Níl an doiciméad seo ar fáil i do theanga féin. Roghnaítear teanga eile as na teangacha atá ar fáil.

 Innéacs 
 Ar ais 
 Ar aghaidh 
 Téacs iomlán 
Nós Imeachta : 2021/2041(INI)
Céimeanna an doiciméid sa chruinniú iomlánach
An doiciméad roghnaithe : A9-0265/2021

Téacsanna arna gcur síos :

A9-0265/2021

Díospóireachtaí :

PV 19/10/2021 - 9
CRE 19/10/2021 - 9

Vótaí :

PV 20/10/2021 - 2
PV 21/10/2021 - 2
CRE 21/10/2021 - 2

Téacsanna arna nglacadh :

P9_TA(2021)0431

Debates
XML 73k
Tuesday, 19 October 2021 - Strasbourg Revised edition

9. EU-Taiwan political relations and cooperation (debate)
Video of the speeches
PV
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  Przewodnicząca. – Kolejnym punktem porządku dziennego jest sprawozdanie sporządzone przez Charliego Weimersa w imieniu Komisji Spraw Zagranicznych w sprawie zalecenia Parlamentu Europejskiego dla Wiceprzewodniczącego Komisji / Wysokiego Przedstawiciela Unii do Spraw Zagranicznych i Polityki Bezpieczeństwa w sprawie stosunków politycznych i współpracy między UE a Tajwanem (2021/2041(INI)) (A9-0265/2021).

 
  
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  Charlie Weimers, rapporteur. – Madam President, I would like to thank all shadow rapporteurs for their excellent and positive cooperation. I believe that through our very constructive work we were able to present a report that will be supported by a large majority.

Colleagues, this report is historic. It is the first time that the European Parliament discusses and votes on a comprehensive report that focuses solely on EU—Taiwan relations. The Parliament truly paved the way with this recommendation. While the Commission was formulating its Indo—Pacific strategy, the EP made its voice heard about the great importance it attaches to Taiwan’s inclusion in the EU’s policy towards the region.

Dear High Representative, I would like to stress several points from the report that calls on you, on behalf of the EU, to put into action. Taiwan is a like—minded partner with whom Europe shares many common values. In a region where this is not always a given, in light of Taiwan’s robust democracy and technologically advanced economy, it is crucial that the EU and Taiwan pursue a comprehensive and enhanced partnership that underpins the rules—based order. Therefore, in order to prepare for negotiations to deepen our economic relations, the EU needs urgently to begin an impact assessment, public consultation and scoping exercise on a bilateral investment agreement with the Taiwanese authorities.

The EU must also more strongly condemn China’s continued military belligerence against Taiwan. We must stress the need for freedom of navigation and overflight in the East and South China Sea, as well as the importance of pursuing peace and stability across the Taiwan Strait. Just a few weeks ago, China sent over 150 warplanes, including fighter jets and nuclear—capable bombers, into Taiwan’s air defence identification zone. Despite China’s empty words seeking a peaceful reunification with Taiwan, such actions signal the contrary. Taiwan’s Defence Minister, Chiu Kuo-cheng, has stated that given the continuous and significant military build—up, China could be capable of mounting a full—scale invasion of Taiwan by 2025.

Dear High Representative, the EU must condemn China’s action in the strongest possible terms and stress that China’s actions against Taiwan will have consequences for EU—China relations. The EU must, despite Chinese pressure, strongly advocate for Taiwan’s meaningful participation as an observer in meetings, mechanisms and activities of international bodies, including the World Health Organization. Let us not forget that while the Chinese Communist Party tried to deceive everyone, it was Taiwan that brought the COVID—19 outbreak in Wuhan, China, to the world’s attention.

Dear High Representative, in order to better reflect the broadened scope of our ties with Taiwan we call on you to change the name of the European Economic and Trade Office in Taiwan to the European Union Office in Taiwan.

Dear colleagues, on behalf of the ECR, I would like to thank you once again for the excellent cooperation, and I look forward to today’s debate, a debate that will be conducted in the democratic tradition of Europe, despite the Chinese Communist Party’s attempts to stop us from doing so.

 
  
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  Margrethe Vestager, Executive Vice—President of the Commission, on behalf of the Vice-President of the Commission / High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy. – Madam President, I welcome this timely report and the opportunity to discuss our engagement with Taiwan. The situation has evolved since the last debate on the cross—strait relations in 2019.

As reflected in your report, the tensions in the Taiwan Strait have increased. China has stepped up its pressure on Taiwan and its military presence in the Strait. We have seen repeated incursions of Chinese planes across the median line and in Taiwan’s air defence identification zone. These displays of force may have a direct impact on European security and prosperity.

We Europeans have an interest in preserving the status quo in the Taiwan Strait. The EU encourages everyone to engage in dialogue and avoid any unilateral actions that may increase tensions around the Strait. This is key for the peace and stability of the region and for the EU’s interests. We will continue voicing our concerns, in our contact with China and publicly, and step up coordination with like—minded partners such as the G7.

As the report says, the EU has an interest in enhancing relations and cooperation with Taiwan within the framework of its One—China policy. Taiwan is a like—minded partner, and the EU will continue supporting its system of governance, based on democracy, the rule of law and human rights, its open society and market economy. The EU will also continue strengthening people—to—people relations.

In recent years, exchanges and cooperation with Taiwan have intensified. Today, they cover a broad range of areas also identified in your report from human rights, trade and economic issues to industrial and digital policies, disinformation and connectivity. The EU is the largest foreign investor in Taiwan and is attracting Taiwanese investors through initiatives such as the European Investment Forum held in Taipei. Last year, Taiwan’s investment to the EU doubled.

The EU is realist and pragmatic. We want to further engage in respect of the EU’s One-China policy. The EU Indo—Pacific strategy is offering an excellent platform to broaden cooperation. Trade and investment relationships with this important partner and technological leader will be deepened. The EU takes note of the European Parliament’s views on how this could be pursued. We want to build upon the strong economic links that already exist and to further develop existing dialogues, such as the industrial policy dialogue or the digital dialogue on economy.

The European Union is currently assessing how to engage more closely to address new challenges, focusing on supply chain vulnerabilities and critical value chains, and wants to cooperate on strategic sectors like semiconductors, the ‘new oil’, as I think many call it, indispensable for the European industrial development and digital transition. We hope to see Taiwan as an important partner to achieve the goals of the European Chips Act.

While enhancing ties with Taiwan, the EU also has to address China’s assertiveness and attempts to intimidate Taiwan’s like—minded partners. As pointed out in the report, Lithuania and all Member States find themselves coerced for taking decisions that China finds offensive. Well, they need support and they need our solidarity. The European Union will continue to push back these attempts and adopt appropriate tools, such as the anti—coercion instrument currently under preparation.

I appreciate this debate. I appreciate your recommendations. They reflect our common interest in seeking closer cooperation with Taiwan, where our values and our interests converge.

 
  
  

PRESIDÊNCIA: PEDRO SILVA PEREIRA
Vice-Presidente

 
  
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  Michael Gahler, on behalf of the PPE Group. – Mr President, dear colleagues, first of all, my sincere thanks to the rapporteur for the cooperative approach he has taken.

There is an island off the coast of mainland China that organises a Chinese society in a democratic and prosperous way and is therefore, as such, a provocation for the Communist one-party state.

I welcome this first report on the EU-Taiwan relations in which we explore the potential of extending and deepening relations with this island. We are not crossing red lines. To the contrary, we want to preserve the status quo across the Taiwan Strait and demand that no unilateral steps be taken and certainly no violent steps from mainland China. In return, we should not unilaterally change the status by recognising Taiwan diplomatically, but an acronym EBFDR, everything but formal diplomatic recognition, should encompass a bilateral investment agreement. We should, for instance, have an interest to secure the supply of semiconductors from Taiwan and facilitate Taiwanese investment in this field in the EU. So I ask the Commission to push the Member States in this regard and be it with the argument that we have all reason to apply it with the democratic part of the Chinese society, when we have already concluded it with the dictator part.

It is also in our interest to see Taiwan as an observer in relevant international organisations such as the World Health Organization, or the International Civil Aviation Organization, and it is good to see that Taiwan is a stable factor when we look at our Indo-Pacific strategy.

We can also learn a lot from how Taiwan has built up resilience against Chinese cyber war activities and in that regard I welcome the visit of our INGE Committee next week in Taiwan.

 
  
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  Sven Mikser, on behalf of the S&D Group. – Mr President, first, I do believe that it’s important that we have, for the first time ever, a chance to debate here and vote on a concrete set of comprehensive recommendations dedicated to the development of EU—Taiwan ties.

Taiwan is an economically and technologically advanced democracy and as such it is for us a like—minded and valuable partner in a strategically important region. Therefore, I believe it’s important to look for concrete ways to enhance our trade and economic relations, our cultural and youth exchange, industrial and technological cooperation, as well as intensify overall bilateral relations under the guidance of the One China policy.

Secondly, I agree fully with Commissioner Vestager in that any further escalation of tensions in the Taiwan Strait is bound to have deep negative effects on both regional and global security, as well as trade and the economy. In this regard, China’s increasingly aggressive rhetoric and military posturing are of considerable concern. This means that we must stay alert and be very clear in our condemnation of such escalatory steps.

Finally, I believe it’s imperative that we express full solidarity with Lithuania, our fellow EU Member State that has been targeted by Chinese sanctions over the issue of setting up a Taiwanese representative office. We should urge the Vice President / High Representative and the Council to take all appropriate steps.

 
  
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  Katalin Cseh, on behalf of the Renew Group. – Mr President, I said this before and I will say it again: China is a bully state. Millions of brutally oppressed people in Xinjiang and Tibet stand as clear proof of this. And yet more and more in Hong Kong and Taiwan live in constant fear of China, a country with zero regard for the concept of democratic self—determination.

They’re all looking at us for solutions. We must deliver and we must deliver fast. There is absolutely no time to wait until the US comes up with a strategy. Europe must lead a global coalition to ensure Taiwan’s representation in multilateral organisations while calling on China to immediately end the military show of force in the Taiwan Strait.

You might think that this issue is too far away, but Beijing’s increasing aggression is very much our business, and China knows this very much. This is why they cultivate Trojan horses like the Orbán government. Orbán’s decision to veto an EU statement criticising China’s crackdown on pro—democracy protesters in Hong Kong was not a one off. But we can also turn their weapons against them. So, let’s use this as motivation to call for the abolishment of unanimous voting on foreign policy decisions in the Council. Because let’s not forget, China is our strategic rival. If Taiwan is destabilised, we risk losing one of our closest allies in the region and if we are to improve our geopolitical might, this is just about the biggest mistake we can make.

 
  
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  Reinhard Bütikofer, on behalf of the Verts/ALE Group. – Mr President, the overarching goals of the EU’s Taiwan policy have always been stability, peace and respect for the will of the people, and therefore we have consistently opposed unilateral changes of the status quo in the Taiwan Strait. But these worthy goals are under assault from the People’s Republic of China. Beijing is undermining peace and stability through aggressive actions in many different dimensions. The threat of a military attack against Taiwan is openly being peddled by Chinese ultranationalists. The Chinese dictator Xi Jinping has promised to conquer the island during his lifetime.

Taiwan, a vibrant democracy and a society with many progressive achievements, needs and merits our strategic solidarity. The Weimers report which we’re discussing here spells that out. It also formulates perspectives for wide—ranging cooperation as partners which is very much in our own interest.

Our message to the people of Taiwan is clear: we will stand with you. Our message to Beijing is: reconsider your policy. Historical patience will be better for China than any other hypothetical alternative.

Our message to our European citizens, not only in Lithuania, is let’s stay united on China policy. I thank Charlie Weimers for his report and all the colleagues for their good cooperation, and I thank Vice—President Vestager for her remarks too.

 
  
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  Anna Fotyga, on behalf of the ECR Group. – Mr President, this afternoon we are certainly discussing a European Parliament report of historic significance. I would like to commend Charlie Weimers, the rapporteur, and all the shadow rapporteurs, for a very comprehensive, good and, at the same time, balanced document.

I would like to express the hope that the Commission is going to take on board the important recommendations the rapporteur was able to prepare. I also hope that, despite mounting pressure, so well described during this debate, from the side of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) in the air and in the waters of the Taiwan Strait, the community of Taiwan, the people of Taiwan, are able to develop a vibrant democracy and a very innovative economy. This enhanced relationship is going to benefit all of us.

 
  
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  Emmanuel Maurel, au nom du groupe The Left. – Monsieur le Président, dans ce contexte de grande tension, de montée des tensions, l’Europe, elle, doit tenir son rang. Et face aux provocations chinoises dans le détroit de Taïwan, auxquelles les États-Unis ont répondu par un renforcement de leurs propres capacités militaires, l’Europe, elle, ne peut pas rester impassible. Elle doit non seulement favoriser toutes les démarches en faveur de la stabilité de la paix de la région, mais également y défendre ses intérêts. Car oui, nous avons des intérêts dans cette zone indo-pacifique et l’Europe, elle, doit s’investir davantage de manière autonome, c’est-à-dire sans subordination aux États-Unis et sans naïveté, évidemment, vis-à-vis de la Chine.

Je suis d’accord sur l’essentiel du rapport, notamment sur les liens démocratiques, institutionnels, culturels et sur l’approfondissement de nos liens avec Taïwan. Je pense qu’il est bien que l’île participe à des organisations internationales en tant qu’observateur, mais en revanche, en matière économique et commerciale, j’ai des doutes, notamment sur un hypothétique accord d’investissement. Je pense que la situation ne le permet pas. Et puis surtout, le vrai défi, c’est la restauration de la souveraineté industrielle. C’est de ça qu’on doit parler aujourd’hui, notamment sur l’histoire des microprocesseurs. C’est en développant sa propre voie que l’Union européenne parviendra à construire, avec Taïwan et d’autres acteurs régionaux, des partenariats stratégiques durables.

 
  
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  Fabio Massimo Castaldo (NI). – Signor Presidente, signora Commissaria, onorevoli colleghi, accrescere le relazioni politiche, economiche e commerciali con Taiwan rappresenta oggi una priorità strategica per la nostra Unione, nonché un passaggio chiave per ergerci al ruolo di attore di primo piano sullo scacchiere globale, attraverso solidi accordi e legami con i partner che condividono i nostri principi e valori.

Vorrei insistere proprio su questo punto. Taiwan, infatti, rappresenta un baluardo di democrazia e di libertà nell'area indo-pacifica, una regione nella quale le spinte autoritarie e gli impeti aggressivi si stanno facendo sempre più forti ed evidenti, non solo a livello dialettico, ma anche tramite il ricorso a crescenti esercitazioni militari e interferenze dirette nella vita politica dei singoli paesi.

Pertanto, ritengo essenziale che il nostro Parlamento e l'intera Unione attivino fin d'ora tutti i canali politici e diplomatici di cui dispongono affinché qualsiasi negoziato tra Taiwan e gli altri attori regionali possa essere condotto in maniera pacifica, evitando la prepotenza della minaccia del ricorso alle armi.

Allo stesso modo, l'UE deve adoperarsi affinché Taipei possa finalmente essere ammessa in tutti i forum multilaterali, in particolare nell'OMS, spingendo affinché gli anacronistici e ingiustificabili veti politici che si frappongono all'inclusione possano essere superati.

Ci ricorda Confucio che il saggio preferisce essere lento a parlare ma pronto ad agire; un consiglio che dovremmo assolutamente fare nostro e valutare come molto prezioso.

 
  
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  Rasa Juknevičienė (PPE). – Mr President, this report is a very special event. The first European Parliament report devoted exclusively to Taiwan. I commend the rapporteurs on that.

The example of Taiwan shows that the Chinese nation can live in a democracy. Live very successfully, prosperously, and not aggressively. As the report points out, Taiwan is a healthy democracy and technologically advanced economy.

 

There is a direct connection between European prosperity and Asian security. And Taiwan could contribute to maintaining a rules-based order in the region.

The EU and Member States should take a proactive role in establishing partnerships with the democratic government of Taiwan. The government of my country has taken a brave step to set up a Taiwanese representative office in Lithuania.

I commend the report’s draft text expressing support and solidarity with Lithuania, and I urge other Member States to follow Lithuania’s example and strengthen ties with Taiwan.

 
  
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  Evelyne Gebhardt (S&D). – Herr Präsident, Frau Kommissarin! Das sind die Dinge, die passieren, wenn man die Sprache des Vorsitzenden nicht versteht. Aber ich denke, das ist nicht so schlimm.

Menschenrechte, Bürgerrechte, Demokratie, das sind die Werte, die uns ausmachen, die für unser Zusammenleben in unserer Gesellschaft, in der Europäischen Union auch tatsächlich als Grundlage da sind.

Ja, das sind die Werte, mit denen wir in Taiwan gemeinsame Partnerschaft gestalten können. Das sind die Werte, mit denen wir auch in dieser Region dafür sorgen können, dass Freiheit auch eine Möglichkeit für die Zukunft ist, auch in einer Region, in der das keine gewohnte Geschichte ist.

Ja, wir müssen uns Sorgen machen – sehr große Sorgen machen – angesichts der aggressiven Art und Weise, wie in letzter Zeit die chinesische Regierung in dieser Region auftritt. Wir müssen mit allen Mitteln, die uns zur Verfügung stehen, Frau Kommissarin, auf diplomatischem Wege dafür sorgen, dass in dieser Region Frieden, Freiheit, Demokratie herrschen und wir dazu beitragen können, dass in Taiwan die Bürger und Bürgerinnen wirklich auch weiterhin in Freiheit leben können.

 
  
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  Petras Auštrevičius (Renew). – Mr President, the political ambitions and growing global assertiveness of communist China pose an increasing challenge and strategic threat to Taiwan’s democratic future and wellbeing of Taiwanese. A notion of peaceful coexistence has been replaced by political intimidation, military pressure and hybrid provocations.

We rightly commend Taiwan as a trusted partner in promoting human rights and freedoms, as a shining regional example and appreciate its cooperation in tackling global challenges such as the COVID-19 pandemic. Our mutual membership in the world community of democracies requires further common actions in extending EU and Taiwan relations in various fields. I call on and encourage the EU institutions to make a timely decision to rename the EU representation in Taiwan as the European Union Office in Taiwan. Let us use this chance and expand our support to the island of democracy.

 
  
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  Markéta Gregorová (Verts/ALE). – Pane předsedající, tchaj-wan je úspěšnou demokracií. Proto si zaslouží naši pozornost, naši ekonomickou a politickou podporu a ze všeho nejvíc naše závazky.

Příliš dlouho se spoléháme, že Tchaj-wan ochrání před čínskou expanzí tzv. křemíkový štít. Kroky Komunistické strany Číny, ať už jsou to hybridní útoky nebo třeba narušování vzdušného prostoru, ale mluví jasně. Tento štít nebude stát věčně. Naše partnerství nemusí stát jenom na čipech, máme si vzájemně hodně co nabídnout a stavět společně štít nový – štít z lidských vazeb, které nikdo nepřetrhá.

Nový štít musíme stavět z dialogů a hlavně setkání. Nesmíme se od nich nechat odstrašit, jako se o to pokoušeli v mé rodné zemi. Je naší povinností nabídnout právě nyní Tchaj-wanu užší obchodní i kulturní spolupráci. Totalitní režimy a autoritáři si musí zapamatovat, že útok na jednu demokracii je útokem na všechny demokracie.

 
  
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  Anna Bonfrisco (ID). – Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, la Repubblica di Cina, Taiwan, è un partner affidabile e i taiwanesi sono forgiati dalla democrazia, dalle libertà e da una mentalità aperta che abbraccia l'innovazione.

Con il nostro voto oggi riconosciamo che negli ultimi vent'anni Taiwan ha rafforzato le istituzioni democratiche, i diritti sociali e politici e le libertà individuali e siamo al fianco di Taiwan, che vuole rimanere libero, sovrano e indipendente, coltivando una diplomazia di pace proattiva, soprattutto verso la Cina, anche quando questo Stato militarista e autoritario mostra solo di voler intimidire.

Taiwan rinnega ogni forma di coercizione ed è un modello esemplare per altri paesi dell'Asia e dell'Indo-Pacifico. Pertanto, ogni forma di collaborazione, dalla cultura ai semiconduttori, dalla sicurezza all'economia, dalla salute alle catene di valore e di approvvigionamento è un chiaro interesse strategico reciproco: collaborare per il progresso umano.

Siamo uniti nella difesa del progresso umano e della sua libertà e dobbiamo difendere Taiwan, perché Taiwan possa continuare a vivere in questo modo. La Commissione, gli Stati membri dell'Unione europea avvertano la Cina: noi difenderemo Taiwan.

 
  
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  Assita Kanko (ECR). – Voorzitter, het is duidelijk dat de Chinese eis van hereniging met Taiwan niet enkel de voltooiing van het Chinese project betreft, maar dat het ook gaat om het behalen van de geopolitieke dominantie in de Indo-Pacifische regio. In deze optiek uit het verslag-Weimers terecht ernstige bezorgdheid over de aanhoudende militaire strijdlustigheid van China tegenover Taiwan, en beveelt het de EU en de lidstaten aan een proactieve rol te spelen in de samenwerking met gelijkgestemde internationale partners om vrede en stabiliteit in de Straat van Taiwan na te streven en partnerschappen aan te gaan met de regering van Taiwan.

Het verslag beklemtoont dat er een rechtstreeks verband bestaat tussen Europese voorspoed en Aziatische veiligheid. Wij moeten ons dan ook sterk kanten tegen alle unilaterale pogingen om de status quo te veranderen en de spanningen op te voeren. Een militair conflict in de Straat van Taiwan zou een aanzienlijke economische ontwrichting met ook gevolgen voor onze Europese contreien meebrengen en de op regels gebaseerde internationale orde ernstig ondermijnen. Het autoritarisme mag er niet de overhand krijgen op de democratie.

 
  
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  Antoni Comín i Oliveres (NI). – Señor presidente, señora comisaria, el autoritarismo del régimen de Beijing desafía nuestro concepto de democracia. Lo estamos diciendo todos.

Sus minorías (los uigures, los tibetanos, los ciudadanos de Hong Kong y también los demócratas que desde el régimen chino luchan por un país mejor) sufren una vulneración sistemática de sus derechos fundamentales.

Europa debe abandonar la política «de una sola China» o, mejor dicho, debe reconocer que China y Taiwán son, a todos los efectos, dos países distintos, y tratarlos como tales. Así se ha expresado en las urnas el pueblo de Taiwán de forma repetida, y, por tanto, tenemos que respetarlo desde las instituciones europeas.

Desde Cataluña, Taiwán tiene todo nuestro apoyo y ojalá en los próximos meses volvamos a votar en esta Cámara sobre Taiwán, pero esta vez sobre un tratado de inversión que refuerce las relaciones entre Europa y Taiwán.

Europa debe priorizar las alianzas con otras democracias. Si Europa quiere ser una potencia global, debe hacer apuestas geopolíticas que refuercen los sistemas democráticos con derechos civiles, políticos, laborales, ambientales, etcétera.

Ojalá esta Resolución sea un hito hacia unas relaciones mucho más estrechas entre Taiwán y la Unión Europea.

 
  
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  Andrey Kovatchev (PPE). – Mr President, as the Commissioner knows very well, this House has many times requested that we should start with the preparation of the EU—Taiwan bilateral investment agreement. We want to see concrete steps from the Commission, but also from the Council, especially the scoping exercise and the impact assessment, in preparation for the formal launch of the negotiations.

Taiwan is a close partner of the EU. We share core values such as democracy, freedom and the rule of law. Developing closer investment links would not only create economic benefits for both sides, but also allow us to strengthen strategic cooperation in critical sectors like semiconductors.

For more than a year, we have been discussing how to reshape and reconfigure our supply chain for the post—COVID era. When we do this, I think it’s very important to consider factors such as democracy, trust and the consequences if we pursue closer cooperation and alliance with like—minded countries like Taiwan. It’s very strange that the Member States expressed solidarity with Lithuania, but some of them are very hesitant to give the mandate to you, Madam Commissioner, to the Commission, to start even the scoping exercise and impact assessment.

What we are afraid of?

I understand that some countries are afraid of reactions from mainland China, but this is something that is against our autonomy, and we always think that we should be autonomous as a European Union.

 
  
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  Isabel Santos (S&D). – Senhor Presidente, o reforço das relações políticas e da cooperação entre a União Europeia e Taiwan é da máxima importância.

Para lá do exemplo do Tibete, de Hong Kong e de Macau, assistimos recentemente a mais demonstrações da prepotência do Governo chinês, com as recentes incursões de aviões militares chineses no espaço aéreo taiwanês.

Mais do que uma intimidação, esta é uma tremenda provocação, uma clara violação da zona de identificação da defesa aérea de Taiwan. A quase duplicação do número de incursões na zona de defesa aérea no espaço de um ano e a cada vez maior presença militar no mar do sul da China evidenciam a crescente agressividade de Pequim.

Não podemos tolerar este tipo de ações sobre um território que connosco partilha os valores do respeito pela democracia, direitos humanos, liberdades fundamentais e Estado de Direito.

Devemos ser claros, se queremos ter um papel na manutenção da estabilidade e da paz no Indo-Pacífico. Taiwan é um parceiro fundamental para uma ordem baseada em regras na região. As ações disruptivas e provocatórias por parte da China não podem ficar sem resposta.

 
  
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  Dita Charanzová (Renew). – Mr President, it has now been six years since we pledged to end the ‘trade for all’ strategy, to reach an agreement with Taiwan. Six years, and we are still not there. We concluded an agreement with China, yet Taiwan is still waiting. And this is not right. We need to have a bilateral investment agreement. There is no single reason not to have this. China shouldn’t be used as an excuse to prevent us from pursuing our own interests in the region. Taiwan shares the same values as us. Our business leaders are overwhelmingly in favour of this, and as is clearer today than ever, this House is calling for a deal. For a deal now.

 
  
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  Jörg Meuthen (ID). – Herr Präsident, Frau Kommissarin, werte Kollegen! Der ungezügelte wirtschaftliche und militärische Expansionsdrang Chinas ist gegenwärtig ohne jeden Zweifel eine der größten Bedrohungen unserer westlichen Wertegemeinschaft. Daher ist es ausdrücklich zu begrüßen, dass wir heute über die Intensivierung der Beziehungen zwischen der EU und Taiwan sprechen.

Sowohl die EU-Mitgliedstaaten als auch insbesondere Taiwan leiden unter dem globalen Machtstreben des totalitären Regimes in Peking. Hier in Europa führt die Volksrepublik China ganze Nationen gezielt in die wirtschaftliche und technologische Abhängigkeit und nutzt diese dann mit aller Härte aus, um politischen Druck auszuüben. Taiwan sieht sich derweil immer unverhohlener werdenden militärischen Aggressionen durch Peking ausgesetzt.

Die Frage nach einer möglichen Wiedervereinigung beider Staaten ist gewiss nicht von uns Europäern zu beantworten, aber ganz sicher noch viel weniger mit militärischer Gewalt. Wir sind überzeugt vom Selbstbestimmungsrecht Taiwans, und wir haben ein starkes Interesse an Frieden und Stabilität im Fernen Osten. Wir dürfen nicht achselzuckend hinnehmen, wenn China dies gefährdet.

Nein, die Volksrepublik China ist kein fairer Partner, nicht wirtschaftlich – Chinas wenig zimperlicher und nicht den Regeln eines fairen Wettbewerbs entsprechender Aufstieg in den vergangenen Jahrzehnten hat insbesondere bei uns in Deutschland schon viele tausend Arbeitsplätze gekostet – und schon gar nicht politisch. Taiwan dagegen schon. Es ist deshalb gut und richtig, wenn wir unsere Handelsbeziehungen zu diesem Land der Hochtechnologie weiter ausbauen. Als Handelspartner und als Bastion der Freiheit und Demokratie verdient es unsere aufrichtige Unterstützung.

 
  
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  Witold Jan Waszczykowski (ECR). – Mr President, I would like to thank Mr Weimers for his report, a good job, Charlie. The European Union needs to search for friends worldwide. A prime candidate for our friendship is democratic Taiwan. Let me repeat Taiwan, not Texas. Taiwan, which is already an important economic partner, manufacturer of leading technology, Taiwan is a reliable partner in a time of pandemic. It is not China. Taiwan is our guide in how to deal with China. First, as a country warning about COVID, we should continue this cooperation. It is giving direction on how to deal with China policy and the Far East. It is helping us to fight China’s disinformation.

What can we do for our friends in Taiwan? We have to recognise them by giving them more and more access to international institutions, first and foremost to European institutions.

 
  
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  Jörgen Warborn (PPE). – Herr talman! Fru kommissionär! Taiwan är Asiens stora demokratiförkämpe. Ett land som nu är under allvarligt politiskt och militärt hot av den kommunistiska enpartistaten Kina.

 

Kinas senaste maktlystenhet och förtryck i Hongkong har skapat en alltför påtaglig oro i Taiwan över att de kan komma att stå på tur. Västvärlden måste visa sitt starka stöd för det taiwanesiska folket och dess demokrati. Därför krävs en tydlig politisk signal från EU om att våra demokratier inte accepterar Kinas politik.

 

Taiwan utgör en öppen och internationell handelsplats, med stor betydelse för världshandeln. Taiwan är också en given destination för innovationskraftiga europeiska företag som önskar ta sig närmare Asiens många tillväxtmarknader.

 

Därför måste EU accelerera arbetet med ett bilateralt investeringsavtal. Ett avtal kommer bidra till att stärka den ekonomiska tillväxten, öka den globala konkurrenskraften och säkra ett starkt, robust investeringslandskap för europeiska företag.

 
  
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  Evin Incir (S&D). – Mr President, democracy, human rights and the rule of law are core values of the European Union. Agreements and cooperation are primarily done with the like—minded, or at least with those with the same goals and intentions.

Taiwan is a role model in its region. Through deeper cooperation, we will acknowledge the leadership for fundamental rights it takes, including social, economic, political and cultural rights, but also LGBTI rights and the rights of the indigenous population. While we see improvements in Taiwan, we see the total opposite in China. The Chinese oppressive communist regime does not fear to take measures against anyone, in China and beyond.

A few months ago, I received a threatening letter from the Chinese Embassy in Sweden, stating, ‘We express strong discontent and firm opposition to your support to the so—called ‘EU—Taiwan political relations and cooperation report’. We hope that you withdraw your support immediately and do not pursue this course of action. Otherwise, you shall be held responsible for all consequences’. My conviction is clear. I will proudly vote in favour of the report today in defence of democracy and freedom, regardless of the threats of consequences by the oppressive communist regime.

 
  
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  Svenja Hahn (Renew). – Herr Präsident! Kommissionspräsidentin von der Leyen wird nicht müde zu betonen, dass sie eine geopolitische Kommission führen will. Open strategic autonomy ist das Wort der Stunde. Und doch, finde ich, zeigt Taiwan, dass es eben ein langer Weg ist von Sonntagsreden bis zur Realität.

Das Parlament hat mehrmals gefordert, die Vorbereitungen für ein Investitionsabkommen mit Taiwan zu treffen. Was ist passiert? Nichts. Im Gegenteil: Für ein Taiwan-Abkommen macht die Kommission sogar eines mit China zur Bedingung. Dabei liegt das umfassende Investitionsabkommen CAI zu Recht auf Eis: inhaltlich zu schwach, und Chinas gravierende Menschenrechtsverletzungen und Sanktionen gegen Abgeordnete sind inakzeptabel.

Die demokratische und rechtsstaatliche Entwicklung in Taiwan ist der Gegenentwurf zum autoritären Herrschaftssystem der Volksrepublik China. Eine geopolitische Kommission muss doch gerade die Zusammenarbeit von Demokratien vorantreiben, und das bedeutet auch engere zivilgesellschaftliche, wissenschaftliche und wirtschaftliche Beziehungen mit Taiwan.

 
  
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  Marco Dreosto (ID). – Signor Presidente, signora Commissaria Vestager, onorevoli colleghi, venti di guerra stanno soffiando sui mari cinesi, ormai è evidente. La Cina ha alzato il tiro, purtroppo non solo metaforicamente, e ora sta puntando diritta a Taiwan.

Mentre noi in Europa ci perdiamo in molte chiacchiere, gli Stati Uniti, che ricordo essere il nostro principale alleato, pensano in maniera molto concreta e soprattutto agiscono per difendere la supremazia, loro e di tutto l'Occidente, per il contenimento della Cina nell'Indo-Pacifico.

Noi tutti, assieme ai nostri partner transatlantici, dobbiamo avere un obiettivo comune: evitare che la Cina diventi una potenza oceanica attraverso la conquista di Taiwan. Chi controlla i mari controlla il mondo, questo si dice spesso. Ecco perché il ruolo nell'isola è strategico e fondamentale per evitare che un paese non democratico e soprattutto gestito dal più grande partito comunista al mondo possa prevalere in campo geopolitico ed economico.

E allora, gentile Commissaria, onorevoli colleghi, questa volta non possiamo girarci dall'altra parte. Questa volta l'Europa deve gridare con forza: noi stiamo dalla parte di Taiwan.

 
  
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  Alexandr Vondra (ECR). – Pane předsedající, dámy a pánové, já bych na úvod především chtěl poděkovat našemu kolegovi Charliemu Weimersovi, protože připravil zprávu, za kterou se opravdu tentokrát nemusíme stydět.

Tchaj-wan nám už mnohokrát ukázal cestu. Naposledy během koronavirové krize a myslím, že může znovu. Všichni víme, s jakými problémy se poslední dobou potýkáme na trhu s polovodiči. Automobilový průmysl je prakticky v troskách. Jsem hluboce přesvědčen, že je pro nás mnohem výhodnější navazovat a prohlubovat průmyslovou, hospodářskou i vědecko-technickou spolupráci s demokraticky smýšlejícím partnerem, než být závislý na zdrojích z autoritářských zemí.

Ukažme, že jsme hrdými partnery obyvatelů Tchaj-wanu a nedopusťme, aby jej kontinentální Čína zničila, stejně jako to udělala s Hongkongem. Čínská agrese podkopává stabilitu a mír nejen v regionu jihovýchodní Asie, ale v celém světě a my s tím musíme něco dělat. A Tchaj-wan je správná odpověď.

 
  
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  Miriam Lexmann (PPE). – Mr President, let me begin by thanking colleagues across this House on working together to produce a report that sends a strong message to support our Taiwanese friends. Taiwan is a democratic ally facing unprecedented pressure from the totalitarian Chinese Communist Party. As a result, Taiwan’s democracy, economic achievements and regional and perhaps global security are all at stake. We must stand with Taiwan, but we must also develop and strengthen our relations.

First, in a world where totalitarian regimes are becoming increasingly assertive, defending democracy is no longer enough. We must take democracy on the offensive. Where there remains instinctive desire for freedom and self-determination is suffering.

And secondly we must strengthen our economic cooperation. Today, Taiwan is an important investor in many of our countries, and there is huge potential for cooperation in areas such as manufacturing of semiconductors or the development of 5G networks. It is high time to start negotiating an EU—Taiwan bilateral investment agreement.

 
  
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  Marie-Pierre Vedrenne (Renew). – Monsieur le Président, Madame la Commissaire, renforcé par la crise pandémique, notre objectif commun est de construire notre autonomie stratégique. Concrètement, cela signifie que nous devons décider par nous-mêmes avec qui nous voulons discuter et comment nous voulons approfondir nos relations économiques avec nos partenaires.

Depuis six ans, les demandes incessantes de notre Parlement pour lancer des négociations pour un accord bilatéral d’investissement avec Taïwan restent lettre morte. Taïwan partage pourtant nos valeurs: défense de la démocratie, lutte contre le changement climatique, standards sociaux élevés, protection des libertés fondamentales. À l’heure des tensions dans la région indo-pacifique, renforcer nos relations avec des partenaires partageant les mêmes idées ne semble plus une option.

Et ne soyons pas naïfs. Nous connaissons toutes les pressions exercées par la Chine, mais ce n’est pas à la Chine de dicter notre propre agenda commercial. Soyons forts et déterminés dans la construction d’alliances fondées sur des valeurs et des objectifs communs. Mais cela nécessitera également de muscler notre arsenal commercial pour répondre à toutes les possibles représailles.

 
  
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  Peter Kofod (ID). – Hr. formand! Jeg vil gerne starte med at sige stor tak til Charlie Weimers fra ECR-Gruppen for det flotte arbejde, som han i dag har præsenteret os for, og som vi diskuterer her i dag. Det er en utrolig vigtig sag. Taiwan er en ven. Det er et demokrati, og det er nogle, vi deler værdier med på et helt grundlæggende plan. For nylig havde jeg fornøjelsen af at besøge Taiwan. Det var en utroligt mærkværdig oplevelse på den ene side at besøge et så venligsindet – og jeg tillader mig at sige land, der ønskede så meget godt for verden og samtidig var så utrolig truet af Kommunistkina lige på den anden side af vandet. Vi skal aldrig være i tvivl om – og de skal aldrig være i tvivl om – at det er vores venner, og det skal det være for enhver pris. Kinas aggressioner både over for Taiwan, men også over for Hongkong, som man jo politisk er ved at sætte fuldstændig i knæ, eller Tibet, som man har undertvunget for mange år siden, er fuldstændig uacceptable. Det skal vi sige meget klart fra overfor. Det er ikke bare noget, vi skal gøre i Europa. Det skal vi gøre sammen med nogle af vores bedste venner, nemlig amerikanerne. Vi skal stå sammen i den vestlige civilisation og forsvare vores venner, uanset hvor de måtte være i verden, uanset hvem der truer dem ude i verden.

 
  
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  Bert-Jan Ruissen (ECR). – Voorzitter, commissaris, een mijlpaal: zo zou ik het voorliggende verslag van collega Weimers willen noemen. Want het is voor het eerst in haar geschiedenis dat de Europese Unie een verslag aanneemt over de relaties tussen de EU en Taiwan. Als democratische rechtsstaat met respect voor de mensenrechten, als belangrijke handelspartner in een strategische, belangrijke regio en met een innovatieve samenleving, is Taiwan een lichtend voorbeeld voor de regio. Maar steeds is daar de intimiderende en provocerende lange arm van Peking, die de vrede en stabiliteit in de regio bedreigt.

Het voorliggende verslag van collega Weimers is broodnodig. Taiwan verdient internationale steun. Dat betekent dat we werk moeten maken van een bilateraal investeringsakkoord. Tevens moet de EU actiever bepleiten dat Taiwan wordt toegelaten als waarnemer bij internationale organisaties zoals de Wereldhandelsorganisatie en de Wereldgezondheidsorganisatie, en dat vooral ook in het belang van de Taiwanese bevolking zelf.

 
  
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  Isabel Wiseler-Lima (PPE). – Monsieur le Président, Madame la Commissaire, si l’Union européenne prend au sérieux son objectif d’être un véritable acteur sur l’échiquier géopolitique, elle doit partout dans le monde donner la priorité à la démocratie et donner son appui à ceux qui la défendent. Taïwan est un État démocratique qui se trouve menacé. Les manœuvres militaires chinoises destinées à intimider et faire pression sur Taïwan doivent être considérées comme inacceptables, tout comme les campagnes de désinformation dont Taïwan est la victime.

Il nous faut entretenir et développer nos relations de partenariat avec Taïwan. Et, sans atermoiements, non seulement avoir des relations bilatérales avec Taïwan, notamment en intensifiant nos relations économiques, mais aussi défendre Taïwan sur la scène internationale. Il est inconcevable qu’alors même que la pandémie de la COVID sévissait sans possibilité de protection vaccinale, Taïwan n’ait pas eu la possibilité de participer aux réunions de l’OMS.

Nous devons peser de tout notre poids pour que Taïwan ait un réel statut au niveau international. Il faut en effet être conscient des difficultés que la situation présente implique. Aujourd’hui, en raison de son statut, Taïwan a d’énormes soucis à commander des vaccins. Au début de la pandémie, Taïwan a envoyé dans l’Union européenne huit millions de masques. À nous aujourd’hui de nous montrer solidaires en veillant à ce que les Taïwanais aient accès au vaccin.

 
  
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  Γεώργιος Κύρτσος (PPE). – Κύριε Πρόεδρε, πρέπει να στηρίξουμε την αναβάθμιση της πολιτικής συνεργασίας και την εμβάθυνση της οικονομικής συνεργασίας με την Ταϊβάν για τρεις λόγους κατά την άποψή μου: πρώτον, η Ταϊβάν έχει μια εξαιρετικά δυναμική οικονομία και έχει αποδειχθεί απόλυτα αξιόπιστος συνεργάτης της Ευρωπαϊκής Ένωσης· δεύτερον, η οικονομία της έχει ποιοτικά χαρακτηριστικά στην έρευνα, την καινοτομία και την ψηφιακή μετάβαση που μας δείχνουν πού πρέπει να εστιάσουμε τη συνεργασία μας για να καλύψουμε και δικές μας ελλείψεις· τρίτον, με τη δημοκρατία και το κράτος δικαίου η Ταϊβάν στέλνει τα σωστά μηνύματα σε μια περιοχή μεγάλης στρατηγικής σημασίας, όπου αμφισβητείται από ορισμένους το δημοκρατικό μοντέλο πολιτικής οργάνωσης.

Η πρωτοβουλία μας, εννοείται, δεν είναι ευρωνατοϊκή ούτε ευρωαμερικανική. Βασίζεται στην ευρωπαϊκή στρατηγική αυτονομία και σε ευρωπαϊκούς υπολογισμούς. Για αυτό, κατά την γνώμη μου, έχει ξεχωριστή σημασία.

 
  
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  Peter van Dalen (PPE). – Voorzitter, hartelijk dank aan collega Weimers voor zijn historische verslag. En met hem ben ik het volledig eens dat de Europese Unie en Taiwan de gemeenschappelijke waarden van vrijheid, democratie en mensenrechten delen.

Laten we daarom vooral de bedoelingen van communistisch China niet onderschatten. China wil wereldleider worden en het inlijven van Taiwan lijkt een van de eerste doelen te zijn. Vergeet niet dat de Chinese president Xi een dictator is, en dictators zijn doorgaans onvriendelijk en tonen vaak een harde hand. Dat zien we de afgelopen maanden met de enorme agressie zowel in de lucht als over zee.

Of president Xi uiteindelijk doorzet en Taiwan zal innemen met geweld, dat weten we niet. We hopen natuurlijk van niet. Maar voor ons, laten wij als Europese Unie alles op alles zetten om de banden met Taiwan optimaal en maximaal te houden, ook met een handelsakkoord. Wij moeten altijd en overal onze solidariteit met Taiwan betonen.

 
  
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  Ivan Štefanec (PPE). – Mr President, there are many lessons to be learned from a pandemic, but I do believe that the most important one is that democracies should stand together. During the pandemic, Taiwan sent much-needed masks to the European Union and to other countries. And for us, Taiwan is our inspiration in many fields.

For example, as we know Taiwan represents 50% of the world’s semiconductor production. I do believe that our economic cooperation and newly prepared Bilateral Investment Agreement (BIA) is a natural strengthening of cooperation at the economic level between communities with equal values and belief in democracy and justice.

I do believe that Taiwan is an inspiration also in the fight against the pandemic and deserves full membership of the World Health Organization (WHO). We cannot be blind to China’s escalating provocations against the Taiwanese people, and we have to say a clear ‘no’ to these provocations and a clear ‘yes’ to cooperation between our democracies.

I am convinced that the cooperation between EU and Taiwan will enrich each other and bring benefits to both parties. Democracies should stand together.

 
  
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  Andrius Kubilius (PPE). – Mr President, since we are coming to the end of our discussions I will make a few conclusions and messages from our debate and from the report. The first one: There is strong cross-party support in this House for this unique report, which means that everybody is for more intensive relations between the EU and Taiwan. This is a message not only to China but also to EU institutions: Taiwan is no less an important partner than China. Taiwan is a striving democracy of Chinese people and it is a good example of democracy for mainland Chinese people.

One more message: The formula ‘One country, two systems’ means that at some time in the future both sides can unite themselves under the democracy umbrella.

And the last message: China should abandon its attempts to threaten democracy and independence of Taiwan or its attempts to threaten Lithuania for our support to Taiwan. I want to thank Parliament and the Weimers report for the language of support to us, and would like to remind the Chinese authorities that thirty years ago the big Soviet empire collapsed when it tried to fight against the democracy and independence of small Lithuania.

 
  
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  Bernard Guetta (Renew). – Monsieur le Président, Madame la Commissaire, chers collègues, il arrive même qu’un dictateur puisse dire vrai. Quand M. Xi Jinping dit que Taïwan, c’est la Chine, oui, il a raison. Taïwan, c’est la Chine, et Taïwan et la Chine communiste ont pour destin de se réunir un jour, comme l’Allemagne de l’Ouest et l’Allemagne de l’Est l’avaient fait, comme les deux Corées, espérons-le, soyons-en certains, le feront un jour. Mais dans quelles conditions?

Il y a la condition optimale: la Chine continentale devient une grande démocratie. Et alors? Ne doutons pas que les Taïwanais seront heureux de rejoindre cette grande démocratie et de lui apporter leur expérience. Deuxième hypothèse: un pays, deux régimes. Non. Non, merci. Nous avons déjà vu ça à Hong Kong. Il n’en est pas question. Ce n’est pas ce que nous soutiendrons. Certainement pas. Troisième hypothèse: une pression militaire, peut-être même une invasion militaire. Alors, que la Chine continentale le sache, nous n’entrerons pas en guerre, mais il en sera fini immédiatement, dans l’heure, de toutes nos relations économiques avec la Chine et la Chine aura à en supporter les conséquences.

 
  
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  Margrethe Vestager, Executive Vice-President of the Commission, on behalf of the Vice-President of the Commission / High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy. – Mr President, honourable Members, congratulations Charlie Weimers for your report and for this very positive reception in the plenary today.

I think this has been a very useful but also very timely exchange, because the debate today confirms that while remaining committed to the EU’s One China policy, we share the same interest in continuing to develop our relationship with Taiwan. I think that has been the main message from everyone taking the floor today.

But you also convey a sense of urgency. We need to foster our engagement to make sure that Taiwan preserves its democracy, freedoms and open market, and that we defend our interests and values so that the status quo remains the norm in the Taiwan Straits, with all the potential that you have touched upon today to be harvested.

 
  
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  Charlie Weimers, rapporteur. – Mr President, it has been an honour and a pleasure as a Swede and democrat to steer this recommendation through Parliament as rapporteur. Thank you to all those who participated in today’s debate, which was conducted in the spirit of free speech, free thought and true democratic deliberation. Moreover, I’d like to thank the Commissioner for devoting her attention to this matter.

Kommissær Vestager, det glæder mig, at De bemærkede den overvældende støtte til den stærke forbindelse med Taiwan.

Let this Parliament and its unwavering support for strengthened ties between Europeans and the free Taiwanese people be your guide in this work, not least when you face the same kind of pressure from the Chinese Communist Party as the European Parliament did. Thank you, and let us now continue this work.

 
  
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  Presidente. – O debate está encerrado.

A votação das alterações realizar-se-á hoje e a votação final amanhã.

Declarações escritas (artigo 171.º)

 
  
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  Anna-Michelle Asimakopoulou (PPE), in writing. – This is the first European Parliament report dedicated to the EU’s relations with Taiwan, and it is both important and timely. I believe it embodies a very balanced approach, and one that seeks to be proactive rather than provocative. There has always been a tacit understanding that the Bilateral Investment Agreement with Taiwan would follow once the China Agreement on Investment had been concluded. This was before the unprecedented move by China to impose unwarranted sanctions, not least against members of this Parliament, and we are now unable to proceed until this issue has been resolved. Therefore, there is a strong and convincing argument in favour of reassessing this time-schedule, and of opening negotiations on a Bilateral Investment Agreement with Taiwan sooner rather than later. This is important and timely as the EU aims to improve supply chain resilience for semi-conductors, which are critical to achieving our digital transition goals. As Taiwan will be investing in new manufacturing plants in the United States, we need to create the necessary framework and conditions to facilitate similar investments in the EU. The Bilateral Investment Agreement with Taiwan is clearly a step in the right direction on the path to Europe’s strategic autonomy.

 
  
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  Guido Reil (ID), schriftlich. – Seit 30 Jahren ist Taiwan eine Demokratie; und seit 50 Jahren lassen wir uns von der Volksrepublik China verbieten, Taiwan als das selbstständige Land anzuerkennen, das es faktisch ist – einfach nur, weil die Volksrepublik größer ist und an ihren 1,3 Milliarden Einwohnern mehr Geld verdient werden kann als an den 23 Millionen Taiwanesen.

Chinas Entwicklung zu einer selbstbewussten, aggressiv agierenden Hegemonialmacht war absehbar. Hongkongs Entwicklung zu einem diktatorisch geführten Vasallenstaat war absehbar. Taiwan droht ein ähnliches Schicksal, besonders akut nach dem würdelosen Abzug der Amerikaner aus Afghanistan.

Tatsächlich hätte das Parlament diese EU-Taiwan-Entschließung schon vor Jahrzehnten beschließen müssen. Stattdessen hat es den Kopf in den Sand gesteckt und so getan, als ob China keine eigenen geostrategischen Interessen hätte, weil es selbst nicht in der Lage ist, eigene geostrategische Interessen zu entwickeln, geschweige denn zu formulieren. Ich habe für die EU-Taiwan-Entschließung gestimmt.

 
  
 

(A sessão é suspensa às 19h04)

 
  
  

VORSITZ: RAINER WIELAND
Vizepräsident

 
An nuashonrú is déanaí: 17 Nollaig 2021Fógra dlíthiúil - Beartas príobháideachais