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Tuesday, 19 January 2021 - Brussels Revised edition

6. Humanitarian situation of refugees and migrants at the EU's external borders (continuation of debate)
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  Il-President. – Issa nkomplu d-dibattitu tagħna dwar id-dikjarazzjonijiet tal-Kunsill u tal-Kummissjoni dwar is-sitwazzjoni umanitarja tar-rifuġjati u tal-migranti fil-fruntieri esterni tal-UE (2021/2503(RSP)).

 
  
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  Marco Dreosto (ID). – Signora Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, io provengo dal Friuli Venezia Giulia, primo approdo in Italia della cosiddetta rotta balcanica, e ho bene impresse davanti a me le immagini dei migranti che, oltrepassati i confini croato e sloveno, percorrono le strade di Trieste e Udine aspettando che qualcuno, magari della criminalità organizzata, li porti più a nord.

Sono stato personalmente sui tragitti della rotta balcanica, sul Carso triestino, e ho parlato con giornalisti e poliziotti che hanno visto i campi dei rifugiati ai confini dell'Unione. A Bihać, in Bosnia, per esempio, la situazione è esplosiva, ma era una situazione che da tempo si sapeva essere critica. Dov'era l'Unione europea quando noi della Lega denunciavamo tutto questo?

Inutile ora recriminare o chiedere di aprire le porte, permettendo a tutti gli immigrati di entrare e passare, come chiede l'estrema sinistra di questo Parlamento.

È arrivato, signora Commissaria, il momento di prendere delle decisioni, di istituire in quei luoghi dei veri e propri criteri e centri di controllo, in cui se un migrante ha diritto può restare, altrimenti bisogna prevedere un sistema serio ed effettivo di rimpatri.

 
  
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  Ангел Джамбазки (ECR). – Г-жо Председател, в условията на пандемията видяхме как множество държави затвориха своите граници с цел да ограничат разпространението на заразата. Това трябваше да направи Европейският съюз, когато на границите му се струпаха стотици хиляди нелегални имигранти, нелегални имигранти, а не бежанци.

Но вместо да се случи това, те получиха глупава, но любезна покана да се настанят в Европа, в нашия дом. Днес продължавате в тази зала, уважаеми леви колеги, да говорите за състоянието на бежанците и мигрантите, без да осъзнавате, че Европа не може да помогне на никого, преди да помогне на себе си. Трябва да се съсредоточим, да се фокусираме върху защитата на своите външни граници; подкрепата за държавите, явяващи се външните граници на Европейския съюз трябва да нараства, разбира се, подкрепата за Фронтекс - също така; повече и по-ефективно репатриране и повече подкрепа в борбата с трафика на хора.

Не съм съгласен категорично с тези колеги отляво, които атакуват Фронтекс, те, както обикновено, не знаят какво говорят. Нали разбрахте, че осем от десет мигранти са мъже. Къде ви отиде половото равенство, уважаеми? Не трябваше ли да има някакво съотношение? Тази криворазбрана толерантност, завършвам, г-жо Председател, и солидарност криворазбрана доведоха до нападения, до заплахи и атентати. Това трябва да се промени.

 
  
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  Tonino Picula (S&D). – Poštovana potpredsjednice, nema političke volje, to jest zajedničkog rješenja na razini Europske unije pa opet raspravljamo o pravima azilanata i migranata koji žele u Europsku uniju, ali zakonima članica o legalnom prelasku njihovih granica. U uređenom sistemu jedno ne bi isključivalo drugo. Poštivanje međunarodnih konvencija o ljudskim pravima svih koji traže zaštitu i međunarodnih obveza prema najugroženijima treba biti neupitno. Jednako tako sigurni i legalni načini za traženje takve zaštite trebali bi funkcionirati. Umjesto toga nekoliko tisuća migranata i azilanata u Bosni i Hercegovini, zemlji u kojoj ne žele ostati, provode mjesece u nehumanim uvjetima.

Unatoč neprekidnim uplatama financijske pomoći od strane Komisije situacija je sve gora i dodatno podcrtava nefunkcionalnost institucija Bosne i Hercegovine i dotrajali Daytonski sustav. Financijska podrška je potrebna, ali novčana pomoć neće riješiti u osnovi politički problem. Kao i Bosna i Hercegovina, Hrvatska i ostale granične zemlje ne smiju nositi teret izostanka dogovora o novom Paktu o migracijama i azilu. Zato dajem punu podršku Portugalu jer je ovaj problem uvrstio među prioritete svog predsjedanja.

 
  
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  Елена Йончева (S&D). – Г-жо председател, миграционната политика на Европейския съюз е провал. Опитът да се подмени реформата в областта на убежищата с реформа по границите не доведе до нищо. Резултатът от този опит създаде една абсурдна ситуация.

Тези, които злоупотребяват с правилата на Европейския съюз, продължават да намират пролуки. А тези, които отговарят на условията за защита, слабите, беззащитните, тези, които бягат от войни, са оставени на произвола.

Но днес миграционната ни политика продължава да бъде все още в ръцете на трафикантите.

Преди повече от 5 години, спомняте си, морето изхвърли тялото на тригодишния Айлан Курди, за да ни покаже, че европейската политика трябва да се промени. Но за пет години нито един стълб от нашето законодателство не беше променен.

Въпросът ми към Комисията: какво точно ще предприемете по отношение на Фронтекс, който продължава да бъде част от проблема, а не решението?

И въпросът ми към Председателството е: ще завършим ли реформата на новата Агенция по убежищата в рамките на Вашето Председателство или Съветът пак ще бяга от отговорност?

 
  
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  President. – I am not sure you can make a point of order at this stage, Ms Björk. Please submit it in writing, and we will proceed according to the rules.

 
  
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  Ylva Johansson, Member of the Commission. – Madam President, this has been a very interesting debate. I started my intervention by talking about values and I think that this debate has clearly shown that this is about values and fundamental rights.

I would like to comment on some borders that I didn’t mention in my first intervention. First, on the Canary Islands, there is a very severe situation. Last year, we saw an increase of 1 000% of irregular arrivals on the Canary Islands. This is of course a very difficult situation. That’s why the Commission has been providing extra money. We have been providing personnel from our agencies. Somebody asked for Frontex to be there. Frontex are on the Canary Islands and they are happy to help the Spanish authorities with whatever kind of help they need.

It’s also important to address their routes. This is absolutely one of the most deadly routes to the European Union and we don’t actually know how many lives have been lost on this route. I think that was rightly pointed out by Mr López Aguilar. I have of course been to the Canary Islands, I have been to Morocco and I’ve been to Mauritania. We also need to work with our external partners to fight the human smugglers and to protect people’s lives.

I was asked questions on how we work on the external aspect of migration. I will be happy to answer that in the Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs (LIBE) or in a special debate here in the plenary. We have done a lot, but there is also a lot more that we need to do.

Many of you also mentioned Greece and the Greek islands. We also have a serious situation there with a lot of problems still to be addressed, but I must also say that I reacted when I heard that nothing has happened for a year. One year ago, we had 42 000 migrants on the Greek islands. Now there are around 15 000 – still too many of course, but actually things have improved. We have relocated migrants to the mainland, to other Member States, and we also have a programme for voluntary returns. The backlog on Greece assessing their asylum applications is close to zero. This is good, but I’ll be the first to say that a lot more has to be done. We do not of course have a satisfactory situation, but it’s not fair to say that nothing has happened.

Many of you have asked for the sustainable regulations to deal with a proper way of managing migration. We have these proposals on the table and I hope the Pact on Migration and Asylum can be adopted by both Parliament and the Council because we need that.

The last thing I would like to say is that, when listening to this debate, I think it’s important to point out one thing. Not everybody that wants to come to the European Union has the right to come here or to stay here. We welcome those in need of international protection and we welcome those regular migrants that come to the European Union, but let me make one thing crystal clear. We are talking about human beings. We are talking about people. All human beings have rights and dignity. Even if they don’t have the right to stay in the European Union, they have the right to be treated in line with their rights and their dignity. That is our obligation to our values and as human beings ourselves.

 
  
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  Ana Paula Zacarias, President-in-Office of the Council. – Madam President, I would like to thank you for this debate. The input coming from these discussions is important for us all to find answers to current challenges.

There is no doubt that the situation in our external border must be addressed, and in an effective and timely manner. As I have already stressed, we are committed to improving migrants’ conditions, especially those of vulnerable groups.

All the interventions coincide here today in the rejection of the dire situation where thousands of migrants and asylum seekers are living in our borders. This is not sustainable. We all worry about the fundamental and the humanitarian situation of migrants and refugees. This is what I’ve listened to in this noble assembly.

But I also listened to very divisive lines, when it comes to the analysis of the problem, the causes of the situation and the solutions we find.

Unfortunately, it is also difficult to reach consensus at the Council level. Nevertheless, I would like to reiterate that the Portuguese Presidency will look, will continue to reach out for solutions: focusing on implementation, focusing on a comprehensive approach to migration, looking into external relations, the need to find partnerships with other countries, so that we can save lives, so that we can fight the smugglers.

We will look into all these elements with the political will to try to find a consensus. We know that this is a European question, that needs a European coordinated response and we will continue to strive for solutions, always, always having in mind our basic fundamental values — these we need to respect.

 
  
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  Il-President. – Id-dibattitu ngħalaq.

Stqarrijiet bil-miktub (Artikolu 171)

 
  
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  Dominique Bilde (ID), par écrit. – Il est navrant que ce débat se soit focalisé sur la situation en Bosnie-Herzégovine, laquelle ne devrait pourtant soulever qu’une unique question: comment assurer un retour effectif des migrants qui ne répondent pas aux critères du droit d’asile?

Il ne s’agit pas de nier la tragédie humaine qui s’est jouée cet hiver dans ce pays. Rappelons simplement que, de l’aveu même d’un représentant de l’Organisation internationale pour les migrations au micro d’Euronews en 2018, 85 % des personnes présentes dans ces camps sont en réalité des migrants économiques. Une proportion notable d’entre eux vient du Pakistan, avec en toile de fond d’ailleurs des allégations de trafic de visas. Du reste, le représentant bosniaque de la présidence tripartite s’est rendu en novembre dans ce pays, confirmant l’ampleur du problème.

L’Union européenne est largement responsable de ce drame, du fait de son incapacité à assurer une protection efficace de ses frontières extérieures, et une fois encore, son action semble s’être bornée à déverser son aide humanitaire à fonds perdu. Par ailleurs, la volonté affichée par la présidence portugaise de mener à bien l’élargissement aux Balkans occidentaux ne fera qu’exacerber cet irrépressible appel d’air.

 
  
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  Joanna Kopcińska (ECR), na piśmie. – Komisja ogłosiła, że przeznaczy dodatkowe 3,5 miliona euro na pomoc humanitarną dla uchodźców znajdujących się w ciężkiej sytuacji w Bośni i Hercegowinie. Uchodźcy i migranci pozostają bez schronienia i wsparcia, po tym jak zamknięto ośrodek w Lipie. Od 2018 r. środki UE na ten cel wyniosły ogółem 13,8 mln euro, a łącznie na budowanie zdolności BiH w zakresie zarządzania migracjami – ponad 88 mln euro.

Pomimo wparcia trzeci rok z rzędu mamy do czynienia z kryzysem. Państwo to jest identyfikowane jako potencjalny kandydat do członkostwa w UE, pomimo że raport na temat BiH stwierdza, że BiH „jest na wczesnym etapie przygotowań w dziedzinie ochrony konsumentów i zdrowia publicznego”. Chcę podkreślić konieczność dalszych zdecydowanych działań w obszarze bezpieczeństwa granic zewnętrznych, w tym z udziałem agencji Frontex, oraz podkreślić rolę dalszej współpracy z państwami trzecimi w zakresie walki z przemytem.

W jaki sposób KE zmierza do stworzenia wyraźniejszej synergii wspomnianych inicjatyw oraz dodatkowo przyznanej pomocy, a przez to do skanalizowania jej w taki sposób, aby objąć uchodźców programem ochrony zdrowia, zwłaszcza że BiH przystąpiła do umowy UE w sprawie wspólnych zamówień i otrzymała od JRC materiały do kontroli testów na COVID-19, a także 7 mln euro z funduszy unijnych na zakup pilnie potrzebnego sprzętu medycznego?

 
  
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  Janina Ochojska (PPE), na piśmie. – Cieszę się, że ponownie dyskutujemy o sytuacji humanitarnej uchodźców. To pokazuje wagę, jaką Parlament przywiązuje do tej kwestii. Pomimo że temat poruszany był wielokrotnie, żadne konkretne rozwiązania nie zostały przyjęte. Kryzys migracyjny na szlaku śródziemnomorskim nadal pozostaje nierozwiązany, a ponadto mamy do czynienia z nowymi sytuacjami wymagającymi natychmiastowej reakcji, jak ta w obozie Lipa. Lokalne władze blokują rozmieszczenie uchodźców w pobliskim mieście Bihać, gdzie znajduje się ośrodek wyremontowany ze środków unijnych.

Sytuacja na wyspach greckich również jest niepokojąca. Co prawda liczba migrantów spadła tam z ponad 40 tys. do 15 tys., ale brakuje informacji o warunkach, w jakich przebywają uchodźcy w tzw. obozie Moria II na Lesbos, do którego pracownicy humanitarni mają zakaz wstępu. Nie można dokumentować tego, co w obozie się dzieje, i niewiele wiadomo o sytuacji epidemiologicznej. Ta sytuacja nie tylko godzi w prawa człowieka, ale też w godność poczynań i wagę UE.

Ostatnie lata pokazały, że cała odpowiedzialność za zarządzanie migracjami nie może spoczywać na pojedynczych krajach. Dlatego zadbajmy o to, aby pakt o azylu i migracji opierał się na sprawiedliwym podziale obciążeń i obowiązków między kraje członkowskie. Zadbajmy też o to, aby migranci na równych prawach mieli dostęp do szczepień przeciw COVID-19 w UE.

 
  
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  Monika Vana (Verts/ALE), schriftlich. – Wir dürfen uns nicht daran gewöhnen, dass Geflüchtete an den EU-Außengrenzen bei Minusgraden in unbeheizten, durchnässten Zelten eingepfercht sind und das Grenzpersonal mit brutaler Gewalt gegen Schutzsuchende vorgeht. Wir dürfen uns nicht daran gewöhnen, dass Frontex im Auftrag der EU völkerrechtswidrige Pushbacks an den Außengrenzen durchführt. Es ist längst überfällig, dass die Antikorruptionsbehörde OLAF die Misswirtschaft und Gewaltexzesse von Frontex genau unter die Lupe nimmt. Jedoch reichen die laufenden Untersuchungen der EU-Ombudsfrau O’Reilly und der Antikorruptionsbehörde sowie die Vertragsverletzungsverfahren gegen die ungarische Asylpolitik nicht aus, um die Missstände vollständig zu beseitigen. Mit dem Kommissionsvorschlag für einen neuen Asyl-und Migrationspakt ist derzeit auch keine substanzielle Verbesserung in Sicht. Wir müssen in der europäischen Asyl- und Migrationspolitik endlich ein neues Kapitel im Zeichen der Grundrechte und Solidarität aufschlagen! So wie es ist, darf es nicht bleiben! Die Situation an den EU-Außengrenzen wird sich erst dann entspannen, wenn ein europäischer Verteilungsschlüssel für Geflüchtete die EU-Erstaufnahmeländer entlastet und legale Einwanderungswege nach Europa bestehen. Kommissionspräsidentin von der Leyen und europäische Staats-und RegierungschefInnen, leiten Sie endlich die Evakuierung der Elendslager ein! Zeigen Sie endlich, dass Sie Grundrechte und Menschlichkeit nicht bloß bei Sonntagsreden predigen, sondern als expliziten Handlungsauftrag verstehen!

 
  
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  Bettina Vollath (S&D), schriftlich. – Die Situation an den EU-Außengrenzen ist katastrophal. Ich wiederhole mich seit Monaten, wenn nicht seit Jahren. Es kann nicht sein, dass Hunderte bis Tausende aus Not geflüchtete Menschen bei Eiseskälte ohne (Warm-)Wasser, ohne jegliche Versorgung, ja ohne ein Dach über dem Kopf ausharren müssen und dabei oft noch Gewalt ausgesetzt sind. Leider ist das aber die Realität, in Europa, an den Grenzen der Europäischen Union, die auf Werten wie Menschenwürde, Menschenrechten und Demokratie beruht. In erster Linie muss die Europäische Union endlich einsehen, dass auch sie die Verantwortung für diese Menschen an den Außengrenzen trägt und Länder wie Bosnien und Herzegowina nicht verurteilen, sondern tatkräftig unterstützen muss. Menschenwürdige Bedingungen und Unterbringungen sind dabei essenziell. Die Rechte auf Asyl und auf wirksame Beschwerde müssen immer gewährt sein, gegenüber jedem einzelnen Menschen. Illegale Pushbacks sind absolut inakzeptabel und müssen vollständig und unmittelbar eingestellt werden. Die dafür Verantwortlichen inklusive der EU-Institution Frontex müssen überprüft werden.

Ein weiteres Anliegen meinerseits ist die Verwendung von EU-Geldern. Es muss unbedingt sichergestellt werden, dass das Geld bei denjenigen ankommt, für die es gedacht ist. Als Union haben wir die rechtliche und die moralische Verpflichtung, Menschenrechte sowohl innerhalb als auch in unserer Nachbarschafts- und Außenpolitik zu gewährleisten.

 
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