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Procedura : 2019/2171(INI)
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Dokument w ramach procedury : A9-0185/2021

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A9-0185/2021

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PV 23/06/2021 - 19
CRE 23/06/2021 - 19

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Środa, 23 czerwca 2021 r. - Bruksela Wersja poprawiona

19. Sprawozdania dotyczące Bośni i Hercegowiny za lata 2019–2020 (debata)
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  Puhemies. – Esityslistalla on seuraavana Paulo Rangelin ulkoasiainvaliokunnan puolesta laatima mietintö Bosnia ja Hertsegovinaa koskevista vuosien 2019 ja 2020 komission kertomuksista [2019/2171(INI)] (A9-0185/2021).

 
  
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  Paulo Rangel, rapporteur. – Madam President, Bosnia and Herzegovina is, by history and geography, at the heart of Europe. Ethnic and religious diversity is at the core of the European Union’s DNA, and so the future integration of Bosnia and Herzegovina could not be more natural. The European Parliament is a strong supporter of Bosnia and Herzegovina’s European path. We want Bosnia and Herzegovina to progress in its way to the European Union and fully commit to the genuine reconciliation that warrants the democratic and multicultural character of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

It is clear that deep reforms are still to be implemented in order for Bosnia and Herzegovina to reach their aspired candidate status. However, taking into account the particularly acute situation caused by COVID—19, some progress was made, and here let me underline the elections in Mostar. For 12 years, people were not able to vote in local elections and the city was left without a local government. Last year, political leaders found ground for compromise and Mostar citizens were heard last December. Furthermore, our parliamentary dialogue was finally re—established. After years of not being able to meet, the EU—Bosnia and Herzegovina Stabilisation and Association Parliamentary Committee finally met last week, and we were able to restart an essential parliamentary cooperation.

There is a lot to do regarding the implementation of the 14 key priorities. We know that it’s a long way. Nonetheless, I truly believe that Bosnia and Herzegovina can achieve more and deliver faster results. To give one example – a good one – authorities have started the debate on the constitutional and electoral reform. We know how demanding such changes are, but if there is political will and commitment they will be able to succeed.

I hope – we hope – that this work, with the support of the European Union and the United States, can bring the Constitution and electoral law into line with EU standards before the 2022 general elections, ensuring an adequately diverse political representation at all levels of governance. It is high time for all constituent peoples and all citizens in Bosnia and Herzegovina to have their democratic representation fully ensured, complying with European Court of Human Rights decisions and European standards in this very sensitive area. It is possible and it is feasible. Again, it is a matter of will.

Bosnia and Herzegovina is not the only multi—ethnic state in Europe. Future reform must guarantee absolute respect for the multicultural and pluralistic nature of the country, whilst ensuring a functional and viable democracy where all the peoples and all the citizens are equal. A solution must be found within a broad and inclusive debate and dialogue in the country, having in mind that, for it to be possible and sustainable, all the three peoples must embrace it.

Let me kindly and humbly remind you that all leaders and authorities must be clear when explaining the advantages of EU integration and make sure our support is known by the people, namely the economic recovery assistance and the efforts to create better conditions for young people to stay in the country.

Continuing efforts on meaningful, genuine reconciliation with the troubled past of Bosnia and Herzegovina are crucial. You know that there is a particular field which we all must work on: education. A reform of the education system must take place, namely by warranting equal education for all children and young people, ending any segregation. It’s never too much to say: rule of law reforms are urgent. There has been no progress in the judicial area, which deeply undermines society’s trust in the institutions.

The fight against corruption must be a focus of all authorities. Effective and comprehensive country—wide human rights and anti—discrimination strategies, as well as measures against interfaith and inter—ethnic intolerance are also needed, especially when talking about vulnerable minorities.

We know that migratory pressure is a matter of great concern for all of us. Better coordination and burden sharing should be ensured across the country to build up the capacities to manage the thousands of migrants and asylum seekers. I am also thinking of the brain—drain on the economy and of the citizens of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

This resolution is also an act of faith. We believe in the Bosnian peoples and citizens. We believe in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and we believe in the European vocation and future of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

 
  
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  Ana Paula Zacarias, President-in-Office of the Council. – Madam President, honourable Members, Commissioner, allow me to begin in Portuguese since I would like to congratulate the rapporteur Paulo Rangel in my national language.

– Senhor Deputado, gostaria de começar por manifestar o meu reconhecimento pelo seu trabalho e empenho enquanto relator deste importante relatório sobre a Bósnia e Herzegovina.

A Presidência Portuguesa do Conselho investiu uma importante dose de energia política no dossiê do alargamento e no processo de estabilização e associação, e ontem tivemos a ocasião de debater o tema no Conselho de Assuntos Gerais, no Luxemburgo, e organizar as primeiras conferências intergovernamentais políticas com o Montenegro e com a Sérvia ao abrigo da nova metodologia do alargamento. Além disso gostaria de saudar aqui o importante acordo alcançado com o Parlamento Europeu, em sede do trílogo sobre o Regulamento IPA III, um instrumento que esperamos possa entrar em aplicação nos próximos meses, apoiando os países beneficiários, incluindo a Bósnia e Herzegovina.

I will switch now back to English to recall our unequivocal commitment to Bosnia and Herzegovina’s European perspective as a single, united and sovereign country. That said, the country’s progress towards the European Union depends on its efforts to comply with the required membership criteria. The country needs to fulfil the 14 key priorities identified in the Commission’s opinion endorsed by the Council in 2019.

The Council has urged all political actors to overcome divisive and secessionist rhetoric rooted in the past, to end the glorification of convicted war criminals and to demonstrate full cooperation with international tribunals by respecting their decisions. The recent final decision on the Mladić case is important also in this context.

Overall, Bosnia and Herzegovina has achieved limited progress on reform over the past year, despite some new momentum and some positive steps taken recently. The Council shares the rapporteur’s assessment that it is now necessary to start addressing reforms aimed at fundamentally improving the legislative and institutional framework and to comply with the requirements for EU membership in several areas. It is also of particular relevance to improve the functioning of the judiciary and the fight against organised crime and corruption.

While we welcome last year’s holding of the first local elections in Mostar since 2008, as you mentioned, further constitutional and electoral reforms are needed to ensure the equality and non—discrimination of citizens. In this regard, we noted that the constitution remains uncompliant with the European Convention on Human Rights.

The Council also shares your position that Bosnia and Herzegovina should take the necessary steps to guarantee freedom of expression and media freedom and ensure the protection of journalists. A safe and enabling environment for civil society is essential to ensure the necessary support to the reforms to the European path.

The Council has welcomed Bosnia and Herzegovina’s continued active participation in missions and operations under the common security and defence policy. However, we are seriously concerned that the country’s rate of alignment with the common foreign and security policy has dropped this year.

The impact of COVID—19 has led to a sharp drop in economic activity in Bosnia—Herzegovina and in the region, with a severe impact on social cohesion and on the most vulnerable groups. The Union will continue to provide much-needed assistance in the Western Balkans, including to Bosnia and Herzegovina, and all the three institutions remain committed to further cooperation with and support to our partners in the region.

 
  
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  Olivér Várhelyi, Member of the Commission. – Madam President, honourable Members, dear rapporteur Rangel, this debate is the last in the series discussing the reports of 2019-2020 of the Commission enlargement packages, concluding a very intensive period of exchanges we had over the past months on a range of issues.

In this context, before turning to Bosnia and Herzegovina, let me first thank the two co—rapporteurs, Željana Zovko and Tonino Picula, as well as the whole EP negotiating team for the work on the Instrument for Pre—Accession Assistance, also known as IPA III, because the political deal we reached at the beginning of this month is a balanced compromise on an important instrument that will deliver assistance to the enlargement region and allow us to kick—start the implementation of the economic and investment plan for the Western Balkans.

The plan will upgrade infrastructure, support businesses and accelerate the green and digital transformation of the Western Balkans. For Bosnia and Herzegovina, this means investments in key infrastructure such as the Corridor Vc highway and railway, road connections to Serbia and Montenegro, and gas and electricity transmission networks with neighbouring countries. The demining of the River Sava will also help boost inland waterway trade and to get over the past of the Balkan wars.

During the last plenary debates, I gave you a short update on our COVID—19 assistance to our Western Balkan partners, so let me provide you with some figures regarding Bosnia and Herzegovina. Since the beginning of the pandemic, we redirected EUR 80.5 million in grants for immediate needs and socio—economic response to the pandemic. We also secured macro—financial assistance of EUR 250 million under very favourable loans, and it was ratified by Bosnia and Herzegovina just recently, on 9 June.

The continued delivery of EU—funded vaccines is a sign of EU solidarity. With the support of Austria we are delivering 651 000 doses of COVID—19 vaccines from Pfizer. Out of this, 213 822 Pfizer BioNTech doses are arriving in Bosnia and Herzegovina in regular tranches from May to August. They will help to immunise frontline healthcare workers and other vulnerable groups.

COVAX, which we support financially, has also been steadily delivering doses – 191 000 doses so far to Bosnia and Herzegovina only. Additionally, the country also received 30 000 doses from Croatia and 4 500 doses from Slovenia. We will not stop here, and we will continue mobilising more and more EU Member States to share additional vaccines as soon as they become available. Several Member States have already announced upcoming donations to vaccines to the Western Balkans.

Honourable Members, let me now turn to the Bosnia and Herzegovina report. First, I would like to thank our rapporteur, Mr Rangel, for the hard work and continued commitment towards that country. Since the last European Parliament report on Bosnia and Herzegovina in 2018, the Commission adopted in 2019 its opinion – an analytical report on the country’s application for EU membership – identifying 14 key priorities to be fulfilled ahead of opening accession negotiations. The EU Council endorsed these key priorities in December 2019, and the Commission reported for the first time on their implementation in its enlargement package only last year. We will report again on them this autumn, of course.

Bosnia and Herzegovina has made some significant steps on its EU path, but most substantive issues remain pending. As I have told the political leaders of Bosnia and Herzegovina over the past year, we in the Commission are ready to deliver, including on candidate status, provided that Bosnia and Herzegovina also delivers with results on fulfilling the 14 key priorities. I keep my promise. If Bosnia and Herzegovina’s leaders deliver, we are delivering.

The country should make the most of the months ahead to demonstrate that it takes EU integration seriously. That includes launching a debate on constitutional reform, especially electoral reforms and the adoption of judicial reforms.

As other EU candidate countries before it, Bosnia and Herzegovina needs to amend its constitution to comply with the requirements of EU membership. This means compliance with the European Court of Human Rights’ rulings and ensuring equal representation in the country for all. It also means ensuring the functionality of state institutions so that they are able to effectively participate in EU decision—making and to enforce the EU acquis. This is an ambitious task that cannot be delayed any further.

The reform is difficult and sensitive and will need the constructive engagement of all political leaders to make it a success. In this regard, it should be acknowledged as a first step in the right direction that the Interagency Working Group started discussing electoral constitutional reforms in May this year. The working group provides a forum for inclusive and transparent discussions.

Regarding the rule of law, several reforms are pending as concerns integrity of the judiciary, more precisely amendments to the law on the High Judicial and Prosecutorial Council, as well as concerning the conflict of interest and public procurement. This package of laws is about aligning with EU acquis and preventing corruption. We expect all parties to support it to demonstrate that they are serious in their commitments. To advance on its EU path, the political leaders also need to put a stop to negative rhetoric and denial of war crimes and genocide, which is unacceptable.

Finally, let me reiterate that Bosnia and Herzegovina’s future is within the EU as a single, united and sovereign country. The divisive rhetoric of the past months needs to stop. Political representatives must focus on the much needed reforms to recover from the pandemic and on the changes that Bosnia and Herzegovina citizens are expecting.

 
  
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  Željana Zovko, on behalf of the PPE Group. – Madam President, I should like to thank the Commissioner very much for his nice words on adopting IPA III. Yes, it is a very good instrument that might help the Western Balkans and maybe Bosnia and Herzegovina.

In one minute, it is very difficult to say what will be the future of Bosnia and Herzegovina. I have here a colleague, Klemen Grošelj, who shared the same past 30 years ago. Milošević tried to abolish one people – a few people; we know how it resulted. There are some in this Parliament who are trying to abolish constituent people from Bosnia and Herzegovina. Reality. I’m just warning you, once this resulted in a really bad tragedy. Now people are leaving, young people are leaving. It’s quite a shame that we are going against resolutions. Six years we were trying to put Bosnia and Herzegovina on the real path. If the constituent people concept is taken out of this resolution, I must say that we have not learned anything in these 30 years. And it’s a real shame.

I’m a girl from Mostar, and in the memory of Cutileiro, maybe the Portuguese delegation should remember what he tried to do.

 
  
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  Dietmar Köster, on behalf of the S&D Group. – Madam President, Bosnia and Herzegovina belongs to Europe. Therefore we are calling on the Member States to finally grant Bosnia and Herzegovina candidate status.

Parliament’s report assesses that Bosnia and Herzegovina has made some progress, but there is still some way to go. The country must overcome its ethnic tensions. We underline the need for constitutional and electoral reforms to eliminate corruption. We must strengthen media freedoms, civil rights and fundamental rights for all. No discrimination against people because of their ethnicity, gender or sexual orientation can be accepted. We are fighting for a prosperous Bosnia and Herzegovina with strong social cohesion and social justice that will improve the everyday life of the ordinary people. Bosnia and Herzegovina needs a public administration reform so that the different levels of state can function properly.

I urge the authorities for progress regarding the situation of the refugees who are stuck in Bosnia and Herzegovina. They must be treated in line with international norms. Sanitary facilities, food supply, access to the health system and proper accommodation must be granted. And I want to be crystal clear: pushbacks and violating international law must be stopped at the external EU borders. In the end, I think we should adopt this report.

 
  
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  Klemen Grošelj, v imenu skupine Renew. – Gospa predsednica! Bosna in Hercegovina je posebna država, morda bi nekateri rekli celo kompleksna država. Predvsem je država, ki je utemeljena na mirovnem sporazumu iz Daytona in katerega prioriteta ni bila to, kako bo država delovala, ampak kako doseči mir. A kot priča pričujoče poročilo pred nami, ki ga bomo potrjevali, je država in tudi mi Evrpejci, Bosna in Hercegovina pred pomembno izbiro.

Ali bo to država, ki je utemeljena na etničnih in drugih delitvah, ali pa bo to država, katere prihodnost bo utemeljena na vrednotah in načelih, na katerih temelji Evropska unija, torej na načelih, s katerimi so evropski narodi presegli delitve preteklosti.

Prihodnost Bosne in Hercegovine je v Evropi. To je naša moralna odgovornost in politična priložnost. A zato so potrebne nujne reforme, strnjene v štirinajstih točkah Evropske komisije. Gotovo prva med njimi je celovita in vključujoča volilna reforma in spremembe ustave, ki morajo temeljiti na sodbah Evropskega sodišča za človekove pravice in drugih pristojnih mednarodnih in nacionalnih institucij. Nikakor pa si ne želimo sporazuma, ki bo podoben sporazumu, ki je omogočil mostarske lokalne volitve in ki je predvsem utrdil že obstoječe ter ponudil nove delitve.

Samo tako modernizirana in reformirana bo Bosne in Hercegovine država vseh svojih državljank in državljanov. To bo tudi država, ki bo trdno na poti v evropsko družino, ki jo pooseblja Evropska unija, in ki bo pretrgala vezi in pregnala duhove tragične prihodnosti. Predvsem pa bo preprečila ponovitev zgodovine, bodisi tiste izpred stotih let, ki se je odražala v prvi tragediji dvajsetega stoletja, bodisi tiste izpred tridesetih let, ki se je zaključila s srebreniškim genocidom.

 
  
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  Tineke Strik, on behalf of the Verts/ALE Group. – Madam President, I would like to thank the rapporteur for the report and the good cooperation. The future of Bosnia and Herzegovina belongs in the EU. I just heard Mr Várhelyi say that. But it’s also what the EU leaders promised already in 2003. But in reality, accession is still far away. We failed to resolve Dayton’s highly ineffective governance structure based on ethnic division and distrust. Strategy, guidance and courage is what we need now.

We can and should be the promoters of equality, democracy and the rule of law. Without a functioning democracy with equal rights for all and true involvement of civil society, Bosnia can never become an EU Member State. As a Parliament, we should therefore avoid any reference to privileged rights of the so-called ‘three constituent peoples’. For rebuilding trust in Bosnian society and politics, we must strongly reject and combat ethno-nationalistic rhetoric and policies and instead support constitutional changes and work towards the 14 key priorities and accession criteria.

I urge you, colleagues, let the Parliament’s voice be based on inclusion, democracy and trust instead of ethnic division and anti-democratic rhetoric.

 
  
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  Dominique Bilde, au nom du groupe ID. – Madame la Présidente, chers collègues, le prêt de 613 millions d’euros obtenu auprès d’un établissement chinois pour une centrale au charbon à Tuzla, et ce alors que cette industrie est encore largement subventionnée, rattache également la Bosnie-Herzégovine à la nouvelle route de la soie promue par Pékin au mépris des critères européens en matière énergétique.

Mais le plus inacceptable est le risque sécuritaire qu’implique, d’une part, le rapatriement des djihadistes, dont les Balkans recelaient la plus haute concentration d’Europe et, d’autre part, la crise migratoire en provenance notamment du Pakistan, avec pour corollaire l’infiltration de l’islam radical.

Si l’Union européenne s’enferre dans l’élargissement aux Balkans, en Bosnie-Herzégovine comme ailleurs le manque d’enthousiasme est patent. Qu’on en juge par l’attitude du membre bosniaque de la présidence tripartite du pays, qui condamnait la France dans l’affaire Charlie Hebdo et vantait la contribution d’Erdoğan à la stabilité de la région.

L’Union européenne, qui aura, pour la seule Bosnie-Herzégovine, fourni 1,19 milliard d’euros en fonds de pré-adhésion, ne retire donc rien de son investissement dans la région et d’un processus d’élargissement qui n’a plus lieu d’être.

 
  
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  Ruža Tomašić (ECR). – Poštovana predsjedavajuća, Bosna i Hercegovina je država nefunkcionalnih institucija.

Opće beznađe mogao je iskoristiti Europski parlament i pokazati da postoji netko tko sluša i radi na tome da volja svih građana Bosne i Hercegovine bude uvažena i ostvarena. Ali Parlament to nije u stanju zato što da biste nekoga čuli morate prvo prihvatiti njegovo postojanje. Parlament odbija prihvatiti činjenicu da je Bosna i Hercegovina tronacionalna država, da ima tri konstitutivna naroda i tako negira identitet onih koje bi trebao uvažavati i slušati. Da se parlament doista bavi slušanjem građana Bosne i Hercegovine, umjesto provođenja društvenih pokusa nad njima, onda bi znao da oni ne žele nikakvu regionalnu komisiju za ratne zločine, nikakav REKOM koji se ovdje preporučuje. Rezolucija potpuno ignorira Daytonski ustavni okvir i konstitutivne narode. Upravo to spada pod takozvanu protuustavnu retoriku na koju Parlament u točki 18. Rezolucije upozorava. Tko može vjerovati da ovaj visoki dom sluša građane ako ne sluša ni samoga sebe.

I na kraju, ako doista želite Bosnu i Hercegovinu u Europskoj uniji onda joj pomozite iskreno, transparentno, bez fige u džepu.

 
  
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  Fabio Massimo Castaldo (NI). – Signora Presidente, signor Commissario, onorevoli colleghi, a più di 25 anni di distanza dagli accordi di Dayton la realtà è davanti agli occhi di tutti: pur rigettando le considerazioni inopportune e potenzialmente molto pericolose contenute nell'ormai celebre non-paper circolato recentemente, non possiamo nasconderci dietro un dito accettando questo precario status quo.

Senza soluzioni condivise da autorità politiche e società civile per elaborare una nuova costituzione, che sostituisca quel framework obsoleto dopo 25 anni e quindi totalmente anacronistico, sarà impossibile uscire dallo stallo nel quale versa la Bosnia-Erzegovina.

L'UE è pronta ad accompagnare la realizzazione delle quattordici priorità identificate dalla Commissione ma non dobbiamo avere la presunzione di imporle, perché il dialogo e le soluzioni si costruiscono anche e soprattutto facilitandole.

Accolgo con grande favore la proposta dell'executive board finalmente di accogliere i Balcani occidentali nella Conferenza sul futuro dell'Europa, per rinnovare quello slancio e quella promessa di prospettiva europea che spesso i nostri partner non hanno visto così decisa e così determinata come avrebbero dovuto.

La Bosnia deve fare parte della grande famiglia europea: diamo continuità e concretezza a questo nostro impegno.

 
  
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  Eugen Tomac (PPE). – Doamna președintă, domnule comisar, doamnă secretar de stat, domnule raportor, Balcanii au făcut dintotdeauna parte din Europa și, dacă ne uităm spre Bosnia și Herțegovina, descoperim o Europă în miniatură. Cred că avem în față o mare provocare, și anume aceea de a ajuta Bosnia și Herțegovina să accelereze procesul de integrare europeană.

Este un stat cu multe dificultăți, care are nevoie de sprijinul Uniunii Europene, tocmai pentru a accelera și mai mult acest drum extrem de dificil pe care și l-a asumat. Cred că trebuie să ne uităm spre așteptările populației acestei țări, o populație profund atașată de Uniunea Europeană, iar acum, mai mult ca niciodată, are nevoie de sprijinul și de susținerea Bruxelles-ului.

Eu cred că dialogul între Bruxelles și Sarajevo trebuie intensificat împreună cu eforturile aferente pentru ca Bosnia și Herțegovina să treacă la cea de-a doua etapă a procesului de stabilizare și asociere, să devină un stat candidat la Uniunea Europeană.

 
  
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  Delara Burkhardt (S&D). – Frau Präsidentin, liebe Kolleginnen und Kollegen! Wir im Europäischen Parlament stehen für eine europäische Perspektive Bosnien und Herzegowinas. Wir wissen aber auch, dass der Weg noch ein langer ist.

Einer der vielen Baustellen ist der Ethno—Proporz, der bereits Kinder und Jugendliche in ihrer Schulzeit trennt. Oft sind es Fächer wie Geschichte, Geografie, Muttersprache, die getrennt auf Bosnisch, Serbisch und Kroatisch unterrichtet werden. Immer stärker etabliert sich auch das sogenannte „Zwei—Schulen—unter—einem—Dach“—Prinzip, bei dem Kinder komplett getrennt unterrichtet werden.

In der Praxis zerreißt das nicht nur Freundschaften. Es hindert, gemeinsam über die Vergangenheit zu lernen und eine gemeinsame Zukunft aufzubauen. Als S&D-Fraktion sind wir der Überzeugung: Bildung ist ein zentrales Element für den Aufbau einer Gesellschaft, die auf gemeinsamen Werten und Zielen basiert. Schon bei den Jüngsten zu spalten, nährt den Boden für ethnische Spannungen, Hass und Gewalt.

Aber es gibt Hoffnung. Immer mehr Schülerinnen und Schüler wehren sich dagegen, von ihren Freundinnen und Freunden getrennt zu werden. Sie protestieren. Und auch wenn sie von einigen Politikern gesagt bekommen, sie sollen sich nicht mit Politik auseinandersetzen, sondern „lieber in die Disco gehen“ – sie lassen nicht nach. Und in Jajce sogar schon mit Erfolg. Und es ist genau diese Generation, eine wache Zivilgesellschaft, die Bosnien und Herzegowina in eine europäische Zukunft führen wird.

 
  
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  Romeo Franz (Verts/ALE). – Frau Präsidentin, sehr geehrte Kolleginnen und Kollegen! Nach fünf Jahren Stillstand hat letzte Woche endlich wieder der Parlamentarische Stabilitäts- und Assoziationsausschuss EU-Bosnien und Herzegowina getagt.

Das Land muss seine Anstrengungen erhöhen und alle Kräfte in Bewegung setzen, um die schwierigen, aber notwendigen Reformen auf den Weg zu bringen – in der Verwaltung, der Rechtsstaatlichkeit, der Korruptionsbekämpfung und bei den Minderheitenrechten, um nur einige der wesentlichen Bereiche zu nennen.

Alle Parteien und politischen Akteure müssen sich von spaltenden Diskursen loslösen und sich konstruktiv einbringen – immer mit der obersten Maßgabe, Bosnien und Herzegowina zu stabilisieren und zu stärken. Denn eines ist klar: Um den Frieden in diesem Land zu sichern und den Weg in die EU zu beschreiten, muss es Stabilität geben.

Die EU ihrerseits muss Bosnien und Herzegowina hierbei glaubhaft unterstützen. Dazu zählt auch, jegliche nationalistischen Bestrebungen und damit verbundenen Blockadehaltungen auch innerhalb der Europäischen Union und auch in unserem Parlament vehement zurückzuweisen.

 
  
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  Bernhard Zimniok (ID). – Frau Präsidentin, werte Kollegen! Sie wollen tatsächlich Bosnien in die EU aufnehmen? Ein Land mit einer Arbeitslosenquote von 20 Prozent, einer Jugendarbeitslosigkeit von 35 Prozent? Ein Land, das auf dem Korruptionsindex auf Platz 111 von 180 Ländern rangiert? Ein Land, das voraussichtlich Jahrzehnte am Tropf der EU hängen wird?

Um Bosniens Rechtsstaatlichkeit an den EU-Standard heranzuführen, hat die EU—Kommission seit 2007 fast 3,8 Milliarden EUR an das Land bezahlt – davon allein mein Land, Deutschland, eine halbe Milliarde. Trotzdem ist Bosnien dank korrupter Netzwerke immer noch ein Transitland für illegale Migranten in die EU.

Ein völliger Wahnsinn, ein derart instabiles Land in die EU aufnehmen zu wollen! Eines sollte endlich mal in Eure Köpfe rein, werte Kollegen: Wir sind nicht der Finanzier für alle wirtschaftlich schlechter entwickelten Länder dieses Planeten. Wir sind von unseren Bürgern gewählt worden, um deren Interessen durchzusetzen. Die Aufnahme von Bosnien ist genau das Gegenteil dessen!

 
  
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  Kinga Gál (NI). – Tisztelt Elnök Asszony! Az Uniónak elkötelezettnek kell lennie Bosznia-Hercegovina és az egész nyugat-balkáni régió mellett, és fel kell gyorsítania a bővítést. A régió országai csatlakozni kívánnak, és mi is azt szeretnénk, hogy csatlakozzanak. Nem maradhat a Nyugat-Balkán egy űr az EU szívében, egyértelmű geopolitikai és biztonsági érdekünk is a nyugat-balkáni országok európai integrációja.

A régió elveszítheti az EU-ba vetett bizalmát, és utat enged így más országok befolyásának, amennyiben nem teszünk konkrét lépéseket a csatlakozások felgyorsítására. Ezért mihamarabb pozitív politikai üzenetet kell küldeni Bosznia-Hercegovinának a tagjelölti státusz megadásával. Kulcskérdés Bosznia-Hercegovina helytállása a migrációs válságban, és minden segítséget meg kell adni, hogy az illegális migráció megállítása még az EU határain kívül megtörténjen. Valós segítségnyújtásra van szükség Bosznia-Hercegovina felzárkózásához anyagi, technikai és személyi támogatással, ezért üdvözlendő az IPA három eszköze is.

 
  
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  Tonino Picula (S&D). – Poštovana predsjedavajuća, Bosna i Herzegovina je, nažalost, izgubila cijelo desetljeće u političkim borbama koje su samo ojačale podjele.

U međuvremenu su izostale krupnije političke, gospodarske i socijalne reforme. To je rezultat programirano loših međustranačkih odnosa i ciljanog blokiranja rada institucija. Bosna i Herzegovina je država koja teško ostvaruje komunikaciju unutar sebe tako da i prema vani najčešće ne govori jednim jezikom. Kako vrijeme prolazi, nefunkcionalni daytonski poredak održava status quo dopuštajući političkim elitama sve jaču kontrolu nad sve manje ekonomskih resursa. Jasno je da ove veto-skupine nemaju interesa da institucije učine funkcionalnima. Reforme se rade, prije svega, radi dobrobiti svoje države; ne samo radi budućeg članstva u Europskoj uniji, već zbog dugoročne političke stabilnosti, sigurnosti i ekonomskog razvoja. U suprotnom, jača pesimizam i iseljavanje mladih. Još se ne vidi kako zamijeniti dotrajali Daytonski sustav sustavom primjerenijim jednoj složenoj zajednici koja će biti efikasnije povezana vlastitim različitostima. Pri tome, ustavne reforme i reforma izbornog zakonodavstva su ključne za europsku perspektivu.

Bosna i Herzegovina treba biti funkcionalna država svojih  konstitutivnih naroda i svih građana temeljena na principima federalizma, supsidijarnosti i legitimnog zastupanja.

Osvrnuo bih se i na nedavne non-papere jer su još jednom predstavili ambicije aktera dezinformiranja i pokazali zašto moramo aktivnije podržavati naše susjedstvo na europskom putu. Naime, nude im se alternative koje ne mare za vladavinu prava i naš sustav vrijednosti. Nude im prošlost iz koje ionako neki još uvijek nisu u stanju izaći.

 
  
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  Andor Deli (NI). – Tisztelt Elnök Asszony! Az Európa jövőjéről szóló konferencia fontos alkalmat kínál az európai uniós polgároknak arra, hogy elmondják, milyen Európában szeretnének élni. Az EU jövője azonban nem választható el a közvetlen környezetétől, elsősorban a Nyugat-Balkán térségétől. Közismert, hogy a bővítés gyorsasága kapcsán a tagállamok között nincs egyetértés, ugyanakkor úgy gondolom, hogy az nem képezheti vita tárgyát, hogy a tagjelölt országoknak helyet kell biztosítani az Európa jövőjéről szóló konferencia keretében. Erről szólt a Magyarország, Lengyelország, Csehország, Szlovákia és Ausztria által megindított azon kezdeményezés is a Tanácsban, amellyel kérték a nyugat-balkáni országok bevonását. Európa jövője nem csak a jelenlegi EU-tagállamokról szól, ebbe a jövőképbe beletartoznak az olyan országok is, mint Bosznia- Hercegovina, Szerbia vagy Montenegró. Milyen bizonyosságot ad az EU ezeknek az országoknak a bővítési szándék őszinteségéről, ha még egy konferenciára sem kapnak meghívást? Ezért arra kérem a konferencia vezetőségét, hogy ne mulasszon el egy ilyen kínálkozó lehetőséget.

 
  
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  Sunčana Glavak (PPE). – Poštovana predsjedavajuća, na početku želim naglasiti kako izvješćem pokazujemo podršku Europskog parlamenta europskom putu Bosne i Hercegovine.

Svima je jasno, međutim, kako je nužno provesti duboke reforme kako bi Bosna i Hercegovina postigla status kandidata kojem teži. No, od Europske unije očekuje da bude na raspolaganju, da podrška bude snažna, da razumije, a posebno kako bi olakšala unutarnji dijalog. U ovom kontekstu želim spomenuti i jednu iznimno bitnu stavku za mene i moju zemlju, za Hrvate u Bosni i Hercegovini a koja trenutno još nije uključena u tekst izvješća.

Važno je da sva tri konstitutivna naroda budu jednakopravna, osobito Hrvati kao najmalobrojniji konstitutivni narod, kao i da u procesu dogovora unutarnjih političkih stranaka i institucija Bosne i Hercegovine, postigne se konsenzus o reformi izbornog zakonodavstva.

Nažalost nisam mogla podržati ovo izvješće na glasanju u odboru zbog toga što se u tekstu ni jednom u cijelom dokumentu nije spominjao pojam „konstitutivni narod“. To je osnova i bez toga ne možemo nastaviti. Upravo iz tog razloga podnijeli smo amandmane koji vraćaju spominjanje konstitutivnih naroda u izvješću te ću te amandmane snažno podržati na našem glasovanju, na što i vas pozivam.

 
  
  

PRESIDENZA DELL'ON. FABIO MASSIMO CASTALDO
Vicepresidente

 
  
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  Olivér Várhelyi, Member of the Commission. – Mr President, our discussion today demonstrates that 2021 is a crucial year for the European prospects of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It needs to be the year for reforms to address the 14 key priorities in our opinion. Changes are necessary to ensure that the institutional framework of Bosnia and Herzegovina fits with EU standards.

These are challenging tasks, but Bosnia and Herzegovina is not alone. The European Union will continue to facilitate and contribute to these discussions in the country towards this goal. We want to see Bosnia and Herzegovina advance to the EU and advance at a steady speed. Thank you very much for the very constructive and forward-looking discussion.

 
  
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  Ana Paula Zacarias, Presidente em exercício do Conselho. – Senhor Presidente, Caro Comissário, Senhoras Deputadas, Senhores Deputados, gostaria de concluir agradecendo este debate construtivo e também manifestar os meus agradecimentos uma vez mais pelo trabalho empenhado do relator Paulo Rangel. Como já referi, o Conselho continuará ao lado da Comissão a apoiar a Bósnia-Herzegovina e os parceiros dos Balcãs Ocidentais de um modo mais geral no seu percurso europeu.

A pandemia veio enfatizar a importância e o valor de nos mantermos unidos e de respondermos em conjunto aos desafios comuns. Continuamos empenhados em prosseguir os atuais esforços de coordenação e cooperação. No entanto, é fundamental que os próprios países avancem nas suas reformas. Por conseguinte, incentivamos a Bósnia-Herzegovina e os seus dirigentes políticos, todos os seus dirigentes políticos, a concentrarem-se na execução das reformas que melhorem a vida dos seus cidadãos e façam avançar o país na via da adesão à União Europeia.

Independentemente de outras decisões que venham a ser tomadas, gostaria de esclarecer que os cidadãos da Bósnia-Herzegovina podem desde já participar com as suas ideias ou os eventos que venham a organizar na plataforma digital que constitui um dos pilares da Conferência sobre o Futuro da Europa, e é muito bom e importante que participem.

 
  
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  Presidente. – La discussione è chiusa.

La votazione si svolgerà domani, giovedì 24 giugno 2021.

Dichiarazioni scritte (articolo 171)

 
  
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  Elżbieta Kruk (ECR), na piśmie. – Jestem zaniepokojona ostatnimi próbami destabilizacji sytuacji na Bałkanach Zachodnich, zwłaszcza w Bośni i Hercegowinie. Wszelkie nieodpowiedzialne sugestie zmiany mapy Bałkanów zagrażają stabilności, pokojowi i integracji z Unią Europejską. Ewentualna dezintegracja Bośni i Hercegowiny mogłaby mieć poważne konsekwencje międzynarodowe i stałaby się czynnikiem sprzyjającym wzmacnianiu wpływów rosyjskich w regionie. Niezbędne jest osiągnięcie postępu we wdrażaniu 14 obszarów priorytetowych dla procesu akcesyjnego. Przywódcy polityczni w Bośni i Hercegowinie powinni wykazać gotowość do poprawy życia obywateli i podjąć autentyczne wysiłki na rzecz pojednania i przezwyciężenia spuścizny przeszłości. Niedawna ostateczna decyzja w sprawie Ratka Mladića jest ważnym krokiem w kierunku zakończenia gloryfikacji skazanych zbrodniarzy wojennych i pełnej współpracy z trybunałami międzynarodowymi poprzez poszanowanie ich decyzji. Choć reformy w Bośni i Hercegowinie są potrzebne, muszą one być realizowane wewnętrznie. Zadaniem UE nie jest narzucanie modelu reform. Należy uszanować przyjętą interpretacje koncepcji „narodów składowych”, która została użyta podczas negocjowania i podpisywania porozumienia pokojowego z Dayton, o ile trzy etniczne grupy składowe w Bośni i Hercegowinie nie postanowią inaczej.

 
  
 

(La seduta è sospesa alle 20.23)

 
  
  

PŘEDSEDNICTVÍ: MARCEL KOLAJA
místopředseda

 
Ostatnia aktualizacja: 29 września 2021Informacja prawna - Polityka ochrony prywatności