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Esmaspäev, 10. detsember 2018 - Strasbourg Uuendatud versioon

19. Haridus digiajastul ning ELi poliitikakujundamisega seotud probleemid, võimalused ja õppetunnid (lühiettekanne)
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  La Présidente. – L’ordre du jour appelle la brève présentation du rapport de Yana Toom, au nom de la commission de la culture et de l'éducation, sur l’éducation à l’ère numérique: défis, possibilités et enseignements à tirer pour la définition des politiques de l’Union (2018/2090(INI)) (A8-0400/2018).


  Yana Toom, Rapporteur. – Madam President, first of all I have to thank all the shadow rapporteurs, who worked in a really good cooperative spirit.

According to an Oxford study prepared for the Commission, in the next 25 years, 30% –almost one third – of today’s jobs in Europe will disappear. They simply will not exist anymore. Janitors, taxi drivers, postmen and low—skilled workers will be replaced by cleaning-machine operators or robot station managers. This will happen pretty soon, during the lifetime of MEPs, even taking into account that our average age is 55. When we retire we can allow ourselves to observe changes from the sidelines, but our children and grandchildren will find themselves at the epicentre of this evolution. Their level of digital skills will determine not only the welfare of our descendants but also the future of our common project, a united Europe.

While working on this report, representatives of all the political groups agreed that having or not having digital skills will become the basis of a new social divide in the near future. On the other hand, a high level of digital education will open new opportunities for economic growth. It’s a challenge for which – let’s face it – our education system is not ready. At a time when there is nothing to do on the labour market without a knowledge of programming languages, we are discussing how many more schools in remote areas will receive an internet connection this year.

Everyone knows that, after graduation, each student must have a certain level of knowledge in mathematics, languages or biology, but we do not have a universal mandatory system for evaluating digital skills. Moreover, in Europe there is no set of professional requirements for an information technology teacher – and the extent to which teachers use technology in class differs across EU Member States like day from night.

This report therefore calls on the Commission, at least in its next term of office, to develop an EU—wide strategy for education in digital skills. Our current approach consists of loose projects from various departments, which are all on a voluntary basis. It is important to set common goals for all Member States to reach a certain level of digital skills. If no goals are set, there is little motivation to invest. It is important that digital skills are assessed so that a proper comparison can be made. Therefore, the report calls for the creation of an assessment based, for example, on a Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) model. Of course, teachers have to be at the core of this development and they need to be properly trained and assisted. As teachers are already under increasing work pressure, this should not entail extra workload.

Finally, the approach should be based on lifelong learning. Technological development will not stop, and we will have to adapt throughout our lives to new changes. We need to be able to recognise them and to learn how to learn. Those unable to adapt will be left behind. This is not only about the labour market: technology has become a part of our daily lives. Banking, doing taxes and even health care are becoming more digital. In addition, our social and political lives now develop online. Devices have entirely changed not only the way we communicate but also the way we consume information and form our opinions. This all requires skills: media literacy, etiquette online, cyber hygiene and protection of personal information. Those who do not know how to use online communications in a proper way will either be easily manipulated or simply left out of political participation. It is crucial to ensure that everyone profits from technological development, and education is the best way to start.


Interventions à la demande


  Csaba Sógor (PPE). – Elnök Asszony! Valóban óriási átalakuláson megy keresztül a világ, és az oktatási rendszereknek alkalmazkodniuk kell a digitalizációhoz és a technológiák gyors és folyamatos fejlődéséhez. Ez mindenképpen forrásokat igényel, az oktatási rendszerek átalakítása, a tanárok folyamatos képzése és az iskolák technikai felszerelése is csak komoly anyagi ráfordítással képzelhető el. Ezért a tagállamoknak megfelelő költségvetési forrásokat kell biztosítaniuk az oktatás számára.

Sajnos vannak olyan országok, amelyekben ezek az összegek még mindig nem érik el a GDP 4 százalékát sem. Míg a skandináv államokban ez a mutató 7-8 százalék, addig az ebből a szempontból utolsó Romániában csupán 3,1. Románia lemaradása azért is aggasztó, mert a sorban utána következő Bulgária és Görögország már egy teljes százalékponttal többet fordít oktatásra, 4,1 százalékot. Ezek a számok azt mutatják, hogy az oktatási rendszerek alulfinanszírozása miatt ezen országok leszakadása fokozódhat az elkövetkező időszakban.


  Silvia Costa (S&D). – Signora Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, ringrazio la relatrice e il commissario. Devo dire che sono completamente d'accordo sulle indicazioni che vengono da questa relazione. È assolutamente urgente che l'Europa adotti una strategia educativa condivisa per preparare gli studenti – ma anche gli adulti, nella logica del lifelong learning – al nuovo contesto digitale.

L'accelerazione delle trasformazioni che il digitale determina nelle professioni ma anche nella vita quotidiana, nella crescente modifica di tutti i lavori, rende assolutamente indispensabile un adeguamento dei sistemi educativi non solo, sono d'accordo, per l'uso delle tecnologie digitali, ma anche in termini di metodologia di insegnamento, di ricerca educativa, di competenze digitali e di formazione degli insegnanti. Può essere una straordinaria occasione per ripensare il ruolo dell'educazione, adeguando le competenze di ciascuno e dei diversi gruppi sociali, come un vero diritto di cittadinanza.

Questa strategia europea a questo punto è urgente, attraverso il piano d'azione per l'educazione digitale ma anche superando l'attuale frammentazione. Condivido soprattutto la consapevolezza che oggi è necessario che ci sia un modulo adeguato, come nell'ambito del sistema PISA, che possa introdurre una riconoscibilità reciproca fra i vari paesi delle competenze digitali per evitare anche un digital divide che si sta approfondendo.


  Νότης Μαριάς (ECR). – Κυρία Πρόεδρε, η οικονομία της γνώσης είναι αυτή η οποία θα καθορίσει το τι θα γίνει στα επόμενα χρόνια. Είναι δεδομένο ότι χρειάζεται εκπαίδευση, κατάρτιση, κονδύλια, για να μπορέσει πραγματικά να ανταποκριθεί η κοινωνία, ώστε να μη δημιουργήσουμε ψηφιακά προβλήματα στους πολίτες μας. Το πιο βασικό είναι το πού θα βρεθούν τα κονδύλια. Αυτό είναι το βασικό θέμα. Όταν έχεις το σύμφωνο σταθερότητας, το οποίο απαγορεύει να γίνουν αυξημένες δαπάνες στις δημόσιες επενδύσεις, τότε υπάρχει ένα σοβαρό πρόβλημα. Πιστεύω, κύριε Επίτροπε, ότι δεν πρέπει να μετρά στο έλλειμμα η επένδυση που θα γίνει από πλευράς κρατών μελών στην εκπαίδευση και ιδίως στην κατάρτιση σε θέματα ψηφιακής τεχνολογίας. Εκεί πρέπει να έχουμε εξαίρεση, όπως επίσης πρέπει να υπάρξουν κονδύλια από την Ευρωπαϊκή Τράπεζα Επενδύσεων, όπως επίσης θα πρέπει –ιδίως για την Ελλάδα– να μη χρειάζεται η εθνική χρηματοδότηση, προκειμένου να μπει η Ελλάδα στα ευρωπαϊκά προγράμματα, όπως έγινε με ειδική εξαίρεση που ίσχυσε για τα προηγούμενα χρόνια.


  Γεώργιος Επιτήδειος (NI). – Κυρία Πρόεδρε, η ραγδαία εξέλιξη της τεχνολογίας έχει άμεση επίπτωση στην καθημερινή μας ζωή, διότι επηρεάζει τον τρόπο με τον οποίον ασκούνται τα διάφορα επαγγέλματα και οι επιπτώσεις αυτές και ο επηρεασμός αυτός θα διαρκέσει και στο μέλλον ακόμη πιο έντονα. Αυτό θα έχει επίπτωση και στις θέσεις εργασίας. Πολλές θέσεις εργασίας θα καταργηθούν, άλλες θα τροποποιηθούν, θα δημιουργηθούν κάποιες άλλες. Για να μπορέσει να επιβιώσει σε αυτό το περιβάλλον της αυτοματοποιήσεως, της ψηφιοποιήσεως αλλά και της ραγδαίας αναπτύξεως της τεχνολογίας, θα πρέπει να εκπαιδευτεί κάθε άνθρωπος, ούτως ώστε να αποκτήσει τις γνώσεις και τις δεξιότητες εκείνες που θα του επιτρέψουν να επιβιώσει σε αυτό το περιβάλλον. Γι’ αυτό πρέπει όλα τα κράτη και η Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωση ως σύνολο να σχεδιάσουν τη στρατηγική τους και να προσπαθήσουν να εξεύρουν τα απαιτούμενα κονδύλια, ούτως ώστε να εκπαιδεύσουν τον κόσμο τους με τέτοιο τρόπο ώστε να μπορέσει να ανταποκριθεί στις απαιτήσεις της σύγχρονης εποχής.


  Michaela Šojdrová (PPE). – Paní předsedající, pane komisaři, je správné, že Evropská unie reaguje na rychlý vývoj digitálních technologií, které jsou motorem růstu a také zaměstnanosti. Problém je v tom, že úrovně rozvoje digitálních technologií a dovedností občanů jsou velmi rozdílné v jednotlivých členských zemích, moji předřečníci to tady zmínili.

Jestliže v budoucích dvaceti pěti letech zmizí zhruba polovina současných pracovních míst a budou nahrazena pracovními místy, která vyžadují speciální digitální dovednosti, pak je to výzva, na kterou musí reagovat jak členské státy, tak samozřejmě také Evropská unie jako celek. Musíme především připravit učitele, vybavit školy novými přístroji a programy. Ale chci také upozornit na potřebu ochrany před zneužíváním digitálních technologií, před kybernetickou šikanou, šířením fake news a také na potřebu vzdělávat ke kritickému myšlení.


  Julie Ward (S&D). – Madam President, digital skills are fast becoming central to all areas of life. This is true not only in the world of work, but also for administrative and social purposes. Quite simply, citizens with little or no access to digital education are at risk of being left behind. Digital literacy can no longer be treated as a luxury. It must be accessible to all as early as possible.

We must be bold in our ambitions and coherent in our approach by ensuring that sufficient funding is allocated. Digital education should be accessible in all areas – especially in rural areas – and provided equally to girls and women, as well as boys and men, in formal and informal settings.

Just last week we celebrated the week of lifelong learning, and I want to highlight the opportunities for early school leavers to benefit from digital education. Those people who are at high risk of unemployment and social exclusion must be especially targeted by policies aiming at mainstreaming digital skills, and I believe that here lies one of the keys towards providing equal opportunities for all.


(Fin des interventions à la demande)


  Tibor Navracsics, Member of the Commission. – Madam President, I would like to thank the European Parliament, and especially the honourable Member Yana Toom, for this high—quality report. Now that we are implementing the Digital Education Action Plan, your calls for a more ambitious EU strategy on education in the digital age come at the right moment.

As you rightly highlight, the Digital Education Action Plan, which the Commission published in early 2018, can only be a first step in tackling the digital divide. I strongly believe that Parliament can be a key partner in developing the next steps. I also believe that Member States are keen to cooperate more closely on this issue. Despite differences in their education systems, they all face similar challenges: first, how to ensure that staff and students develop digital skills; second, how to use digital technology for teaching and learning; and, third, how to improve education systems through better data analysis and foresight.

This requires learning throughout one’s lifetime. Hence, digital competence is one of the eight key competences for lifelong learning that the Council confirmed in its recommendation adopted earlier this year. Member States are also working to embed digital technologies in the school environment. Investment in resources and infrastructure is crucial but, if it is to lead to innovation, it needs to be matched with a comprehensive vision for digital transformation that tackles the educational organisation as a whole. The Commission thinks that SELFIE, a free online tool just launched in October, can play a vital role here: it can help any school assess its use of technologies for teaching and learning. By the end of November, over 50 000 teachers, students and school leaders had already used SELFIE. Our goal is to reach one million users by the end of next year.

I also welcome the emphasis on teachers and trainers in your report. I fully agree that teaching staff are at the heart of digital transformation. Teachers do of course need training, but crucially they need time and support to be able to use technology in their teaching. Technology should also help relieve teachers from the burden of administrative and non-teaching tasks. Moreover, in its proposal for the next Multiannual Financial Framework (MFF), the Commission has demonstrated commitment to supporting educators and learners in gaining and updating skills and competencies, including the digital ones. The EU budget support for digital skills development will not only be guaranteed by the successes of the existing EU funding instruments covering this field, such as ESF+, Erasmus and Horizon Europe, but also by the new Digital Europe programme. The Digital Europe programme will provide learning opportunities reflecting the latest technological developments in advanced digital skills relating to artificial intelligence, high—performance computing and cybersecurity.

As you rightly say in your report, all schools need to be provided with high capacity broadband. In fact, within the future Connecting Europe Facility (CEF) programme, after 2020 we aim to support access to Gigabit connectivity for socioeconomic drivers, including schools. With the future Digital Europe programme, in turn, we plan to support the deployment of digital capabilities in schools, and the future Erasmus programme will support schools, universities and other educational organisations in their digital transformation.

We therefore strongly welcome your support in the negotiation of these new programmes. I fully agree with the honourable Members that the Action Plan can only be the starting point of a broader debate. In keeping with the wishes of the Member States in Gothenburg, we deliberately started with schools, higher education and vocational education and training. Adult learning, non-formal education and teacher training will follow at the next stage. The plan has helped a great deal in generating political discussion and momentum, and we intend to build on this.

To conclude, I would like to thank you again for this constructive discussion. The Commission looks forward to working with you in developing a fuller vision and strategy.


  La Présidente. – Ce point de l’ordre du jour est clos.

Le vote aura lieu mardi, le 11 décembre 2018.

Déclarations écrites (article 162)


  Sirpa Pietikäinen (PPE), kirjallinen. – Digitalisaatio muuttaa maailmaa hurjalla vauhdilla. Se vaikuttaa mm. työpaikkoihin vähentämällä niitä joiltakin aloilta mutta luomalla niitä toisaalle. Tarvitsemme jatkuvasti lisää tietoa ja taitoa teknologian hyödyntämiseen ja monet arkipäiväisetkin asiat vaativat riittävää tietoteknistä osaamista. Elinikäisellä oppimisella on tärkeä rooli digitaitojen ylläpitämisessä. Ei riitä, että taitoja opetetaan vain kouluissa vaan mahdollisuuksia digitaitojen omaksumiseen tulee tarjota kaikille, iästä ja työtilanteesta riippumatta. Tässä kirjastoilla voi olla iso rooli.


  Algirdas Saudargas (PPE), raštu. – Skaitmeniniai ir socialiniai įgūdžiai jau ima tapti sinonimu, tad skaitmeninių įgūdžių neturėjimas lemia socialinės atskirties riziką. Skaitmeninio raštingumo statistika Europos Sąjungai yra negailestinga – šiuo metu 44 proc. 16–74 metų amžiaus ES gyventojų neturi pagrindinių skaitmeninių įgūdžių ir 19 proc. visiškai neturi skaitmeninių įgūdžių, o skirtumai tarp valstybių narių labai dideli. Aš, kaip Lietuvos atstovas EP, galiu didžiuotis, jog mano valstybėje narėje klausimų dėl interneto prieinamumo (ir duomenų perdavimo greičio) iš esmės nekyla – šia prasme esame Europos avangarde. Visgi svarbu yra nuolat sau priminti, kad švietimo sistemoje dėmesys skaitmeninių įgūdžių formavimuisi turi būti neabejotinai prioritetinis. Apie tai kalbame visos ES mastu, tai turi atsispindėti kiekvienos valstybės narės darbotvarkėje. Skaitmeninėje eroje tampame vis labiau pažeidžiami grėsmių, susijusių su kibernetinio saugumo spragomis, asmens duomenų saugos pažeidimais ar melagingomis žiniomis. Tad minimos grėsmės privalo sulaukti deramo dėmesio švietimo sistemoje. Esu tikras, kad mokymo(si) procese skaitmeninio raštingumo suvokimas turėtų kisti nuo vartotojiško gebėjimo naudotis skaitmeninėmis technologijomis į gebėjimą kurti skaitmeninį turinį bei formą, taip pat kritiškai vertinti tai, kas yra sukurta. Galiausiai mokymosi visą gyvenimą principas šiuo atveju tampa itin aktualus atsiliepiant į skaitmenizacijos eros iššūkius.


  Claudia Țapardel (S&D), in writing. – Education has a vital role in our society, trainings and re-trainings should be available to everyone as it could be one of the best investments in the EU’s future. I totally agree that education is of strategic importance for employability, growth, competitiveness, innovation and social cohesion. However, digital transformation has a great impact on education systems just as much or even more than in other sectors. In the future, nearly all jobs, services as well as everyday activities, will require digital skills and data literacy; In the context of a rapid digital and societal transformation, the education system should support, from an early age and throughout life, a balanced set of skills and competences boosting individuals’ resilience, critical thinking, well-being, and innovation potential. Synergy between relevant digital skills, soft skills and hard skills needs to be sought as soon as possible. Furthermore, digital technology and access to data are enablers of innovation in education and open data is starting to become a very valuable educational resource. Digital transformation offers many opportunities for education and the economy. However, it needs a proper policy response. I highly support a strategy at EU level to develop such a response.

Viimane päevakajastamine: 5. aprill 2019Õigusteave - Privaatsuspoliitika