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Kolmapäev, 20. oktoober 2021 - Strasbourg Uuendatud versioon

14. Suuremad jõupingutused rahapesuga võitlemiseks (arutelu)
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  Puhemies. – Esityslistalla on seuraavana komission julkilausuma rahanpesun torjuntatoimien lisäämisestä (2021/2909(RSP)).

 
  
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  Mairead McGuinness, Member of the Commission. – Madam President, thank you for the opportunity to outline our very determined efforts to fight money laundering and how the Commission is working to ensure the effective application of existing anti-money laundering rules. We adopted a very ambitious anti-money laundering and countering the financing of terrorism (AML/CFT) package on 20 July and I look forward to working with Parliament to reach a swift adoption.

This package should be seen in the context of a comprehensive AML/CFT policy at Union level. Enforcement is a key element of that comprehensive policy. Effective implementation of the existing AML rules is at the very core of our approach to fighting money laundering. And over the years since the first AML Directive in 1991, the EU has been reinforcing its anti-money laundering rules. These rules are now amongst the toughest in the world and will be further strengthened once the July 2021 AML package is adopted.

But they will only be effective if they are enforced equally across the board. This is confirmed by the work carried out by this Parliament through the Panama Papers Inquiry Committee and the TAX3 Special Committee. This was also confirmed by the debate that this House had a fortnight ago about the Pandora Papers.

In the European Union, we need to ensure that beneficial ownership registers are up and running and fully populated. We will use our enforcement powers under the Treaty to that end, and we will work in international forums to make sure that other jurisdictions will follow suit by bringing about full transparency of beneficial ownership.

Honourable members, we share the same ambition: effective implementation, one of the pillars of our AML policy, must remain at the centre of all our actions. Our enforcement approach to AML is based on several tools available to the Commission.

First, a thorough control of transposition. We are determined that our existing rules on AML are fully implemented, even as we negotiate the new proposals. And let me be very clear: existing legislation must be fully and correctly transposed and applied on the ground in our Member States.

On the fourth Anti-Money Laundering Directive (AMLD4), we started with infringement procedures against all Member States for incomplete or incorrect transposition. Today, there are three ongoing non-conformity cases – all of them at the stage of letters of formal notice.

On the fifth Anti-Money Laundering Directive (AMLD5), the Commission sent letters of formal notice to 16 Member States on the grounds of partial or non-transposition. Five Member States have reached the stage of reasoned opinion. One letter of formal notice has already been sent for incorrect transposition. More letters are likely to follow in the coming months as we complete conformity checks.

Transposing AMLD4 and AMLD5 was a very difficult process for Member States. We in the Commission supported the efforts of Member States by cooperating with them, while in parallel launching formal infringement proceedings.

The special report of the European Court of Auditors on AML identified the limited resources the Commission has to carry out transposition checks. But I want to say that even with those limited resources – and I assure you of this – we are doing our utmost to implement the recommendations in the report and to ensure that AMLD is fully and correctly transposed.

A second tool available to us is to ensure effective implementation of the AML Directive, and this involves a proactive look at the state of play of application of the rules as transposed in the national laws of Member States. The Council of Europe is conducting a study on the effective implementation of the AML framework in each Member State, including on—site visits to all Member States and looking at core provisions of our rules, for example, whether supervisors and financial intelligence units are sufficiently staffed; the functioning of registers of beneficial ownership, and how the supervision of the non-financial sector is carried out.

Another tool we use are country-specific recommendations (CSRs) within the European Semester. Here, the Commission issued 11 AML-related CSRs last year, and we plan to make greater use of the semester for AML in the next cycle.

This year, most Member States that have received CSRs have included AML in the Recovery and Resilience Plans. Next Generation EU provides further leverage for monitoring progress in Member States. Where measures on AML have been included in Member States’ plans, their implementation will be monitored through milestones and targets.

The European Banking Authority (EBA) also has powers in the field of anti-money laundering, particularly in relation to investigating whether a national supervisor has breached Union law when carrying out its tasks. We expect the EBA to make full use of its powers.

In addition to national competent authorities, it is important to involve civil society. The Commission is currently implementing a pilot project requested by Parliament called ‘Capacity building, programmatic development and communication in the context of the fight against money laundering and financial crimes’. This is aimed at increasing AML awareness and empowering civil society in this area.

The proposals presented in our 20 July AML package will strengthen the current framework. Under the new AML Regulation, obliged entities will be subject to directly applicable rules. In particular, the AML Regulation provides for harmonised requirements for consumer due diligence, and such requirements are more detailed and granular than at present and will be further refined via implementing legislation prepared by the future EU AML authority. The single rulebook will also further specify our rules on beneficial ownership, to improve our knowledge of who is behind a transaction and to exercise its control over a company or legal arrangement or entity. These new rules will clarify the concept of control and increase the powers of registers to get accurate information.

We fully share the findings of the European Court of Auditors, which viewed the AML package as an opportunity for the Commission and the co—legislators to remedy the fragmentation of the EU AML framework.

For enforcement to be as efficient and effective as possible, we urgently need an AML single rulebook. With this new legislative package, the Commission has fully delivered on this recommendation from the European Court of Auditors. A new EU supervisory authority, the EU AML Authority (AMLA), will have a key role in ensuring that all national authorities effectively implement the single rulebook.

In order to best prepare the ground for the new authority, in particular with respect to the supervision of the non-financial sector and the functioning of financial intelligence units (FIUs), Member States need to make tangible headway in efficiently implementing the AML framework. With this in mind, we will follow up on the findings of the Council of Europe report.

AMLA, the new authority, will also have the possibility to conclude working arrangements with the European Anti-Fraud Office (OLAF), Europol, Eurojust and the European Public Prosecutor’s Office to ensure good cooperation of all actors, as it is critical to bridge the gaps between the preventative and repressive strands of the EU AML framework.

As regards the law enforcement angle, the fight against criminal finances will play a prominent role under the new European multidisciplinary platform against criminal threats (EMPACT) 2021-2025 initiative, the flagship instrument for cooperation among Member States, agencies and EU bodies to fight organised crime.

The creation of the European Financial and Economic Crime Centre at Europol in June 2020 is a significant step to reinforce law enforcement efforts against financial crimes. We will bolster these efforts by supporting operational cooperation at the Anti-Money Laundering Operational Network (AMON) of money laundering investigators and by proposing, next year, stronger rules on asset recovery and confiscation to ensure that crime does not pay.

AML is an area where the smooth exchange of information is crucial. One of the priorities of the Commission in this area was to take over the management of the FIU.net system, pending its transfer to AMLA in the future, and I am happy to confirm to the House that that transfer has now been successfully completed. We expect the new authority to be established in 2023 and to start its activities in 2024. The direct supervision of certain high-risk financial entities will only begin in 2026, which is when AMLA will reach its full staffing.

Until then, our commitment to fighting money laundering, by all possible means, remains strong and unchanged, and I’m happy to count on this House’s continued support on this very important issue. Thank you, colleagues, for your engagement. I look forward to hearing your views.

 
  
  

VORSITZ: OTHMAR KARAS
Vizepräsident

 
  
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  Markus Ferber, im Namen der PPE-Fraktion. – Herr Präsident, Frau Kommissarin, liebe Kolleginnen, liebe Kollegen! Die Europäische Union hat schon seit Jahren ein Geldwäscheproblem. Es gibt Schätzungen, nach denen sich das Volumen von verdächtigen Transaktionen innerhalb Europas auf einen dreistelligen Milliardenbetrag beläuft. Die Europäische Kommission hat auf Drängen des Europäischen Parlaments im Sommer dieses Jahres nun endlich unsere langjährigen Forderungen aufgegriffen und Vorschläge für ein verbindlicheres Regelwerk und eine eigenständige und hoffentlich auch kraftvolle Behörde vorgelegt.

Das sind zweifelsohne Vorschläge, die in die richtige Richtung weisen. Wir sollten uns aber nichts vormachen: Im Kampf gegen Geldwäsche kommen wir nur voran, wenn auch die Mitgliedstaaten mitziehen, und daran scheitert es heute leider viel zu oft.

Wenn ich nur mein eigenes Land, Deutschland, nehmen darf, so sehen wir zum Beispiel, dass die beim Zoll angesiedelte Anti-Geldwäsche-Spezialeinheit einen riesigen Berg von unbearbeiteten Verdachtsfällen vor sich herschiebt. Inzwischen wird sogar schon wegen Strafvereitelung im Amt ermittelt. Dafür trägt übrigens der Bundesfinanzminister und möglicherweise zukünftige Bundeskanzler Olaf Scholz die Verantwortung, und es ist doch interessant, dass er bei der Anhörung im zuständigen Ausschuss zugeben musste, dass er diese Behörde, die er selber geschaffen hat, noch nie besucht hat.

Aber es mangelt nicht nur an Vermögen, es mangelt auch an Willen in den Mitgliedstaaten. Wir brauchen eine stärkere europäische Rolle und eine starke europäische Behörde, sonst werden wir kläglich scheitern.

 
  
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  Eero Heinäluoma, S&D-ryhmän puolesta. – Arvoisa puhemies, on kulunut 30 vuotta siitä, kun ensimmäinen rahanpesudirektiivi hyväksyttiin. Sen jälkeen on hyväksytty neljä muutakin direktiiviä.

Silti Euroopan tilintarkastustuomioistuimen tuore raportti on surullista luettavaa. Rahanpesun vastaiset toimet on toteutettu jäsenvaltioissa hajanaisesti ja ilman selkeitä prioriteetteja. Rahanpesu jatkuu edelleenkin todellisena miljardiluokan ongelmana.

Säädökset purevat kyllä tavallisiin pientallettajiin, mutta edelleenkin sadat miljoonat eurot siirtyvät tileiltä toisille ilman todellista estettä. Rikollinen raha muodostaa yhteisöllemme myös aidon turvallisuusuhan.

Järeitä toimia tarvitaan. Direktiivien sijaan sitovaa lainsäädäntöä. Kansallisten valvojien rinnalle tarvitaan eurooppalainen valvoja. Todelliset edunsaajat rahaliikenteessä on selvitettävä, ja korkean rahanpesuriskin maat on listattava ilman epäröintiä.

 
  
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  Ramona Strugariu, on behalf of the Renew Group. – Mr President, first I would like to welcome the new AML/CTF package proposed by the Commission, the single rulebook, the new AML Authority, the new rules on beneficial ownership transparency. I’m looking forward to working on these proposals. At the same time, please let me remind you that we have 16 AMLD IV infringement procedures launched by the Commission, including Romania, and four AMLD V procedures open. This approach to AML coming from the Member States cannot continue like that. If we do not properly transpose and implement; if we do not properly equip our law enforcement with the right tools to fight money laundering; if we do not have strong and independent justice systems, we will not succeed. This is a call to responsibility and respect for the rule of law in all of the Member States. Let us do this properly.

Secondly, we have all witnessed the Pandora Papers: more than 230 politicians from 90 countries, 35 current or former heads of state, 133 Forbes billionaires, whose combined fortunes exceed 500 billion, and 46 Russian oligarchs. This is crushing. Each and every single name on this list needs to be properly audited. Each and every Member State needs to do this. Then we can say that we are countering money laundering, secret jurisdictions, tax havens and evasion properly: EU institutions and EU members, shoulder to shoulder, as it should be.

 
  
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  Mikuláš Peksa, za skupinu Verts/ALE. – Pane předsedající, dámy a pánové, jak jsme mohli sledovat v kauze Pandora Papers, lidem s penězi a vlivem se stále daří obcházet evropská pravidla proti praní špinavých peněz a za různých pochybných manévrů si pak za to kupují utajené zámečky ve Francii a podobně. Ono není přijatelné, aby vládní úředníci klamali občany skrytými špinavými penězi uloženými v Karibiku a zároveň vlastně, třeba díky svému postavení, v rámci Rady vyškrtávali více dalších a dalších zemí z listiny daňových rájů. My naléhavě potřebujeme přezkoumat právní předpisy Evropské unie bojující proti praní špinavých peněz, abychom zajistili jejich lepší fungování. Zákony můžou fungovat opravdu jenom tehdy, pokud je lidé respektují. Jsem hluboce znepokojen, že se například české vládě dařilo čtyři roky se úspěšně vyhýbat transpozici evropské směrnice včetně těch částí o vlastnictví a identitě nebo o přístupu k informacím, protože tady mi opravdu připadá, že česká vláda se chová podle přísloví, že „kdo nekrade, tak okrádá rodinu.“

Takže moc oceňuji návrh Komise učinit stávající ustanovení, která jsou dobrovolná, povinnými a zřídit úřad Evropské unie pro boj proti praní špinavých peněz, aby se zajistila transparentnost. Ale bohužel budeme muset udělat ještě daleko více, než kolik jsme udělali doteď.

 
  
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  Antonio Maria Rinaldi, a nome del gruppo ID. – Signor Presidente, signora Commissaria McGuinness, onorevoli colleghi, in un minuto è difficile fare un discorso molto approfondito, però vorrei dire una cosa che credo stia a cuore a tutti i cittadini europei.

Vedete, i nostri elettori ci chiedono: come mai quando noi versiamo, magari per la paghetta per andare a mangiare una pizza o un hamburger, ai nostri figli e facciamo il trasferimento su una carta prepagata, anche di soli 20 euro, sì, di 20 euro, noi dobbiamo portare una serie di documenti alti così? Non solo noi che facciamo il versamento ma anche coloro i quali ricevono, i nostri figli. E poi leggiamo sui giornali che è permesso trasferire da una parte all'altra parte del mondo cifre, ho letto sui giornali addirittura per i Pandora Papers, 32 trilioni di dollari. E non succede niente.

Noi qui siamo chiamati, siamo obbligati a dare delle risposte ai cittadini europei. Questo Parlamento esiste per dare questo tipo di risposte.

 
  
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  José Gusmão, em nome do Grupo The Left. – Senhor Presidente, a Comissão Europeia tem-se mostrado sempre muito veloz a perseguir todos os Estados-Membros que implementem políticas orçamentais, políticas públicas, políticas sociais que violem regras de governação económica. Mas é curioso verificar que, quando se trata de regular a criminalidade do sistema financeiro, a evasão fiscal, a lebre transforma-se na tartaruga.

E é por isso que temos tantos Estados-Membros, como o meu próprio, que ainda não transpuseram a legislação sobre branqueamento de capitais; é por isso que continuamos a ter vistos gold, esse instrumento ao serviço da criminalidade financeira, em vários Estados-Membros, mais uma vez incluindo o meu próprio; e que, apesar de todas as declarações de intenções da Comissão Europeia, continuamos a ter uma lista de offshores não cooperantes, que é absolutamente ridícula e que mostra que não estamos só a falar de lentidão. No caso da proteção de offshores que escondem o percurso através do qual o dinheiro é lavado, a Comissão Europeia não é só lenta, é cúmplice ativamente.

 
  
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  Laura Ferrara (NI). – Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, la Corte dei conti europea ha delineato un quadro preoccupante sul fronte della lotta al riciclaggio di denaro nel settore bancario. Nonostante i continui aggiornamenti delle norme in materia, secondo le stime di Europol il valore delle transazioni sospette in Europa ammonta a centinaia di miliardi di euro, pari a circa l'1,3 per cento del PIL dell'Unione europea.

La legislazione europea antiriciclaggio, costituita da direttive e non da regolamenti, continua a essere recepita in modo frammentato e disomogeneo, mentre la Commissione purtroppo è lenta nel garantirne l'attuazione e ad avviare procedure di infrazione.

Come la Corte evidenzia, sono necessari interventi per il miglioramento delle valutazioni del rischio di riciclaggio, nonché per il finanziamento del terrorismo in merito ai paesi terzi, nonché sulle procedure di vigilanza, lo scambio di informazioni, le indagini e le decisioni relative alle violazioni del diritto dell'Unione europea riguardanti enti creditizi e istituzioni finanziarie.

Colmare le carenze del sistema bancario per colpire chi intende convertire e movimentare i proventi illeciti deve essere una priorità per tutelare l'economia legale.

 
  
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  Lídia Pereira (PPE). – Senhor Presidente, o branqueamento de capitais é um crime especialmente grave e complexo. Não o combater não é apenas atacar as operações concretas, mas é cortar o fluxo financeiro que alimenta o terrorismo, a criminalidade organizada e as redes de tráfico de pessoas, drogas ou armas.

A ambição europeia, aqui, não se justifica apenas pela necessidade de recuperar 1% do PIB europeu que se perde. É motivada sobretudo pela urgência de travar crimes que atentam contra os nossos valores, os nossos valores fundamentais. As propostas da Comissão vão no bom sentido, mas é preciso ir mais longe e, para isso, precisamos do empenho dos governos nacionais.

Estamos a discutir uma reforma quando as regras atuais não são devidamente transpostas ou aplicadas, como tem acontecido em Portugal. Um novo regulamento é um passo em frente se reforçar as obrigações do mercado financeiro, sem prejudicar a competitividade das empresas. Uma revisão da diretiva é bem-vinda, se os Estados a cumprirem, e uma nova autoridade antibranqueamento de capitais é um avanço, se vier, de facto, melhorar a comunicação entre as autoridades competentes nos Estados.

O combate ao crime de branqueamento de capitais exige de todos nós ambição e realismo. Não se trata de uma mera questão de Direito, é um imperativo do Estado de Direito.

 
  
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  Juan Fernando López Aguilar (S&D). – Señor presidente, señora comisaria, al igual que sucede con el Estado de Derecho, en la lucha contra el blanqueo de capitales cualquier laguna en un Estado miembro afecta al conjunto de la Unión Europea; por eso, es imprescindible que los supervisores nacionales y las unidades de inteligencia financiera contra las transacciones y actividades sospechosas de blanqueo tengan reglas comunes contra la innovación tecnológica de los medios delictivos.

Por eso, damos la bienvenida a la propuesta de la Comisión: nada menos que cuatro Reglamentos —este Parlamento ha legislado, y la Comisión de Libertades Civiles, Justicia y Asuntos de Interior tiene memoria de ello— y cinco Directivas penales contra el blanqueo de capitales procedentes de negocios ilícitos, pero es imprescindible, en este paquete, la Autoridad de Lucha contra el Blanqueo de Capitales y la Financiación del Terrorismo, que es un avance que podría ser más ambicioso, con más poderes de supervisión y más rápidos, particularmente contra los criptoactivos y en relación con la travel rule, en su eficacia contra el crimen organizado y contra el terrorismo.

Me parece importante, por último, resaltar la recomendación del GAFI, el Consejo de Europa y la OCDE para que la combinación de fuerzas de la OLAF, Europol, Eurojust y la Fiscalía Europea hagan verdad, efectivamente, que el delito no resulta provechoso.

 
  
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  Billy Kelleher (Renew). – Mr President, I welcome the announcement of the package by the Commission, and I want to commend Commissioner McGuinness on this.

Just to say at the outset, the Pandora leaks shows quite clearly that money laundering is not always by some nefarious groups; it is very often by respected politicians across the globe. I think that is an indication of why we are so slow – not just in Europe but across the globe – in terms of addressing the issue of money laundering.

It is not a victimless crime. It robs and siphons money from scarce public facilities. The other issue, of course, is it funds terrorism, drug dealing and prostitution, racketeering and smuggling of people. For all those reasons, anything we can do to stamp out this criminal act is very welcome, and I commend the announcement by the Commission on that.

We have to ensure that there is strong cooperation between the national authorities in terms of banking, oversight, and also the revenue commissioners to ensure that each country is capable of referring suspicious activities to the centralised anti—money laundering authority, so that there can be investigations. At the end of the day, there has to be prosecutions, and that often is referred back to the national authorities for prosecution. I’d like to see a bit of clarity brought on that particular issue because in the event of there being very influential people found to be money laundering, well then, can there be or is there the will to actually prosecute? Particularly, as I said, when they are people at the top end of our politics and commerce across the globe.

As I said, the Pandora Papers show that this is widespread, is nefarious, and it must be stamped out. I commend the package announced, and I hope that it is implemented speedily, and it gets cooperation from all involved in the European Union.

 
  
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  Claude Gruffat (Verts/ALE). – Monsieur le Président, Madame la Commissaire, dites-moi, Madame la Commissaire, où en est concrètement la lutte contre le blanchiment d’argent au sein de l’Union européenne? Parce que, croyez-moi, de ce pupitre, elle semble complètement à l’arrêt. Les scandales se succèdent les uns après les autres. Les interpellations indignées résonnent dans cet hémicycle tel un écho sans fin et, surtout, sans résultat concret. Pire, de nouvelles étapes dans l’inaction sont franchies. Malte, un État européen, se retrouve sur la liste grise du GAFI, l’organe international de lutte anti-blanchiment, et aucune réaction de vos services.

Aussi, nous apprenons que la France et d’autres font pression pour affaiblir les listes anti-blanchiment européennes, pourtant déjà vierges, d’États de l’Union. À quel jeu jouent les États? À quel jeu joue la Commission? L’évasion fiscale et le blanchiment d’argent nourrissent la crise actuelle avec la complicité de certains États de l’Union.

Alors, Madame la Commissaire, agissez! Les citoyens et citoyennes européens vous attendent, car bientôt il sera trop tard pour arrêter les graves crises sociales qui ne manqueront pas de surgir au sein de l’Union européenne.

 
  
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  Gunnar Beck (ID). – Herr Präsident! Die EU-Kommission fordert die Einrichtung einer weiteren EU-Aufsichtsagentur, strengere Bargeldkontrollen und ein EU-Vermögensregister. Unter dem Deckmantel der Geldwäschebekämpfung wird registriert und überwacht, was alle Bürger besitzen, kaufen, verkaufen und treiben. Dabei geht es gar nicht um Geldwäsche. Ungarns Gesetz, die Finanzierung von LGBT- und Migrations-NGOs, ausländischen Hochschulen und Medien zu regulieren, wurde vom EuGH als Eingriff in die Kapitalfreiheit gekippt.

Doch wenn die EU selbst die Kapitalfreiheit beschränkt, so ist das legal. Selbst der EU-Rechnungshof beklagt, die EU tue nichts gegen Geldwäsche bei der Schleusung von Migranten – immerhin einer 6-Milliarden-Euro-Industrie. Hier geht es um Bürgerüberwachung, Eingriffe in die Privatsphäre und die schrittweise Abschaffung des Bargelds und mitnichten um Geldwäsche und Steuervermeidung.

 
  
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  Javier Zarzalejos (PPE). – Señor presidente, señora comisaria, cuando más del 1 % del producto interior bruto de la Unión está implicado en actividades financieras sospechosas, es evidente que el blanqueo supone un grave problema financiero y fiscal, pero también supone un grave problema para la seguridad. Por eso, necesitamos un enfoque doble, integrado: por un lado, vigilancia y prevención y, por otro, coerción para poder actuar eficazmente, desde el punto de vista policial y judicial, contra el blanqueo y contra los delitos subyacentes.

En ese sentido, las iniciativas de la Comisión resultan prometedoras, y espero que sean mejoradas en el debate parlamentario.

Permítanme referirme en particular a la autoridad que está llamada a coordinar las acciones europeas en materia de blanqueo, porque entiendo que es importante que encaje y fortalezca las capacidades que ya existen en la Unión, en especial Europol, para luchar contra la delincuencia financiera mediante unos mecanismos estrechos de coordinación y de intercambio de la información que tendremos que debatir en su momento.

 
  
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  Paul Tang (S&D). – Voorzitter, de commissaris, de Europese witwasregels zijn nog zo lek als een mandje. De Europese Rekenkamer weet het, het Parlement weet het en sinds de Pandora Papers weet de hele wereld het.

Maar toch sta ik hier met goede hoop, want de benodigdheden voor een sterke aanpak zijn duidelijk: transparantie over de eigenaren van brievenbusfirma’s, ook als die zich buiten de EU bevinden, meer middelen voor de financiële-inlichtingeneenheden, een sterke Europese autoriteit met middelen en een duidelijk mandaat om de gaten te dichten.

Morgen spreekt het Europees Parlement zich hier al over uit. En de komende maanden kunnen we helpen deze eisen en wensen te verwezenlijken. De nieuwe wetsvoorstellen van de Commissie tegen witwassen zijn een goede stap en met het huidige momentum, dat ik in deze kamer toch meen te bespeuren, ligt een veel strengere aanpak binnen bereik. En dat is hard nodig om alle lekken te dichten. Want financiële misdaad mag niet lonen.

 
  
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  Ralf Seekatz (PPE). – Herr Präsident, verehrte Kolleginnen und Kollegen! Die Ergebnisse im Kampf gegen die Geldwäsche sind leider recht überschaubar. Obwohl sich die Schäden für die Staatskassen auf mehrere Milliarden Euro angehäuft haben, hat die EU bisher keine einheitliche Strategie zur Bekämpfung von Geldwäsche und Terrorismusfinanzierung.

Die Richtlinie wurde fünfmal überarbeitet. Regelmäßig gab es Vertragsverletzungsverfahren, leider auch, wie vom Kollegen Ferber schon angedeutet, gegen unser schönes Land Deutschland. Deshalb ist es so wichtig, dass die Kommission nun einen Verordnungsvorschlag vorgelegt hat. Diese Verordnung hat dann endlich diesen verbindlichen Charakter, den wir auch sehr, sehr zwingend brauchen.

Ebenfalls brauchen wir eine strenge und gut koordinierte Aufsicht. Die neu zu gründende Behörde kann da ein wichtiger Baustein sein. Damit ist es aber nicht getan. Die Fachbehörden der Mitgliedstaaten müssen auch effektiver und gründlicher arbeiten. Die neue EU-Behörde muss daher nicht nur die Länderbehörden unterstützen, sondern auch deren Zusammenarbeit koordinieren.

Wir müssen aber aufpassen, dass die Arbeit der nationalen Behörden dadurch am Ende nicht bürokratischer und auch komplizierter wird.

 
  
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  Цветелина Пенкова (S&D). – Господин Председател, в последните месеци бяхме свидетели на алармиращи финансови скандали. Санкциите над български граждани по закона „Магнитски“ и масовите разкрития на злоупотреби в досиетата „Пандора“, които включват редица европейски и български граждани, показват, че проблемите са от международен характер и Европа трябва да действа с общи усилия.

Новият законодателен проект, предложен от Комисията за борба с изпирането на пари и финансирането на тероризма в Европейския съюз, е една наложителна стъпка. Създаването на единен европейски надзор е от изключително значение, но е добре и да заложим на използването на технологии в активната борба с тези проблеми. Настоящият законодателен проект предлага специални мерки за надлежна проверка на клиентите и също така включва шеста поред поправка на Директивата срещу изпирането на пари. Но моят въпрос е не трябва ли да използваме по-ефективно технологиите в борбата с финансовите измами и как точно да направим това?

 
  
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  Емил Радев (PPE). – Г-н Председател, г-жо Комисар, колеги, според последните разкрития в досиетата „Пандора“ стана пределно ясно за всички, че се нуждаем от всеобхватна европейска политика, от засилена законодателна рамка в областта на изпирането на пари и финансирането на тероризма. Ето защо новият законодателен пакет в тази област е много повече от необходим и навременен. Много е важно тази рамка да се прилага по еднакъв начин във всички държави членки.

Приветствам предложението за регламент за борба с изпирането на пари на Европейската комисия, защото само така ще уеднаквим правилата и ще затворим вратичките в европейското законодателство, които престъпниците умело използват за злоупотреби с финансовата система. Трябва да създадем ефективен надзор, основан на общи надзорни методи и сближаване на високите стандарти в сферата на финансовия сектор.

Необходимо е и по-добро сътрудничество между административните, съдебните и правоприлагащите органи в Европейския съюз. В тази връзка обмяната на информация между звената за финансово разузнаване е от изключително значение. В крайна сметка, за да е ефективна, борбата със злоупотребите задължително трябва да стъпи на здраво трансгранично партньорство и респективно на добра информираност.

 
  
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  Angelika Winzig (PPE). – Herr Präsident, Frau Kommissarin, Kolleginnen und Kollegen! Die Pandora Papers zeigen, dass der Kreis von Personen, die in fragwürdige Geldgeschäfte verwickelt sind, weit über das übliche Drogen- und Waffenmilieu hinausreicht. Abgesehen davon, dass diese Gelder auch zur Terrorismusbekämpfung herangezogen werden, trifft der Schaden uns alle – alle, jeden einzelnen, der seine Steuern und Abgaben im Sinne des Gemeinwohls bezahlt.

Allein im Jahr 2020 sind in den EU-Mitgliedstaaten 164 Milliarden nur durch grenzüberschreitenden Mehrwertsteuerbetrug verloren gegangen. Das ist in etwa die Summe, die wir in einem Jahresbudget zur Verfügung haben. Daher sind verschärfte Maßnahmen notwendig, vor allem auch im Bereich der zunehmenden Kryptowährungen. Diese müssen den gleichen Regeln unterliegen wie konventionelle Währungen.

Geldwäsche hat ein Ausmaß erreicht, das eine neue Behörde erfordert. Österreich als ein historischer Brückenbauer zwischen Ost und West wäre ein hervorragender Standort dafür.

 
  
  

PRESIDENZA DELL'ON. FABIO MASSIMO CASTALDO
Vicepresidente

 
  
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  Frances Fitzgerald (PPE). – Mr President, it is estimated that up to USD 2 trillion is laundered globally every year. In my own country, the level of money laundering has more than doubled in the space of a year and we also have the amounts, of course, exposed in the Pandora Papers. Money laundering is a scourge in our society and disrupts our whole economy. It allows criminal organisations to thrive and to grow their murky operations.

Europe cannot afford to be seen as a gateway for dirty money to be channelled to criminals. With the Commission’s new package, which I really welcome, the EU has the potential to become a global leader in the fight against money laundering. It’s now up to the Member States and the European Parliament to make it a reality, and we must all be upfront. All Member States must be up front and centre in the renewed fight against money laundering in Europe. We must strive for a gold-standard anti-money laundering regime.

Criminals only need one loophole to exploit the system. Closing off these loopholes is not easy, given that we live in a complex and interconnected single market. But Europe’s reputation is suffering through more and more money laundering scandals. The EU needs all the Member States to champion this cause.

 
  
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  Othmar Karas (PPE). – Herr Präsident, Frau Kommissarin, meine sehr geehrten Damen und Herren! Geldwäsche schafft Ungleichheit, verzerrt den Wettbewerb, schwächt den Binnenmarkt, die Wirtschaft, das Finanzsystem und uns gemeinsam als Europäische Union. Geldwäsche ist kriminell.

Die Enthüllungen der Pandora Papers sind die neueste Spitze des Eisbergs der vielen wachrüttelnden, ja haarsträubenden Steuer- und Geldwäscheskandale. Die offene Büchse der Pandora zeigt abermals eindrücklich, dass die aktuellen Maßnahmen zahnlos sind, nicht ausreichen, ja manchmal auch nichts bewirken. Gleichzeitig gibt es Vertragsverletzungsverfahren gegen 17 Mitgliedstaaten wegen mangelnder Umsetzung der Geldwäscherichtlinie.

Wir müssen daher die bestehenden Regelungen evaluieren, ob sie überhaupt tauglich sind. Und wir müssen schnell die Behandlung des neuen vorgeschlagenen Pakets in Angriff nehmen. Machen wir endlich Nägel mit Köpfen und sorgen wir dafür, dass die Geldwäsche nicht mehr der Zukunft angehört.

 
  
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  Mairead McGuinness, Member of the Commission. – Mr President, I have really welcomed this debate, and I think we all agree that, if the current system worked, we wouldn’t be reviewing it. So I welcome your support for our July package. It’s really important that you work hard and fast on this proposal.

I want to speak to some of the points that were raised. To Mr Beck, who I think is not in the Chamber, we are not abolishing, and have no intention to abolish, cash. Cash is king, but cash must be clean, and, as we’ve heard in this debate, there is a lot of dirty cash floating through our financial system in Europe, and it has got to stop.

Mr Kelleher referred to the truth behind the dirty money, which is crimes against society, against children, and against women. It is just an evil pursuit and we have got to stop criminals in their tracks. So this is not just a financial issue. This is a massive social issue that we have a responsibility to address.

When it comes to the idea of the tools we have, yes, we will use, and are using, all of the tools available, as I outlined in my opening remarks. Specifically on beneficial ownership, we are looking very closely at the issue of beneficial ownership in a specific number of Member States, and we are vigilant. On crypto, as was referred to earlier, yes, this area is now non—transparent, and in our new proposals there will be transparency on the transactions.

So I deeply appreciate the debate here this evening and the passion you bring to it. This is a very important issue for us, and I want to assure you, as I said at the outset, not only will we implement the new proposals and work with you on them, we will continue to expect full implementation of existing rules in our Member States. But the truth is that the fight against money laundering is a global fight, and therefore it requires global action. I think this was particularly shown, again, by the Pandora Papers investigation. At this stage, it is still to be determined whether, besides tax evasion, crimes related to the illicit source of wealth are involved.

The Commission and Member States are working hard in the Financial Action Task Force to ensure that international standards are robust and up to date, including in the area of the transparency, as I have said, of beneficial ownership. This is a key area.

But our anti-money laundering (AML) system is only as strong as its weakest link, and this is why we need more Europe in this area. We need more Europe to create bridges between supervisors, among financial intelligence units (FIUs) and between supervisors and FIUs, and we need bridges to ensure that the work carried out on the prevention side effectively feeds into the work of investigators, public prosecutors and asset recovery officers. Our goal is not only to prevent financial crime, but also to bring criminals to justice and deprive them of their illicit proceeds.

I count on your full support in the future negotiations on our AML package. We will work hard and we will work fast, and, if successful, we will reduce and eliminate the crime of money laundering and the financing of terrorism. I believe we can do this together.

 
  
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  Presidente. – La discussione è chiusa.

Dichiarazioni scritte (articolo 171)

 
  
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  Caterina Chinnici (S&D), per iscritto. – Il riciclaggio di denaro costituisce uno dei principali strumenti tramite cui la criminalità, soprattutto organizzata, si infiltra nell'economia legale, alterandone gli equilibri a danno delle iniziative economiche sane. Il fenomeno è pericolosamente diffuso. Secondo Europol, le transazioni sospette in Europa ammontano a centinaia di miliardi di euro, pari a circa l'1,3% del PIL dell'UE. L'Unione europea ha adottato norme specifiche in materia, che necessitano tuttavia di essere rafforzate. Anche la Corte dei conti ha riscontrato la frammentazione istituzionale e lo scarso coordinamento a livello UE dell'attuale sistema di prevenzione del riciclaggio, e ha evidenziato il bisogno di potenziare la supervisione europea della vigilanza. Il nuovo pacchetto legislativo presentato dalla Commissione si pone nella giusta direzione del necessario potenziamento del quadro europeo di lotta al riciclaggio e al finanziamento del terrorismo, assicurandone maggiore uniformità e superando l'attuale frammentazione normativa. La nuova Autorità europea anti-riciclaggio, inoltre, garantirà quella supervisione a livello UE, oggi non sufficiente, e l'estensione delle regole sui servizi finanziari ai trasferimenti di attività virtuali renderà più trasparente un settore sin qui poco regolamentato.

Queste proposte devono ora rapidamente tradursi in atti legislativi esaustivi, che colmino le lacune esistenti e rendano più efficace il contrasto a tali pervasivi fenomeni.

 
  
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  Lina Gálvez Muñoz (S&D), por escrito. – La lucha contra el blanqueo de capitales y la financiación del terrorismo es vital para la estabilidad y la seguridad financiera en Europa. Las lagunas legislativas en un Estado miembro impactan en la UE en su conjunto.

Por este motivo, las normas de la UE deben implementarse y supervisarse de manera eficiente y coherente para combatir la delincuencia y proteger nuestro sistema financiero. Además, el reciente escándalo de los papeles de Pandora reveló hasta qué punto el ecosistema financiero internacional y, particularmente, el europeo, están generando evasión fiscal y contribuyendo al lavado de dinero, lo que hace que adquiera suma importancia la adopción por parte de la Comisión del paquete legislativo contra el lavado de dinero, que cumple una de las demandas que, desde hace mucho tiempo, venimos defendiendo desde el Grupo S&D.

De cara a los desarrollos de los mercados de capitales y la innovación tecnológica, y con carácter previo al inicio de las negociaciones del paquete legislativo contra el blanqueo de capitales (AML), este debate ha sido muy oportuno. Garantizar la eficiencia y coherencia del marco AML de la UE es de suma importancia.

 
  
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  Isabel García Muñoz (S&D), por escrito. – La lucha contra el blanqueo de capitales y la financiación del terrorismo es vital para la estabilidad y la seguridad financiera en Europa. Las lagunas legislativas en un Estado miembro impactan en la UE en su conjunto.

Por este motivo, las normas de la UE deben implementarse y supervisarse de manera eficiente y coherente para combatir la delincuencia y proteger nuestro sistema financiero. Además, el reciente escándalo de los papeles de Pandora reveló hasta qué punto el ecosistema financiero internacional y, particularmente, el europeo, están generando evasión fiscal y contribuyendo al lavado de dinero, lo que hace que adquiera suma importancia la adopción por parte de la Comisión del paquete legislativo contra el lavado de dinero, que cumple una de las demandas que, desde hace mucho tiempo, venimos defendiendo desde el Grupo S&D.

De cara a los desarrollos de los mercados de capitales y la innovación tecnológica, y con carácter previo al inicio de las negociaciones del paquete legislativo contra el blanqueo de capitales (AML), este debate ha sido muy oportuno. Garantizar la eficiencia y coherencia del marco AML de la UE es de suma importancia.

 
  
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  Iratxe García Pérez (S&D), por escrito. – La lucha contra el blanqueo de capitales y la financiación del terrorismo es vital para la estabilidad y la seguridad financiera en Europa. Las lagunas legislativas en un Estado miembro impactan en la UE en su conjunto.

Por este motivo, las normas de la UE deben implementarse y supervisarse de manera eficiente y coherente para combatir la delincuencia y proteger nuestro sistema financiero. Además, el reciente escándalo de los papeles de Pandora reveló hasta qué punto el ecosistema financiero internacional y, particularmente, el europeo, están generando evasión fiscal y contribuyendo al lavado de dinero, lo que hace que adquiera suma importancia la adopción por parte de la Comisión del paquete legislativo contra el lavado de dinero, que cumple una de las demandas que, desde hace mucho tiempo, venimos defendiendo desde el Grupo S&D.

De cara a los desarrollos de los mercados de capitales y la innovación tecnológica, y con carácter previo al inicio de las negociaciones del paquete legislativo contra el blanqueo de capitales (AML), este debate ha sido muy oportuno. Garantizar la eficiencia y coherencia del marco AML de la UE es de suma importancia.

 
  
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  Nicolás González Casares (S&D), por escrito. – La lucha contra el blanqueo de capitales y la financiación del terrorismo es vital para la estabilidad y la seguridad financiera en Europa. Las lagunas legislativas en un Estado miembro impactan en la UE en su conjunto.

Por este motivo, las normas de la UE deben implementarse y supervisarse de manera eficiente y coherente para combatir la delincuencia y proteger nuestro sistema financiero. Además, el reciente escándalo de los papeles de Pandora reveló hasta qué punto el ecosistema financiero internacional y, particularmente, el europeo, están generando evasión fiscal y contribuyendo al lavado de dinero, lo que hace que adquiera suma importancia la adopción por parte de la Comisión del paquete legislativo contra el lavado de dinero, que cumple una de las demandas que, desde hace mucho tiempo, venimos defendiendo desde el Grupo S&D.

De cara a los desarrollos de los mercados de capitales y la innovación tecnológica, y con carácter previo al inicio de las negociaciones del paquete legislativo contra el blanqueo de capitales (AML), este debate ha sido muy oportuno. Garantizar la eficiencia y coherencia del marco AML de la UE es de suma importancia.

 
  
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  Cristina Maestre Martín De Almagro (S&D), por escrito. – La lucha contra el blanqueo de capitales y la financiación del terrorismo es vital para la estabilidad y la seguridad financiera en Europa. Las lagunas legislativas en un Estado miembro impactan en la UE en su conjunto.

Por este motivo, las normas de la UE deben implementarse y supervisarse de manera eficiente y coherente para combatir la delincuencia y proteger nuestro sistema financiero. Además, el reciente escándalo de los papeles de Pandora reveló hasta qué punto el ecosistema financiero internacional y, particularmente, el europeo, están generando evasión fiscal y contribuyendo al lavado de dinero, lo que hace que adquiera suma importancia la adopción por parte de la Comisión del paquete legislativo contra el lavado de dinero, que cumple una de las demandas que, desde hace mucho tiempo, venimos defendiendo desde el Grupo S&D.

De cara a los desarrollos de los mercados de capitales y la innovación tecnológica, y con carácter previo al inicio de las negociaciones del paquete legislativo contra el blanqueo de capitales (AML), este debate ha sido muy oportuno. Garantizar la eficiencia y coherencia del marco AML de la UE es de suma importancia.

 
  
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  Domènec Ruiz Devesa (S&D), por escrito. – La lucha contra el blanqueo de capitales y la financiación del terrorismo es vital para la estabilidad y la seguridad financiera en Europa. Las lagunas legislativas en un Estado miembro impactan en la UE en su conjunto.

Por este motivo, las normas de la UE deben implementarse y supervisarse de manera eficiente y coherente para combatir la delincuencia y proteger nuestro sistema financiero. Además, el reciente escándalo de los papeles de Pandora reveló hasta qué punto el ecosistema financiero internacional y, particularmente, el europeo, están generando evasión fiscal y contribuyendo al lavado de dinero, lo que hace que adquiera suma importancia la adopción por parte de la Comisión del paquete legislativo contra el lavado de dinero, que cumple una de las demandas que, desde hace mucho tiempo, venimos defendiendo desde el Grupo S&D.

De cara a los desarrollos de los mercados de capitales y la innovación tecnológica, y con carácter previo al inicio de las negociaciones del paquete legislativo contra el blanqueo de capitales (AML), este debate ha sido muy oportuno. Garantizar la eficiencia y coherencia del marco AML de la UE es de suma importancia.

 
  
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  Susana Solís Pérez (Renew), por escrito. – Que la costumbre a este tipo de escándalos no nos haga pasar por alto la gravedad de los hechos. Los casi 12 millones de documentos expuestos públicamente en los papeles de Pandora demuestran que los que deberían ser guardianes frente al blanqueo de capitales y la evasión fiscal son, en muchas ocasiones, los que aparecen en los titulares. Los representantes públicos de la Unión Europea tenemos que actuar y ser contundentes en la condena, tanto desde Bruselas como desde las capitales de los Veintisiete.

A la hora de explorar medidas, una de las prioridades debe ser la creación de una Agencia Europea, con cimientos sólidos y los suficientes medios humanos, que vigile este tipo de prácticas. Más allá de la Resolución que aprobó este Parlamento, hay una lista negra de paraísos fiscales que se actualiza periódicamente. A pesar de las reiteradas peticiones de esta Cámara, los ministros de Economía y Finanzas de la UE decidieron excluir por motivos diplomáticos a varios países de la lista. De esta forma enviaron una señal que, a mi parecer, es totalmente equívoca.

Ahora es el momento de que la UE marque unas exigencias y criterios que corten de raíz la evasión de responsabilidades fiscales.

 
  
  

VORSITZ: OTHMAR KARAS
Vizepräsident

 
Viimane päevakajastamine: 10. veebruar 2022Õigusteave - Privaatsuspoliitika