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Сряда, 9 март 2022 г. - Страсбург Редактирана версия

20. Доклад за гражданството на ЕС за 2020 г. (разискване)
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  Der Präsident. – Als nächster Punkt der Tagesordnung folgt die Aussprache über den Bericht von Yana Toom im Namen des Petitionsausschusses über den Bericht über die Unionsbürgerschaft 2020: Stärkung der Bürgerteilhabe und Schutz der Bürgerrechte (2021/2099(INI)) (A9-0019/2022).

Diese Aussprache findet, wie Sie schon wissen, unter geänderten Rahmenbedingungen statt.


  Yana Toom, rapporteur. – Mr President, European citizens are one of the success stories of the European Union. It is proof that we are not just a group of countries, but a Union based on common values and principles. But every success must be protected and not taken for granted, such is the case with freedom of movement. The notion of a borderless Europe is second nature for hundreds of millions of Europeans, and yet so many of us have had an experience of the exact opposite when travel restrictions were imposed in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic. These restrictions have had a significant negative impact on the lives of Europeans. In this House, we said before that any disruptions to the ease of internal movement should be proportionate to the risk caused by the pandemic and should be lifted as soon as it is deemed no longer necessary.

As the epidemiological situation takes a turn for the better in the majority of Member States, we must watch the situation carefully and take steps towards removing any restrictions that interfere with the freedom of movement. Having freedom of movement does not only mean that you are able to pass from one country to another without being checked on the border. The full enjoyment of this right means that any European can move to another Member State and start enjoying life in the new country. This means that there should not be discrimination based on nationality, that living in another country should not affect access to national services, that people should have a right to influence the decisions that affect them. It means that they should not be overburdened by arbitrary or even discriminatory administrative procedures. It means that they should not be subject to double taxation.

We must not forget that mobile Europeans face many different situations when living in another Member State. Same-sex marriages are not recognised in every Member State. Cross-border couples with children that go through a separation might be faced with court proceedings that are harder and more complex than those for regular couples. Cross-border and seasonal workforce is at the core of the European economic activity, but they aren’t always treated in the best way. We have situations in some countries where mobile Europeans are not able to get national sickness insurance or a social security number, and this leaves them without access to a majority of that country’s administrative services. All of these are areas we need to work on.

The Commission will soon release an updated version of the guidelines on the implementation of the Freedom of Movement Directive, and this is the perfect opportunity to address such challenges, and we call on the Commission to investigate these practices and to address them in the guidelines.

There are challenges as well with mobile citizens’ electoral rights. Some Europeans that choose to move to another country are unfortunately left without the right of participation in elections. Their native Member State does not allow them to vote in elections as they have left the country and their host Member State does not allow them to vote in general elections as they are not nationals. And on top of that, they’re being hindered in the voting in local elections by a combination of burdensome procedures. We simply cannot stand for this because our Union is based on democratic values that cherish universal suffrage. We have to ease the access to elections so that mobile Europeans should be able to vote or stand for local and European elections just as easily as locals, and we have to explore and expand the possibilities of remote voting.

We should also improve the participatory framework that allows Europeans to have a say in European law-making. In our committee we sometimes receive petitions which are better suited for the Ombudsman or Citizens’ Initiative. This makes me think that Europeans might be confused about the participatory tool that they should be using. This could easily be solved by creating a single platform with access to all three, and better guidance on the appropriate tool.

Lastly, the European citizenship rights we are so proud of cannot make a difference if Europeans are not aware of them. That is why we must do more to inform people about their rights and we must promote political education on EU affairs.


  Věra Jourová, Vice-President of the Commission. – Mr President, I would like to thank everyone who contributed to the EU Citizenship Report 2020. With the adoption of the EU Citizenship Report, the Commission has once again reaffirmed its attachment to the strengthening and promotion of EU citizenship rights.

Alongside peace, EU citizenship is one of the most significant achievements of the European project and is unique in the world. Today, as we are witnessing a brutal aggression taking place on our continent, we are once again reminded of the values of peace, democracy, human rights and the rule of law, and of the importance to place individual rights at the centre of our policies and of our actions.

We are a union of free citizens. Our guiding principles in the Citizenship Report are to empower all EU citizens and protect their rights, while safeguarding democratic values and the rule of law as a priority. Having this in mind, we have now embarked on the implementation of our commitments from the Citizenship Report. To that end, the Commission has established the following priorities, in particular strengthening democratic participation and citizens’ empowerment, protecting and promoting EU citizenship, facilitating the exercise of free movement and simplifying daily life, and protecting EU citizens in Europe and abroad, including in times of crisis.

The future of European democracy depends on making sure citizens participate actively. We need to encourage civic and democratic participation in order to sustain and further develop open and inclusive societies. This is why the Commission notably proposed the new priorities and actions aiming to enhance democratic participation, empowerment and inclusion. This includes the proposal we made in November 2021 to update the rules on the voting rights of mobile EU citizens.

We also continue our efforts to protect the very concept of EU citizenship. The Commission’s position is clear. European values are not for sale. As exchanged on this point yesterday, the Commission will continue its efforts to ensure that no Member States sell EU citizenship. Now, more than ever, the COVID—19 pandemic and the war in Ukraine are also highlighting the value of solidarity between Member States as well as individual members of society.


  Jarosław Duda, w imieniu grupy PPE. – Panie Przewodniczący! Pani Komisarko! Szanowni Państwo! Przede wszystkim, jako kontrsprawozdawca PPE, pragnę pogratulować Yanie Toom kompleksowego sprawozdania i podziękować za dobrą współpracę. Wielu obywatelom, zwłaszcza ludziom młodym, urodzonym w Unii Europejskiej, przywileje płynące z obywatelstwa wydają się oczywiste. Dopiero teraz, kiedy solidarnie wspieramy naszych ukraińskich przyjaciół, szukamy możliwości poprawy ich sytuacji, np. poprzez ułatwianie w przemieszczaniu się, zniesienie roamingu, pomoc w dostępie do rynku pracy, umożliwienie zamieszkania czy nauki w Unii Europejskiej.

Przywileje, z jakich korzystamy jako obywatele europejscy, są dostrzegalne i w pełni doceniane. O przyszłości Europy zdecydują ludzie młodzi. I to do nich trzeba dotrzeć z przekazem o ich prawach, o tym, że mają realny wpływ na to, w jakich kierunkach rozwijać się będzie Unia.

Przy tej okazji warto jednak przypomnieć o obywatelach, którzy wciąż napotykają bariery w korzystaniu ze swoich praw. Na przykład o osobach starszych, które często doświadczają marginalizacji w nowej cyfrowej rzeczywistości. O osobach bezdomnych, które nie potrafią przerwać zaklętego kręgu wykluczenia i izolacji. I wreszcie o osobach z niepełnosprawnościami, stale napotykających prawne, organizacyjne i fizyczne przeszkody w pełnym uczestnictwie w życiu społecznym.

Naszą ambicją powinno być, aby w kolejnych wyborach europejskich każdy obywatel mógł skorzystać ze swoich praw. Powinniśmy zapewnić każdemu obywatelowi dostęp do informacji, głosowania, debat, programów wyborczych w dostępnym dla niego formacie oraz prawo do głosowania i kandydowania w wyborach. To są podstawy europejskiej demokracji, z których jesteśmy dumni i których gotowi jesteśmy bronić.


  Δημήτρης Παπαδάκης, εξ ονόματος της ομάδας S&D. – Κύριε Πρόεδρε, η ιθαγένεια της Ευρωπαϊκής Ένωσης είναι ένα από τα πιο απτά επιτεύγματά της και βρίσκεται στο επίκεντρο μιας κοινής ευρωπαϊκής ταυτότητας, με βάση την ισότητα και την απαγόρευση των διακρίσεων. Ως εκ τούτου είναι εξαιρετικά σημαντικό τα θεσμικά όργανα της Ένωσης να διασφαλίζουν ότι τα δικαιώματα που απορρέουν από την ιθαγένειά της δεν υπονομεύονται με κανένα τρόπο. Γι’ αυτόν τον λόγο εισηγήθηκα την προώθηση κοινών κανονισμών για την παραχώρηση ευρωπαϊκής ιθαγένειας, που θα ισχύουν σε όλα τα κράτη μέλη, έτσι ώστε να σταματήσει ο αθέμιτος ανταγωνισμός στην παραχώρηση διαβατηρίων μεταξύ των κρατών μελών και χωρίς να κακοποιείται το πρόγραμμα.

Οι κάθε είδους διακρίσεις απασχολούν πολλές αναφορές πολιτών. Διακρίσεις λόγω φύλου, εθνικότητας, σεξουαλικού προσανατολισμού, γλώσσας, εθνοτικής καταγωγής. Σημαντικά προβλήματα αντιμετωπίζουν τα άτομα με αναπηρία στην καθημερινή τους ζωή, στον τόπο εργασίας, στην πρόσβαση σε ιατρική περίθαλψη και στην εκπαίδευση. Η απαίτηση των πολιτών της Ευρωπαϊκής Ένωσης για άσκηση των εκλογικών δικαιωμάτων τους, ακόμη και όταν διαμένουν σε άλλο ευρωπαϊκό κράτος μέλος, αποτελεί συχνό φαινόμενο αναφορών, καθώς το δικαίωμα ψήφου είναι ένα από τα σημαντικότερα δικαιώματα των πολιτών μας. Γι’ αυτό θα πρέπει να εξασφαλίζουμε σε κάθε πολίτη το δικαίωμα να ψηφίζει σε όποιο κράτος της Ένωσης διαμένει.

Επίσης, η ελεύθερη κυκλοφορία αποτελεί μία από τις ισχυρές κατακτήσεις, καθώς παρέχει στους πολίτες μας την ευχέρεια να ταξιδεύουν, να σπουδάζουν, να δημιουργούν επιχειρήσεις, να εργάζονται και να ζουν αρμονικά σε άλλες χώρες της Ένωσης. Τα τελευταία έτη όμως έχει καταγραφεί αυξανόμενος αριθμός αναφορών που σχετίζονται με τα προβλήματα που αντιμετωπίζουν οι πολίτες σε σχέση με το δικαίωμά τους για ελεύθερη κυκλοφορία. Εύκολα λοιπόν αντιλαμβάνεται κανείς ότι θα πρέπει να προχωρήσουμε σε άμεση εξεύρεση λύσεων, χωρίς άλλες καθυστερήσεις, γιατί το θέμα συνδέεται άμεσα και με την ίδια την εικόνα της Ευρωπαϊκής Ένωσης.


  Maite Pagazaurtundúa, en nombre del Grupo Renew. – Señor presidente, señora comisaria, todos estamos muy preocupados estos días. Yo, por eso, quiero dar especialmente las gracias a mi colega Yana Toom por el gran trabajo que ha realizado junto a los ponentes alternativos para este informe. Es muy importante este informe, aunque sean unas horas muy tardías de debate.

Hace tres años, a mí misma me tocó evaluar la implementación de la ciudadanía europea; por eso sé lo importantísimo que es. Todo lo que dijimos entonces, todo lo que se aporta ahora —que es un gran trabajo— es absolutamente necesario. Pero es que, además, los tiempos que estamos viviendo, la propia invasión rusa de Ucrania, han cambiado de golpe nuestra mirada sobre muchas de las cosas que antes mirábamos con incluso menos preocupación.

La ciudadanía europea se va a convertir en algo esencial, porque los europeos vamos a hacer frente, unidos, a cada amenaza y a cada chantaje. Por eso, reforzarla tiene todo el sentido; por eso, analizarla, como han hecho ustedes, tiene todo el sentido. Y se pide que les demos a los ciudadanos europeos un estatuto en el que se diga que lo son, que son ciudadanos y que, por serlo, tienen derechos adicionales, que, además, deben reforzarse.

Y es una historia de éxito: la ciudadanía europea nos une y nos identifica; y esa identidad democrática común para el siglo XXI es la que va a conseguir —como digo— que nos mantengamos a flote a pesar de las amenazas. Su naturaleza es ahora estratégica.

Y hoy, más que nunca, son las personas las que dan sentido a la Unión Europea. La cohesión del proyecto reside en la voluntad ciudadana de tener una Unión Europea fuerte y relevante a nivel geopolítico. Y, por eso, no podemos fallarles; por eso, es importante este informe de aplicación.

Nosotros podemos y debemos dar razones y más fuerza a los ciudadanos para defender nuestras democracias, poniéndolos en el centro del sistema político, como han hecho ustedes. Es muy importante, y hemos de tratar también la necesidad de dar todos los derechos necesarios a los apátridas.

Muchísimas gracias por el trabajo a la ponente y a los ponentes alternativos.


  Tatjana Ždanoka, on behalf of the Verts/ALE Group. – Mr President, today we are discussing the EU citizenship report. Let’s ask the following question: which notion describes the situation that is the opposite to the possession of citizenship? Your answer would be ‘statelessness’. But this is not a complete answer because some stateless people are not actually stateless, while at the same time they are not citizens of any state. This interesting special status was invented in two Member States, Latvia and Estonia. The people are not stateless since the state issues them ‘non-citizen’ passports, granting protection abroad and the right to free return to the country. In fact, these people are being deprived of a number of political and social rights, and are second-class citizens of the country.

In 2004 the European Parliament resolution on the state of preparedness of Latvia for EU membership recommended that the authorities envisage the possibility of allowing non-citizens to take part in local government elections. It was a citation. Our non-citizens, making up 10% of the population, can now take part in municipal and European elections.

In the Petitions Committee we are trying to do our best. Petitions tabled by Latvian and Estonian non-citizens have been examined; we are implementing the recommendations on voting rights in our deliberation reports; special debates took place in this very same hemicycle in 2009, etc. The Commission has to react, finally, and the declaration approximating the equality of non-citizens with EU citizens in the whole sphere of EU competence is a solution. Such a solution will give a much bigger weight to this same notion of EU citizenship.


  Gerolf Annemans, namens de ID-Fractie. – Voorzitter, collega’s, het burgerschap van de nationale staten ligt mij nauwer aan het hart dan het grotendeels artificieel geconstrueerde burgerschap van de Europese Unie. De Europese Unie zou een vrijwillig platform van samenwerking moeten blijven en zij moet ophouden zich de gedaante van een gecentraliseerde staat te willen aanmeten. De vermelding in het links-liberale Duitse regeerakkoord dat de Europese Unie een zogenaamde federale bondsstaat Europa moet worden, is een ernstige waarschuwing.

Met uw EU-burgerschap kan u wel denken dat u vrijheden verleent, maar daar zit ook meteen de denkfout. Vrijheid wordt niet verleend. Het EU-burgerschap kan immers evengoed leiden tot een excessieve, gecentraliseerde greep op burgers.

Om die reden wil ik hier met klem protesteren tegen de plannen van de Europese Commissie om een digitale identiteit, een zogenaamde digital wallet, door te drukken. We hebben gezien tijdens de coronacrisis tot wat voor een onaanvaardbare controlemaatschappij wij op zo’n korte tijd waren uitgegroeid: een pasjesmaatschappij die burgers afhankelijk maakte van een gecentraliseerd digitaal groen licht om nog een vrije burger te mogen en te kunnen zijn. Dit zogenaamde “Covid Safe Ticket” werd op die manier de voorafbeelding van de controlemaatschappij naar Chinees model, waar vrijheid een beloning is die wordt toebedeeld aan burgers met het centraal door big brother bepaalde juiste gedrag. Vrijheid staat in die context niet meer onaantastbaar boven alles. Vrijheid wordt in die federale bondsstaat via een digitale wallet grootmoedig toegekend.

Het organiseren van de onvrijheid wordt door de Europese Unie op die manier gefaciliteerd. Corona was maar een voorproefje, een testfase voor de verdere afglijding. De Europese digitale identiteit is de bevestiging en de verankering van die controlemaatschappij. De ID-Fractie in het algemeen en mijn nationale partij Vlaams Belang in het bijzonder zullen zich daar met hand en tand tegen verzetten.

Ik doe een beroep op en een oproep aan de Commissie om dit project onmiddellijk en definitief stop te zetten, en anders aan de lidstaten om dit in de Raad van tafel te vegen.


  Αλέξης Γεωργούλης, εξ ονόματος της ομάδας The Left. – Κύριε Πρόεδρε, κύριε Επίτροπε, θα ήθελα να ευχαριστήσω την εισηγήτρια Yana Toom για το σημερινό ψήφισμα, που θεωρώ ότι είναι ιδιαίτερα σημαντικό για τον Ευρωπαίο πολίτη. Βρισκόμαστε σε μία εποχή όπου τέθηκαν ζητήματα περιορισμού των ατομικών ελευθεριών λόγω της πανδημίας. Σε κάθε περίπτωση θα πρέπει να προσέξουμε αυτά τα έκτακτα μέτρα να μη γίνουν μόνιμα. Έχουμε την υποχρέωση να προστατεύσουμε όλα τα δικαιώματα που απορρέουν από την ιθαγένεια της Ευρωπαϊκής Ένωσης, όπως είναι η ελεύθερη κυκλοφορία, η ελευθερία έκφρασης, πρόσβασης και ανταλλαγής πληροφοριών, καθώς και ο πλουραλισμός των μέσων ενημέρωσης, που αποτελούν κρίσιμα στοιχεία του κράτους δικαίου για κάθε Ευρωπαίο πολίτη. Θα πρέπει επίσης να ενθαρρύνουμε τη μεγαλύτερη δυνατή συμμετοχή του Ευρωπαίου πολίτη μέσω της χρήσης των συμμετοχικών εργαλείων, όπως είναι οι αναφορές, στη δημοκρατική διαδικασία της Ευρωπαϊκής Ένωσης. Μόνο έτσι θα καταφέρουμε ο κάθε Ευρωπαίος πολίτης να μην αισθάνεται μόνος. Δεν αφήνουμε κανέναν πίσω.


  Věra Jourová, Vice-President of the Commission. – Mr President, honourable Members, I would like to thank you for this debate and assure you that the rights of EU citizens and their effective exercise remain in the centre of our work.

The opinion of citizens is well known. For them, EU citizenship is both about protecting our common values and principles, as well as delivering practical benefits and freedoms, allowing them to lead their lives more fully. And we must never lose sight of both of these dimensions.

And by the way, Mr Annemans, the COVID passport or COVID certificate saved at least 20 million jobs in the EU, in the tourism sector and in other related sectors, because thanks to this, people were able to travel and use these services in a more or less normal way. So, I cannot help it, this was practical and this was very much welcomed by the people. And also this is very much welcomed according to what the citizens are expressing and telling us in the Conference on the Future of Europe debates, but thank you for your opinion.

Honourable Members, your report and this debate is a valuable contribution to our implementation of the current report, as well as for our preparation for the next one. Let me thank you again for your contributions.


  Yana Toom, rapporteur. – Mr President, I should like to thank the Commissioner, all the colleagues and of course all the shadow rapporteurs. I apologise that I didn’t thank you in the very beginning, I did have a feeling that we are approaching the end. But in my closing remarks, I unfortunately have to address the letter sent this evening by a group of MEPs regarding tomorrow’s vote, in particular with a concern that we are aiming to give stateless people and long-term residents the same rights as EU citizens. Let me underline on the European level, not intervening into citizenship policy of Member States.

This para says, for instance, that stateless people in the EU are not protected from discrimination under EU acquis and are not covered by the visa code. The authors of the letters are not concerned by that. Their concern is Putin, to whom, in their view, adoption of the report will give a platform to attack Estonia and Latvia.

Firstly, this is a problem not only in my home country and neighbouring Latvia, this is also a problem, for instance, of Roma people in many different Member States. Secondly, I believe that bringing Putin into this discussion is absolutely unacceptable and shows very poor understanding of the problem.

We are speaking about Europeans, we are speaking about people who are living in Europe for decades, we are speaking about taxpayers. The number of petitions received by our committee on this issue, number of signatures collected in different Member States to support minorities clearly shows that these people rely on Europe. They do not rely on Putin. They rely on us. So please let us show that the words we are so often using in this House, ‘nobody is left behind’, actually are true.


  Der Präsident. – Die Aussprache ist geschlossen.

Die Abstimmung findet am Donnerstag, 10. März 2022, statt.

Последно осъвременяване: 19 май 2022 г.Правна информация - Политика за поверителност