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Procedure : 2018/2088(INI)
Stadium plenaire behandeling
Documentencyclus : A8-0019/2019

Ingediende teksten :


Debatten :

PV 11/02/2019 - 21
CRE 11/02/2019 - 21

Stemmingen :

PV 12/02/2019 - 9.20

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Volledig verslag van de vergaderingen
Maandag 11 februari 2019 - Straatsburg Herziene uitgave

21. Een alomvattend Europees industriebeleid inzake artificiële intelligentie en robotica (korte presentatie)
Video van de redevoeringen

  President. – The next item is a short presentation of the report by Ashley Fox, on behalf of the Committee on Industry, Research and Energy, on a comprehensive European industrial policy on artificial intelligence and robotics (2018/2088(INI)) (A8—0019/2019).


  Ashley Fox, Rapporteur. – Mr President, I was pleased to see this report adopted in Committee last month and I thank my shadow rapporteurs for working with me to produce a good result. This report sets out Parliament’s position on artificial intelligence (AI) and robotics.

Members may not be aware that Parliament originally agreed we should do a report on this subject in April. We spent the next six months arguing over who should be the lead committee, so work only started in October. This then left us only four months to write the report and bring it to plenary. That was a shameful waste of time. If there is one lesson I have learned from this process, it is that Parliament should rethink how we deal with these situations. We’ve had to work at great speed, and I’m glad that we’ve been able to get a substantial report through within such a short time frame. I wish to record my thanks to my assistant, Lavan, for his hard work.

My main objective has been to ensure that this is a positive report that signals our willingness to adopt this technology and provide the correct conditions for it to thrive. We are at the beginning of seeing the adoption of AI and it will take many years before we see its full potential and reap the full benefits of it. It can make us more prosperous, healthier and create jobs that currently don’t exist. An example that I have used throughout discussions on this file is that it took the best part of 200 years for humanity to reach the full potential of the steam engine. Along the way there was great resistance and I have no doubt there’ll be opposition to the adoption of AI.

There is, of course, always opposition to change, but let us not stand in the way and be a Parliament of Luddites. In the Committee on Industry, Research and Energy (ITRE), we agreed on the need for a code of ethics to guide the development of AI. This should encourage the good actors and deter the bad ones. Working under such a code and ensuring transparency will ensure greater acceptance of this technology. We believe that AI should have a human-centred approach. What is meant by this is that the use of AI should augment human capabilities rather than just replace them. It is sometimes forgotten that when AI and human abilities are combined, they are more powerful than when used in isolation. This has been demonstrated particularly well in the medical field.

It is important that we prepare society for the changes ahead through developing education and training. As AI progresses, it will destroy some jobs and create others. We need to ensure that we have a skilled workforce to take advantage of the new opportunities. This will be one of the most important aspects of ensuring competitiveness on a global scale.

We should recognise that most of the investment in this field will come from the private sector, not the state or the EU. Our Member States must work hard to ensure that they are attractive places to invest.

One final point I wish to make is that artificial intelligence does not have borders. It will operate between and across the different jurisdictions of the world. We should therefore approach its governance with a global mindset. We must ensure that the EU and our Member States discuss this at an international level, and as far as possible develop global standards.

I look forward to hearing what colleagues have to say this evening and to a positive vote tomorrow.


Catch-the-eye procedure


  Michaela Šojdrová (PPE). – Pane předsedající, pane zpravodaji, pane komisaři, Evropa má ve vývoji umělé inteligence nesporný potenciál. Vyvstává zde však také řada otázek, které souvisí s dopady, na které zatím národní ani unijní legislativa nereagovala. Některé členské státy se proto pokoušejí přijímat vlastní legislativu pro regulaci autonomních robotů. Já se domnívám, že je důležité, aby Evropská unie reagovala společně na unijní úrovni harmonizací pravidel. Na umělé inteligenci by členské státy měly pracovat společně, protože se nás týkají stejné výzvy, stejná rizika a společně čelíme konkurenci především z Číny i z Ameriky. Nejde ovšem jen o konkurenceschopnost, ale také o bezpečnost občanů Evropské unie, protože umělá inteligence přináší pokrok, ale přináší také velké bezpečnostní výzvy, proto vítám koordinační plán pro umělou inteligenci, který Komise představila v prosinci. Domnívám se, že musíme reagovat rychle.


  Algirdas Saudargas (PPE). – Gerbiamas Pirmininke, gerbiami kolegos, norėčiau iš tiesų pasveikinti pranešėją, nes kaip jis ir minėjo, buvo labai trumpi terminai. Ir jis padarė puikų darbą ir labai kruopštų darbą. Noriu pasakyti tiktai porą pastabų: pirmas dalykas, kad tikrai šito pranešimo reikėjo, nors buvo keliamos abejonės, manau, kad buvo pateikta nemažai – keli šimtai – pataisų ir kolegos parodė didelį susidomėjimą ir, manau, mes pirmą kartą daugelį temų, daugelį labai svarbių temų išnagrinėjome. Be abejo, kitas Parlamentas susirinkęs ne kartą prie šitos temos grįš todėl, kad tai yra didelis iššūkis Europai ir besikeičiantis iššūkis. Bet jis turės šitą pranešimą, kaip puikų pagrindą savo diskusijoms tęsti.


  Νότης Μαριάς (ECR). – Κύριε Πρόεδρε, θα ήθελα να συγχαρώ τον εισηγητή, κ. Fox, για την έκθεσή του. Νομίζω ότι πράγματι θέτει τα θέματα στη διάσταση στην οποία πρέπει να τεθούν. Πρώτα απ’ όλα, μιλάμε για την τεχνητή νοημοσύνη και τη ρομποτική, που ήδη αναπτύσσονται και έχουν δημιουργήσει πολλές ευκαιρίες και, ταυτόχρονα, πολλά προβλήματα. Δημιουργούν νέες θέσεις εργασίας, αλλά την ίδια στιγμή άλλες θέσεις εργασίας χάνονται.

Από εκεί και πέρα, πρέπει να επικεντρωθούμε στη συγκρότηση ολοκληρωμένης ευρωπαϊκής βιομηχανικής πολιτικής, διότι στην παγκόσμια σκηνή υπάρχει τεράστιος ανταγωνισμός με τις Ηνωμένες Πολιτείες και την Κίνα. Αν δεν εφαρμοστεί μια συγκροτημένη βιομηχανική πολιτική για να μπορέσει να αντλήσει επενδύσεις και, κυρίως, να δώσει μια ώθηση στην ανάπτυξη της ρομποτικής, νομίζω ότι θα υπάρξουν πάρα πολλά προβλήματα. Οπωσδήποτε, όμως, η τεχνητή νοημοσύνη πρέπει να είναι στην υπηρεσία του ανθρώπου και πρέπει να έχουμε μια ανθρωποκεντρική προσέγγιση και όχι μια προσέγγιση υπέρ των κερδών των μεγάλων μονοπωλιακών επιχειρήσεων.


  Caroline Nagtegaal (ALDE). – Dank u wel, voorzitter. Als wij vooruit willen komen met kunstmatige intelligentie, dan moeten we eigenlijk eerst zelf wat slimmer worden. Want als wij niets doen, dan is China in 2030 wereldleider kunstmatige intelligentie.

En ik zie u een beetje verbaasd kijken, want ik wil juist niet dat China de wereldleider is, maar dat Europa die wereldleider is. En daarom ben ik ook zo blij met dit verslag. Want ik wil dat Europa investeert in onze ondernemers, in onze whizzkids. Dat zijn onze doeners. Zij zorgen voor uitvindingen die ons leven in de toekomst makkelijker, interessanter en ook beter maken. Die doeners gaan ervoor zorgen dat ik straks – in 2030 – met een zelfrijdende auto naar Straatsburg kom.

Die doeners, die verdienen onze steun, steun vanuit Europa. En daar, daar sta ik voor. Dank u wel.


  João Ferreira (GUE/NGL). – Senhor Presidente, a inteligência artificial e a robótica contribuem para incrementar a produtividade social do trabalho humano. O aumento da produtividade cria as condições para o aumento real dos salários e para uma vida melhor, mas essa potencialidade é permanentemente posta em causa na sociedade capitalista em prol da defesa e do aumento dos lucros. A apropriação capitalista das novas tecnologias, com a substituição de trabalhadores por máquinas, a competição entre trabalhadores e máquinas, a pressão para a rentabilização dos capitais, impulsiona a exploração e a precariedade laboral.

Mas as novas tecnologias, em vez de tirarem o trabalho a alguns e intensificarem e degradarem o trabalho de outros, poderiam e podem, inversamente, ser utilizadas para uma significativa redução, sem perda de rendimentos, do tempo do trabalho de todos os trabalhadores, reduzindo ritmos de trabalho, reduzindo o desemprego, em vez de o aumentar. Uma redução do tempo de trabalho sem redução do salário nem das prestações sociais que repartisse a carga de trabalho existente pelo conjunto dos trabalhadores.

Esta é uma luta de grande atualidade.


(End of catch-the-eye procedure)


  Karmenu Vella, Member of the Commission. – Mr President, I would like to thank the rapporteur, Mr Fox, and the shadow rapporteurs, as well as the associated committees, for the very good report on a comprehensive European industrial policy on artificial intelligence and robotics.

AI and robotics have great benefits to offer to improve quality of life. For example, precision farming promises to drastically reduce the need for pesticides and AI can also help to greatly improve cancer treatments and save lives thanks to early diagnostics.

We welcome in particular that the report addresses all the key aspects, namely, that it is essential to ensure the EU's competitiveness by boosting its research and industrial capacity in AI and to promote the uptake of AI across the economy. That it is necessary to prepare for the socio-economic changes brought about by AI, in particular regarding skills, jobs and social protection. And that we have to ensure an appropriate ethical and legal framework based on the Union's values and in line with the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the EU.

The Commission is very pleased that Parliament shares their vision on the development and deployment of human-centric AI and acknowledges the importance of achieving ethical and trustworthy artificial intelligence – the trademark for AI made in Europe.

Concerted EU action is also essential to avoid the fragmentation of the overall legal and ethical framework, and it is important that all stakeholders are represented in the process.

I am glad to know that we share the understanding that without sufficient funding, Europe will not be able to regain leadership in AI.

Increased funding will be of crucial importance to the digital Europe programme and Horizon Europe, accompanied by the development of a public-private partnership in AI.

We should make every effort to realise the promise potentially illustrated in the report for important sectors such as healthcare, energy, transport, agri- food, cyber-security and in the public sector, increasing productivity and competitiveness as well as quality of life at work and at home.

The Commission appointed a high-level expert group on AI to draft ethics guidelines covering issues such as fairness, safety, transparency, democracy, personal data protection, dignity, consumer protection and non-discrimination.

The group should finalise its work in the course of March, and the guidelines are expected to be published in early April.

It is encouraging to see the support of Parliament to build on this work for an inclusive and ethical development in the use of AI.

Parliament welcomes the creation of the expert group on liability and new technologies. While you regret that no legislative proposal was put forward during this legislature, you will understand that the substance is very complex. That is why the Commission will put forward a report in early summer outlining the broader implications for potential gaps in, and orientations for, the liability and safety frameworks for AI.

We have to build on our own strengths and support the European entrepreneurial spirit. We must be fully engaged and ensure broader and easier access to services for citizens and industry and address socio-economic and legal issues, building on European values.

A united and value-based approach to AI will make the European Union a leader in AI and help promote ethical principles worldwide. And this concerted effort is necessary to ensure that European citizens and the economy can reap the benefits such technology has to offer.

In conclusion, the European Parliament is uniquely placed in this mission, in particular in informing about the benefits AI can bring while carefully addressing the risks.

The Commission is delighted that it can count on the support of Parliament to actively contribute to developing and implementing the comprehensive European industrial policy on AI and robotics. AI can improve quality of lives, greatly contribute to our economic growth and our environmental sustainability.

Let us not miss these opportunities.


  President. – The debate is closed.

The vote will take place on Tuesday, 12 February 2019.

Written statements (Rule 162)


  Eugen Freund (S&D), schriftlich. – Selbstlernende Maschinen können uns helfen, die Opferzahlen im Straßenverkehr dramatisch zu reduzieren, effizienteres Ressourcenmanagement zu betreiben, unseren Energiekonsum zu reduzieren, und können in vielen anderen Bereichen eingesetzt werden. Doch neben allen Chancen birgt die Nutzung von KI-Systemen auch Risiken. Der Einsatz zur Verbreitung von Desinformationskampagnen oder die militärische Anwendung sind zwei Bereiche, auf die wir besonders achten müssen. Durch KI erstellte und verbreitete Falschinformationen können negativen Einfluss auf unsere Gesellschaft nehmen. Autonome Waffensysteme und deren Einsatz stellen uns vor große Herausforderungen, verbunden mit ethischen Fragen. Wir müssen uns dafür einsetzen, dass moralische Entscheidungen und die damit verbundene Verantwortung immer in den Händen des Menschen bleiben und ethische Normen unbedingt im Vordergrund stehen! Außerdem müssen die künstliche Intelligenz und deren Anwendung nachvollziehbar für uns Menschen bleiben – denn wir dürfen auf keinen Fall zulassen, dass uns die künstliche Intelligenz entgleitet. Eine effektive europäische Regulierung, welche das volle Spektrum der Einsatzmöglichkeiten abdeckt, ethische Bedenken miteinbezieht und die Kontrollierbarkeit der Technik gewährleistet, ist daher von höchster Dringlichkeit.


  Barbara Kappel (ENF), schriftlich. – Im Juli 2017 legte die chinesische Regierung ihren Plan vor, Weltmarktführer für künstliche Intelligenz (KI) werden zu wollen. Bis 2030 will Peking in diesem Bereich eine Industrie im Wert von 150 Milliarden USD schaffen. Auch die Amerikaner sind hier sehr aktiv: In dieser Woche unterzeichnete US-Präsident Trump ein Dekret, welches vorsieht, Investitionen im amerikanischen KI-Markt weiter anzukurbeln und eine KI-Proliferation auszulösen. Im Jahr 2018 zeichneten die USA für mehr als die Hälfte der weltweiten KI-Investitionen verantwortlich. 19,2 Milliarden USD wurden allein im letzten Jahr in KI-Start-ups investiert. Die Vereinigten Staaten rangieren mit einem Marktanteil von 33 % zwar immer noch weit vor China, das bei 17 % liegt, jedoch aufholt. Ebenso hat die Europäische Union Aufholbedarf, weshalb die Kommission ihre jährlichen Investitionen im Rahmen des Forschungs- und Innovationsprogramms Horizont 2020 für KI um 70 % erhöht. Für den Zeitraum 2018-2020 werden 1,5 Milliarden Euro an zusätzlichen Mitteln angestrebt. Bis 2030 will Brüssel 20 Milliarden Euro in KI investieren. Europa braucht diese Investitionen und ebenso einen kohärenten und koordinierten Ansatz, um Talente und Patente im Bereich KI an europäischen Universitäten und Unternehmen zu halten.


  Eva Maydell (PPE), in writing. – The pace of technological advancement is so fast that nobody can fully grasp what is coming next. We can only speculate where Artificial Intelligence (AI) will be in 10 or 20 years. Yet this is not something new – for instance, who knew 10 years ago what a data scientist would be? What is certain though is that the ever-changing digital world will significantly affect our lives.

While previously, advances in automation focused on particular industries, like manufacturing, today automation influences all sectors. Automation is the new reality in the workplace and in the forthcoming years we will observe a growing interaction between humans and machines.

Research shows that for the past 140 years automation, robots and technology have created more jobs than they have destroyed. Historically, the economy has consistently found space in higher-skilled, creative work as it has eliminated routine tasks through automation. About 10% of jobs we know today will disappear, but the actual challenge is that at least a third of them will change due to digital disruption. Adaptation is indispensable and education (with a capital E) is key.


  Claudiu Ciprian Tănăsescu (S&D), în scris. – Prezentul raport are o abordare generală pozitivă față de inteligența artificială (AI) și robotică și enumeră un număr mare de beneficii existente și potențiale pe care le aduce societății, industriei și sectoarelor specifice, cum ar fi administrația publică, asistența medicală, transportul, energia, securitatea informatică etc. Europa conduce revoluția AI care poate îmbunătăți în mod substanțial viața și condițiile cetățenilor, conducând la noi modele de afaceri și jucând un rol-cheie în digitalizarea economiilor și transformarea societăților noastre.

Cu toate acestea, suntem de acord cu faptul că AI trebuie să fie în conformitate cu valorile europene, cu respectarea drepturilor omului și a vieții private, iar măsurile care vizează educația și recalificarea trebuie să fie luate atunci când locurile de muncă sunt înlocuite cu roboți pentru a asigura o tranziție justă. Evoluțiile din domeniul inteligenței artificiale trebuie să fie concepute, dezvoltate și implementate astfel încât să protejeze demnitatea, autonomia și autodeterminarea persoanei, adică să fie axate pe oameni. Ne dorim o societate sprijinită de inteligența artificială și robotică. De aceea, integrarea tot mai mare a roboticii în sistemele umane trebuie să fie ghidată de o politică solidă cu privire la maximizarea beneficiilor și reducerea la minimum a riscurilor pentru societate.


  Carlos Zorrinho (S&D), por escrito. – Com este relatório de iniciativa, o Parlamento Europeu adota um conjunto de princípios fundamentais para que os valores comuns da União sejam embebidos nos principais pilares da sociedade digital emergente. Em concreto, estipula que o desenvolvimento da Inteligência Artificial (IA) tem que estar em linha e respeitar os direitos fundamentais, as liberdades, a dignidade, a privacidade e ser centrado na resposta às necessidades concretas das pessoas.

A União Europeia não pode deixar de travar o combate global pela inovação e pela liderança científica e tecnológica em domínios estratégicos como é o caso da IA. Travar esse combate com menos recursos financeiros e com necessárias garantias éticas no uso dos dados, implica optar por uma visão diferenciada, focada na transformação positiva dos modelos de organização industrial e social, medindo os impactos dessa transformação e aproveitando as dinâmicas de mudança para aumentar a competitividade e a inteligência dos sistemas produtivos, combater as desigualdades e dar sustentabilidade aos sistemas de serviço público, como os sistemas de saúde, de segurança ou de educação e qualificação.

Esta visão tem prevalecido na negociação em curso do Programa Europa Digital em que represento o Grupo S&D e deve prevalecer no desenvolvimento da sociedade digital na UE.

Laatst bijgewerkt op: 8 juli 2019Juridische mededeling - Privacybeleid