This was particularly necessary in the context of the reaction to the recent Digital Security Act and violence against students and press during the summer. We are notably very concerned over the situation of Mr Shahidul Alam.

The preparation of the parliamentary elections is discussed regularly with the Bangladeshi authorities. The EU expects that the upcoming elections will be held in a transparent, inclusive and impartial way. The rule of law, freedom of expression and freedom of peaceful assembly should be upheld and protected. The Government needs to ensure a safe and enabling environment for civil society, journalists and human rights defenders. As regards labour rights, the Government needs to fully implement the International Labour Organization’s recommendations, notably on freedom of association.

Human rights are a crucial part of the EU’s development cooperation with Bangladesh, with more than EUR 40 million committed for democratic governance. The EU focuses on ensuring democratic ownership through engagement with civil society, promoting democratic empowerment and local governance, notably by addressing access to justice.

(Applause)

 
  
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  Πρόεδρος. – Η συζήτηση έληξε.

Η ψηφοφορία θα διεξαχθεί μετά τη λήξη των συζητήσεων.

 
  
  

VORSITZ: RAINER WIELAND
Vizepräsident

 
Τελευταία ενημέρωση: 26 Νοεμβρίου 2018Ανακοίνωση νομικού περιεχομένου - Πολιτική απορρήτου