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Quarta-feira, 9 de Outubro de 2019 - Bruxelas Edição revista

18. A situação no norte da Síria (debate)
Vídeo das intervenções
PV
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  Die Präsidentin. – Als nächster Punkt der Tagesordnung folgt die Aussprache über die Erklärung der Vizepräsidentin der Kommission und Hohen Vertreterin der Union für Außen- und Sicherheitspolitik zur Lage in Nordsyrien (2019/2847(RSP)).

Bevor wir in die Diskussion eintreten, möchte ich Sie noch kurz davon in Kenntnis setzen, dass wir nach wie vor ein neues System erproben, mit dem Mitglieder spontane Wortmeldungen und blaue Karten auch elektronisch nutzen können. Sie haben per E-Mail bereits Informationen zur Nutzung dieses Systems bekommen und die Anleitung befindet sich auch noch einmal auf Ihrem Tisch. Zur Einreichung eines Antrags auf eine Wortmeldung können die Mitglieder die Funktionstasten auf ihren elektronischen Abstimmungsanlagen nutzen. Ich möchte Sie deshalb höflich daran erinnern, Ihre Stimmkarte mitzubringen, damit Sie dieses System auch nutzen können. Bitte nehmen Sie zur Kenntnis, dass parallel zur Nutzung des elektronischen Systems auch eine Standardanmeldung, also durch Hochheben eines weißen Blatts Papier oder durch Ihre persönliche Anmeldung zu Beginn der Aussprache bei den Kollegen vom Plenum für spontane Wortmeldungen und durch Hochheben einer blauen Karte für das Verfahren der blauen Karte möglich ist. Wenn Sie eine spontane Wortmeldung anmelden möchten, können Sie das ab sofort tun. Sie brauchen nicht bis zum Ende der Aussprache zu warten.

 
  
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  Federica Mogherini, Vice-President of the Commission / High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy. – Madam President, the Turkish operation in north—east Syria can open a new dramatic chapter in the already very dark history of the Syrian war. The potential consequences of such military action are clear to everyone – at least are very clear to us. The repercussions can be extremely serious and far—reaching in humanitarian, military, political and strategic terms. For all these reasons, we call upon Turkey to immediately stop its unilateral military action.

New armed hostilities in the north—east will first of all exacerbate civilian suffering and provoke further displacements. This new escalation adds yet another obstacle to the UN—led political process, after the positive news just a fortnight ago of an intra—Syrian agreement on constitutional committee.

Turkey’s unilateral action also threatens the progress achieved by the Global Coalition to defeat Daesh, of which Turkey is a member. Military action will undermine the security of the Coalition’s local partners – namely the Kurdish forces – and risk protracted instability in north—east Syria, providing fertile ground for the resurgence of Daesh. Let us not forget that Daesh still remains a significant threat to regional, international and European security.

We are also aware of Turkey’s intention, in the medium—term, of settling Syrian refugees along the border. It is highly unlikely that a so—called ‘safe zone’ in north—east Syria, as envisaged by Turkey, would satisfy international criteria for refugee return as laid down by the UNHCR. It is difficult to imagine how such returns could be either safe, voluntary or in any way dignified. Mass resettlement on the scale suggested by Turkey would also profoundly destabilise an already fragile area. Any attempt at demographic change would be unacceptable for us.

We have always supported Turkey for hosting three million Syrian refugees, providing them with shelter, assistance and services. But as President Juncker made very clear just a few hours ago in this Chamber, there can be no question of the European Union financing the infrastructure to receive hundreds of thousands of Syrian refugees in north—east Syria. The European Union will not provide stabilisation or development assistance in areas where the rights of local populations are ignored – or even worse, violated.

Beyond the serious humanitarian and security implications, the Turkish incursion might also prevent the constitutional committee from beginning its work. Just two weeks ago we were in New York at the General Assembly, where we received the encouraging announcement that the regime and the opposition in Syria had reached their first agreement since the beginning of the war, thanks to the UN mediation that we have supported over all these years.

We made it clear back then and over all these days, that this is just the first step, but a very important one – a real first step to allow the whole country a potential political resolution of the conflict. We were looking forward to the first meeting of the committee in Geneva – and I would like to say that we are indeed looking forward to the first meeting of the committee in Geneva – possibly even before the end of October. We hope that the Turkish attack will not delay the first meeting of the constitutional committee, and yet we cannot exclude this eventuality.

We ask Turkey to execute an immediate cessation of hostilities. A destabilised north—east Syria, with new ethnic tensions and a resurgent terrorist threat, is certainly not in Turkey’s interest.

We have always shared the goal of ending violence, defeating Daesh and promoting peace and security in Syria and in the wider region. Turkey has always been in this a key partner for the European Union and a critically important actor in the Syrian crisis and in the region. But Turkey’s legitimate security concerns should be addressed through political and diplomatic means, not through military action, in accordance with international humanitarian law. We urge all to ensure always the protection of civilians and unhindered, safe and sustainable humanitarian access throughout Syria. Our goal remains to help the Syrian people build a united, sovereign, democratic and inclusive Syria.

A sustainable solution to the Syrian crisis will not come through military means. I think this is very clear to all – at least this is very clear to us Europeans. The only way to achieve peace and security in Syria is full implementation of UN Security Council Resolution 2254 under UN auspices. So our immediate goal is now to avoid renewed armed hostilities in the north—east of Syria, to stop them, and to do everything in our power to support the UN—led political process. This is why I have invited the UN Special Envoy for Syria, Mr Pedersen, to join us at the next Foreign Affairs Council next Monday in Luxemburg to discuss together the way forward in this critical moment.

The Syria conflict will not be ended by weapons. This war can only be ended by mediation and true reconciliation within Syrian society. The conflict can only be ended through a genuine political transition, negotiated by the Syrian parties under UN auspices.

The whole European Union is united behind this goal, and today I have issued – more or less one hour ago – a clear declaration on behalf of all 28 Member States to confirm and make extremely clear our common position. The five EU Member States of the UN Security Council coordinating have now officially asked to bring the issue in front of the Security Council, and I understand that this will happen tomorrow.

We will also continue to be in touch with our partners, and to update obviously the European Parliament on any relevant developments and to discuss together – and I am looking forward to our exchanges tonight – the way forward in this moment. I think our position has been clear from the very beginning – just a few days ago – of these developments and we must see how we can make this call effective and with impact on the ground.

 
  
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  Željana Zovko, on behalf of the PPE Group. – Madam President, as we speak, Turkish forces are entering the north—east of Syria in an offensive against a reliable Western partner which played a crucial role in stabilising Syria. Yes, that partner – the Syrian Kurds – is being abandoned. The impulsive decision to leave this ally raises deep concerns. Due to the increased Turkish involvement in north—east Syria, we fear that ISIS will benefit and seize the opportunity to regroup. Furthermore, we share Kurdish fears of a massacre, as was already the case in the past in Afrin. Not only will the West lose its reliable partner in the fight against terrorism, but we may be a witness to human suffering and destruction.

The European Union is the biggest contributor to the UN multilateral system that establishes the instruments to prevent genocide, massacres and human catastrophes. Therefore, it is important that the Security Council take appropriate action as soon as possible. A possible displacement of people, no matter how small it is, calls for international resistance. Turkey is using the pretext of creating a safe zone. We saw a similar situation 25 years ago in Srebrenica and Bihać. We know the consequences of the first, and the cost of reinstating its status in the case of the second.

The Commission President, Jean—Claude Juncker, has said that if the plan involves the creation of a so—called safe zone, don’t expect the EU to pay for it. In this case we certainly hope the EU shall go a step further. Europe must play its part.

 
  
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  Kati Piri, on behalf of the S&D Group. – Madam President, High Representative, on Sunday night US President Trump gave President Erdogan carte blanche to invade north-east Syria – which Turkey just did today.

The Kurdish-led Syrian Democratic Forces have always been the international community’s closest ally in the fight against Islamic State. They are the ones who fought the battle on the ground, and more than 10 000 of them gave their lives for the peace and security of us all. And what for – if now the jihadis use Turkey’s invasion to reorganise and to continue their horrific violence in Syria and across the world?

Turkey claims it wants to establish a so-called safe zone, but what they are in fact creating is a war zone. After all the killings, displacement and horrors of the Islamic State era, the citizens of north-east Syria are now facing new violence and, on top of that, abandonment by their international allies.

Ankara’s security concerns cannot and will not be resolved by force.

High Representative, my Group not only urges you strongly to condemn Turkey’s illegal military operation but we also call on you to use all the instruments and punitive measures at your disposal to pressure Turkey to start respecting international law Immediately. Backstabbing our Kurdish allies – after the huge sacrifices they have made for our security – is simply not an option.

 
  
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  Irina Von Wiese, on behalf of the Renew Group. – Madam President, the withdrawal of US troops from northern Syria is creating a dangerous power vacuum. I am very concerned about reports that Turkish troops have launched offensives in areas of Syria controlled by Kurdish forces. We call upon the Turkish Government to cease these actions. The focus now must be on defeating the UN-listed terrorist organisations, to play a constructive role in the Syrian conflict, abide by international law, and in particular the United Nations Security Council Resolution 2254 in order to find a solution to the Syria conflict.

The opening of new fronts in Syria is not in the interest of Turkey’s security. This intervention adds a new dimension to the conflict in Syria and raises serious concerns about the impact on the delicate internal balance in Syria. The conflict has already resulted in a high number of civilian casualties and now many more civilian lives are at risk. It is vital that we avert a further deterioration in the country’s humanitarian crisis.

We must keep at the forefront respect for international law, including the protection of civilians. We acknowledge the solidarity demonstrated by Jordan, Lebanon and Turkey in light of the Syrian refugee crisis, and call for EU and Member State financial support aimed at addressing the urgent needs of refugees and their host communities to be stepped up.

We call for responsibility-sharing, allowing refugees fleeing Syrian war zones to find protection beyond the immediate neighbouring region, including through resettlement and humanitarian admission schemes. We stress that Syria is currently not safe for refugee returns and that the EU must not support such returns.

Finally, it is evident that there can be no effective conflict resolution or sustainable peace in Syria without accountability for the crimes committed. We call for the adoption of an EU accountability strategy towards the atrocities committed in Syria.

 
  
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  Alice Kuhnke, för Verts/ALE-gruppen. – Fru talman! Turkiets invasion i norra Syrien bryter mot internationell folkrätt. Risken för en humanitär katastrof är stor. Civila liv på båda sidor av gränsen står på spel. Människor – många barn – kan tvingas på flykt.

President Trumps gröna kort till president Erdoğan är ännu ett av USA:s alla svek mot kurderna. IS hade inte kunnat bekämpas om det inte var för kurderna. EU kan inte acceptera – vi får inte acceptera – det som nu faktiskt sker.

Fru Mogherini, kommer du att verka för att EU använder alla medel som står till buds för att stoppa övergreppet och förhindra ännu en humanitär katastrof? År 2017 sålde EU vapenlicenser till Turkiet för mer än 2,8 miljarder euro. Kommer du att verka för att EU:s medlemsländer stoppar vapenexporten till Turkiet?

Erdoğan vill flytta 2 000 000 syriska flyktingar till den region som han nu har invaderat. Han vill bygga en mänsklig sköld mot Syrien. Kommer du, fru Mogherini, att verka för att EU stoppar utbetalningen av de återstående 3 miljarderna, som EU har lovat betala till Turkiets migrationshantering?

Vi gröna kräver att EU använder alla medel som vi har. Vi måste stå upp för det kurdiska folket.

 
  
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  Thierry Mariani, au nom du groupe ID. – Madame la Présidente, la réalité du jour est simple: la Turquie envahit un État qui s’appelle la Syrie et nous regardons cela, nous allons voter une motion et vous savez très bien que nous ne ferons rien.

Nous avons semé dans cette région le chaos, qui s’ajoutait au chaos déjà existant, nous y ajoutons aujourd’hui le déshonneur. Le déshonneur de laisser tomber nos alliés, qui nous ont aidés dans la lutte contre le terrorisme. Ce déshonneur, nous l’avions déjà connu à Afrine, nous le connaîtrons aujourd’hui dans exactement les mêmes conditions.

Madame la Haute-représentante, nous cessons d’adresser des louanges à la Turquie – vous avez rappelé, il y a quelques minutes, que c’était notre alliée, et j’imagine que M. Borrell fera de même –, mais les Turcs sont des alliés sûrs au printemps et se métamorphosent en danger à l’automne. Vous savez comme moi qu’aujourd’hui, les Turcs sont les premiers soutiens des combattants qui sont dans la poche d’Idlib, Idlib que le rapport des Nations unies, en juillet dernier, décrivait – je cite en français – comme le plus grand dépotoir de combattants terroristes de la planète.

Ma question est simple: que comptons-nous faire de concret, à part adopter une résolution? Et vous me permettrez une autre question: une véritable épuration ethnique va s’engager dans les deux villes chrétiennes d’Hassaké et Qamichli, que fera l’Europe?

 
  
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  Assita Kanko, namens de ECR-Fractie. – Voorzitter, mevrouw de hoge vertegenwoordiger. Worden de Koerden eens te meer de speelbal van de geschiedenis? Het ziet er vandaag, na de Turkse inval in het noorden van Syrië, zo naar uit. Nadat de Koerdische milities de [...] leverden om het IS-kalifaat te helpen opdoeken, laat de VS hen nu vallen. De Turkse autocraat Erdogan krijgt zo vrij spel om de Koerdische autonomie in het gebied ongedaan te maken. Zijn plan om Syrische vluchtelingen te hervestigen in de noordelijke strook van Rojava, waar zich de grootste steden van de Syrische Koerden bevinden, zal daar voor langdurige instabiliteit zorgen. Het Turkse offensief dreigt het herstel van het gebroken land bijna onmogelijk te maken.

Eind vorige maand werd dankzij VN-bemiddeling een constitutioneel comité opgericht waarin de Syrische regering en oppositie constructief zouden overleggen. Erdogan begraaft nu in feite deze dialoog. Deze inval kan de IS-terroristen een tweede adem geven, zowel in Europa als in de Sahel-regio. Daar is deze situatie acuut en precair, zoals mijn geboorteland Burkina Faso jammer genoeg aantoont. IS zal in kampen zoals Al-Hol wellicht vrij spel krijgen. We mogen ook een vluchtelingencrisis verwachten. Onverantwoord dus, dit Turkse optreden in Syrië. Daarom moet Europa de betrokken partijen dringend tot maximale terughoudendheid aanmanen. Mevrouw de hoge vertegenwoordiger, maak hen dringend duidelijk dat het bloed van de bevolking gespaard moet worden bij militaire operaties en dat massaverplaatsingen van bevolkingen vermeden moeten worden.

Ik vraag om het democratisch Koerdisch zelfbestuur te beschermen. Laten we alstublieft de heropleving van jihadistische terreur effectief tegengaan.

 
  
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  Nikolaj Villumsen, for GUE/NGL-Gruppen. – Fru formand! Erdogans angreb på vores prodemokratiske og kurdiske allierede i kampen mod Daesh er fuldstændig uacceptabel. Vi må ikke svigte de modige kurdiske mænd og kvinder, der kæmpede i forreste række mod terroristerne og Assadregimet. Den tyrkiske invasion er en katastrofe. Det er en katastrofe, der vil jage titusinder af civile på flugt, og som vil åbne døren for Daesh til Mellemøsten og Europa. Fru Mogherini, mens vi taler bombes civile lige nu af tyrkisk militær. Civile ligger døde i gaderne! Fru Mogherini, det er tid til handling. EU skal sige fra over for Erdogan og Trump. EU skal smække kassen i for Erdogan. Vores allierede døde for os, nu er det tid til, at vi står op for dem!

 
  
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  Die Präsidentin. – Herzlichen Dank, auch für die zeitliche Punktlandung. Ich möchte darauf hinweisen, dass wir schon eine Vielzahl von Anfragen für spontane Wortmeldungen haben, und da wir schon zeitlich im Verzug sind, werde ich aus Respekt für diejenigen, die noch nach uns kommen, und auch im Interesse der Übersetzer nur fünf Wortmeldungen auswählen. Es macht jetzt also keinen Sinn mehr, sich weiter zu melden.

 
  
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  Κωνσταντίνος Παπαδάκης (NI). – Κυρία Πρόεδρε, καταδικάζουμε τη νέα —τρίτη κατά σειρά— εισβολή της νατοϊκής Τουρκίας, του στρατηγικού εταίρου της Ευρωπαϊκής Ένωσης, στο έδαφος της Συρίας, η οποία αντιμετωπίζει ήδη τις τραγικές συνέπειες του οκτάχρονου πολέμου, στο πλαίσιο των σφοδρών ιμπεριαλιστικών ανταγωνισμών. Οι Ηνωμένες Πολιτείες άναψαν το πράσινο φως για την τουρκική επίθεση κατά του συριακού λαού και του κουρδικού πληθυσμού της περιοχής. Η εξέλιξη αυτή αποστομώνει την κυβέρνηση της Νέας Δημοκρατίας και όσους στην Ελλάδα προέβησαν σε πανηγυρισμούς για τη δήθεν προστασία που θα παρέχουν οι Ηνωμένες Πολιτείες στην Ελλάδα για την επικίνδυνη συμφωνία για τις βάσεις, που υπογράφηκε στην πρόσφατη επίσκεψη του Αμερικανού υπουργού Εξωτερικών, Pompeo, στην Αθήνα. Η εμπλοκή της Ελλάδας —και κάθε χώρας— στους σχεδιασμούς των Ηνωμένων Πολιτειών, του ΝΑΤΟ και της Ευρωπαϊκής Ένωσης βάζει σε μεγάλες περιπέτειες τον λαό μας και τους άλλους λαούς, που σήμερα μπορούν να διδαχθούν από τις εξελίξεις, να δυναμώσουν την κοινή πάλη και να υπερασπιστούν τα δικά τους συμφέροντα. Κάτω τα χέρια από τον συριακό λαό!

 
  
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  Peter van Dalen (PPE). – Voorzitter, de terugtrekking van de Amerikaanse troepen is een keiharde slag in het gezicht van de Koerden en we zien meteen de gevolgen. Dictator Erdogan heeft zijn troepen losgelaten op Ras al-Ain en Tell Abyad. Reken erop dat het ISIS-gespuis nu weer uit zijn hol tevoorschijn zal komen. En wat gebeurt er met de ISIS-gevangenen die nu in kampen zitten? Komen die weer vrij? Het desastreuze besluit van Trump is echter ook wake-upcall voor de Europese landen. Trump bekritiseren zonder zelf militairen in te zetten, is immers niet eerlijk. Dit kan bijvoorbeeld door de Amerikanen te ontlasten in Irak, zodat ze hun capaciteit kunnen inzetten in Syrië. Koerden en christenen in de regio kopen niets voor mooie Europese statements en tranentrekkende verklaringen.

 
  
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  Tonino Picula (S&D). – Poštovana predsjedavajuća, ova rasprava nažalost koincidira s početkom vojne intervencije Turske na sjevernu Siriju. Pridružujem se svima koji izražavaju duboku zabrinutost zbog toga. Bez obzira na obrazloženje Ankare ova akcija neće doprinijeti ni miru ni stabilnosti u regiji.

Dok turski predsjednik tvrdi kako je svrha operacije eliminacija sigurnosnih prijetnji i omogućavanje povratka sirijskih izbjeglica iz Turske nakon uspostavljanja sigurne zone na tom području, pravi motivi su drugačiji. Erdoganova vojna ofenziva na sjever Sirije otkriva u kojoj ga mjeri pritišću domaći problemi zbog loših ekonomskih rezultata i slabljenja podrške njegovoj politici. Posebno je nedopustivo da turski predsjednik poistovjećuje Kurde s militantima Islamske države. Ovaj napad je pokušaj obračuna s onima koji su najviše doprinijeli porazu Islamske države. Nadam se trajnom, a ne privremenom.

Europska unija treba nastaviti s preispitivanjem odnosa s Turskom, ali do kraja odbaciti iluzije o podudarnosti vanjske politike američkog predsjednika Trumpa s vrijednostima koje mi nastojimo promovirati u međunarodnim odnosima.

 
  
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  Ivan David (ID). – Paní předsedající, EP dnes většinově odmítl přijetí jakékoli parlamentní rezoluce k turecké agresi na severu Sýrie obývaném Kurdy.

Slyšeli jsme dojemné řeči o zásluhách Kurdů, ale jejich masakrování těmto demokratům nevadí ani tolik, aby veřejně souhlasili s návrhem účinných akcí proti vraždění. Zdá se, že jejich největší evropskou hodnotou je pokrytectví a lidským právem planě žvanit.

Český spisovatel Karel Čapek ve 30. letech parafrázoval postoj evropského politika slovy: „My sice odsuzujeme násilí, ale jsme ochotni dodávat zbraně.“ Ano, evropské zbrojovky dodávají zbraně Turecku.

Slyšel jsem od pana Junckera, jak jim prý vadí, že Turecko neplní dohody o přistěhovalcích, těží ropu v Egejském moři a Tureckem okupovaný Severní Kypr narušuje evropský obchod. Tzv. evropští demokraté ustupovali Hitlerovi a nakonec s ním podepsali Mnichovskou dohodu, kterou mu předali průmyslové české pohraničí a tím celé Čechy. Churchill o tom řekl: „Chtěli volit mezi hanbou a válkou, zvolili hanbu a mají válku.“ Dnes Erdoganovi přenechávají zatím pohraničí, pak všechno, co bude chtít. To je ten mírový projekt EU.

 
  
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  Ангел Джамбазки (ECR). – Г-жо Председател, уважаеми колеги, уважаема г-жо Върховен представител Могерини, това, че турският президент Ердоган нападна днес кюрдите в Сирия, не е изненада. Ние говорим за това с Вас повече от пет години. Предупреждаваме, настояваме и казваме: „Този човек е диктатор, този човек не се интересува от човешки права“. Той напада, окупира както кюрдите в Сирия, така и Кипър днес е окупирал, така застрашава и Гърция, така застрашава и България.

Тук въпросът е какво прави Европейският съюз (и във Ваше лице – Вие сте върховен представител). Трябва да бъдат взети мерки. Трябва да бъдат спрени всички финансови потоци от Европейския съюз към Турция. Трябва да бъде прегледано намерението на голямата германска автомобилна фирма, която се опитва да премести своя завод в Турция, защото Турция не спазва човешките права, защото Турция напада и убива цивилни хора, защото Турция на Ердоган е окупатор и агресор и не можете повече да си заравяте главата в пясъка. Трябва да вземете решение.

 
  
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  Fabio Massimo Castaldo (NI). – Signora Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, vi ricordate quando nel 2015 ci impegnavamo a sostenere i combattenti curdi a Kobane nella lotta contro Daesh? Quando si parlava dell'incredibile modello Rojava, della sua innovazione sociale, dell'attenzione ai diritti umani e ai diritti delle donne, della laicità del loro sistema di governo? Ebbene, questo modello sta per svanire. Trump twitta ed Erdogan esulta. Dopo le operazioni "Scudo dell'Eufrate" e "Ramoscello d'ulivo", effettuate sotto il pretesto del terrorismo, il ritiro statunitense diventa un vero e proprio semaforo verde per Ankara, con un clamoroso voltafaccia verso un popolo intero che ha lottato senza quartiere contro Daesh. Mentre noi discutiamo, gli aerei turchi stanno già bombardando e si parla dei primi inevitabili morti tra i civili. Non è solo una tragedia umanitaria terribile, ma anche un incomprensibile assist a Daesh.

Colleghi, non possiamo tacere. Ogni leva negoziale deve essere utilizzata per dissuadere la Turchia da questo possibile sterminio. La Turchia continua a essere formalmente candidata all'adesione, uno status chiaramente non più compatibile con il suo atteggiamento aggressivo che lede il diritto internazionale, calpesta i diritti delle popolazioni coinvolte e che, ancora una volta, destabilizza una regione già martoriata.

 
  
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  Brando Benifei (S&D). – Signora Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, signora Alto rappresentante, è di queste ore il terribile e purtroppo atteso annuncio dell'attacco militare turco nelle zone a maggioranza curda della Siria del Nord. Un attacco che avviene col complice disimpegno americano e che pone l'Europa davanti a tutti i suoi limiti. Erdogan sembra pensare di potersi ormai permettere tutto, anche di colpire i nostri alleati nella coalizione internazionale anti Isis, fondamentali con la loro eroica resistenza nella sconfitta dello Stato islamico.

È giunto il momento di parlare di azioni straordinarie e di sanzioni economiche mirate agli interessi dell'oligarchia legata ad Erdogan e di ritorsioni politiche ben più forti della mera sospensione del negoziato di adesione e della riduzione dei fondi. Se non lo faremo ora, se staremo ancora una volta a guardare per paura, allora davvero l'Europa avrà tradito tutti i suoi valori. Li ho conosciuti da vicino, in questi anni. Ho conosciuto l'audacia degli uomini e delle donne curde. Migliaia sono morti per la nostra sicurezza. Non meritano oggi la nostra indifferenza. Dimostriamo che l'Europa c'è o non ci sarà una seconda occasione.

 
  
 

Spontane Wortmeldungen

 
  
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  Michaela Šojdrová (PPE). – Paní předsedající, to, čeho jsme se obávali, se stalo skutečností a Turecko zaútočilo.

Myslím, že nemůžeme čekat. Pokud bude tato situace pokračovat, pak samozřejmě EP musí přijmout své stanovisko v podobě rezoluce, ale dnes musí reagovat především výkonné orgány, a proto: Já bych opravdu chtěla slyšet od vysoké představitelky, co udělá dnes, co udělá zítra pro to, aby se zastavil turecký útok na Kurdy v severní Sýrii?

Tady není možné čekat. Víme, že se svolává Rada bezpečnosti OSN, teď v těchto chvílích, a EU nemůže čekat. Je to obrovské násilí, obrovské bezpráví, kterého jsme svědky, a Turecko, jak zde již bylo řečeno, má asociační dohodu s EU, která zatím nebyla zcela přerušena. My máme páky a tlak na Turecko a musíme jich 100% využít. Prosím o odpověď paní vysokou představitelku.

 
  
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  Julie Ward (S&D). – Madam President, the war-mongering chants from Ankara and the build-up of Turkish firepower on the Turkish-Syrian border is a sure sign that President Erdoğan is preparing to attack the peaceful enclave of Rojava, where Kurdish women have been rebuilding society through a new model of grassroots democracy, following the defeat of Daesh by the Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF) and their allies. It is they who liberated the Yazidi women from their mountaintop prison in Sinjar, eventually opening the way for a sustainable peace process. More than 11 000 men and women from the SDF gave their lives to liberate this region from Daesh. Twenty-two thousand more were wounded in the campaign. I visited the graves of the YPG and the YPJ martyrs in Kobane as part of a women’s peace mission in May 2018, and I paid tribute to their bravery. The West’s abandonment of the Kurds is a stain on all of us. I am proud to be a true friend to the Kurds, and that means telling the truth about the fascist dictator Erdoğan.

 
  
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  Tineke Strik (Verts/ALE). – Madam President, the occupation of Turkey in North Syria is not only a slap in the face of the Kurdish forces who have fought ISIS and are now in imminent danger; it is also extremely dangerous for the two million refugees that Erdoğan threatens to send back to Syria. Despite this threat, Commissioner Avramopoulos talked with Turkey about refreshing the EU-Turkey deal only last week. It’s high time to show that this deal doesn’t hold a grip over the EU’s foreign policy. I’m happy to learn that the High Commissioner is urging Turkey to refrain from military occupation and to refrain from the deportation of refugees. But what will be the repercussions if President Erdoğan refuses to do so? Is the EU prepared to step up its resettlement efforts?

 
  
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  Mick Wallace (GUE/NGL). – Madam President, the aggression of the Turkish forces is a clear violation of international law and of the sovereignty of Syria’s borders. In the light of the betrayal of the Americans and the apparent genocidal attitude of the Turkish Government towards the Kurds, it should be condemned in the harshest of terms. We should now support the Russian Foreign Minister’s call for dialogue between the Syrian Government and the Kurds on the current situation. This suggestion has been welcomed by the Kurds and they look to Russia having a role in the talks.

Ms Mogherini said that Turkey is a key partner of the EU and Syria, and do you know what, Ms Mogherini, you’re actually right. And sadly you were partners with them. Sadly, you too were part of the American and a Saudi effort to destabilise Syria. You armed the jihadists. The lies that have been told of what’s happened in Syria is too bad and, but for Russia and Iran, things would be so much worse there. Why don’t you just lift the sanctions against Syria and create a facility where it would be more possible for refugees to return home. You said the Syrian conflict cannot be ended with weapons; well why the God damn did Europe keep pumping weapons into the place? Tell me that!

 
  
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  Milan Uhrík (NI). – Madam President, dear Ms Mogherini, the war is on again. You were talking mostly about Turkey, but what do you think about the fact that the US practically left behind the Kurds to the aggression of Turkey? This could, of course, cause a new influx of immigrants also into Europe. Isn’t this also a warning for European countries: that we shouldn’t rely on an alliance with the US, because one day we could also be left behind when we need it the most? Shouldn’t European countries rely more on their own defences instead?

 
  
 

(Ende der spontanen Wortmeldungen)

 
  
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  Federica Mogherini, Vice-President of the Commission / High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy. – Madam President, first of all, I am glad to see, beyond some nuances or differences in tone, the same kind of analysis across the Chamber on the fact that this military intervention which Turkey has started in the north—east of Syria has to be stopped. I see that this unites the Chamber, as it has united the European Union Member States.

I am often asked here to make sure that the European Union speaks with one voice, and a clear voice and on time. In this case, I believe we have been speaking clearly – extremely clearly – and early. As I said, we first reacted immediately after the news of the telephone call between President Trump and President Erdoğan came out, during my visit to Jordan, and today we have reacted again with the clear and official position of the 28 Member States, which I stated just a few hours ago.

So: first we are expressing a clear, united position in time for it to be effective at least as a call; and second, we are coordinating with partners – partners in the region, partners beyond the region and other international organisations including, obviously, the United Nations. I’m glad that we managed, on the initiative of the European Union Member States sitting on the Security Council, to have this point on the agenda there, because it is there that it should be addressed. Furthermore – something that has not been raised here so far and I am surprised about that – you might have seen that NATO Secretary General Stoltenberg intends to have contact with one of the NATO Allies, namely Turkey, on this issue. I believe that we need to at least exchange views and opinions with them as well, to try and avoid this military intervention going on.

That is, I believe, the urgency at the moment, and I feel the same sense of frustration, urgency and sorrow that many of you have expressed about what is happening today: not only for the civilians who once again are victims, not only for the already internally displaced people in that area who are suffering again, but also for the Kurdish forces who have been fighting in the coalition against Daesh.

I very much agree with what some of you have said: the priority today is to focus on the UN-listed terrorist organisations. That means Daesh, first and foremost, and definitely not the Kurdish forces.

Turkey has a different reading on this. We have had discussions several times in a very open manner with Ankara about this. For the European Union, these forces are definitely not to be defined as terrorist organisations.

The other thing that we will put in place is a discussion with the Foreign Ministers, on Monday. That is already being prepared now. Today we had preparatory meetings and in the coming days these will continue – to see what other actions or reactions we can take from now to then, and to prepare for the European Council that will take place just a couple of days later.

Some of you have raised other issues and elements on which you have asked me to act. The honourable Members know very well that it is not in the hands of the High Representative to take decisions which ultimately lie, in some cases, with the European Parliament itself – on the allocation of funding, for example – and, in some cases, with individual Member States – on the export of arms, perhaps – or the Council, as with the possibility of introducing targeted measures or sanctions or stopping financial flows. I want to say one thing here though: I believe we have to be careful not to mix things up in a way that can be dangerous.

Some of you referred to the controversial, but ongoing, support that we are giving to Turkey – and not only to Turkey but also to other countries that are hosting Syrian refugees in the region. I want to name here Jordan and Lebanon and also Iraq and Egypt. We are giving this financial support not to those countries but to international organisations, starting with the UN agencies that are helping the Syrians in those countries. I believe the Syrians would be the victims – not twice or three times but four times over – if we had to think about stopping that financial support, because it is thanks to the European Union financial support that the Syrian refugees are being helped. And the EU support is going to those international organisations in those hosting countries – among them Turkey, yes, but the money doesn’t go to Turkey. I’ve said that in this Chamber many times, but it was in a different parliamentary term so I will repeat it today. That money, the money that supports the Syrian refugees in Turkey, as well as in other countries of the region, is not going to the Turkish authorities. It’s not going to Turkey. It’s going to international agencies, it’s going to international NGOs, and it’s going to the UN agencies for the Syrian people. I believe it would be a mistake to make them suffer – on top of what they’re suffering already – for the current situation as well.

Having said that, you can count on my full determination not only to ensure we do everything we can to protect civilians at this time – and to join forces with those with whom we can join forces to protect civilians – but also, most importantly and beyond that, to stop this military intervention. It is a mistake from so many points of view, and most of you have said that: from a humanitarian perspective; from the perspective of our achievements against Daesh; and – I’m surprised none of you mentioned this but I want to insist on it – in terms of the possibility of it seriously undermining the relaunch of the political process under UN auspices.

Two weeks ago we were hosting, as we do every year at the UN, the event on Syria. There, together with Geir Pedersen, we were saying that maybe this is the beginning of a new possibility for the political process to start, and it’s the first time in years that there has been a tiny step forward on the possibility of achieving a political solution. Now, two weeks later, we have this, which has also put at risk that very limited sign – but a sign nonetheless – of hope for the possibility of starting the political process. Obviously, it is also a mistake for all the other reasons that have been mentioned here, including with regard to regional balances.

So I really hope that we will manage to join forces with others. I really hope that this issue can be addressed properly in the UN Security Council tomorrow. You can count on me personally and on the European Union’s institutions, the Council and Commission, to do what we can, and obviously I count on you, the Parliament, to try and use these hours to apply maximum pressure, and try to stop this intervention that is definitely not going to bring anything good.

 
  
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  Die Präsidentin. – Die Aussprache ist geschlossen.

Schriftliche Erklärungen (Artikel 171)

 
  
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  Anna Fotyga (ECR), na piśmie. – Z wielką uwagą śledzę sytuację w północnej Syrii. Obawiam się, że rozwój wydarzeń w tym skomplikowanym regionie może mieć poważne konsekwencje geopolityczne. Doceniam rolę Kurdów w walce z terrorystami z ISIS. Rozumiem także wieloletnie ogromne obciążenie Turcji w związku z problemem uchodźców oraz dostrzegam zagrożenia dla bezpieczeństwa tego kraju.

Niestety dziś jeszcze wyraźniej widać błędy i zaniechania popełnione przez Zachód w decydujących momentach wojny w Syrii, takie jak brak decyzji o zakazie lotów wojskowych. Brakuje nam konsekwentnie realizowanej strategii. Obawiam się, że utworzenie strefy, do której przesiedli się uchodźców – w znacznej mierze sunnickich, od wielu lat przebywających na terenie Turcji – spowoduje jeszcze większe zachwianie równowagi w regionie. Niepokoi mnie ewentualny wzrost znaczenia graczy takich jak Iran i Rosja, których dotychczasowe działania, także w wymiarze globalnym, nie służyły stabilizacji.

 
  
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  Κώστας Μαυρίδης (S&D), γραπτώς. – Το 1974, παιδί ακόμα, έζησα την εισβολή της Τουρκίας στην Κύπρο. Γλύτωσα όμως και υποσχέθηκα να μην σιωπώ μπροστά σε παρόμοια εγκλήματα κατά της ανθρωπότητας. Σήμερα, ακούω τα ίδια ψέματα, την ίδια βρώμικη προπαγάνδα, και τα ίδια εγκλήματα κατά της ανθρωπότητας διαπράττονται από τον γνωστό εγκληματία της Άγκυρας, όπως και τότε. Ο εγκληματίας ονόμασε την εισβολή στη Συρία «ειρηνευτική επιχείρηση» και την εθνοκάθαρση και μετακίνηση πληθυσμών για σκόπιμο εποικισμό δήθεν «δημιουργία ασφαλούς ζώνης». Ο εγκληματίας που χρηματοδότησε και στήριξε το Ισλαμικό Κράτος, τη σύγχρονη μάστιγα κατά της ανθρωπότητας, τώρα επιχειρεί να εξαλείψει τους Κούρδους, τον κύριο σύμμαχο του πολιτισμένου κόσμου ενάντια στη βαρβαρότητα του Ισλαμικού Κράτους. Ως Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωση, μπορούμε να επιβάλουμε εμπάργκο πώλησης όπλων, να συντρίψουμε την οικονομία του Ερντογάν και να κατανέμουμε κονδύλια ανθρωπιστικής βοήθειας προς τον κουρδικό πληθυσμό αντί προς την Τουρκία. Ωστόσο, συμφέροντα και εξαρτήσεις επιβάλλουν σε αξιωματούχους της ΕΕ να συνεχίσουν να ονομάζουν «στρατηγικό εταίρο» τον εγκληματία. Δεν προσδοκώ πολλά από όσους μιλούν δημόσια για αξίες αλλά εφευρίσκουν επιχειρήματα ώστε ο εγκληματίας να εγκληματεί. Σήμερα, απευθύνομαι στους Κούρδους μαχητές για να τους διαβεβαιώσω ότι η συνείδηση της Ευρώπης δεν είναι οι εξαρτημένοι αξιωματούχοι. Η συνείδηση της Ευρώπης είναι μαζί τους, ενάντια στον εγκληματία.

 
  
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  Leszek Miller (S&D), na piśmie. – Zdecydowanie negatywnie oceniam turecką operację wojskową przeciwko Kurdom w północno-wschodniej Syrii. Przez ostatnie lata Unia Europejska ściśle współpracowała z Syryjskimi Siłami Demokratycznymi przeciwko Państwu Islamskiemu. Dzięki tej współpracy oraz poświęceniu wielu tysięcy Kurdów, którzy zginęli w walce, udało się osiągnąć rzeczywiste wyniki w walce z terroryzmem.

Niestety teraz w wyniku niezrozumiałej decyzji administracji amerykańskiej tysiące radykalnych bojowników i popleczników ISIS przetrzymywanych w syryjskich więzieniach trafi na wolność, by ponownie stanąć do walki. Horror, którego z rąk dżihadystów ISIS doświadczyli mieszkańcy północno-wschodniej Syrii, może się zatem powtórzyć.

W obliczu porzucenia sił kurdyjskich przez amerykańskich sojuszników Unia Europejska powinna niezwłocznie podjąć działania dyplomatyczne, by doprowadzić do jak najszybszego rozwiązania kryzysu. Należy wykorzystać wszelkie formy nacisku na Turcję, by odstąpiła od ofensywy przeciwko Kurdom. Powinniśmy również rozważyć natychmiastowe skierowanie w rejon objęty działaniami wojskowymi niezbędnej pomocy humanitarnej i rzeczowego wsparcia, by w jak najbardziej ograniczyć skalę cierpienia ludności cywilnej.

 
  
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  Bettina Vollath (S&D), schriftlich. – Die türkische Regierung hat heute, 9. Oktober 2019, ihren Krieg gegen Minderheiten unter dem zynischen Titel „Operation Friedensquelle“ begonnen. Damit hat Erdoğan endgültig klar gemacht, dass er für die EU kein verlässlicher Partner ist. Die Invasion bedeutet eine humanitäre Katastrophe. Vertreibung und neue Fluchtbewegungen werden die Folge sein. In der Region leben bereits jetzt viele Angehörige von Minderheiten, die vor dem IS geflohen sind und dort Sicherheit gefunden haben. Die Bevölkerung ist schon jetzt in hohem Maße auf humanitäre Hilfsmittel angewiesen. Damit droht die gesamte Situation in der Region wieder zu eskalieren. Die türkische Invasion stellt einen Bruch des internationalen Völkerrechts dar. Die EU hat die Möglichkeiten, wirtschaftliche und diplomatische Sanktionen zu verhängen und sollte diese auch nützen.

Auch die Waffenverkäufe einzelner europäischer Mitgliedstaaten an die Türkei sind völlig falsch. Wir wissen, dass diese Waffen gegen Minderheiten eingesetzt werden. Wir haben den syrischen Streitkräften die Befreiung von ISIS zu verdanken. Die niederländische S&D-Abgeordnete Kati Piri hat in der Aussprache betont: „They were the ones who were fighting on the ground.“ Wenn wir Menschenrechte ernst nehmen, dann liegt es jetzt an uns, alle erforderlichen Maßnahmen zu ergreifen und den Krieg gegen Rojava zu verhindern.

 
Última actualização: 20 de Dezembro de 2019Dados pessoais - Política de privacidade