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Menettely : 2020/2115(INI)
Elinkaari istunnossa
Asiakirjan elinkaari : A9-0269/2020

Käsiteltäväksi jätetyt tekstit :

A9-0269/2020

Keskustelut :

PV 19/01/2021 - 16
PV 19/01/2021 - 18
CRE 19/01/2021 - 16
CRE 19/01/2021 - 18

Äänestykset :

PV 20/01/2021 - 17
PV 21/01/2021 - 9

Hyväksytyt tekstit :

P9_TA(2021)0016

Puheenvuorot
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Tiistai 19. tammikuuta 2021 - Bryssel Lopullinen versio

18. EU:n ja Aasian yhteydet (jatkoa keskustelulle)
Puheenvuorot videotiedostoina
PV
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  Presidente. – Proseguiamo adesso con la discussione.

 
  
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  Seán Kelly, rapporteur for the opinion of the Committee on International Trade. – Mr President, I would like to thank the rapporteur and the shadows for this very good and balanced report. Mr Bütikofer, in particular, was a very knowledgeable, dedicated and accommodating rapporteur. As rapporteur for the opinion of the Committee on International Trade (INTA) on this file, I was glad we included many trade—related matters.

Asia is home to the world’s largest populations and fastest—growing economies, and EU trade policy should be instrumental in achieving the objectives of EU—Asia connectivity. We can build on our trade hugely with the ASEAN region by fulfilling the untapped potential of the region due to a lack of physical and digital infrastructure.

Deepening trade flows will strengthen economic resilience, grow competitiveness and diversify our supply chains. Resilience can be further bolstered through a trusted network of actors who can be reliable partners. In my opinion, this should also include starting a scoping exercise and impact assessment for opening negotiations for a bilateral investment agreement with Taiwan.

 
  
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  Ангел Джамбазки, докладчик по становището на комисията по транспорт и туризъм. – Г-н Председател, в качеството си на докладчик по становище от името на комисията по транспорт и туризъм, бих искал да благодаря на колегата Бютикофер и на колегите докладчици в сянка за текста на този доклад. Свързаността и отношенията между Европейския съюз и Азия безспорно са от стратегическо значение за Европа. От една страна за нас безспорно е икономически изгодно и полезно да поддържаме транспортни търговски и социални връзки с партньорите ни в югоизточна Азия, един от най-бързо проспериращите икономически региони в света. От друга страна обаче не бива да забравяме, че основен актьор на международната сцена в този азиатски регион е не друг, а системният противник на Европейския съюз, комунистически Китай.

Текстът на доклада отчита името на Китай като най-проблематично. Основен проблем за европейските компании остава достъпът, липсата на достъп до китайския пазар, липсата на равни условия за конкуренция. Като се има предвид откровеният цинизъм и затаяване на истината на комунистическата партия на Китай, що се отнася до първоначалното разпространение на китайския вирус, то е, меко казано, учудващо как в края на миналата година се стигна до инвестиционно споразумение между Европейския съюз и Китай, уважаеми господин Комисар.

Вместо на комунистическата партия на Китай да бъдат наложени икономически санкции, с които Пекин да отговаря за своите действия, които сринаха световната икономика и причиниха хаос на пазарите, ние наградихме тази комунистическа партия. Това е, меко казано, неразумно, бих казал безотговорно. Редно е европейците най-накрая да проумеят, че за разлика от страните от АСЕАН и Япония, Китай не може да бъде наречен наш приятел, а по-скоро наш конкурент. Китай е системен и мотивиран конкурент, за да не кажа противник, не само на Европейския съюз, но и на западната цивилизация като цяло. Ако не осъзнаем тази заплаха и не действаме подобаващо, рискуваме да загубим своята цивилизационна роля в световната история.

 
  
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  Olivér Várhelyi, Member of the Commission. – Mr President, I welcome the five main lines included in this substantive, timely and forward—looking report. Firstly, principles. I agree we must apply principles vigorously: sustainability in support of a green transition (climate, environmental, social, economic and fiscal), non-discrimination, global rules and a level playing field. A just transition, fundamental rights, security and good governance, full participation of partner countries in global value chains, and achieving sustainable development goals. Connectivity must promote normative excellence and sustainable investment.

Secondly, governance. Yes, we need strong wheels for the car. We also need fuel to finance it. EU and Member State cooperation is crucial. Our reinforced ‘Team Europe’ approach has proven its value already. As you have pointed out, the role of the private sector and civil society is also key. Global connectivity needs are massive: EUR 67 trillion of investment by 2040, as reckoned by the G20 global infrastructure hub. To meet these, the whole planet must make smart use of scarce resources.

Thirdly, we need to set clear priorities. Global changes since the strategy launch in 2018 must be taken into account. COVID-19 exposes opportunities, but also vulnerabilities, growing inter—dependence. I agree with the seven priorities identified: green transformation, transport, digitisation – this is very important as digital connectivity touches all our lives now – people-to-people contact, trade and international standardisation, health, and security.

We must continue to translate priorities into action. We must show rather than just tell. We will mainstream connectivity within the multiannual financial framework programming between 2021 and 2027. We will help to deliver the EU’s core strategic priorities, such as the Green Deal and the Digital Agenda.

The EU has already mobilised over EUR 10 billion for connectivity investments in Africa, and EUR 1.6 billion in Asia and the Pacific from 2016 to 2019. Moreover, connectivity is already a key pillar of our engagement with the Western Balkans. Success has made it more visible.

Fourthly, partnership for connectivity. I agree we must work harder to implement the EU-Japan connectivity partnership of 2019. We’re engaging with India and the ASEAN. Australia and the Republic of Korea reach out to us. We must work with our sister continent Africa and, as of tomorrow, we can work with the incoming US administration. Despite challenges, we should continue engaging with China, notably within the EU-China Connectivity Platform, always based on our norms and standards, principles and values.

Lastly, global scope. The current strategy spanning an arc from Lisbon to Tokyo must guide actions at the global level. I fully agree to address connectivity globally as part of our priorities. Actions support our global aims. The Europe-Latin America BELLA cable project, for example, presents commercial, developmental and strategic opportunities for our two continents and will be launched under the Portuguese Presidency. It makes sense to develop more such initiatives under a coherent global connectivity brand.

 
  
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  Andor Deli, on behalf of the PPE Group. – Mr President, first, as the shadow of the PPE Group, let me thank the rapporteur, Mr Bütikofer, for his openness during our work. I am convinced that with this report we have managed to prepare a pretty solid overview of the present situation. We have also provided points showing the way forward, with the European Strategic Planning and connectivity concerning Asia and even beyond.

But looking at its Annual Work Programme, it seems that the Commission does not plan to tackle this topic, although there are plenty of reasons to do so. If you look at the data, the EU is handing out the most grants in the world, yet it seems that our global influence is shrinking. In the meantime, our partners – and also our rivals – are doing the same work much more efficiently, achieving higher visibility for a lot less money.

Therefore the EU, and Europe as a whole, needs new strategic thinking and planning. We need greater synergy and better governance. We need a more focused and streamlined governance within the EU institutional framework, and we also need enhanced coordination between the EU and our Member States. Instead of sulking and criticising, we should take action and start being proactive and more assertive.

I remember that in the 90s, Europe was a clear economic leader, while Asian countries were mocked for being copycats. Now, 20 years later, I think that we should get off our moral high horse, forget about the good old days, and start diligently to copy the best practices that are lying around us and adapt them to our goals and needs in order to stop the sidelining and backsliding of Europe in this global strategic game.

 
  
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  Juozas Olekas, S&D frakcijos vardu. – Gerb. Pirmininke, mieli kolegos, Europos Sąjunga turi priemonių ir svertų vykdyti savo vystymo, ekonominę, mokslinio bendradarbiavimo ir kitas politikas užsienio partnerių atžvilgiu. Tačiau vis dar dažnai pasitaiko, kad šios skirtingos priemonės nėra tarpusavyje pakankamai derinamos. Todėl aš labai sveikinu šiandien mūsų diskutuojamą glaudesnių sąsajų bei ES ir Azijos santykių pranešimą. Ateityje glaudesnių santykių strategija turėtų tapti skirtingas bendradarbiavimo sritis apimanti ir viską koordinuojanti strategija.

Šiandien svarstomas pranešimas nubrėžia aiškesnes gaires Europos Sąjungos bendradarbiavimui su mūsų partneriais Azijoje. Tačiau ne mažiau svarbu, kad jis gali tapti Europos Sąjungos bendradarbiavimo pavyzdžiu ir su kitais pasaulio regionais. Tai turėtų būti visoms pusėms naudinga kooperacija, pagrįsta abipuse pagarba, skatinanti tvarų fiskalinį, ekonominį, socialinį ir aplinkosauginį ryšį.

Ne mažiau svarbus ir geriausios patirties, ir standartų perdavimas. Aš tvirtai tikiu, kad didesnis ES įsitraukimas, geriausios patirties perdavimas ir griežtesni standartai, pavyzdžiui, Vidurinės Azijos šalyse, gali duoti greitą, teigiamą ir aiškiai matomą poveikį.

Investicijų į infrastruktūrą poreikis Eurazijoje yra milžiniškas. Todėl būtų geriausia, kad ateityje ES glaudesnių sąsąjų ir Kinijos „Belt and Road“ iniciatyvos nekonkuruotų, o papildytų viena kitą. Manau, kad ES ir Azijos glaudesnių sąsajų ryšio strategija, skatindama aukštus standartus ir tvarumo reikalavimus, gali teigiamai paveikti ir Kinijos „Belt and Road“ iniciatyvą.

Sutinku, kad ES turėtų sujungti savo TEN-T geležinkelių tinklą su Azijos kelių tinklu, tačiau ne mažiau svarbu skirti reikiamą finansavimą ir užbaigti savo pradėtus TEN-T projektus, tokius kaip „Rail Baltica“.

 
  
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  Ilhan Kyuchyuk, on behalf of the Renew Group. – Mr President, let me reiterate and echo what Mr Bütikofer has done with his very comprehensive approach when it comes to this report, and thank him once again.

Indeed, I want to start by saying that connectivity is a key priority in the European Union’s work as a global actor. Asia is the biggest trade partner of the EU, and there is no doubt that we need an effective and sustainable strategy, including on connectivity, which is of economic as well as geopolitical importance.

The European Union and Asia account for 70% of the global population and 60% of the word’s GDP, with large parts of potential between both regions untapped due to a lack of physical and digital infrastructure.

Europe already has good examples of connectivity partnership with Japan, for example, and we should build on this and establish more such partnerships with other Asian countries.

Of course, the EU connectivity strategy must be based on the EU’s fundamental values and should serve the goals of our key policies, such as the European Green Deal, the digital transformation and the global promotion of human rights.

The European Parliament report that we debate today clearly underlines this, and it aims to connect people, to empower our continent and to connect partners to work together. This strategy is not reinventing a wheel, but it brings our efforts more strategically together and aims to tap into unused potential.

 
  
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  Thierry Mariani, au nom du groupe ID. – Monsieur le Président, la connectivité est en effet un sujet essentiel au cœur de la mondialisation. Plusieurs aspects techniques de ce rapport sont d’ailleurs pertinents: la nécessité de partenariats forts avec l’Inde ou l’Asie centrale, par exemple.

Ce rapport pèche cependant à mon avis par deux aspects. D’abord, il donne à l’Union européenne une importance qui écrase les nations. Nous ne parviendrons à faire avancer la coopération entre les États membres que quand l’Union européenne aura enfin compris qu’elle doit respecter la souveraineté des peuples européens. Mais l’autre grand défaut de ce rapport, c’est qu’il est prisonnier d’une idéologie libre-échangiste qui n’est pas d’actualité en Asie. Nous voyons bien que la Chine s’étend à l’extérieur, non pas parce qu’elle veut participer à la mondialisation, mais parce qu’elle veut simplement en tirer profit. Nous voyons bien que le Viêt Nam est heureux d’avoir un accord avec l’Union européenne, non pas pour améliorer son droit du travail, mais pour gagner des marchés. Nous voyons bien d’ailleurs que l’Union européenne fait une utilisation des droits de l’homme dans la région. En effet, pourquoi imposer des sanctions au Cambodge, tout en tirant un trait sur la défense des droits de l’homme chez ses voisins?

Par ailleurs, le sujet de la route de la soie est mal abordé. Ce grand projet est un signe évident de l’émergence d’un monde du multipolaire. Les relations avec la Chine comme avec la Russie ne peuvent pas ignorer ce développement. Nos relations avec les républiques d’Asie centrale, notamment le Kazakhstan et l’Ouzbékistan, ne peuvent pas ignorer ce changement non plus.

L’Union européenne devrait servir les intérêts des États membres, en accélérant ses relations avec les porteurs de projets. Oui donc à des progrès dans notre connectivité avec l’Asie, oui à des relations indépendantes et autonomes du point de vue atlantiste avec cette partie du monde, mais non à un rapport qui ne les aborde pas d’un point de vue réaliste.

 
  
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  Alviina Alametsä, on behalf of the Verts/ALE Group. – Mr President, human rights and the climate crisis cannot be forgotten in the context of EU—Asia cooperation. Over a million Uighur people are held in concentration camp—like conditions in China and face torture, fear, forced labour and sexual abuse. The EU must do everything in its power to end this crime against humanity.

This report on EU—Asia connectivity importantly calls for respect for human rights in all connectivity initiatives. I hope that this report can support the EU commitment to human rights in practice. For instance, transportation infrastructure should never be built with forced labour or without respect for minority rights. No cooperation should take place between the EU and actors involved in such violations. The report historically highlights human rights commitments to the Paris Agreement and railway connections to Asia, including EU—India cooperation.

Thank you for this work, dear colleagues, and to the rapporteur, Mr Bütikofer.

 
  
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  Idoia Villanueva Ruiz, en nombre del Grupo The Left. – Señor presidente, lo primero, quiero agradecer al señor Bütikofer su trabajo y su receptividad en esta propuesta. No podemos obviar las oportunidades de cooperación que ofrece la estrategia entre la Unión Europea y Asia.

La pandemia nos ha señalado la importancia de las respuestas coordinadas y la cooperación entre países. Esta propuesta promueve la conectividad como principio que busca esa cooperación. La Unión Europea tiene que mirar hacia Asia no como un rival sistémico, sino para buscar caminos para una cooperación sistémica. Para esto, la soberanía, la inclusividad, los derechos humanos, la acción climática, la sostenibilidad... deben atravesar esta estrategia.

Pero existe otro eje que es esencial: la justicia social. Celebramos que esta estrategia incluya los objetivos de la Agenda 2030 y que se haya incluido a los defensores de derechos humanos en su elaboración. La digitalización y la mejora de la infraestructura son un vector de desarrollo, pero también pueden provocar un crecimiento de desigualdad y de brecha digital económica y social. No queremos una conectividad a dos velocidades. La conectividad de vertebrar territorios y de tener en cuenta las necesidades de las personas de forma sostenible y no aumentando esta desigualdad. Esta propuesta es un primer paso.

 
  
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  Robert Hajšel (S&D). – Vážený pán predsedajúci. O hospodárskej spolupráci medzi Európou a Áziou, a najmä o jej obrovskom potenciáli neustále hovoríme, ale v praxi nám stále chýba potrebná prepojenosť infraštruktúry. Ázia bude dominovať tomuto svetu, či to chceme alebo nechceme. Ale my, ako Európska únia, sa musíme snažiť rozvíjať strategickú prepojenosť s Áziou, kde nejde len o Japonsko, Čínu alebo Kóreu. Ako podčiarkuje aj pandémia COVID-19 a ešte viac nevyhnutnosť spájania sa v boji proti klimatickým zmenám, my potrebujeme skutočnú stratégiu, ktorá nám toto prepájanie s Áziou umožní. Iba tak budú naši partneri a konkurenti vidieť v Európskej únii silného aktéra. My musíme investovať veľa úsilia do prepájania fyzickej a digitálnej infraštruktúry, dopravných sietí, ale aj do zdravia a globálnej bezpečnosti. Ale aby to neskončilo iba pri slovách, musíme vynaložiť aj adekvátne finančné zdroje. Nemôžeme zabúdať ani na Rusko či Turecko, ktoré zvykneme z viacerých dôvodov kritizovať, pretože aj oni sa chcú stať významnými aktérmi európsko-ázijského prepájania. Musíme byť pripravení s nimi spolupracovať všade, kde je to možné, a predchádzať tak realizovaniu rôznych netransparentných a pre nás nevýhodných projektov.

 
  
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  Nicola Danti (Renew). – Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, signor Commissario, la pandemia di COVID-19 ha messo in luce la necessità di promuovere un'autonomia strategica europea e, in particolare, di diversificare le catene di approvvigionamento rendendole pienamente resilienti.

In quest'ottica diviene ancora più importante sviluppare una connettività tra Unione europea e Asia che sia sempre più efficiente e sostenibile e che tenga conto anche delle potenzialità delle nuove rotte, come quella artica.

Una maggiore connettività porta con sé una naturale agevolazione del commercio e crea quindi opportunità di maggiore accesso ai rispettivi mercati, inclusi gli appalti e gli investimenti, e di dialogo su temi specifici come le sovvenzioni e la difesa dei diritti di proprietà intellettuale quale strumento per impedire l'ingresso delle merci contraffatte all'interno del mercato unico.

La cooperazione tra Unione europea e Asia in questo frangente non può tuttavia prescindere dalla necessità di forti impegni per lo sviluppo sostenibile, in materia ambientale e del lavoro, e per la difesa dei diritti umani, sui quali terremo alta l'attenzione.

 
  
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  Olivér Várhelyi, Member of the Commission. – Mr President, I believe that the coherent and meaningful EU connectivity strategy strengthens the role of the EU as an indispensable geo-political and geo-economic actor. Therefore I fully agree with the European Parliament proposals to uphold principles, improve governance and pursue priorities, forge partnerships which add value and articulate a global connectivity approach. Therefore I look forward to the EU hosting the next Europa Connectivity Forum.

 
  
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  Presidente. – La discussione è chiusa.

La votazione sugli emendamenti si svolgerà nella giornata di mercoledì 20 gennaio 2021, mentre la votazione finale si terrà giovedì 21 gennaio 2021.

 
Päivitetty viimeksi: 11. toukokuuta 2021Oikeudellinen huomautus - Tietosuojakäytäntö