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Procedūra : 2019/2691(RSP)
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Debates :

PV 18/04/2019 - 6.2
CRE 18/04/2019 - 6.2

Balsojumi :

PV 18/04/2019 - 10.2

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Debašu stenogramma
Ceturtdiena, 2019. gada 18. aprīlis - Strasbūra Pārskatītā redakcija

6.2. Kamerūna
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  Przewodniczący. – Kolejnym punktem porządku dziennego jest debata nad sześcioma projektami rezolucji w sprawie Kamerunu (2019/2691(RSP)).


  Charles Tannock, author. – Mr President, the response in Cameroon to a number of internal and external threats to security is one of an increasingly authoritarian nature, with rights to free speech and assembly currently being severely curtailed. The arrests in January of the opposition leader Maurice Kamto and some 200 of his party activists, in response to their protesting following the flawed presidential elections of 2018, is the latest incident of concern. Kamto remains in detention following charges of insurrection, rebellion and crimes against the nation.

Whilst Cameroon has been an important regional partner in the fight against terrorism, particularly Boko Haram, which has been active in the Far North Region of the country since 2012, there are many concerns about the misuse of anti-terrorist legislation passed in 2014. Reports regarding the extrajudicial killing of allegedly former members of the terrorist organisation and the activities of vigilante groups suggests also that a growing number of innocent civilians are in danger of being targeted. Meanwhile, the Government’s response to the protests of its anglophone majority in the North—West and South—West regions is also of grave concern.


  Miguel Urbán Crespo, autor. – Señor presidente, en Camerún las fuerzas armadas están acusadas de cometer graves violaciones de derechos humanos contra la población civil. Están acusadas, también, de detener arbitrariamente a manifestantes que denunciaban irregularidades durante las últimas elecciones. En las regiones anglófonas, el ejército llegó a disparar a manifestantes desarmados desde un helicóptero, causando decenas de muertos.

Hay evidencias de que armas europeas han sido utilizadas para ejecutar extrajudicialmente a decenas de personas. Hay vídeos que muestran cómo militares cameruneses han asesinado a dos mujeres y a sus bebés, por ser sospechosas de pertenecer a Boko Haram.

Estados miembros, como España, están vendiendo armas al país, a pesar de que está prohibido por la Posición Común del Consejo de 2008. Pero esto no se ha querido mencionar en este texto. La Unión Europea y sus Estados miembros están proporcionando formación militar y ayuda logística, así como entrenamiento y equipamiento militar y de seguridad, a Camerún. Una ayuda que ha sido suspendida por otros países como los Estados Unidos, precisamente por las flagrantes violaciones de derechos humanos cometidas en Camerún.

Exigimos a la Unión Europea que prohíba la asesoría militar y la venta de armas y de equipamiento militar a Camerún, porque mientras el respeto de los derechos humanos se quede en palabras y no en hechos seremos cómplices de sus delitos. Y no podemos serlo, señorías.


  Željana Zovko, author. – Mr President, even on this last day of the final plenary session of our mandate, we show our commitment to fight for justice and a humane world. Today this brings us to Cameroon. Numerous reports from human rights monitors have documented the excessive use of force by security forces, and continued human rights violations against citizens. Several members of an opposition party, including its leader Maurice Kamto, and a large number of protesters and sympathisers are imprisoned. On top of that the authorities of Cameroon have repeatedly restricted freedom of expression by shutting down the internet and harassing and detaining journalists.

These actions are fundamentally against the values and standards that we promote on the international scene. For that reason we, as the European Parliament, must act. We must call upon the authorities of Cameroon to immediately and unconditionally release all political opponents, and any other citizens who have been detained solely for a political purpose. We need to condemn the use of excessive force and violation of the freedom of expression, and stress and request an independent and transparent investigation into this violating actions.

Looking at our own possibilities, the European Union can also make a difference. We should take advantage of the political leverage provided by the development aid programme to enhance the defence of human rights in Cameroon. Additionally, the European Union should also consider providing technical assistance and political support based on our experience in other conflict regions and development programmes in order to assist the development of a stronger democratic Cameroonian society. This motion works for a better future for the all Cameroon’s citizens and deserves all your support.


  Judith Sargentini, indiener. – Voorzitter, in oktober 2018 waren er verkiezingen in Kameroen en president Paul Biya is opnieuw verkozen. Hij is al aan de macht sinds 1982. Hoe is het mogelijk? Het is dan ook niet vreemd dat mensen daartegen in protest gaan.

Volgens mij is de kern van de resolutie van vandaag dat het Europees Parlement tegen Paul Biya zegt: laat Maurice Kamto en zijn mensen vrij. Democratisch protest hoort bij een land. Laat geen burgers voor een militaire rechtbank verschijnen, want daar horen burgers niet thuis. En hou op met het zoeken van de confrontatie en de verschillen omdat mensen verschillende talen spreken. Dat moet in dit Europees Parlement toch ook weerklank vinden.

Het Europees Parlement besteedt niet zo vaak aandacht aan Kameroen. Maar het is goed dat we het nu doen. De situatie daar ligt in de handen van Paul Biya en hij kan verandering brengen.


  Marietje Schaake, author. – Mr President, after the elections that have led to many questions in Cameroon, peaceful strikes and demonstrations escalated into violent clashes and security forces were involved in serious human rights violations. Hundreds of people have died, hundreds of thousands are displaced, and activists have been rounded up and jailed. Oftentimes, anti-terror laws and heavy security measures are abused to justify these crackdowns. There have been cases of torture, forced disappearances and extra—judicial killings. Freedom of expression is not respected, whether online or offline. So this is a very, very serious escalation. We urge the security forces in Cameroon to stop the use of this disproportionate violence and to respect the human rights of all its citizens. There need to be investigations into the allegations of excessive use of force and human rights violations, and it is very important that, under the leadership of the African Union, there will be peace talks that we, as the European Union and all of our leaders, need to support.


  Juan Fernando López Aguilar, on behalf of the S&D Group. – Mr President, as we all know, Paul Biya happens to be one of the longest-serving rulers in the whole of Africa, competing with Robert Mugabe of Zimbabwe, and now only with Teodor Obiang in Equatorial Guinea – the seventh election leading to massive demonstrations against rigged elections – and Maurice Kamto, the leader of the Mouvement pour la Renaissance du Cameroun was detained and is now in prison facing charges, which could lead in a military court to nothing less than a life sentence or the death penalty.

So we urge, first of all, that this violence, harassment and banning of demonstrations be stopped. We urge credible, transparent and free elections through electoral reform. We urge the European Union, along with the African Union and the United Nations, to exert a role of mediation in order to secure the release not only of Maurice Kamto but also of 200 political party followers, who were also detained. Finally, of course, we urge the European Union to take measures in order to scale down the level of cooperation with a country which does not behave democratically.


  Ryszard Czarnecki, w imieniu grupy ECR. – Panie Przewodniczący! Pytanie: po co zajmujemy się Kamerunem, krajem odległym od Europy? To jest sensowne, ponieważ po pierwsze, jest to kraj, który kiedyś był kolonią jednego z państw europejskich, a więc określone państwo przez wieki czerpało z tego zyski, a więc jest jednak tutaj pewne moralne zobowiązanie. Po drugie dlatego, że my kierujemy do tego kraju także pewną pomoc na zasadzie humanitarnej, więc mamy prawo oczekiwać, że będziemy mieć komfort tego, że kierujemy tę pomoc do państwa, które przestrzega pewnych standardów, praw człowieka. Wydaje mi się, że ten nasz głos ponad podziałami politycznymi powinien zabrzmieć bardzo jednoznacznie, mocno, solidarnie, tak to jest czynione. Tylko wtedy nasz głos będzie usłyszany w Kamerunie, ale także w innych krajach afrykańskich, które chcą z nami handlować, a często nie pamiętają o prawach opozycji, nie pamiętają o prawach człowieka – tak być nie może.


  Ignazio Corrao, a nome del gruppo EFDD. – Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, Alto rappresentante, il Camerun è un paese che sta affrontando simultaneamente numerose e gravi sfide, le minacce di Boko Haram al Nord, problemi al confine con la vicina Repubblica Centrafricana ad Est e ribellioni armate di separatisti nelle regioni anglofone del Nordovest e del Sudovest e per questo ha tutta la nostra solidarietà.

Tuttavia, oggi più che mai è importante ribadire con forza che a queste minacce non si può rispondere con un uso sproporzionato della forza e con la limitazione grave e sistematica dei diritti fondamentali. In particolare condanniamo con forza gli atti di tortura, le sparizioni forzate e le esecuzioni extragiudiziali compiuti dai servizi di sicurezza. Ciò poi è particolarmente grave quando la forza pubblica viene usata per reprimere il legittimo dissenso e perpetrare la permanenza al potere di un presidente che è in carica dal 1982.

L'uso eccessivo della forza contro i manifestanti, l'incarceramento degli oppositori politici, la chiusura di Internet e gli attacchi ai giornalisti non possono mai e in nessun modo essere giustificati come mezzi per reagire alle pure importanti minacce a cui il Camerun è soggetto.


  Dominique Bilde, au nom du groupe ENF. – Monsieur le Président, c’est tout d’abord un hommage appuyé que nous devrions rendre aux forces armées, ainsi qu’aux civils camerounais engagés dans une lutte sans merci contre Boko Haram,. Dd’autant que ce combat résolu contre le terrorisme, le Cameroun l’aura porté bien au-delà de ses propres frontières, dans le cadre du partenariat transsaharien, puis au sein de la force multinationale mixte. Et c’est en dépit d’une situation intérieure très difficile qu’il a longtemps accueilli des milliers de réfugiés nigérians fuyant la barbarie islamiste.

Voilà les faits d’armes du Cameroun, à des années-lumière du portrait au vitriol que certains croient bon de brosser. Ce pays, gage de stabilité dans une région tiraillée par des tensions multiples, se prête mal aux simplifications outrancières.

Tout d’abord, parce que les dissensions entre anglophones et francophones sont moins le fait d’antagonismes profonds que d’intérêts économiques bien compris. C’est au large des régions anglophones que gisent les principales réserves nationales d’hydrocarbures et la gestion des entreprises publiques qui les contrôlent constitue un enjeu avoué.

Ensuite, parce que des réformes considérables ont été consenties par le gouvernement camerounais, je pense bien sûr à la commission pour le bilinguisme et le multiculturalisme, à l’ouverture élargie, au droit anglo-saxon au sein de la Cour suprême comme de l’École Nationale nationale d’Administration d’administration et de magistrature ou, enfin, au recrutement de professeurs bilingues. Du reste, la société camerounaise plurielle ne saurait se définir par cet unique clivage. Combien d’anglophones vivent aujourd’hui dans des territoires francophones et inversement. ? Tous communient pourtant dans les mêmes valeurs, les mêmes références culturelles et dans l’amour de la même patrie. C’est ce Cameroun-là que nous devons soutenir sans parti pris, sans ingérence et surtout sans condescendance.


  Cécile Kashetu Kyenge (S&D). – Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, il Camerun sta precipitando nella violenza. Il regime trentennale di Paul Biya si sta sgretolando, i turiferari del potere reagiscono calpestando i diritti umani. Il governo organizza ed è accusato di frode elettorale per mantenersi al potere e arresta i leader dell’opposizione, inventando delitti da affibbiare loro. Inoltre, le due province anglofone sono in stato di guerra: il Nord del paese è infetto da Boko Haram, mentre l'Est subisce incursioni di milizie centroafricane.

In questi teatri l'esercito governativo combatte contro feroci milizie e forze secessioniste dell'Ambazonia. Denunciamo le milizie, ma cerchiamo di capire le cause profonde del disastro camerunese: esse si chiamano immobilismo governativo, gerontocrazia, malgoverno, frodi elettorali flagranti, nepotismo e tribalismo. Questa è l'origine della crisi del paese e della migrazione di massa dei giovani camerunesi. Biya deve risolvere la crisi, invece di continuare ad organizzare elezioni e frodi elettorali ed arrestare leader onesti.

Voglio ringraziare l'Alto rappresentante per il lavoro in un momento difficile, dove gli egoismi degli Stati membri si manifestano con il ritorno dei sovranisti e nazionalisti. Ringrazio inoltre il mio staff, tutta la squadra di interpreti, gli uscieri e gli autisti. Ognuno di loro mi ha trasmesso qualcosa e, se gli elettori italiani lo vorranno, tornerò qui a continuare il mio lavoro.


  Jean-Luc Schaffhauser (ENF). – Monsieur le Président, mes chers collègues, c’est ma dernière intervention dans ce Parlement. Je la fais pour un pays qui m’est très cher, que j’ai sillonné plusieurs fois et dont je suis aussi un peu le fils.

Le Cameroun est une mosaïque ethnique, linguistique et religieuse très fragile. Paul Biya est sans doute allé trop loin dans le processus de centralisation, alimentant ainsi le ressentiment des populations anglophones de l’Ouest et le séparatisme musulman du Nord. Mais ce séparatisme est alimenté et instrumentalisé par des puissances extérieures.

Paul Biya occupe le pouvoir depuis 37 ans. Ce sont toutefois, chers amis, 37 ans de stabilité. Quand je regarde les autres pays, le Cameroun fait bonne figure. Le président camerounais sait sans doute qu’il ne peut monopoliser le pouvoir jusqu’à sa mort, mais il est pris dans des logiques de pouvoir et de succession. Il sait que, pour l’intérêt de son pays, un processus de transition démocratique et de décentralisation, combiné à un plan de sécurité et de développement, est incontournable. Il faut donc l’y aider, mais de manière discrète et utile. Évitons donc de nous ingérer dans ce processus, à grand renfort de fanfare droit-de-l’hommiste, alors que nous appliquons toujours deux poids, deux mesures, selon les pays africains et selon nos intérêts.


Zgłoszenia z sali


  Jiří Pospíšil (PPE). – Pane předsedající, ta debata, která zde proběhla, přesně popsala problémy, ve kterých se Kamerun nachází. My je asi těžko vyřešíme, ale to, co by mohlo být v silách Evropské komise a našich reprezentantů, je zvýšit tlak na současného prezidenta, který vládne od roku 1984, a donutit vládní špičky v Kamerunu, aby protikandidáta současného prezidenta pustili z vězení, aby zkrátka Maurice Kamto za to, že byl aktivista, za to, že si dovolil kandidovat proti současné hlavě státu, nebyl předmětem šikany, diskriminace a hlavně trestní represe, která v Kamerunu funguje. Kamerun se bohužel ani zdaleka neblíží principům právního státu.

Tady si myslím, že bychom mohli udělat kus práce. Proto považuji to usnesení za dobré. Kdyby se nám, paní vysoká komisařko, podařilo přimět vedení Kamerunu k tomu, aby své politické oponenty nezavíralo na doživotí do vězení, byl by to alespoň malý posun. Jinak s ostatními věcmi, které zde byly řečeny, souhlasím.


  Νότης Μαριάς (ECR). – Κύριε Πρόεδρε, η σημερινή μου ομιλία είναι η τελευταία μου σε αυτήν την κοινοβουλευτική περίοδο. Ελπίζω και εύχομαι να είμαστε μαζί ξανά και στην επόμενη κοινοβουλευτική περίοδο, αλλά αυτό βεβαίως θα εξαρτηθεί από τους ίδιους τους έλληνες πολίτες και από το αν θα μου δώσουν την ευκαιρία να επανεκλεγώ στην επόμενη Ευρωβουλή. Σε κάθε περίπτωση, συμπληρώνω 2.532 ομιλίες και παρεμβάσεις εδώ στην ολομέλεια και θα ήθελα, με την αφορμή αυτή, να ευχαριστήσω όλους τους συναδέλφους, να ευχαριστήσω το Προεδρείο και εσάς, κύριε Πρόεδρε, τους διερμηνείς και όλους τους υπαλλήλους του Ευρωπαϊκού Κοινοβουλίου και να πω ότι θα συνεχίσω να αγωνίζομαι για τον ελληνικό λαό γιατί εγώ παίζω Εθνική Ελλάδος.

Από κει και πέρα, σε σχέση με το θέμα μας, πιστεύω ότι πρέπει να στηρίξουμε το Καμερούν και πρέπει να επικρατήσει δημοκρατία σε αυτή την αφρικανική χώρα, για να μπορέσει πραγματικά να προχωρήσει ο λαός του Καμερούν και να επιλυθούν τα προβλήματα.


  Fabio Massimo Castaldo (EFDD). – Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, purtroppo in Camerun la tensione sta raggiungendo livelli insostenibili, quasi da farci temere il rischio di una guerra civile. Nel mese di gennaio circa 200 persone, incluso Maurice Kamto, capo dell'opposizione, sono state arbitrariamente arrestate per aver protestato pacificamente di fronte all'ennesima elezione farlocca di Paul Biya, al potere dal 1982.

Ma il governo non si è limitato solo a questo, ha iniziato a dare la caccia anche ai giornalisti e ai media indipendenti disseminando un clima di terrore in tutto il paese. Alla dura repressione politica si sommano inoltre gli scontri sanguinosi nelle regioni del nord-ovest e del sud-ovest, tra esercito e gruppi separatisti armati, reminiscenze di un periodo postcoloniale forse mai veramente concluso. A rimetterci, come sempre, sono i civili, studenti, soprattutto, visto che il target di queste violenze sono spesso scuole e ospedali, distrutti in segno di protesta contro il governo.

Chiedo quindi al governo camerunese di rilasciare immediatamente tutti i prigionieri politici e organizzare al più presto un dialogo politico inclusivo per una soluzione pacifica e duratura alla crisi nelle regioni anglofone. All'Alto rappresentante, che saluto e ringrazio, chiedo invece una maggiore pressione diplomatica e un impegno concreto per la difesa dei diritti umani. Non lasciamo che, come spesso accade, l'accordo di Cotonou sia soltanto carta e inchiostro.


  Stanislav Polčák (PPE). – Pane předsedající, já bych chtěl ocenit, že i tento dnešní poslední den našeho jednání se věnujeme ochraně lidských práv, a jsem velmi rád, že tato sněmovna je v otázce jednoty lidských práv skutečně jednotná. Je to pro mě důležité poselství, že v tomto tématu vystupujeme takto společně. To skutečně oceňuji.

Pokud jde o Kamerun, já bych se chtěl připojit ke svým kolegům. Nepochybně potlačování, zabíjení, mučení, trest smrti bez soudu, to jsou neuvěřitelná zvěrstva. Je to hrůza, nepřípustné porušování lidských práv, kterého se dopouští složky státní moci ve prospěch prezidenta, který je u moci od roku 1982. Je důležité říci, že je to pro nás skutečně nepřijatelné porušování lidských práv. Ačkoliv musíme vyzdvihnout, že Kamerun bojuje proti složkám Boko Haram, tak si nad tím příslovečně v rámci Velikonoc nemůžeme umýt ruce. Je to skutečně naše povinnost se v tuto chvíli ozvat.


  Seán Kelly (PPE). – A Uachtaráin, is drochscéal an méid atá ag tarlú i gCamarún le déanaí, go háirithe a mhéid a bhaineann le cearta an duine agus, i gcás lucht an fhreasúra, go bhfuil siad á gcaitheamh isteach i bpríosún gan chúis - go háirithe, an ceannaire Maurice Kamto. Dá bhrí sin, is léir go bhfuil na fórsaí slándála ag dul i gcoinne a ndaoine féin. Tá a lán díobh tar éis a bheith díbeartha as a n-áit dúchais agus caite timpeall Camarún ar fad — suas le leathmhilliún díobh — agus tá 30,000 tar éis teitheadh chuig an Nigéir.

Dá bhrí sin, is ceart go gcuirfimis brú ar na húdaráis i gCamarún: ar dtús, chun Maurice Kamto agus a chomhghleacaithe a shaoradh; ansin, chun daonlathas a bhunú sa tír, agus go háirithe, chun go mbeadh meáin agus preas saor agus neamhspléach ann. Murach san, ní féidir mórán dul chun cinn a dhéanamh.


  Michaela Šojdrová (PPE). – Pane předsedající, tato urgentní zpráva dává jasně najevo vládě Kamerunu, že Evropský parlament sleduje situaci a nesouhlasí s násilným potlačováním lidských práv a demokratické opozice. Evropská unie má diplomatické i finanční nástroje a my je musíme využívat i k této příležitosti. Já věřím, že paní vysoká představitelka zde slyší tyto výhrady a bude reagovat.

Kolegyně a kolegové, já bych chtěla v této chvíli poděkovat všem za spolupráci. Po pět let jsme ve čtvrtek na plenárním jednání projednávali urgentní zprávy o stavu lidských práv a upozorňovali jsme a žádali jsme o propuštění vězňů, pronásledovaných vězňů kvůli svému přesvědčení či politické příslušnosti.

Já bych chtěla poděkovat za tu spolupráci. Jsem přesvědčená, že měla velký smysl. Také proto chci obhájit svůj mandát, chci pokračovat a děkuji všem, kteří se i zde v Evropském parlamentu o nás starali.


  Csaba Sógor (PPE). – Mr President, just a few weeks ago the Vice—Governor of Tibet said that the human rights situation in Tibet is not just good, but very good. All ethnic groups in the region appreciate the Communist Party’s work; they listen and follow the party. Apparently Tibetans never had it any better, enjoying the fruits of fast-paced economic development. Thousands of police and military patrol the streets to ensure they get all the help they need, or perhaps to make sure that they do not accidentally set themselves on fire.

But fortunately, it is not just the Tibetans who have it so good. The Uyghurs also enjoy all the benefits of the 21st century’s most advanced artificial intelligence and digital surveillance technologies to make their lives easier and more comfortable. Arguably, they also have access to the world’s most extensive lifelong-learning system in dedicated ‘education and training centres’. By the same measure, we could confidently say that the EU—China human rights dialogue is a successful instrument in promoting human rights and our values.

I’m sorry I missed my speaking time due to technical problems. Thanks for listening to my previous China debate speech. It was my last speech after 11 years in the Parliament.


(Koniec zgłoszeń z sali)


  Federica Mogherini, Vice-President of the Commission / High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy. – Mr President, since the elections in Cameroon last October, we have witnessed tensions in the country, particularly in the so-called Anglophone regions; repression of demonstrations; and a narrowing of the political space. Key opposition figures are under arrest – they face military trials. More than 100 protesters or sympathisers are facing prolonged detentions, and defence lawyers claim that Cameroon’s own legal procedures are not being respected. A de facto ban has been imposed on marches and protests of the opposition, which is clearly not in line with the constitutional rights of Cameroonian citizens.

We have been following the situation closely, constantly, on behalf of all the 28 Member States. We’ve asked for the release of detainees against whom hard evidence cannot be produced, and we have asked for an immediate halt to violence, to human rights violations and hate speech, and I insist on this message today. Thank you for putting this important debate on the agenda on the last day of your mandate, to stress this message in a unified manner.

Regarding the situation in the English-speaking regions of the north-west and south-west, we have consistently called for dialogue as the only way to achieve a sustainable solution, in a non-violent and inclusive manner, respecting fundamental rights and the rule of law. Regrettably, unlawful killings and atrocities continue to be reported regularly, allegedly involving both the security and defence forces and separatist groups. The humanitarian consequences of this situation are alarming, with about half a million internally-displaced people and over 32 000 refugees from Cameroon registered in Nigeria.

We have raised our call for restraint and dialogue directly with the authorities of Cameroon. In particular we are following closely the cases of the 47 Anglophone leaders that are in jail, insisting on the need for a fair and transparent trial.

These tensions add to the continuing attacks that some of you mentioned by Boko Haram in the far north, as well as in Chad, Niger and Nigeria. We know that Boko Haram is not invincible and has suffered major setbacks, yet we are seeing civilian deaths and also losses by the security forces in Cameroon.

Given that new refugees from Nigeria have recently arrived in the far north region of Cameroon, I wish to join the recent appeals from the UNHCR that the universal principle of non-refoulement has to be respected fully. These are the reasons why we need to continue our humanitarian support as part of the international humanitarian response on the different and various fronts.

If we consider both the internally-displaced people and the refugees that are coming from Nigeria and the Central African Republic altogether, there are about one million people in need of help, and I believe we have a humanitarian duty we need to respond to. This is something, obviously, we cannot forget when assessing our future support to the people of Cameroon.

At the same time, we will continue to push for the respect of human rights in Cameroon and to ask for light to be shed on human rights violations fully.


  Przewodniczący. – Zamykam debatę.

Głosowanie odbędzie się po zakończeniu debat.

Pēdējā atjaunošana: 2019. gada 8. jūlijsJuridisks paziņojums - Privātuma politika