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Mardi 8 mars 2022 - Strasbourg Edition révisée

10. La situation en Bosnie-Herzégovine (débat)
Vidéo des interventions
Procès-verbal
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  Der Präsident. – Als nächster Punkt der Tagesordnung folgt die Aussprache über die Erklärung der Kommission zur Lage in Bosnien und Herzegowina (2022/2576(RSP)).

 
  
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  Olivér Várhelyi, Member of the Commission. – Mr President, dear Members of Parliament, 30 years after the bloody break—up of Yugoslavia, with the Russian invasion in Ukraine, war is back on European soil.

Once again, we are witnessing extreme human suffering, with many lives lost and millions fleeing Ukraine. The last weeks and the changing geopolitical constellations have brought the need for peace back on to the top of our agenda. This also means that the stability and security of the Western Balkans has never been so important as it is today.

The debate on the situation in Bosnia and Herzegovina is very timely. I met Bosnia and Herzegovina’s political leadership for the first time in 2020. We discussed what needed to be done for the candidate status for that country. The agreement on the election in Mostar, after 12 years of blockage, was a breakthrough and gave us fresh impetus after years of standstill.

Unfortunately, 2021 was a lost year for Bosnia and Herzegovina. Although it was not an election year, we have seen no real progress on the EU path and on the implementation of the 14 key priorities. Indeed, we have seen growing political divisions throughout the country at different levels. These divisions were aggravated even further with the non-recognition of the new High Representative and with the boycotting of state institutions. All of this is negatively affecting not just Bosnia and Herzegovina on its EU path, but also the everyday life of the people and businesses.

We need constructive dialogue and political will from all sides to move forward on the EU path. This is all the more important in the changed international context following Russia’s war on Ukraine. These events have in fact confirmed Bosnia and Herzegovina’s European commitment. The country has aligned with the EU statements and decisions on Ukraine, which we very much welcome.

A lot of hope and efforts have been put in the ongoing talks on the electoral and constitutional reform. But the solution is not there yet. It should be found urgently and without any further delay. Fair, free and inclusive elections must take place in October, as scheduled. The Minister of Finance needs swiftly to put the required budget at the disposal of the Central Electoral Commission to organise the electoral procedures. The continued boycott of decision-making at different levels – Presidency and Council of Ministers – could jeopardise significant investments, including investments coming from the Economic and Investment Plan.

As I have stressed several times to the representatives of Republika Srpska, there is a need for urgent steps to de-escalate tensions, to avoid further rhetoric and to ensure the swift return to state institutions and ensure their full functioning. The impact is already visible.

Two weeks ago, we have launched a EUR 3.2 billion investment package to support 21 transport, digital, climate and energy connectivity projects in the Western Balkans. The package includes the investment projects submitted by Bosnia and Herzegovina, of which two – of road and rail connections along Corridor Vc – are on the territory of the Republika Srpska.

The Commission intends to sign the respective contribution agreements for these two investments – worth EUR 600 million, only after the return to the full functioning of state institutions.

Bosnia and Herzegovina is key for the future of the Western Balkans. The region’s future is in the European Union. Instead of in-fighting, the country should focus on the positive and constructive European agenda. This is the agenda with real gains and real benefits for everyone. It is the agenda that brings prosperity, stability and peace long term, and this is the agenda on which we need to work together.

 
  
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  Paulo Rangel, on behalf of the PPE Group. – Mr President, in the shadow of the new major conflict in Europe, the aggression of Russia, we have repeatedly heard that this is the most dramatic situation in Europe since the Second World War. We cannot, and we should not, compare the tragic suffering caused by different conflicts. But neither should we forget the much more recent drama of the Balkan wars of the 90s.

In 1995, a difficult agreement was reached in Dayton, which returned peace to Bosnia and Herzegovina. Today, that agreement is under threat, a victim of secessionist rhetoric and movements intransigent political blockades and foreign and hostile interference. Peace, stability and the very integrity of the country are at stake, and we cannot allow the present conflict between Russia and Ukraine to interfere in this region.

A range of measures is therefore required, starting with the application of sanctions to the perpetrators of these manifestly unconstitutional activities. The Council has the mechanisms and the example of the United States, all that is needed is the political will. In addition to individual sanctions, the Commission must also restrict access to Union funds until the blockage of central institutions and unconstitutional movements has ceased.

 
  
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  Dietmar Köster, on behalf of the S&D Group. – Mr President, in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serb presidential member Milorad Dodik and his supporting forces are boycotting the State institutions. They are working specifically on the unconstitutional transfer of powers and institutions to the Republika Srpska entity. This will lead to the destruction of the State as a whole.

Dodik rejects the condemnation of the Russian war of aggression made by Bosnian state institutions. He argued for a supposedly neutral position, which means nothing other than agreeing to Putin’s war. Dodik is using the war in Ukraine to further push his pro—Russian policies and threats to break up Bosnia and Herzegovina. He is obviously collaborating with Moscow, in whose interests it is to destabilise Bosnia and Herzegovina.

In the negotiations surrounding the electoral law, the nationalist HDZ party is making demands based on an alleged lack of the so—called legitimate representation. This would lead to a further ethnic cementing of the undemocratic electoral law. It is high time for the EU to sanction politically and financially Dodik and his forces to defend the sovereignty and territorial integrity of Bosnia and Herzegovina. In this regard, the EU must support civil society much more than it has done so far.

 
  
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  Klemen Grošelj, on behalf of the Renew Group. – Mr President, what Bosnia needs today is understanding and, above all, a message of hope in a better, more prosperous European future. European security depends on peace and stability in our neighbourhood. As you can see in Ukraine, there is a thin line between peace and war.

Bosnia and Herzegovina is in our close neighbourhood and it needs our attention. It needs our support. It is threatened by the blockade of the state institutions, and if that is not enough, it is facing a threat of secessionism inspired by a never truly and fully cleared historical burden, which reflects itself in genocide denial.

All in Bosnia need to come to terms with the past, as painful as it might be, but without an understanding of the past, there is no hope of the future, no hope of overcoming the nightmares of the past.

To overcome all this, we need to send a very clear and united EU message. There will be no return to the past for those who still nurture nationalistic fantasies of the past, like Mr Dodik and other political leaders. We need to impose a set of sanctions to deter them from further destabilisation of the country. Sanctions need to be targeted so they will not affect the ordinary people of Republika Srpska or Bosnia in general, but only those who wish for their narrow-minded, political, frequently corrupt-linked aims to tear apart the country and cause new bloodshed.

Sending additional troops from EUFOR is part of the effort, but we need to do more. We need to seriously reconsider giving Bosnia membership candidate country status, which needs to be followed by a strong commitment by the EU to help Bosnia to do its homework. It needs to make a set of deep and demanding reforms, starting with the change of the electoral law in line with the judgment of the European Court of Human Rights, followed by credible implementation of the reforms listed in the Commission’s 14—point plan and all other necessary and needed reforms which will enable the country to firmly set its European path.

Bosnia needs a sign of hope which will empower all those political forces which believe in a modern, democratic, civic and – above all – European Bosnia.

 
  
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  Tineke Strik, on behalf of the Verts/ALE Group. – Mr President, Europe’s response to the Russian aggression was almost united – almost. While the rest of Europe was discussing sanctions, Bosnian Serb leader Dodik talked with the Russian ambassador and with Minister Lavrov. This continuous flirting with Putin reconfirms his disinterest in democracy, international order and European security.

Yet the brutal invasion in Ukraine shows the need to more strongly combat Russian interference in the Balkans, as it directly threatens European security. The long—overdue sanctions for Dodik’s secessionist aggression must be imposed right away, including financial ones. So thanks, Commissioner, for your clear position on that; it’s a first step.

Bosnian citizens have become truly scared, reliving their traumas from the 1990s. Russian influence and interference also moves them further away from the EU perspective, which is devastating for their right to live in a stable and fully—fledged democracy. Yet strong support for Bosnian civil society and the EU integration process right now would really increase their trust in the EU and in a democratic and prosperous future.

Let us strongly engage with the citizens, with civil society and, as a first step, ensure free and fair elections in October. That would be the best and most promising medicine against Russian interference.

 
  
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  Julie Lechanteux, au nom du groupe ID. – Monsieur le Président, Monsieur le Commissaire, la crise que vit aujourd’hui la Bosnie-Herzégovine est à imputer à la violation des accords de Dayton pour le maintien de la paix, signés à Paris le 14 décembre 1995. La République serbe de Bosnie a toujours respecté la structure juridique, les droits et les obligations énoncées par les accords de Dayton. Il faut que l’autonomie des deux entités du pays et les droits des peuples constitutifs garantis par la Constitution soient impérativement respectés.

Malheureusement, les mesures prises par le haut-représentant des Nations unies sur place et la pression politique exercée par le plus grand parti bosniaque, le Parti d’action démocratique, sur les institutions de l’État, sont en train de mettre à mal le cadre institutionnel du pays.

Un exemple frappant de l’entorse qui est faite au cadre institutionnel qui régit l’État depuis 1995 est la partialité manifeste de la Cour constitutionnelle, composée de neuf membres, dont quatre choisis par la Fédération de Bosnie-Herzégovine (deux Croates et deux Bosniaques), deux désignés par la Republika Srpska et trois étrangers nommés par le président de la Cour européenne des droits de l’homme. Bien trop souvent, ces juges internationaux, en violation du principe d’impartialité, se sont alignés sur les juges bosniaques et ont mis en minorité les Serbes et les Croates. De cette manière, des décisions ont été prises sur la base de critères plus politiques que juridiques, surtout au détriment de la Republika Srpska et de son autonomie.

Devant le manque de droiture des juges internationaux, j’avais proposé, il y a deux ans déjà, de réformer la Cour constitutionnelle en procédant au remplacement de ces juges par des juges nationaux. Les hypocrites, bien trop nombreux dans l’Hémicycle, qui s’émeuvent des ingérences étrangères sont les mêmes qui, en même temps, se taisent devant ces violations de l’état de droit.

L’époque des protectorats est censée être révolue depuis bien longtemps. Rappelons-nous que, en 1914, l’Europe s’est embrasée à partir de Sarajevo, et si nous ne voulons pas accentuer les épisodes tragiques actuels en Europe, nous devons exiger le respect total des accords de Dayton.

 
  
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  Anna Fotyga, on behalf of the ECR Group. – Mr President, the only way to ensure stability and full sovereignty of countries like Bosnia and Herzegovina, as well as other partners like Georgia and Moldova, is the final surrender of Putin’s Russian Federation in bloody war waged against Ukraine, withdrawal from all internationally recognised territories of Ukraine and from meddling in the whole region and elsewhere in the world. I think that in between we have to keep utmost engagement in our relationship with Bosnia and Herzegovina.

 
  
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  Emmanuel Maurel, au nom du groupe The Left. – Monsieur le Président, la situation politique en Bosnie-Herzégovine se détériore singulièrement dans ce pays pauvre, enclavé et divisé, qui n’a pas vraiment surmonté les traumatismes de la guerre civile et dont les institutions fonctionnent mal.

Les tensions sont de plus en plus vives entre la Fédération de Bosnie, dite croato-musulmane, et la République serbe de Bosnie. Cette dernière, cela a été dit, ne dissimule plus sa volonté de faire sécession. Milorad Dodik, le chef politique des Serbes de Bosnie, ne reconnaît plus la légitimité de Sarajevo et demande de pouvoir disposer de sa propre armée, de son propre système judiciaire et sa propre fiscalité.

Dans ce contexte périlleux, évidemment, la guerre de Vladimir Poutine jette une lumière crue, aveuglante, sur les projets de M. Dodik, qui ne fait pas mystère de son allégeance à la Russie et compte sur son appui pour parvenir à ses fins. Et puis, il y a aussi les États-Unis, promoteurs des accords de Dayton, qui sont très intéressés par la région et qui ont adopté des sanctions contre M. Dodik.

Nous sommes donc en phase d’une internationalisation du conflit dans la poudrière des Balkans. Et tout porte à croire que s’il n’y a pas une action rapide, déterminée de l’Union européenne, Monsieur le Commissaire, il pourrait y avoir une seconde catastrophe aux frontières de l’Europe. Parce qu’évidemment, la catastrophe ukrainienne nous émeut tous, mais il y a là un problème de sécurité, de crédibilité. Nous devons donc clarifier notre propre position, et cela ne peut être que l’intégrité territoriale de la Bosnie. Nous devons ensuite nous assurer des intentions de la Serbie – j’ai vu que le président serbe avait encouragé la Republika Srpska à participer aux institutions collégiales bosniennes. Enfin, il faut trouver une sortie par le haut parce que l’Europe ne peut pas traîner. Elle ne peut pas tergiverser. Il en va de notre sécurité.

 
  
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  Ivan Vilibor Sinčić (NI). – Poštovani predsjedavajući, želim ovdje s vama podijeliti jednu pozitivnu priču iz Bosne i Hercegovine što se tiče zaštite ljudskih i ustavnih prava građana. Osim što je prije više od godinu dana Ustavni sud BiH proglasio obavezu nošenja maski i ograničenje kretanja neustavnim, imamo i nove odluke.

23. veljače ove godine Ustavni sud BiH donio je prema apelaciji advokata Ajanovića odluku kojom neustavnim proglašava COVID potvrde i neustavnim proglašava obvezno cijepljenje koje su uveli uski segmenti izvršne vlasti. O ovome je sudilo Veliko vijeće Ustavnog suda i tri međunarodna suca. Sud je čak kritizirao parlament kako je to mogao dozvoliti izvršnoj vlasti da dozvoli kršenje vladavine prava i demokracije u zemlji.

Prema odluci suda one koji se ogluše na ovu odluku treba goniti po krivičnom zakonu kaznom od pola godine do pet godina. Kao argument, također su prihvaćeni i norveški kodeks i Rezolucija Vijeća Europe 2361. Ustavni sud je naredio da javne vlasti moraju odmah postupiti po odluci i uskladiti svoje djelovanje s ustavnom i Europskom konvencijom o zaštiti ljudskih prava. Pobjeda je ovo protiv segregacije i diskriminacije i dokaz što narod može napraviti kad se ujedini.

Čestitam odavde Bosni i Hercegovini na ovom primjeru zaštite ljudskih i ustavnih prava od koje može učiti cijela Europa.

 
  
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  Michael Gahler (PPE). – Mr President, I welcome the positioning of Bosnia Herzegovina with regard to the Russian military aggression against Ukraine, and I do that also as a standing rapporteur on Ukraine. I think it is no surprise, however, that Milorad Dodik takes an opposite position. But we all know that Russia cannot deliver anything positive abroad, neither to Ukraine nor to Bosnia Herzegovina, or elsewhere. So I strongly urge everyone not to believe that a tactical siding with Dodik would profit the country as a whole or any particular grouping in the country.

I think that, and that was the clear message from the Commission for which I am grateful, that the Republika Srpska and Dodik have to return to the institutions and make them work. Therefore, I welcome the conditionality that has been set up by the Commission to implement the foreseen projects in the Republika Srpska, which is EUR 600 million, only if this actually takes place.

Moreover, with regard to the elections in October, I also welcome your position to insist that the elections take place in an appropriate set-up and also that the financial means that are required are put in the budget and used for that, in order that something can take place where the people have the right to vote, and it is not about the political parties and their infighting that has contributed to the stalemate.

 
  
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  Tonino Picula (S&D). – Poštovani predsjedavajući, sve neizvjesnija politička situacija u Bosni i Hercegovini još se više zakomplicirala ruskom agresijom na Ukrajinu. U državi u kojoj ne postoji suglasje o temeljnim socijalnim, ekonomskim i političkim pitanjima, u čijim se dijelovima službeno negiraju i genocid i Putinova agresija, ostaje previše prostora za politikantstvo i korištenje disfunkcionalnog uređenja za osobne i grupne interese.

Kronične blokade najbolji su pokazatelj da napretka u Bosni i Hercegovini ne može biti bez konsenzusa, međutim, konsenzus se gradi povjerenjem, a ne lošim kalkulacijama. Pogotovo ne vezivanjem za politike koje osuđuje pa i sve više sankcionira civilizirani svijet.

S druge strane, preglasavanje volje jednog od konstitutivnih naroda je direktna zlouporaba sistema koji očito ne pruža zaštitu ustavnih prava svima. Nije, dakle, održivo pozivati Bosnu i Hercegovinu da poštuje presude europskih sudova poput presude Sejdić-Finci bez da se istodobno traži poštovanje i presuda BiH sudova. A upravo se Ustavni sud Bosne i Hercegovine izjasnio da postojeće izborne prakse odstupaju od Ustava. Takva selektivnost služi kao argument onima koji u pitanje dovode državnost i teritorijalnu cjelovitost zemlje.

Stajališta građana o budućnosti oslikavaju se u demografskim statistikama. Samo protekle godine Bosnu i Hercegovinu je napustilo 170 000 građana, a od 2013. gotovo pola milijuna. Riječ je uglavnom o ljudima u najproduktivnijim životnim razdobljima.

Traženi ubrzani kandidacijski status zahtijeva i ubrzani angažman Bosne i Hercegovine na ispunjavanju 14 jasno definiranih prioriteta.

Bosni i Hercegovini je svakako mjesto u Europskoj uniji. Svaki njen pomak na tom putu treba podržati, ali i reagirati na opasne stranputice.

 
  
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  Ilhan Kyuchyuk (Renew). – Mr President, thank you so much for your clear message on putting a conditionality under these difficult circumstances.

I think we should act. We should act now. It’s time for the EU to send a very clear signal. First, we must strongly condemn the divisive ethno-nationalistic rhetoric. Secondly, we must strongly condemn moves to undermine State institutions. And thirdly, we must be prepared to issue sanctions and immediate restrictive measures should be taken on board if the situation further escalates.

The EU must step up and increase its focus on events in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and we must clearly demonstrate our collective commitment towards the country’s European and Euro-Atlantic aspirations.

This is our opportunity to demonstrate the importance of our European values and democracy. We must ensure that the October elections are held, that the transparency of the vote is ensured and their results are implemented.

I firmly believe the country’s future is within the European Union, so we must make sure that the hard-earned progress is not lost and we should give the country a clear and visible path towards European Union and grant them candidate status. This will be decisive for the political future of Bosnia Herzegovina, and not only for them, but for the region. EU and Bosnia-Herzegovina; zaedno i tochka - They go together.

 
  
 

(Die Aussprache wird unterbrochen.)

 
Dernière mise à jour: 10 octobre 2022Avis juridique - Politique de confidentialité