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Förfarande : 2022/2064(INI)
Dokumentgång i plenum
Dokumentgång : A9-0251/2022

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PV 22/11/2022 - 23
CRE 22/11/2022 - 23

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PV 23/11/2022 - 4.5

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Tisdagen den 22 november 2022 - Strasbourg Reviderad upplaga

23. Ny EU-strategi för utvidgning (debatt)
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  President. – The next item is the debate on the report by Tonino Picula, on behalf of the Committee on Foreign Affairs, on a European Parliament recommendation to the Council, the Commission and the Vice-President of the Commission / High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy concerning the new EU strategy for enlargement (2022/2064(INI)) (A9-0251/2022).


  Tonino Picula, rapporteur. – Madam President, Commissioner, dear colleagues, thank you for the opportunity to present recommendations of the House on the new enlargement strategy. Thank you also for entrusting me with this important task at a time when enlargement becomes geopolitically strategic policy after 10 years of fatigue.

The Russian aggression in Ukraine has had a tectonic impact on many of our policies. We all agree that a new impetus is needed to re-energise the enlargement process, ensuring its continuity, efficiency, credibility, and impact. Council conclusions, the agreement on the candidacy status for Ukraine and Moldova, and the recognition of the European perspective for Georgia are strong political signs of support. With this decision, the scope of the enlargement policy was officially extended to the Eastern Partnership countries. Therefore our internal administrative structures and external financial instruments will need to be adjusted accordingly.

In the context of the before-mentioned conclusions and the expectations from the Western Balkans, I wish to highlight one of the main messages of the draft text. Each enlargement country should be judged on its own merits. As the EU, we should overcome the enlargement gridlock by revamping the accession process both as a political goal and methodology. For that, we believe we need a new EU strategy for enlargement in which we have to define clear and transparent policy objectives and implement the necessary and timely institutional reforms.

The reform processes of the enlargement policy and internal reforms of the EU should go hand in hand. In fact, the enlargement process can encourage much-awaited EU reforms.

The rule of law should be at the centre of the process. We should strategically apply targeted conditionality based on clear progress benchmarks. That means timely rewarding reforms and reacting on the regression or a persistent lack of progress.

In the same context, we must emphasise the alignment of accession countries with the EU’s common foreign and security policy. EU membership means more than just EU funds and transport corridors. Before anything, it represents a set of values and principles to share and respect.

I would also like to briefly present several novelties that are proposed in this document.

Clear deadlines for concluding negotiations with the accession countries, and these negotiations should finish by the end of this decade.

Qualified—majority decision on the start of the negotiations, and opening and closing of individual chapters. The final decision would still be unanimous, but I believe this would be a leap of trust in the process that some issues can be solved through negotiating. We cannot lose time once again, like in the case of North Macedonia and Albania.

Chief negotiator from the EU side for each country: this could benefit the transparency of the process, primarily when we communicate with the citizens of candidate countries.

Establishing a framework for effective cooperation between the European Public Prosecutor’s Office and the accession countries to facilitate close cooperation and the prosecution of the misuse of EU funds.

A formal assessment of accession countries under the EU’s rule—of—law mechanism and report, and the EU Justice Scoreboard, using the same indicators that apply to the Member States to prevent a persistent lack of progress, severe deficiencies and regression.

The creation of a special dedicated rule—of—law task force to be entrusted with developing more substantial and effective support to candidate and potential candidate countries. This goes along with the active involvement of judges and prosecutors from the Member States.

Phasing-in of candidate countries to respective EU policies, initiatives and the single market, including access to EU funds in the respective areas. This will enable citizens to experience the benefits of accession throughout the process and not only upon its completion to reward sustainable progress.

This House was always a prominent supporter of enlargement. With our joint work and by adopting solid recommendations on how the future enlargement policy should be implemented, we can once again set the tone and standards to enable the Union to grow and prosper.


  Olivér Várhelyi, Member of the Commission. – Madam President, honourable Rapporteur, honourable Members. Firstly, I would like to thank the rapporteur, Tonino Picula, for his report and this House for your continuous interest and support for our enlargement policy. The report addresses important challenges, but also confirms enlargement being, and I quote, ‘the most effective EU foreign policy instrument’.

The report also points out that enlargement, and I quote, ‘remains a strategic investment in stability and prosperity on the European continent,’ and I couldn’t agree more. Therefore, an enlargement policy based on clear criteria and standards and the own-merit principle remains in our geostrategic interest. Before replying to your questions, let me quickly summarise the important decisions taken in the past few months to frame our discussion today.

In June 2022, EU leaders recognised the European perspective of Ukraine, the Republic of Moldova and Georgia. They granted the candidate status to Ukraine and Moldova and affirmed that they would grant candidate status to Georgia once the priorities specified in the Commission’s opinion have been addressed. At the same time, EU leaders also reconfirmed the full and unequivocal commitment to the EU membership perspective of the Western Balkans. The European Council called for acceleration of the accession process and for further advancement of the gradual integration between the EU and the Western Balkans.

In July, we held the first intergovernmental conferences with Albania and North Macedonia. This was a major and long-awaited breakthrough. We immediately started the explanatory screening process, which is well on track. Two weeks ago, we started the bilateral screening with both countries. To continue the list of major decisions, one of the most important elements of this year’s enlargement package is the Commission’s recommendation to grant candidate status to Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Commission recommends granting candidate status on the understanding that the critical set of reforms from the 14 key priorities are made.

The proposal is the same formula as was followed in the case of Ukraine and Moldova. This recommendation is an important opportunity, demonstrating our commitment to the European perspective of Bosnia and Herzegovina and, above all, a message to its citizens. Next week I will be travelling to Bosnia and Herzegovina to discuss the EU reforms and the next steps.

Further, Europe has responded with strength and unity to Russia’s invasion of Ukraine. But we need the mutual support of our closest allies, our neighbours. The Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) has become more important following the war. However, according to our enlargement methodology and negotiating frameworks, the speed of the accession negotiations and the financial support to our regions remain based on progress in the fundamentals. It depends on the progress our partners make. Therefore, we certainly believe that more and not less engagement is needed.

Finally, at the Berlin Process Summit that took place in the beginning of this month, we announced a substantial energy support package of EUR 1 billion for the Western Balkans. This will help the region to mitigate the increase of energy prices and their impact on the vulnerable households and SMEs over the immediate term.

The package will support the energy transition and security in the Western Balkans over the short and medium term. We are convinced that, together with the implementation of the EUR 30 billion Economic and Investment Plan, this package will help the Western Balkans in addressing the immediate consequences of the energy crisis and build resilience and independence. It is a clear proof of our dedicated support, an unambiguous commitment in these difficult times, and the confirmation of our alliance.


  Andrius Kubilius, on behalf of the PPE Group. – Madam President, dear colleagues, we have a good report on the significance of enlargement. The report is very clear in its most important message. Enlargement is the most effective EU foreign policy instrument, and enlargement should be brought back to an ambitious and dynamic track like it was with enlargement towards Central Europe.

The later so-called enlargement fatigue, especially to Eastern Partnership region, was a big mistake, and one of the reasons why Putin decided that he can start a war against Ukraine. It’s good that the EU leadership started to learn the lessons from the mistakes of the past. Josep Borrell recently in this House openly recognised that until the war the EU had no proper policy towards Ukraine because that policy was subordinated to the policy towards Russia, and policy towards Russia was absent because the EU was very heavily dependent on Russian gas. Now this dependency is gone.

It’s good that recently we have heard ambitious statements about enlargement towards Ukraine, Moldova and Western Balkans, made by Ursula von der Leyen and Josep Borrell and Olaf Scholz. It would be even better if such ambition would be demonstrated also by EU institutions and by Member States. I do not understand the reasons why the EU could not start negotiations with Ukraine and Moldova in the middle of next year.

Let us bring back the hope to our neighbours that the EU was able to wake up from its geopolitical laziness and I am absolutely sure that those neighbours will deliver major reforms of their countries. That is how enlargement can bring peace and prosperity for the whole European continent.


  Andreas Schieder, im Namen der S&D-Fraktion. – Frau Präsidentin, Herr Kommissar, werte Kolleginnen und Kollegen! Ich möchte dem Kollegen Picula gratulieren zu diesem Text, denn es ist dringend notwendig und ein ganz wichtiger und guter Text. Wir müssen flexibler werden, wir müssen transparenter werden und vor allem: Wir müssen schneller werden im Erweiterungsprozess der Europäischen Union – und vermutlich auch strenger bezüglich der Einhaltung unserer Werte, der Umsetzung der Reformen und der grundsätzlichen Orientierung der europäischen Außenpolitik.

Der Balkan braucht ein klares Zeichen von der Europäischen Union. Die Bürger und Bürgerinnen des Balkans erwarten sich schon lange ein ganz klares Zeichen von der Europäischen Union. Ich habe das schon oft hier gesagt, und wir haben es auch schon oft hier im Europäischen Parlament diskutiert. Aber die jüngsten Ereignisse, auch die geopolitischen Ereignisse, zeigen einmal mehr: Es ist höchste Zeit – höchste Zeit für einen dynamischen und starken Erweiterungsprozess.


  Dacian Cioloş, în numele grupului Renew. – Doamnă președintă, domnule comisar, extinderea este o parte a ADN-ului Uniunii Europene. Uniunea este ceea ce este astăzi și datorită politicii de extindere, datorită viziunii, ambiției și hotărârii generațiilor trecute de politicieni europeni, statele europene sunt mai puternice astăzi, mai stabile și mai prospere datorită apartenenței la Uniunea Europeană.

Însă, de mai bine de zece ani, politica de extindere a fost, din păcate, pusă pe hold. În contextul geopolitic actual, cu crize succesive, interesul unor state partenere din Balcani și din vecinătatea estică de a deveni membri ai Uniunii Europene a crescut.

Uniunea trebuie să rămână un pol de stabilitate și pentru aceasta este nevoie de o viziune strategică, de o abordare clară, fără echivoc, față de statele interesate de proiectul european.

Și raportul pe care îl dezbatem astăzi vine cu propuneri pragmatice, realiste, ambițioase, pentru a asigura succes extinderii către țările din Balcanii de Vest și vecinătatea estică. Însă, în paralel cu așteptările noastre de reformă pentru țările candidate, este necesar ca și Uniunea Europeană să se pregătească din timp pentru a primi noi membri.


  Tineke Strik, on behalf of the Verts/ALE Group. – Madam President, dear Commissioner, Russian aggression has led to a revived appetite to enlargement and rightfully so. Without our neighbouring countries, we will not achieve strategic autonomy and regional stability. But the region has been neglected for too long. Promises have been broken, in particular towards the Western Balkans.

Parliament has now made a strong proposal and I thank the rapporteur and my co-shadows. I invite the Council and Commission to take this report as a basis for a renewed approach and I mark three points here.

First, put the rule of law, democracy and fundamental rights at the core of the enlargement process as they form the foundations of our Union. Make funding conditional and increase assistance for those reforms – and that also means a critical stance on Serbia, as long as President Vučić refuses to condemn Russia and to protect the rights of LGBTIQ people in his country.

Second, enhance the EU’s credibility by ensuring that assessments are merit-based and not polluted by bilateral issues. And that means an end to the vetoes on interim decisions.

And third, we need to find ways to intensify our cooperation while the accession process is still ongoing. More benefits and more involvement will stimulate the process.

It’s time to start delivering our promises for our own stability, but first and foremost – as you also said, Commissioner – because the citizens deserve the required reforms and concrete perspective to accession.


  Philippe Olivier, au nom du groupe ID. – Madame la Présidente, chers collègues, ce débat sur l’élargissement traduit votre incapacité à tenir compte du réel et à évaluer les politiques que vous mettez en œuvre. Vous n’arrivez pas à travailler à 27 et vous voulez encore élargir. Vous êtes dans une fuite en avant. Avec Schengen, que vous voulez étendre, vous avez fait de l’Europe un continent passoire, qui, de l’agence d’accueil de migrants Frontex à l’Ocean Viking, montre chaque jour ses défaillances dans le contrôle des flux migratoires.

L’extension que vous nous proposez est une extension sans fin, caractéristique d’un empire, un empire qui a pour nom l’Union européenne. Or, qui dit empire dit impérialisme, c’est-à-dire l’idée d’une soumission des peuples à un ordre supérieur, à une autorité centrale, un empereur qui est en l’occurrence une nébuleuse technocratique au service d’une idéologie marchande.

Mais les promesses d’éternité dont se parent toujours les empires se heurtent immanquablement à l’instinct de survie des peuples. Il en a toujours été ainsi dans l’histoire. L’UE n’échappera pas à cette loi d’airain.


  Adam Bielan, on behalf of the ECR Group. – Madam President, Commissioner, I believe the enlargement process should be accelerated. This is crucial as the loss of credibility of the European Union in the Western Balkans threatens to increase foreign influence in Europe, notably given Russia’s and China’s interest in the region.

In addition, our enlargement policy has become strategically crucial in the face of Russia’s aggression against Ukraine and destabilising actions of non-EU actors, including Russia, in candidate countries.

In this context, I welcome the Commission’s annual enlargement package presented in October. I also welcome the acknowledgement in Mr Picula’s report of the need for the European Union to enhance credibility, effectiveness and predictability of its enlargement policy. Full alignment with the common foreign and security policy, including sanctions policy, should be considered a priority and should be applied to individual candidates on an equal basis.

I believe that in a world of fragile alliances, this enlargement could be a further guarantee of proper development, stability and peace on our continent.


  Στέλιος Κούλογλου, εξ ονόματος της ομάδας The Left. – Κυρία Πρόεδρε, είναι πολύ θετικό το γεγονός ότι όλες σχεδόν οι παρατάξεις είναι υπέρ της διεύρυνσης, όπως προτείνει και ο εισηγητής. Υπάρχει και μια εξαίρεση των ιμπεριαλιστών της άκρας δεξιάς —δεν είναι εδώ, έφυγαν τώρα—, αλλά οι υπόλοιποι συμφωνούμε ότι πρέπει να προχωρήσουμε με σταθερά τα κριτήρια της Κοπεγχάγης και με ανανεωμένη διάθεση να γίνει διεύρυνση. Και πρέπει, σε αυτή την προσπάθεια, να ξεπεράσουμε τον εθνικισμό και τους εθνικούς εγωισμούς και να προχωρήσουμε όλοι μαζί.

Με την ευκαιρία, κύριε Επίτροπε, θέλω να πω ότι μια συμφωνία-σταθμός ήταν η συμφωνία των Πρεσπών ανάμεσα στην Ελλάδα και τη Βόρεια Μακεδονία και από τη συμφωνία αυτή απομένουν να εγκριθούν τρία μνημόνια παραπέρα συνεργασίας, αλλά η ελληνική κυβέρνηση δεν τα φέρνει για ψήφιση στο ελληνικό κοινοβούλιο. Παρακαλώ, να ζητήσετε να προχωρήσει και να τα φέρει για ψήφιση.


  Kinga Gál (NI). – Tisztelt Elnök Asszony, Biztos Úr! Az Európa békéjét veszélyeztető fenyegetések rávilágítanak a bővítés geopolitikai jelentőségére. Az Unió nem késleltetheti tovább a stratégiai jelentőségű nyugat-balkáni bővítési folyamatot. Hiteles alternatívát kell kínálnia, ami lehetőség és felelősség is egyben. A térség az energiaellátás hosszú távú biztosítása és migrációs válságok kezelése szempontjából is kulcsrégióvá vált Európa számára. A nyugat-balkáni útvonalon súlyosbodik az illegális migrációs krízis, amit a térség és annak kulcsszereplője, Szerbia integrációjával lehet megoldani. Ezért üdvözlendő a múlt héten Belgrádban kötött szerb-osztrák-magyar szándéknyilatkozat az illegális migránsok visszafordításáról a külső határokon.

Ebben a jelentésben a feltételrendszer átpolitizált szigorítása rossz üzenet, elbizonytalanítja például a csatlakozásra váró Szerbiát is. Számunkra ugyanakkor elfogadhatatlan az egyhangú döntéshozatal eltörlésére vonatkozó javaslat, hiszen a többségi döntésekkel a kisebb tagállamok politikai szuverenitása kerülne súlyos veszélybe. Különösképpen a külpolitikai döntésekben.


  Андрей Ковачев (PPE). – Г-жо Председател, Европейският съюз трябва да удвои или утрои своите усилия за присъединяването на страните от Западните Балкани, особено в сегашната геополитическа обстановка. Това трябва да е един от основните ни приоритети. Ще се спра обаче конкретно на Сърбия, защото нейната политика има влияние в много страни от бивша Югославия. В интерес е както на сръбските граждани, така и на Европейския съюз, тази страна да стане колкото се може по-бързо част от Европейския съюз.

Обаче, като възприемем всички елементи от нашата политика, включително и по отношение на Русия, за съжаление в този момент Сърбия действа в подкрепа на руските интереси на Балканите. Това има много негативно влияние върху съседните страни. Тъжно е, че Северна Македония все още не предприема мерки по отношение на говора на омразата и дискриминацията срещу гражданите, които се идентифицират като българи. Срамният акт от преди няколко дни, когато беше нападнат клуб на българската общност, трябва да бъде осъден от политическата класа на тази страна и тя трябва да положи усилия това да не се повтаря.

Г-н Пицола, колеги, това не е двустранен въпрос, а основна демократична ценност, която не е даденост, а трябва да се отстоява всеки ден както в Европейския съюз, така и в страните, които искат да се присъединят.

И тук един друг въпрос – винаги съм отстоявал това, че по отношение на външната политика и политиката за отбрана Европейският съюз трябва да има гъвкавост и бързо да се адаптира в геополитическата среда около нас. Затова там трябва да има квалифицирано мнозинство за вземане на решения. Но политиката по разширяване не е външна политика. Когато решаваме с кого да бъдем заедно в едно семейство, това не е външна политика и затова там трябва да остане единодушното вземане на решения.


  Marina Kaljurand (S&D). – Madam President, Commissioner, first of all I would like to thank and congratulate the rapporteur, Tonino Picula, for this timely and comprehensive report. I fully agree that enlargement is the most effective EU policy instrument and one of the Union’s most successful policies. It was so in 2004 – when my country, Estonia, acceded to the EU – and is even more today, when after Russian aggression EU membership has become a hope and guarantor of survival and independence for some of our eastern partners.

It is our political and moral duty not to let down the states that see their future in the EU. It does not mean lowering of EU standards. On the contrary, the Copenhagen criteria are and should remain the cornerstone of enlargement. But there are steps that we have to take on our part, including comprehensive reflection on enlargement policy, overcoming current political impasses and enlargement fatigue. Only then can we ensure the continuity, consistency and credibility of the EU enlargement policy, and that is what our citizens and partners want.


  Илхан Кючюк (Renew). – Г-жо Председател, г-н Комисар, поздравления към г-н Пицула, който прави един опит да осъвремени една много важна политика на Европейския съюз, а именно политиката по разширяване. Смятам, че тази политика има основания да бъде наричана най-успешната външна политика на Европейския съюз, но заедно с това трябва да бъде погледнато много по-сериозно на нея – и като подход, и като отношение. Комисията прави правилните неща, давайки много категорични аргументи, че чрез новата методология процесът ще бъде много по-адекватен. Той ще отговаря на очакванията най-вече на страните от Западните Балкани и, заедно с това, дава достатъчно гаранции за това, че страните, които са вече част от Европейския съюз, ще припознаят процеса като такъв.

Много е важно в тази криза, както беше в кризата с пандемията, така и в кризата с енергийните ресурси, европейските граждани да не бъдат ревниви към Западните Балкани, а наистина да осигурят необходимата подкрепа, и като Европейски съюз в този процес, защото е изключително важно да почувстваме подкрепата, ако искаме да живеем в един Съюз, който е солидарен не само към собствените си граждани, но и към страните, които са се устремили да бъдат част от него.


  Dominique Bilde (ID). – Madame la Présidente, pas plus qu’au sujet des précédentes vagues d’adhésion, les Français ne seront consultés sur un éventuel élargissement aux Balkans – 59 % d’entre eux y sont d’ailleurs opposés, et à juste titre.

Parlons économie d’abord, puisque le salaire minimum albanais de 250 euros est le plus bas d’Europe, avec à la clé un dumping inacceptable, par exemple pour le secteur textile qui amorce une timide renaissance dans les terres du Grand Est qui me sont chères. En matière de sécurité, ensuite, un rapport récent d’Europol rappelle l’infiltration islamiste, aggravée par le retour des djihadistes. Enfin, cette fuite en avant ne pourra que rouvrir des plaies jamais refermées. Ainsi, on impose à la Serbie, plus ou moins explicitement, la reconnaissance du Kosovo comme préalable à une adhésion. Et d’après les échos qu’on en a, la récente proposition de Paris et de Berlin frôlerait sur ce point le marchandage le plus indigne.

Ne nous enferrons donc pas dans un projet aussi impopulaire qu’irresponsable et propre à remettre le feu à la poudrière des Balkans.


  Εμμανουήλ Φράγκος (ECR). – Κυρία Πρόεδρε, η ελληνική εθνική μειονότητα Βόρειας Ηπείρου διώκεται. Τα σπίτια κατάσχονται και οι εκκλησίες και τα μνήματα γκρεμίζονται. Και η Ευρώπη σιωπά. Μετά από τους φρικτούς διωγμούς του Χότζα και των απαράδεκτων έως και δολοφονικών επιθέσεων μετά το 1991, σήμερα έχουμε νομικά εμπόδια για τους Βορειοηπειρώτες μας.

Ας το πούμε ανοικτά: η αλβανική κυβέρνηση είναι ένα τουρκικό ενεργούμενο. Αν τις ίδιες συμφωνίες που έχει κάνει με την Τουρκία τις είχε κάνει με τη Ρωσία, γνωρίζουμε ότι το ΝΑΤΟ θα την είχε βομβαρδίσει όπως έκανε και με τη Σερβία. Και το πλέον τραγελαφικό είναι που το γραφείο της Ευρωπαϊκής Επιτροπής στην Αλβανία τα βρίσκει όλα ρόδινα. Μιλήστε με τις οργανώσεις των Βορειοηπειρωτών για να μάθετε την αλήθεια. Ο δρόμος από τα Τίρανα στις Βρυξέλλες πρέπει να περνάει από το Αργυρόκαστρο, από την Κορυτσά και από την Χειμάρρα. Αλλιώς, ας αφήσουμε τα κριτήρια της Κοπεγχάγης και ας μιλήσουμε μόνο για τη γραμμή της Ουάσινγκτον.


  Clara Ponsatí Obiols (NI). – Madam President, we spend a lot of time discussing the rule of law standards for new members, but once they are in it seems that they can ignore those same standards, because they become members of the club and it’s the club of Member States. It’s mostly a system of cover-ups.

President Metsola went to Barcelona over the weekend. I hope she found good weather there in my beloved hometown, a city where I have not been able to set foot in the last five years. Because if I did, I would suffer an arbitrary arrest.

So what’s the credibility about rule of law? We only look at it for the candidates or for some of the members, depending on their power. In any case, I do hope that Ms Metsola does not help Spain in their political persecution. I’m happy that she denied that she was planning to strike four Members of this Parliament of our rights as representatives of more than two million people that elected us to this Parliament.


  Vladimír Bilčík (PPE). – Madam President, Commissioner, colleagues, EU enlargement has been one of the most successful policies of the Union. It has transformed the continent, established democracies, modernised economies, and united us in diversity.

As we face Russia’s attack against Ukraine, the EU must focus on its foundations. European enlargement must be based on shared goals and principles, respect for the fundamental rights of individuals and the rule of law for all. European values have real political meaning. All of us inside the European Union, must once again become serious about enlargement. Our commitment to a European future for Ukraine and Moldova must transform our internal discussion about a wider Europe. We must do all it takes to help Ukraine win its just war, and even more importantly, to win a lasting and prosperous peace based on European policies and institutions.

We must equally deliver on our long-term commitment to the Western Balkans. We expect our partners in the region to stand with us, not to bypass us. We expect true reforms, not lip service paid to Europe. But this is also our task. As Russia continues to pursue its hybrid warfare across the Western Balkans, we, as Europeans, must be politically clear. We will do what it takes to make Europe prevail in this region, to make democracy trump authoritarianism, to bring a European way of life to all people of the Western Balkans.

It’s time to believe that enlargement can become one of our greatest achievements again, dear colleagues.


  Isabel Santos (S&D). – Senhora Presidente, permitam-me que saúde o meu Colega Tonino Picula por este relatório tão claro na defesa daquele que é um dos mais bem—sucedidos e importantes instrumentos da nossa política externa.

O quadro político ditado pela guerra e as decisões tomadas este verão, em matéria de alargamento, trazem a este documento uma especial importância estratégica. Cabe-nos, neste momento, trabalhar na garantia da continuidade da linha de sucesso, retirar as lições dos passos menos bem-sucedidos, porque também os há, e criar condições que permitam evitar frustrações e descontentamentos produzidos pelo arrastar dos processos.

É fundamental que se garanta a efetiva progressão na adesão, segundo o mérito, nas reformas implementadas, o grau de comprometimento com os valores da UE e o alinhamento em matéria de política externa evidenciados por cada país.

Mas é também fundamental que façamos o nosso trabalho de casa, aqui dentro da União Europeia, e que procedamos às reformas ao nível institucional, orçamental e dos mecanismos de decisão em matéria de adesão para que não acabemos, invariavelmente, reféns dos interesses de um e de outro Estado-Membro.


  Nathalie Loiseau (Renew). – Madame la Présidente, posons-nous la question: combien y a-t-il d’espaces politiques auxquels des pays souverains souhaitent adhérer sans y être contraints? La réponse est simple: un seul, l’Union européenne. Les Ukrainiens se battent au sens propre pour la rejoindre et nous avons bien fait d’accueillir leur candidature. La Moldavie tremble face aux pressions russes et espère que nous la prenions sous notre aile. Faisons-le.

Au cœur de notre continent, les pays des Balkans sont déjà européens par la géographie, l’histoire et la culture. Ils ont vocation à nous rejoindre, mais pas n’importe quand ni n’importe comment. J’ai ainsi beaucoup de mal à comprendre que la Commission veuille accepter la candidature de la Bosnie-Herzégovine au moment où, loin de progresser, la situation politique du pays empire. J’ai beaucoup de mal à constater qu’on ne s’inquiète pas davantage de la Serbie au moment où la crise entre Belgrade et Pristina prend une tournure très préoccupante, où les autorités serbes multiplient les signes d’amitié vis-à-vis du Kremlin et où Russia Today ouvre un bureau en Serbie.

Nous devons croire à l’Europe, soutenir l’élargissement et le faire sérieusement, les yeux ouverts, pas la tête dans le sable.


  Cristian Terheş (ECR). – Madam President, dear colleagues, dear Commissioner, ‘the enlargement policy is the most effective EU policy’, states the report that we are debating right now and the statement is correct. Through the enlargement policy, the European project has managed to create economic growth for European citizens and to keep peace through prosperity in Europe since the Second World War.

Moldova, along with Ukraine, is a country that recently received a candidate status to EU. The finalisation of the accession process in the EU can take some time though, but we don’t have to wait for the whole process to finish in order for the people of Moldova to feel closer to the other Europeans. One simple and concrete step to reinforce the fact that the country is on the right path is for the EU to have a roaming agreement with Moldova. Signing such a roaming agreement is not a big effort for the EU, but it will make the world of difference for the people of Moldova, enabling easier and affordable communication between the people of Moldova and those family members who have left home, will help strengthen European integration long before any political decision does.

I therefore call on all the EU institutions to work closely with the authorities from Moldova to include the country in the roaming agreement, a benefit that will help both EU and the people of Moldova.


  Andor Deli (NI). – Tisztelt Elnök Asszony, Biztos Úr! Kezdem még egyszer. Can I start again? Sorry, my throat is a little bit sore. Tisztelt Képviselőtársaim! Elérkezett annak az ideje, hogy az Unió bővítési folyamata ténylegesen felgyorsuljon. Európa nem engedheti meg magának azt a luxust, hogy tovább hallogassa a Nyugat-Balkán országainak csatlakozását. Sokan azt állítják, hogy az EU befolyása meggyengült a térségben. Sajnos azt kell mondanom, hogy az elmúlt pár évben az Európai Parlament határozatai révén aktívan hozzájárult ahhoz, hogy ez így legyen, és ez a jelentés is ilyen. Nem lehet bizalmat és befolyást növelni oly módon, hogy folyamatosan szigorítjuk a feltételrendszert.

Az uniós kondicionalitási mechanizmusokat mi, magyarok, jól ismerjük, téves logikán alapulnak. Hiba lenne a csatlakozásra váró országokra is kiterjeszteni ezeket befolyásolási eszközként. Szerbiának és a nyugat-balkáni térség országainak nem ilyen határozatokra, hanem őszinte támogatásra és csatlakozási időpontra van szükségük. Az ilyen határozatok nem segítik, hanem inkább hátráltatják a bővítést és azt a munkát, amit a Bizottság is végez.


  Željana Zovko (PPE). – Poštovana predsjedavajuća, poštovani povjereniče Várhelyi, (Please I will speak Croatian.) u jednoj minuti teško je reći što bi ova strategija trebala da znači za zapadni Balkan, ali evo, fokus je kao i uvijek na onome što se nije učinilo, a što se treba učiniti.

Moja poruka za Bosnu i Hercegovinu jest čestitam, vidim da se koalicije prave. Želim da buduća koalicija konačno izmijeni izborni zakon i napravi ustavne promjene koje će Bosnu i Hercegovinu staviti da bude predvodnica zapadnog Balkana u Europskoj uniji. Vremena nema. Vrijeme smo izgubili. Ovo je zadnji trenutak kada se ljudi mogu urazumiti i umjesto iseljavanja onoga što najbolje Bosna i Hercegovina ima, ostaviti je da gradi zemlju, zemlju mira, zemlju stabilnosti, zemlju koja će se proširiti i koja će povući zapadni Balkan naprijed.

A za sve ostale, poštujte manjine, poštujte sve one koji nisu drukčiji i koji su manji i slabiji od vas jer će vas samo to dovesti do Europe. Čestitam.


  Alessandra Moretti (S&D). – Signora Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, Stato di diritto, diritti umani, parità di genere, diritti delle minoranze, allineamento a una politica di sostenibilità ambientale, una politica estera comune: pilastri, questi, sui quali l'Europa non può trattare e sui quali non farà passi indietro, perché questo è il punto di partenza per una politica di allargamento solida, credibile e lungimirante.

Gli ultimi mesi, nei quali abbiamo visto a rischio la pace in Europa, ci hanno ricordato che la politica di allargamento è uno strumento determinante per l'Unione europea. Aprire la nostra famiglia condividendo valori e responsabilità rafforzerà l'Unione, accrescendo la sua centralità nel quadro geopolitico internazionale.

Non facciamo sconti a paesi in attesa di aderire, in particolare quando si parla di valori, democrazia e diritti. Tuttavia, invito l'Europa a rafforzare la propria credibilità di fronte ai paesi coinvolti. Accorciamo i tempi per evitare che i cittadini perdano le speranze, come sta accadendo in Serbia, dove la percentuale di cittadini favorevoli all'adesione cala di mese in mese ed è già inferiore al 50 %. Introduciamo il voto a maggioranza qualificata per evitare che ripicche regionali mettano a rischio il progetto. Facciamo sentire ai cittadini i vantaggi di essere parte dell'Europa durante il processo di adesione, non solo alla fine.

Allo stesso tempo invito i paesi candidati a dimostrare la loro determinazione nel diventare membri dell'Europa attraverso l'adozione e l'implementazione di riforme che garantiscano lo Stato di diritto e, in questo difficile momento, l'allineamento alla politica estera e di sicurezza europea.


  Klemen Grošelj (Renew). – Spoštovani! Vprašajmo se, kaj je cilj širitve danes? Ali je orodje geopolitičnega odvračanja Kitajske, Rusije, Turčije? Ali je cilj krepitev stabilnosti demokracije ter blagostanje na evropskem kontinentu in njegove dokončne integracije?

Kaj je dejanski cilj širitve? Odgovor na to vprašanje pa žal v EU ni enoten. Ni enotnega odgovora, niti v tej hiši, niti v Komisiji, niti v Svetu EU.

Zato postaja dogajanje okoli širitve bolj kot proces s ciljem odzivanje na aktualno dogajanje v Evropi, kjer države postajajo kandidatke brez pogojev. Hkrati drugim državam za isti položaj, kot je recimo Bosna, postavljamo skoraj nedosegljive pogoje. Na eni strani pri kandidatkah, kot je primer Srbije, toleriramo zdrse v avtoritarizem, hkrati pa ne moremo nagraditi kandidatk, kot je recimo Severna Makedonija, ki napredujejo.

Nasprotno, s svojimi dejanji in še pogosteje nedejavnostjo ustvarjamo pogoje za krepitev nedemokratičnih sil v njih. Širitev je tako postala kakofonija interesov, ki zagotavljajo status quo, kjer se zdi, da se širitev dogaja, hkrati pa se nič bistvenega ne spremeni oziroma ne zgodi.

Potrebujemo jasno definirano politiko širitve z jasno postavljenimi pogoji za vstop v proces in za članstvo v Evropski uniji, skupaj z mehanizmi, ki bi doseganje ciljev širitve tudi zagotavljali.


  Александър Александров Йорданов (PPE). – Г-жо Председател, г-н Комисар, г-н Пицула, докладът е убедителен в общите положения, но за съжаление е неубедителен в редица детайли. Тезата за премахване на единодушието при вземането на решения по политиката на разширяване е твърде спорна.

Член на семейство се става с общо съгласие. Не е ли ясно, че Сърбия има поведение на втора руска държава на Балканите? В доклада се говори за двустранни спорове, но правата на българите в Северна Македония не са двустранен, а европейски въпрос. Правата на човека са общоевропейска ценност. Тази страна обеща да впише българите в конституцията си, но вместо това комунистическата интерпретация на миналото продължава да бъде нейна официална политика. Основен език е омразата срещу европейска България. Договорът с България не се изпълнява. Затова ви призовавам: нека да мечтаем, но и да бъдем реалисти.


  Hildegard Bentele (PPE). – Frau Präsidentin, sehr geehrter Herr Berichterstatter Picula, sehr geehrter Herr Kommissar! Ich glaube, eine neue Strategie für die Erweiterung braucht vor allem zwei Dinge: Ehrlichkeit und echten Willen zum Erfolg. Und ich glaube, in beiden Bereichen ist Ihre Vorlage, Herr Picula, verbesserungswürdig.

Einmal Ehrlichkeit: Die Kooperation, die Präsident Vučić und die serbische Regierung mit Russland aufrechterhält, ist einfach inakzeptabel und widerspricht unseren Werten, und wir sehen keine Abkehr, und wir sehen auch kein Schuldbewusstsein. Also sind alle unsere Aufrufe, die Sie auch hier getätigt haben, einfach nicht zureichend.

Größere Sorge macht mir aber die Lage in den serbischen Medien. Sie sind offen prorussisch und bejubeln die ukrainischen Niederlagen. Wie soll in einem solchen Umfeld eine Zustimmung zur EU gedeihen? Ich sehe das nicht.

Das führt mich zum zweiten Punkt. Wir müssen die Bürgerinnen und Bürger ansprechen und für Europa begeistern. Sie müssen den Mehrwert der EU konkret erfahren. Sie haben Gott sei Dank konkrete Projekte im Energiebereich genannt. Wir brauchen Investitionen in diese Region, wir brauchen gute Arbeitsplätze. Also insofern – das fehlt in Ihrem Bericht, und ich glaube, nur so können wir wirklich vorankommen.

Bei der zukünftigen Erweiterung, lieber Herr Picula, müssen wir genauer hinschauen und uns mehr engagieren. Davon bin ich fest überzeugt.


  Liudas Mažylis (PPE). – Gerbiama Pirmininke, Komisijos nary, kolegos. Seniai, vos ne nuo didžiosios 2004-ųjų metų plėtros, kalbama apie plėtros nuovargį. Dabar jau aš konstatuočiau nuovargį nuo „neplėtros“. Jau turbūt išnaudotas visas išradingų siunčiamų signalų arsenalas Europos užribyje paliktoms valstybėms, kad jūs „artėjate“, bet „dar pabūkit“ kandidatės statuse. Pasaulio kantrybė nėra beribė, o tada mes stebimės, kodėl pasaulis darosi euroskeptiškas, gravituoja link tokių pavojingų žaidėjų kaip Rusija ar Kinija. Kandidačių statuso suteikimas Ukrainai ir Moldovai buvo teigiamas žingsnis, aiškesnę perspektyvą reikia nurodyti Sakartvelui, o svarbiausia, trūksta tempo, suteikiant joms prieigą prie vieningos rinkos, neapsiribojant politine, bet teikiant veiksmingą finansinę paramą, taikant IPA instrumentą, siūlant ekonomikos ir investicijų planus, pagrįstus skaitmeniniu ir tvariu perėjimu, inovacijomis. Rusijos vykdomas agresyvus karas Ukrainoje nėra argumentas atidėlioti plėtros procesą, o priešingai, verčia plėtros politiką atnaujinti, padaryti lankstesne ir dinamiškesne.


  Sunčana Glavak (PPE). – Poštovana predsjedavajuća, kolegice i kolege, politika proširenja najvažniji je test vjerodostojnosti Europske unije i naših vrijednosti. Dok taj proces ima neopisivu važnost i dodanu vrijednost za države koje su u postupku pristupanja Europskoj uniji, istodobno se na razini Unije pojedine države članice, nažalost, ponašaju kao da je to nekakav, za europske interese nebitan i sporedan proces koji bi bilo najbolje zaboraviti.

Naša promišljanja oko toga treba li s državama pokrenuti pregovore o pristupanju otvorila su put snaženju utjecaja drugih globalnih i regionalnih aktera, od kojih neki imaju otvorena protueuropska stajališta.

Izvješće uspješno identificira ključne probleme pristupnog procesa, transformativnu ulogu, transparentnost i dosljednost. Međutim, pogledajmo zapadni Balkan, što se događalo primjerice u Sjevernoj Makedoniji i Albaniji, pogledajmo što se događa s Kosovom. Vlada Srbije mora se uskladiti prije svega s vanjskopolitičkim stajalištima Europske unije i mislim da to jasno još jednom moramo podcrtati. Hitno trebamo osvijestiti da je za države članice, odnosno koje žele postati članice, Europska unija i dalje atraktivna zajednica.

Kolegice i kolege, svjesni smo činjenice krhkosti mira i geopolitičkih previranja, stoga pozdravljam napore koji se čine, a nadu daju pomaci u Bosni i Hercegovini koja svoj put mora europski, naravno, nastaviti nakon izbora. Proces proširenja mora dobiti novi zamah koji će mu vratiti integritet!


Catch-the-eye procedure


  Tomislav Sokol (PPE). – Poštovana predsjedavajuća, proces proširenja Europske unije je u zastoju poradi izostanka političke volje pojedinih država članica EU-a. Glavni razlog tome što su neke zemlje kandidati, poput Srbije, u europskom smislu napravile nekoliko velikih koraka unatrag.

Ponovne napetosti između Srbije i Kosova, srpsko neusklađivanje sa sankcijama Unije protiv Rusije, masovna propuštanja migranata prema EU-u ukazuju na to da je Srbija glavni faktor nestabilnosti na području jugoistočne Europe. Zbog toga Unija mora jače iskoristiti vlastite gospodarske i političke instrumente kako bi sankcionirala Srbiju ukoliko se ona nastavi ponašati suprotno europskim vrijednostima.

Povezan s time je primjer Crne Gore koja je destabilizirana od strane onih političkih snaga koje je žele vratiti pod okrilje Srbije i Rusije. Tome se moramo snažno suprotstaviti, zadržati Crnu Goru u zapadnoj sferi utjecaja, što je trenutno u velikoj opasnosti.

Zaključno, pozdravljamo odluku visokog predstavnika za Bosnu i Hercegovinu gospodina Schmidta kojom je spriječio izbacivanje legitimnih predstavnika hrvatskog naroda iz izvršne vlasti. Nadam se da će se nakon formiranja nove vlasti pristupiti završnom dijelu izborne reforme kako bi se onemogućila uzurpacija hrvatskog mjesta u predsjedništvu BiH od strane ekstremističkih bošnjačkih političara, što je trenutno slučaj.


  Ladislav Ilčić (ECR). – Poštovana predsjedavajuća, poštovani kolege, izrazito cijenim napore kolege Picule u ovom važnom pitanju i svakako podržavam proširenje Europske unije.

No, ne slažem se s predloženom reformom koja bi omogućila da se odluke o proširenju donose kvalificiranom većinom, a ne konsenzusom, jer bi na taj način neki od hrvatskih susjeda, poput recimo Srbije, mogli ući u Europsku uniju bez da se Hrvatska složi s tim, a na taj bi način ostala otvorena brojna pitanja koja Hrvatska ima sa svojim susjedima i koja bi dugoročno opterećivala i Hrvatsku, a time i Europsku uniju.

Druga stvar, jasno je da kao zastupnik Hrvatske, dakle zemlje koja je posljednja ušla u Uniju, smatram da je proširenje Europske unije uspjeh za Europsku uniju, no mislim da nije dobro previše poistovjećivati uspješnost Europske unije s proširenjem jer ako je to najuspješnija europska politika, što će se dogoditi kada se Europska unija proširi do kraja? Kada dođemo do granica Europe, onda će nastati kolaps.

Dakle, smatram da uspješnost Europske unije treba tražiti unutar same Europske unije, jačajući supsidijarnost, pravu demokratičnost, pluralnost i realan pristup politici.


(End of catch-the-eye procedure)


  Olivér Várhelyi, Member of the Commission. – Madam President, honourable Members, dear Mr Picula, I just want to remind all of us that this Commission was the Commission who put back enlargement on the table. The beginning of the mandate of this Commission, we have adopted a revised enlargement methodology which makes the enlargement process more credible, more transparent and more dynamic, and ensures a better political steer over it.

We have put a much stronger focus on the fundamental reforms – as this has become the core issue of the whole enlargement process – as the key goal of the transformation power of the enlargement. We have made it possible to move faster for candidate countries if they deliver faster, for example by the introduction of the cluster system. We have made it possible to integrate our candidate partners into EU policies even before accession.

The last months have demonstrated that the EU enlargement policy is living a new momentum. So I don’t think we need new procedures, but we need political will, both from the EU and from the candidate countries. Enlargement is a geopolitical priority for us and for our allies, therefore. The idea of joining the EU is interlinked with a need for reform, freedom, security and stability. We have seen with the new applicants it is our responsibility to live up to these expectations to further strengthen the enlargement policy based on strict but fair conditionality, and the principle of own merits will have to continue.


  Tonino Picula, rapporteur. – Madam President, Mr Commissioner, thank you all once again all of you for your remarks and contributions. I want to thank first of all the shadow rapporteurs for our excellent cooperation throughout the process. Of course, thank you all colleagues who took part in the debate with ideas, contributions, hopes and in some cases scepticism.

As my introductory remarks were mostly focused on what the EU should do to accelerate the enlargement process, now I wish to focus more on the countries aspiring to become members. The success of the enlargement process also depends on them, as you said Mr Commissioner, it’s true. It is a twofold process and a partnership.

Excluding Ukraine, which is fighting for its freedom, we see persistent political crises these days, tensions between the countries, and foreign interference.

However, we need good news and positive examples of development and cooperation. We need to see that you follow our principles and values in practice. Moreover, we need to see political consensus in your countries on the EU accession that would be above internal political differences.

A European future is what your citizens support and deserve. Europe is where you belong.


  President. – Thank you for your report, Mr Picula.

That concludes the debate. The vote will be held tomorrow.

Written statements (Rule 171)


  Urmas Paet (Renew), kirjalikult. – Unarusse jäänud laienemispoliitika vajab uut tõuget, sest see on tõhus geopoliitiline relv Euroopa rahu ja julgeolekut üha tõsisemalt ohustava Venemaa vastu. Oma usaldusväärsuse taastamiseks peab EL reformima otsustusprotsesse ja loobuma uute liikmete vastuvõtmisel ühehäälsuse nõudest. Samuti peavad liikmesriigid täitma Lääne-Balkani ja idapartnerlusriikide ees võetud kohustused ning mitte pakkuma kandidaatriikidele täieõigusliku ELi liikmesuse asemel alternatiivlahendusi. EL peab pöörama rohkem tähelepanu sellele, et kandidaatriikide elanikel oleks parem ülevaade liidu toetusest ja selle abil saavutatud tulemustest. Samuti tuleb teha rohkem, et hoida ära kolmandate osapoolte sekkumist kandidaatriikide poliitilistesse, demokraatlikesse ja valimisprotsessidesse. Veel peaks EL karistama – ja kiiresti – riike, kus ühinemiseks vajalikud reformid on seiskunud või tagasi pööratud, ning premeerima kestlikke edusamme teinud kandidaatriike, näiteks tagades neile kiirendatud pääsu ühtsele turule.

Senaste uppdatering: 5 april 2023Rättsligt meddelande - Integritetspolicy