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Procedură : 2021/2712(RSP)
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RC-B9-0324/2021

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P9_TA(2021)0294

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Marţi, 8 iunie 2021 - Strasbourg Ediţie revizuită

12. Situația din Afganistan (dezbatere)
Înregistrare video a intervenţiilor
PV
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  Die Präsidentin. – Als nächster Punkt der Tagesordnung folgt die Aussprache über die Erklärung des Vizepräsidenten der Kommission und Hohen Vertreters der Union für Außen- und Sicherheitspolitik zur Lage in Afghanistan (2021/2712(RSP)).

 
  
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  Josep Borrell Fontelles, Vice-President of the Commission / High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy. – Madam President, after Belarus we go to Afghanistan, which is another place where there is not a lot of room for optimism, but even if there is not room for optimism we have to continue being engaged. We have to continue being engaged in a country where a lot of civilian casualties have been happening and 40% of those casualties are women or children.

Today, the US and NATO troops are withdrawing from the country. Troops from European Member States will also withdraw. The peace process is largely stalled and violence continues. We see an appalling rate of civilian casualties, as I said, 40% of them are women and children, and targeted killing of civil society activists, media workers and public servants. I am afraid this violence might further increase in the near future.

The security situation in Afghanistan is evolving quickly. The Taliban control more than half of the country’s territory and increasingly have less incentive to compromise, so the short-term prospects for a peace deal look bleak. However, the Taliban know that a large part of the Afghan population does not share their convictions and that ethnic and religious cleavages may come out to the fore in the absence of a negotiated peace settlement. Therefore, I wish to underline that the European Union will make every effort to support the peace process and remain a committed partner to the Afghan people. Of course we have to take into account the evolving situation, but this engagement is not an option. It is not an option for many reasons. First, because for over two decades, over the last 20 years, we have invested significant political capital and financial resources to support Afghanistan’s stability and development and also we have lost quite an important number of lives of our soldiers.

The gains of our assistance have been prominent with regard to human rights and the empowerment of women. I want to stress the importance that during these last 20 years, Afghan women have been increasing their rights and getting out of the medieval times in which they were under the Taliban regime. But these achievements can be very much jeopardised. These achievements are in danger because Afghanistan today is at a crossroads. They are living in critical times and in order to safeguard the achievements of the Afghan people during these years, we have to continue being engaged and to provide new perspectives for the Afghan citizens when – finally, we hope – an agreement will be obtained under the Doha negotiations.

Second, because our strategic interests are also at stake. Independently of the troop withdrawal, political and civilian assistance, disengagement from Afghanistan would not serve our interests. A collapse in the democratic order in Afghanistan or massive backtracking on human rights – and once again I want to stress the importance of the rights of women – could lead, among others, to a new surge on international terrorism, to further forced displacement and irregular migration – too often in the hands of traffickers – and to the greater magnitude of the illicit trade in narcotics. So there cannot be tolerance for Afghanistan becoming a safe haven again for international terrorism.

We are currently in intense discussions with our Member States, with the US, with NATO and the United Nations, on the absence of essential security conditions for our continued diplomatic presence. It would be difficult to keep it. We need hospitals and airports if we want to continue being there. These come on top of the pledges of NATO partners to continue their support to the Afghan National Defence Forces under the Afghan National Army Trust Fund.

Let’s go back to the peace process. We are clear on that. There is no alternative to a negotiated political settlement through inclusive peace talks. This also means that there can be no sanction relief for members of the Taliban at the United Nations Security Council without a genuine commitment on their part to the peace process through a permanent and comprehensive ceasefire and substantial progress in the peace negotiations. I do have to stress our interest in a stable Afghanistan with a development perspective being shared by all countries of the region who also need to play a constructive role in this peace process and with whom we will step up our cooperation.

Which is our main leverage in the current situation? Well, this is our continuing political and financial support. It has to be made clear to the Afghan Government and the Taliban that this support is and will continue to be conditional upon the preservation of the country’s human rights and democratic achievements, and this support is not pennies. During the last 20 years it has represented EUR 3.5 billion of development assistance. This report has to be conditional – I insist – on the preservation of human rights and democratic achievements, tangible progress in improving governance, in particular anti-corruption, but also on the access of women to education and to the political and social life.

The challenges are massive, we know. That’s why we have to continue with our engagement with the Afghan people in order to prevent them losing all that they have won in these last 20 years. And I want to insist especially on what Afghan women have won. I was looking at a video before coming to this debate – from Staffan de Mistura, one of the people who have done more for Afghanistan because he has been the Special Envoy of the United Nations there – where the young girls and women in Afghanistan were trying to counterbalance the Taliban raising their Kalashnikovs by raising their pens. Raising their pens in order to claim their right to school, their right to education. Because the education of women is the basis of a civilised society, because when you educate a human being, you educate a human being. When you educate a woman you educate a family. You educate more than one woman. The multiplier effect of education for women is impressive. And when I see these young girls raising up their pencils I think that all of us we should raise up our pencils and our engagement with the Afghan people and especially with Afghan women.

 
  
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  Rasa Juknevičienė, on behalf of the PPE Group. – Madam President, when I visited Lithuanian soldiers, the women of Afghanistan impressed me the most. You are right to give special mention to women. I am sure that the future of this country will depend on them. One of the most important indicators of where this country will move in the post-war period is the position of women in Afghan society. The number of girls attending schools has increased from zero in 2001 to 3 million in 2021. The total number of children attending schools has increased from 0.9 million to 8 million today.

The EU must continue to play an important role in the country’s reconstruction. The projects launched must be continued, and Afghanistan must be given a prominent place in the new European global instrument. Peace agreements are still very fragile. The surrounding states will try to strengthen their influence. But Afghan women, I know, look at us with hope. We should help them become fully fledged owners of their country.

 
  
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  Elena Yoncheva, au nom du groupe S&D. – Monsieur le Président, la guerre en Afghanistan est de retour. Les talibans construisent leurs prochains bastions et gagnent à nouveau le contrôle dans certaines parties du pays. Il y a une vague de violence imparable contre les civils.

Après 20 ans d’intervention internationale, malgré de nombreuses améliorations, l’Afghanistan ne peut pas être considéré comme une véritable réussite. Le trafic de drogue et d’armes illégales vers les organisations terroristes reste au plus haut niveau. La production d’opium a atteint 6 300 tonnes sur une superficie totale de 224 000 hectares. C’est presque le territoire du Luxembourg, on peut imaginer. Aujourd’hui, l’Afghanistan produit trois fois plus de drogue qu’à l’époque des talibans, et la production de drogue est également une menace pour la sécurité de l’Union européenne.

Il est maintenant temps de repenser nos politiques. L’Union européenne ne peut plus se limiter à l’aide économique, mais doit agir en tant qu’acteur mondial dans la région.

 
  
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  Petras Auštrevičius, on behalf of the Renew Group. – Madam President, High Representative, dear colleagues, the withdrawal of the allied troops will be a testing momentum for Afghanistan, the Afghan people and for all of us. The European Union must remain the guarantor of maintaining and continuing these so hard-won achievements in the past 20 years. Since 2002, nine million Afghan children were brought to schools, healthcare services were provided to more than 90% of the territory, which have allowed to reduce the newborn mortality rate by half.

We need a comprehensive strategy for future cooperation with Afghanistan. The European Union development aid has to be conditioned to respecting women’s rights, their education and participation in public life, as well as the protection of the rights of children and minorities. Continuing fight against corruption, ensuring good governance and transparent use of financial support are equally important. This must be an EU condition, not a hopeful wish.

The danger that the Taliban could become the dominant political force is of particular concern. Transition to a new political reality after the peace process must bring reconciliation and stability, otherwise we will witness another wave of insecurity followed by divisions and emigration.

 
  
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  Erik Marquardt, im Namen der Verts/ALE-Fraktion.– Frau Präsidentin! Ich glaube, dass man angesichts der schlimmen Nachrichten aus Afghanistan in den letzten Monaten nicht vergessen darf, was alles erreicht wurde – bei Frauenrechten, bei der Bildung, auch ökonomisch – seit 2001.

Es ist richtig, dass wir als Europäische Union Afghanistan weiter unterstützen. Es ist aber auch richtig, dass die Lage sehr besorgniserregend ist und dass die Errungenschaften der letzten 20 Jahre in Gefahr sind. Jeden Tag gibt es neue Anschläge, es droht eine Hungersnot, über zehn Millionen Menschen sind inzwischen schon auf humanitäre Hilfe angewiesen. Hunderttausende sind innerhalb des Landes auf der Flucht, und mehrere Millionen Menschen sind aus Afghanistan geflohen.

Afghanistan ist das unfriedlichste Land der Welt, und die Corona-Pandemie trifft das Land schwer. Nur ein geringer Anteil der Menschen flieht nach Europa, aber diejenigen, die fliehen, haben große Chancen, auch Asyl in Europa zu bekommen. Ich finde es – angesichts der Nachrichten, die uns erreichen – wirklich umso unverständlicher, dass wir nach Afghanistan abschieben und ein neues Rückführungsabkommen beschlossen haben. Es ist gerade eine neue Studie erschienen: 70 % der Menschen, die aus Europa abgeschoben wurden, sind bereits wieder aus Afghanistan geflohen.

Ich glaube, dass wir angesichts der Entwicklung und des Truppenabzugs vor allem – oder sagen wir wenigstens – zwei Dinge tun sollten. Erstens: Ich glaube, wir müssen die Ortskräfte unterstützen, die jetzt auch von dem Truppenabzug betroffen sind. Es kann nicht sein, dass sich Leute über Jahrzehnte für uns engagiert haben, für uns gearbeitet haben und nun von den Taliban bedroht werden. Und ich glaube, wenn uns das Schicksal Afghanistans wirklich so wichtig ist, sollten wir Abschiebungen nach Afghanistan stoppen.

 
  
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  Bernhard Zimniok, im Namen der ID-Fraktion. – Frau Präsidentin, werte Kollegen! Die Lage in Afghanistan ist, kurz gesagt, katastrophal. Es dürfte allen hier Anwesenden klar sein, dass die Taliban in absehbarer Zeit wieder die Kontrolle über ihr Land übernehmen werden. Was aber den meisten ja offensichtlich nicht klar zu sein scheint, sind die Konsequenzen, die wir für unsere Entwicklungshilfe daraus ziehen müssen – hat die EU dem Land doch tatsächlich weitere 1,5 Milliarden Euro für die nächsten Jahre zugesagt! Glaubt denn einer ernsthaft, dass die Taliban eine Projektbindung der Mittel respektieren werden? Das ist Geschichte!

Frauenrechte oder Schulbesuche für Mädchen gehören dann leider der Vergangenheit an. Die EU finanziert ab dann einfach nur noch eine islamistische Terrororganisation. Aber darin hat die EU ja schon Übung – siehe Hamas. Und genau wie bei den palästinensischen Terroristen unterstützt sie dann eine rückständige mittelalterliche Ideologie namens Islam. Unsere Entwicklungspolitik muss sich endlich der Realität anpassen. Diese Art der Geldverbrennung muss endlich ein Ende haben!

 
  
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  Mick Wallace, on behalf of The Left Group. – Madam President, today, the Taliban are sweeping Afghanistan, taking control of multiple government control districts. Hundreds of people have been killed in the past few days alone. The US has supported the Mujahideen in Afghanistan, the Contra death squads in Nicaragua, al-Qaeda in Syria and Yemen and neo—Nazis in Ukraine. As the current national security adviser, Jake Sullivan, famously wrote to Hillary Clinton in 2011, ‘al-Qaeda is on our side in Syria’.

What NATO has done to Afghanistan is a crime against humanity. The US couldn’t tolerate the old socialists stepping in to run the country after the Taliban. Instead of allowing independence, NATO and the CIA empowered drug-running militias and warlords to try to keep control of the countryside. They killed countless civilians, spawned more armed opposition and created millions of refugees in the process.

There is no central government in Afghanistan. Twenty years of this and we’re watching a civil war in motion. This is your democracy and human rights promotion in practice. The situation of women in Afghanistan was better 40 years ago, but that was before the US and Saudi armed the Mujahideen.

 
  
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  Pedro Marques (S&D). – Madam President, the Afghan people have been living in a desperate situation for decades now. Political and religious violence, severe discrimination against women and disrespect for basic human rights are far from having been eradicated, and it’s hard to be optimistic about the future given the recent developments on the ground, as we have talked about at length.

Increased violence has sparked fears that things may get even worse. The United States announced its full withdrawal from Afghanistan, followed by NATO. There is a high risk of increased violence. Therefore, the international community cannot just wait and see what will come after this. The EU and its Member States and the USA must remain engaged in the peace efforts, supporting the Afghan authorities and promoting regional cooperation through a multilateral framework. The international community cannot turn a blind eye to Afghanistan and abandon it to its fate. There are millions of lives at stake.

 
  
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  María Soraya Rodríguez Ramos (Renew). – Señora presidenta, «no comerciaré con nuestra libertad para llegar a un acuerdo». Estas palabras fueron pronunciadas por Fawzia Koofi, política y activista afgana, que es una de las cuatro mujeres que están en la mesa de negociación de Doha ⸻cuatro de diecisiete miembros⸻. Demuestran una gran valentía. Acababa de salir de un atentado, y esto demuestra lo difícil que es mantener la esperanza de paz después de tantos años de conflicto viendo cómo, a pesar de estas negociaciones, la violencia se incrementa.

La retirada de las tropas indudablemente hace crítico este momento. Y en ese sentido, la Unión Europea tiene que desempeñar un papel para garantizar que la salida de las tropas no devuelva a las mujeres y a las niñas afganas a las condiciones del año 2000. Se ha avanzado mucho; sin embargo, el avance es frágil: en las ciudades las mujeres están en la universidad, son policías, pero en las áreas rurales no se ha avanzado en sus derechos, incluso algunas veces se ha ido para atrás. Por lo tanto, mantengamos nuestra posición y no dejemos que los derechos de las mujeres estén en la mesa de negociación.

 
  
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  Maria Arena (S&D). – Madame la Présidente, Monsieur le Haut Représentant, je ferai comme vous, je commencerai par soulever mon stylo en soutien à la campagne «Raise your pen» pour l’éducation des femmes en Afghanistan.

Alors que la coalition internationale prépare son départ de l’Afghanistan, les talibans, eux, s’organisent pour reprendre leur pouvoir. C’est l’hypothèse la plus sombre pour ces milliers de femmes qui ont vu leur futur, un monde plus libre dans le futur, qui risque de se refermer à leurs dépens. Notre soutien au pays et notre engagement sont nécessaires, vous l’avez dit, mais ils sont nécessaires à la condition de l’inclusivité des femmes dans ce processus. On ne peut parler d’inclusion si 50 % de la population afghane est exclue de ce processus de paix à l’intérieur de l’Afghanistan.

Nous questionnerons ce futur afghan en sous-commission «droits de l’homme» avec des femmes afghanes et nous ne manquerons pas, Monsieur le Haut représentant, de vous communiquer les résultats de ces travaux.

 
  
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  Josep Borrell Fontelles, Vice-President of the Commission / High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy. – Madam President, once again, I agree with all of you, it is difficult to say a different thing. But let’s be realistic. It’s going to be hard and we will have to show political will. We want to continue engaging with Afghanistan because once the Western troops will be withdrawn, it is going to be a difficult situation for the Afghan people. So we have to be engaging with them and to give support on the way that you have been asking in this debate today.

Let’s try to be able, let’s try to be committed with these people, because it’s true, 20 years of war, a lot of lives lost, a lot of money invested for nothing. We have to try to avoid that all the social progress that the Afghan people have been getting will be lost.

And once again I want to stress the importance and the interest of the situation of women. I see a lot of women in the Parliament. I see a lot of women in government. I see a lot of women working, doing sport. I see three million girls in school. But there are still two million girls who don’t go to school. Two million! Can you imagine – half of the female children don’t go to school. Let’s try to avoid that the other half who are now going to school will lose this. Because in this case, Afghanistan will go back to the medieval ages and it’s our responsibility to try to avoid it.

 
  
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  Die Präsidentin. – Die Aussprache ist geschlossen.

Die Abstimmung findet am Donnerstag, 10. Juni 2021, statt.

Schriftliche Erklärungen (Artikel 171)

 
  
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  Dominique Bilde (ID), par écrit. – L’Afghanistan est un cas limite, qui démontre l’impasse de l’aide internationale. Ce pays, qui était en 2018-2019 le deuxième bénéficiaire mondial de l’aide publique au développement, aura reçu de l’Union européenne quatre milliards d’euros depuis 2002. Si on prend en compte les États membres, ce chiffre atteint 16 milliards d’euros depuis 2007. Or, aucun véritable progrès n’aura été accompli, que ce soit en ce qui concerne la culture de l’opium ou le sort réservé aux femmes, les rares améliorations risquant d’être réduites à néant par un éventuel retour des Talibans au pouvoir. Que l’on songe par exemple aux récentes allégations relatives à l’exclusion des femmes de certains programmes humanitaires dans les zones sous contrôle taliban. Enfin, deux aspects de cette question concernent directement nos concitoyens : d’une part, le devenir des fonds européens accordés à l’Afghanistan, d’autre part, la situation migratoire. Sur le premier point, il faudra faire la pleine lumière sur la gestion de l’aide déployée pour les besoins de la lutte contre la COVID-19. Sur le deuxième, alors que l’accord migratoire de 2016 vient d’être renouvelé, les Européens attendent enfin des résultats concrets s’agissant du contrôle et des rapatriements de migrants.

 
Ultima actualizare: 20 septembrie 2021Aviz juridic - Politica de confidențialitate