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Verfahren : 2020/2076(INI)
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Entwicklungsstadium in Bezug auf das Dokument : A9-0197/2020

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A9-0197/2020

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P9_TA(2020)0321

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Montag, 23. November 2020 - Brüssel Überprüfte Ausgabe

20. Eine neue Industriestrategie für Europa (kurze Darstellung)
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  Puhemies. – Esityslistalla on seuraavana lyhyt esittely Carlo Calendan teollisuus-, tutkimus- ja energiavaliokunnan puolesta laatimasta mietinnöstä Euroopan uusi teollisuusstrategia [2020/2076(INI)] (A9-0197/2020).

 
  
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  Carlo Calenda, relatore. – Signora Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, abbiamo iniziato a scrivere questa relazione nei giorni in cui siamo stati travolti dalla prima pandemia dell'epoca moderna. Un evento che determina, oltre alle drammatiche conseguenze sanitarie, uno shock simmetrico su domanda e offerta che non ha precedenti dalla seconda Guerra mondiale.

Lo sforzo compiuto durante questi mesi ha sempre avuto come obiettivo un risultato condiviso, volto a rafforzare il ruolo del Parlamento, anche in attesa della revisione della strategia di politica industriale annunciata dalla Commissione. Per questo lavoro desidero ringraziare i miei colleghi relatori ombra. I 700 emendamenti ricevuti sono diventati 17 emendamenti di compromesso, equilibrati e largamente condivisi.

La nostra relazione divide la strategia industriale in due fasi distinte: una prima fase volta alla ripresa del sistema produttivo dopo l'emergenza e una seconda che ha come obiettivo la costruzione di un sistema industriale resiliente sotto il profilo sociale, economico e ambientale. Al centro la necessità di promuovere e accelerare la doppia transizione digitale e ambientale. L'obiettivo della neutralità climatica nel 2050 rimane la nostra bussola.

La relazione tiene conto anche della dimensione esterna della politica industriale. In un mondo diventato meno aperto e più duro, l'Unione europea, pur rimanendo impegnata per un commercio libero ed equilibrato, sia in sede bilaterale che multilaterale, deve servirsi in modo più assertivo degli strumenti di difesa commerciale, attivare misure che spingano verso la reciprocità negli appalti pubblici e vigilare sulle acquisizioni di aziende strategiche da parte di State-owned enterprises e aziende collegate a governi stranieri.

La relazione è articolata intorno ad alcuni punti fondamentali. Ne menzionerò alcuni. Primo punto: una forte attenzione agli aspetti sociali, in particolare alla formazione, per evitare perdita di posti di lavoro e salvaguardare la coesione territoriale nello spirito del principio del "No one left behind". Sappiamo infatti, per esperienza degli ultimi trent'anni, che le trasformazioni, se non adeguatamente gestite, portano a fratture profonde tra vincenti e perdenti. Tra questi ultimi, giovani e donne si segnalano come le categorie più colpite.

Secondo punto: un'equilibrata revisione delle regole sulla concorrenza e sugli aiuti di Stato per proteggere la nostra autonomia strategica e la competitività globale e consentire il sostegno agli investimenti per l'ambiente e la digitalizzazione, preservando e completando il mercato unico.

Terzo punto: misure ad hoc per consentire alle PMI una partecipazione alla pari con le grandi imprese alla doppia transizione, misure che devono essere di facile e immediato utilizzo, come i crediti di imposta per favorire investimenti e formazione cofinanziati dai fondi europei.

Quarto punto: proposte per un Next Generation EU che sia un vero volano per gli investimenti incentivando garanzie della BEI e aumenti di capitale.

Quinto punto: proposte per fornire alle imprese gli strumenti adeguati per contribuire in maniera efficace alla riduzione delle emissioni di CO2 in linea con la Climate Law. A questo proposito dobbiamo evitare a tutti i costi che la trasformazione ambientale non adeguatamente sostenuta finanziariamente e protetta dal dumping ambientale, anche attraverso l'imposizione di una Carbon Border Tax, causi delocalizzazioni in paesi a standard emissivi meno severi, con un conseguente aumento dell'inquinamento e perdita di posti di lavoro qui.

L'analisi degli ecosistemi da parte della Commissione sarà fondamentale per selezionare gli interventi e le priorità. Nella relazione abbiamo chiesto anche un sistema di Key Performance Indicators e analisi di impatto, che aiutino a verificare ex ante ed ex post l'efficacia dei provvedimenti adottati e degli strumenti messi in campo.

L'Unione europea deve urgentemente dotarsi di una strategia industriale adeguata, operativa, ben finanziata e opportunamente coordinata. Questa relazione è un'occasione importante affinché il Parlamento si esprima con una voce forte e unica. Abbiamo lavorato con grande cura e passione sul testo, proprio in vista di questo obiettivo!

 
  
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  Mairead McGuinness, Member of the Commission. – Madam President, I would like to thank Mr Calenda for his work and for his words this evening.

Europe has always been the home of industry and, throughout history, industry has proven its ability to lead change. To prepare for the future, Europe needs industry that is greener, more digital and more resilient, while remaining competitive on the global stage. EU institutions, Member States and regions have to work alongside industry to make this happen.

We must do more than just adapt. We want to accelerate and enable change and innovation. This is why we must move forward on our agenda, as announced in the new industrial strategy. Important initiatives have been delivered, such as the Action Plan on Critical Raw Materials, and many are still to come. A deeper and more digital single market; a global level playing field and open markets; working towards climate neutrality and a more circular economy; fostering employment and innovation, skills and investments: all these will be essential to achieve our goals.

The COVID—19 crisis has increased the momentum to use the recovery as an opportunity to accelerate our joint efforts. We will update the industrial strategy next year to take account of the lessons learned from the pandemic and to ensure that it continues to be fit for purpose to lead the green and digital transformations. To achieve this, we will have to work together. In updating our industrial strategy, we plan to work closer than ever with the Member States, as well as with industry and other stakeholders: for example, in the context of industrial ecosystems, alliances and the Industry Forum.

Europe has an excellent industrial foundation. We have the benefit of diverse and competitive companies of all sizes, including SMEs and social economy enterprises, and a huge range of different industries, not only a few giants. That’s why the focus of the new industrial strategy is on industrial ecosystems, incorporating all players operating in a value chain: not just a few big companies, but value chains in which companies of all sizes can participate. Such an approach has already shown its benefits in the field of batteries.

In July, the Commission launched the European Clean Hydrogen Alliance and the new European Raw Materials Alliance in September. A European alliance on industrial data and cloud is also on the way. Soon we will launch a new industrial forum, which will bring together companies of all sizes with researchers and unions and national governments.

Our new industrial strategy is part of a package of initiatives to make Europe’s businesses future ready. There will also be a dedicated strategy for SMEs and concrete steps to address barriers in the way of a well-functioning single market. This single market is Europe’s strongest asset to allow all of our businesses to grow and compete in Europe and beyond. The openness of Europe’s economy is a source of prosperity and competitiveness. We need a European industrial policy based on competition, open markets, world—leading research and technologies, and a strong single market, which removes barriers and cuts red tape.

But we must resist the simplistic temptations that come with protectionism or market distortions, while not being naive in the face of unfair competition, to ensure a level playing field beyond the single market. Reciprocity in public procurement is a key part of the industrial policy toolbox. We’re also working on legislative proposals to tackle the distortive effects of foreign subsidies on the single market.

The COVID—19 crisis has highlighted that dependency on a single supplier for some specific critical goods could limit Europe’s ability to respond to future shocks. Europe needs to build up resilience and strengthen the open strategic autonomy of the EU economy in the long run, while remaining open to the world. This requires an evidence-based approach, where we first identify any vulnerabilities and then explore how to address them, notably by contributing to the diversification of our supply chains. The Commission supports the agreement found in the trilogue between the Council and Parliament on Europe’s next long—term budget and Next Generation EU, Europe’s new recovery instrument.

Now it is important to move forward. The strength of our Union has always been that we overcome difficult situations by engaging with each other. So we are working hard to implement the final step on the MFF, while ensuring respect for the rule of law. This new powerful and modern long-term budget for the Union will allow us to turn the immediate challenges posed by the COVID—19 pandemic into long-term opportunities by not only supporting the recovery, but also by investing in our future. To make that future sustainable, inclusive and fair for all, we need to spend the money from the recovery instrument in a way that crowds in private investment and does not undermine the ability of our industries to compete by harming competition or weakening the single market.

Honourable Members, the time to get it right is now. We do not get a second chance.

 
  
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  Puhemies. – Kohdan käsittely on päättynyt.

Äänestys toimitetaan keskiviikkona 25. marraskuuta 2020.

Kirjalliset lausumat (171 artikla)

 
  
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  Marc Angel (S&D), in writing. – The European industrial policy strategy should promote inclusive and sustainable industrialisation, where climate neutrality, sustainability, innovation and competitiveness should go together with social inclusiveness. Economic recovery following the pandemic must be sustainable, fair and socially just with focus on digital and green transitions. European industry represents more than 20% of our economy and directly employs about 35 million people. In addition, it accounts for 80% of goods exports. It is not a question that the new industrial strategy should enable companies to contribute to their climate-neutrality targets, but also should support firms, particularly small and medium enterprises in their transition to a digital and carbon-neutral economy with creating high-quality jobs and without undermining the EU’s competitiveness. As shadow rapporteur of the IMCO opinion I am glad that the final document is a balanced and future oriented. Amongst others, it is rightly tackling such issues as: maintaining our global role model for sustainability; reflecting on supply chain disruptions we experienced at the beginning of the pandemic and underlining the importance of cross-border value-chains; declaring that SMEs, micro-enterprises and start-ups are key players in our market; and equating social, environmental and economic criteria in public procurement frameworks.

 
  
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  Markus Buchheit (ID), schriftlich. – Eine Industriestrategie, die der deutschen Kernindustrie das Wasser abgräbt, hat ihren Sinn verfehlt und ist strikt und kategorisch abzulehnen. Der vorliegende Text macht die Industrie zu einem Opfer und Steigbügelhalter eines missverstandenen Umweltschutzgedankens unter dem European Green Deal. Dies zeigt sich u. a an der irrationalen Forderung nach der sofortigen Einstellung der Nutzung von fossilen Brennstoffen, an der Charakterisierung von Erdgas als nur vorübergehendem Energieträger bis 2050 und an der politischen Positionierung der EZB als „Klimabank“.

Das Zerstören unserer Industrie hat System; Sie vergessen nur in Ihrer sogenannten Strategie, dass es die Industrie und die KMU sind, die die Rechnung für Ihre Klimaphantasien bezahlen müssen.

 
  
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  Krzysztof Jurgiel (ECR), na piśmie. – Przemysł ma w Unii Europejskiej ogromne znaczenie – odpowiada za około 20% unijnej gospodarki i zatrudnia blisko 35 milionów osób. Dlatego jej przekształcenie – w formie cyfrowej i ekologicznej, przy uwzględnieniu złożoności procesów – musi być bardzo dokładnie zaplanowane i dostosowane do otaczającej nas i szybko zmieniającej się rzeczywistości.

Wiele elementów nowej strategii przemysłowej dla Europy jest potrzebnych, aby UE była liderem pod względem nowoczesności produkcji. Inwestycje w zakresie sztucznej inteligencji, poprawy efektywności energetycznej budynków, infrastruktury sieciowej, inteligentnej integracji sektorowej, zrównoważonej mobilności, paliw alternatywnych czy nowoczesnych kompetencji pracowników są niezbędne do wykonania kroku naprzód, ale nie można zapominać, że te wszystkie działania będą wymagały ogromnych nakładów finansowych, dlatego nie można zostawić najbardziej potrzebujących państw bez odpowiedniego wsparcia.

Europa będzie stopniowo odchodzić od paliw kopalnych na rzecz odnawialnych źródeł energii, takich jak wodór, wiatr czy słońce. Nie można jednak zapominać, że są kraje, dla których węgiel stanowi znaczną część miksu energetycznego, dlatego też należy mocno wspierać gaz ziemny jako instrument przejściowy pomiędzy węglem a odnawialnymi źródłami energii, który w średnim terminie pomoże znacząco obniżyć emisyjność gospodarek i pozwoli, aby transformacja energetyczna była dla nich finansowo do udźwignięcia.

 
  
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  Ondřej Kovařík (Renew), in writing. – SMEs play a key role in the transition towards a digital and green European Industry. They are at the heart of to Europe’s recovery and prosperity. SMEs have the potential to invigorate the economy and stimulate competitiveness, bringing innovative solutions, incentivising the market to help to build a robust infrastructure, particularly as regards the platform economy. Established industrial firms can be supported by SMEs to adapt their business models to smart, digital and sustainable processes, enhancing resilience to external shocks. Consequently, SMEs are a core element of the EU’s industrial recovery, performing as catalysts of Europe’s dual transitions. SMEs are a key engine to drive the spirit of the European recovery and society’s welfare. As the backbone of the EU economy SMEs should be incentivised and supported, so they can be globally competitive. Furthermore, given the proliferation of tech-based businesses as a direct consequence of the COVID pandemic, bringing together work on the industrial strategy with that of the Data Strategy and SME Strategy can help ensure EU tech companies have the means at their disposal to benefit from their access to the single market, and therefore increase customer bases and business opportunities.

 
  
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  Susana Solís Pérez (Renew), por escrito. – En plena crisis de la COVID-19, Europa vuelve a ver la industria como un motor de cambio, de competitividad y de empleo de calidad.

Europa afronta la transformación hacia la industria 4.0 en un momento de cambio y debe demostrar que es capaz de liderar, no solo las transiciones verde y digital, sino también para luchar por el liderazgo tecnológico y la autonomía estratégica abierta.

Solo a través de una nueva estrategia industrial, que respete la importancia de las pymes, centros de innovación y universidades, podemos construir una economía europea puntera que sea capaz de reforzar las cadenas de suministro, reubicar cadenas de valor a Europa y aumentar la seguridad del suministro de materias primas estratégicas.

Solo a través de la colaboración público-privada, podremos crear ecosistemas de innovación que se anclen en las ventajas competitivas de cada una de las regiones europeas.

Debemos avanzar hacia una economía circular, necesitamos invertir en fuentes energéticas alternativas ―como el hidrógeno― para alcanzar los objetivos climáticos que nos hemos marcado, y, además, debemos invertir en capacidades y educación para asegurar que todos los europeos estén preparados para afrontar el importante cambio que va a suponer esta nueva estrategia industrial.

 
  
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  Carlos Zorrinho (S&D), por escrito. – Transpor para a estratégia industrial europeia a aposta no pacto ecológico, no combate às alterações climáticas e na transição digital centrada nas pessoas é uma prioridade que a crise pandémica veio tornar ainda mais urgente.

A União Europeia como potência multilateral tem que promover uma globalização com regras e, para isso, tem que garantir um nível de autonomia estratégica que não é possível sem uma forte aposta na transformação e na recuperação do seu tecido industrial.

O relatório em debate define princípios claros para garantir o crescimento a longo prazo, mobilizar e atrair o investimento necessário, assegurar a transição energética e digital, melhorando a qualidade de vida, criar mais e melhor emprego, promover a inovação e reforçar o empreendedorismo e o papel das Pequenas e Médias Empresas (PME). Destaco ainda a dimensão social, de coesão e de convergência que informa as propostas contidas no relatório.

Sem promover a convergência no desenvolvimento entre territórios e combater, de forma assertiva, as desigualdades, a União Europeia ficará fragilizada na projeção da sua visão industrial como uma referência para o novo ciclo de industrialização sustentável à escala planetária.

 
Letzte Aktualisierung: 27. Januar 2021Rechtlicher Hinweis - Datenschutzbestimmungen