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Thursday, 21 October 2010 - Strasbourg
Trade relations with Latin-America

European Parliament resolution of 21 October 2010 on the European Union's trade relations with Latin America (2010/2026(INI))

The European Parliament,

–  having regard to its resolutions of 1 December 2005 on preparations for the sixth Ministerial Conference of the World Trade Organisation in Hong Kong(1), of 4 April 2006 on the assessment of the Doha Round following the WTO Ministerial Conference in Hong Kong(2), of 1 June 2006 on trade and poverty: designing trade policies to maximise trade's contribution to poverty relief(3), of 27 April 2006 on a stronger partnership between the European Union and Latin America(4), of 12 October 2006 on economic and trade relations between the EU and Mercosur with a view to the conclusion of an Interregional Association Agreement(5), of 23 May 2007 on the EU's Aid for Trade(6), of 12 July 2007 on the TRIPS Agreement and access to medicines(7), of 29 November 2007 on trade and climate change(8), of 24 April 2008 on the Fifth Latin America and Caribbean-European Union Summit in Lima(9), of 24 April 2008 on ‘Towards a reform of the World Trade Organisation(10), of 20 May 2008 on trade in raw materials and commodities(11), of 25 March 2010 on the effects of the global financial and economic crisis on developing countries and on development cooperation(12) and of 5 May 2010 on the EU strategy for relations with Latin America(13),

–  having regard to the resolutions of the Euro-Latin American Parliamentary Assembly, and in particular those of 19 December 2007 on the challenges and opportunities resulting from globalisation for economic and trade relations between the European Union and the countries of Latin America, of 1 May 2008 on the challenges and opportunities of the Doha Round, of 8 April 2009 on trade and climate change and of 14 May 2010 on the reform of the World Trade Organisation,

–  having regard to the final declarations of the sessions of the Parliamentary Conference on the WTO adopted in Geneva on 18 February 2003, in Cancún on 12 September 2003, in Brussels on 26 November 2004, in Hong Kong on 15 December 2005 and in Geneva on 2 December 2006 and on 12 September 2008,

–  having regard to the declarations of the six Summits of Heads of State and Government of the European Union and Latin America and the Caribbean held to date in Rio de Janeiro (28 and 29 June 1999), Madrid (17 and 18 May 2002), Guadalajara (28 and 29 May 2004), Vienna (12 and 13 May 2006), Lima (16 and 17 May 2008) and Madrid (18 May 2010),

–  having regard to the Joint Statements of the Fifth EU-Mexico Summit (16 May 2010), the Fourth EU-MERCOSUR Summit (17 May 2010), the Fourth EU-Chile Summit (17 May 2010), the Fourth EU-CARIFORUM Summit (17 May 2010), the Fourth EU-Central America Summit (19 May 2010) and the EU-Andean Community Summit (19 May 2010),

–  having regard to the Geneva Agreement on Trade in Bananas between the European Union and Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru and Venezuela and to the Agreement on Trade in Bananas between the European Union and the United States,

–  having regard to the Agreement establishing an association between the European Community and its Member States, of the one part, and the Republic of Chile, of the other part, and to the EU-Chile Association for Development and Innovation,

–  having regard to the Economic Partnership, Political Coordination and Cooperation Agreement between the European Community and its Member States, of the one part, and the United Mexican States, of the other part, and to the Strategic Partnership between Mexico and the EU,

–  having regard to the conclusion of the negotiations on an Association Agreement between the EU and Central America,

–  having regard to the conclusion of the negotiations between the EU and Colombia and Peru on a Multi-Party Trade Agreement,

–  having regard to the re-launch of the EU-MERCOSUR negotiations with a view to an ambitious and balanced Association Agreement between the two regions, which could strengthen relations between the parties and be greatly beneficial to them in both political and economic terms,

–  having regard to the Declaration on the EU-Latin America bananas agreement and its impact on ACP and EU banana producers that the ACP-EU Joint Parliamentary Assembly adopted on 1 April 2010,

–  having regard to the joint communiqué of the 14th Ministerial Meeting between the European Union and the Rio Group, held in Prague from 11 to 14 May 2009,

–  having regard to the Commission communication of 30 September 2009 on ‘The European Union and Latin America: Global Players in Partnership’ (COM(2009)0495),

–  having regard to the ‘issue paper’ of 2 June 2010 by means of which the Commission launched a public consultation on the future direction of EU trade policy,

–  having regard to the conclusions of 8 December 2009 of the Council of the European Union on relations between the European Union and Latin America,

–  having regard to its position of 5 June 2008 on the proposal for a Council regulation applying a scheme of generalised tariff preferences for the period from 1 January 2009 to 31 December 2011 and amending Regulations (EC) No 552/97, No 1933/2006 and Commission Regulations (EC) No 964/2007 and No 1100/2006(14),

–  having regard to Council Regulation (EC) No 732/2008 of 22 July 2008 applying a scheme of generalised tariff preferences for the period from 1 January 2009 to 31 December 2011 and amending Regulations (EC) No 552/97, (EC) No 1933/2006 and Commission Regulations (EC) No 1100/2006 and (EC) No 964/2007(15),

–  having regard to the Marrakesh Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organisation,

–  having regard to the WTO Ministerial Conference declarations adopted in Doha on 14 November 2001 and Hong Kong on 18 December 2005 and to the Chairman's Summary adopted in Geneva on 2 December 2009,

–  having regard to the report of January 2005 of the Advisory Board chaired by Peter Sutherland on the future of the WTO(16),

–  having regard to the United Nations Millennium Declaration of 8 September 2000, which sets out the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) as criteria collectively established by the international community for the elimination of poverty,

–  having regard to The Millennium Development Goals Report 2009 and the report of 12 February 2010 by the UN Secretary-General on the implementation of the Millennium Declaration, entitled ‘Keeping the promise: a forward-looking review to promote an agreed action agenda to achieve the Millennium Development Goals by 2015’,

–  having regard to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the Kyoto Protocol to the UNFCCC and the outcome of the 15th Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC in Copenhagen(17),

–  having regard to the 16th Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC, to be held in Mexico,

–  having regard to the Charter of the United Nations, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the International Covenants on Human Rights, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (IOCPR) and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR),

–  having regard to the Lisbon Treaty, notably Articles 3 and 21 thereof, and to the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union,

–  having regard to human rights clauses in the EU's external agreements,

–  having regard to the ILO Decent Work Agenda and to the ILO Global Jobs Pact adopted by global consensus on 19 June 2009 at the International Labour Conference,

–  having regard to the Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW), adopted in 1979 by the UN General Assembly, and to the Optional Protocol thereto,

–  having regard to the Stiglitz Report and the Outcome Document of the Conference on the World Financial and Economic Crisis and its Impact on Development (24 - 26 June 2009),

–  having regard to Rule 48 of its Rules of Procedure,

–  having regard to the report of the Committee on International Trade (A7-0277/2010),

A.  whereas Latin America and the European Union not only share common values and a common history and culture, they also form a strategic partnership,

B.  whereas over the past three decades Latin America has undergone a major process of diversification in its international trade relations, striving to reduce its level of dependence,

C.  whereas the European Union has strengthened its economic and trade relations with Latin America, becoming its second most important trading partner and the leading trading partner for MERCOSUR and Chile; whereas, according to Eurostat, trade volumes doubled between 1999 and 2008, with EU imports of goods from Latin America increasing to EUR 96.14 billion and exports of goods to the region to EUR 76.81 billion, while there was a steady rise in trade in services; whereas, owing to the dramatic effect of the financial and economic crisis, these figures dropped in 2009 to EUR 70.11 billion (imports) and EUR 61.57 billion (exports), but started to grow again in 2010; whereas European countries constitute the largest source of Foreign Direct Investment ( FDI) in Latin America,

D.  whereas, despite being rich in natural resources, Latin America finds itself among the regions which have not been able to expand their share of international trade and has been losing out to more competitive and dynamic economies in Asia,

E.  whereas several Latin American countries have been ranked among the three countries most vulnerable to climate change in the world, and taking into account the notable impact of the processes of desertification and deforestation and the increase in phenomena such as cyclones and species extinction that affect Latin America to a large extent, as well as concrete, alarming and highly significant examples of the global threat posed by climate change, such as the state of the Amazon rainforest and the risk posed by Andean glaciers,

F.  whereas, according to ECLAC, important successes in poverty reduction could be achieved, with the poverty rate in Latin America decreasing from 44.4% in 2003 to 33% in 2010, while poverty and migration are increasingly female, and whereas, according to ECLAC and UNICEF, almost 63% of children and adolescents in Latin America suffer from poverty,

G.  whereas the disparity in levels of development explains why trade between certain EU countries and the Latin American and Caribbean region (LAC) is asymmetric in terms of the type of goods that are exported; whereas trade exchanges between the two regions are highly concentrated and, although they have more than doubled since 1990, are developing at a slower rate than those between the two regions and other parts of the world,

H.  whereas the EU-LAC Summit held in Lima in 2008 resulted in the definition of the main axes of the bi-regional strategic partnership, with the aim of creating a network of association agreements between the EU and the various sub-regional integration groups; whereas the EU-LAC Summit held in Madrid in May 2010 marked a major step forward with this approach and led to the resumption of all EU-LAC trade negotiations that had been on ice for the last few years,

I.  whereas the creation of a network of comprehensive agreements already in force, finalised or under negotiation with the various groups of Latin American countries is intended to contribute to enhancing cooperation between the two continents, while allowing for regional integration processes operating at different speeds,

J.  whereas GDP per capita in the region ranges from USD 1211 in Haiti and USD 2635 in Nicaragua to USD 11225 in Brazil and roughly USD 15000 in Argentina, Chile and Mexico,

K.  whereas, despite significant progress in the management of state finances, the burden of debt, often inherited from a previous epoch, is one of the most serious obstacles to trade-related investments, development and sound state finances in a number of Latin America countries,

L.  whereas there is a general desire in Latin America to increase the region's economic importance in the global economy, and whereas Latin America has reduced its economic dependence by actively diversifying its economic relations; whereas Europe should act wisely in order to strengthen its role as a very important commercial partner for this purpose, and whereas Europe and Latin America remain committed to further strengthening their strategic partnership underpinned by their shared principles, values and interests,

M.  whereas the new EU trade policy adapted to the Europe 2020 strategy should take into account the particular situation in the Latin American region,

N.  whereas the export of smart and high-quality products promoted in the Europe 2020 strategy requires solvent customers; whereas, in the interests of both parties, the agreements between Latin America and the EU must continue to bring tangible benefits for their respective societies,

O.  whereas in 2004 negotiations with a view to creating a free-trade area of 750 million consumers ground to a halt over a dispute which was mainly about Mercosur exporters' access to European agricultural markets,

1.  Emphasises that the Lisbon Treaty defines EU trade policy as an integral and relevant part of the Union's overall external action and that trade policy can play a decisive and positive role in creating wealth, enhancing economic and political relations between peoples and countries, ensuring peace and addressing development, environmental and social objectives, and that these policies must complement each other mutually in order to achieve the objectives set out in the Treaty on European Union; considers that modern European trade policy can play an important role in achieving the UN Millennium Development Goals and fulfilling international commitments to human rights, food security and environmental sustainability;

2.  Welcomes the fact that trade relations with partners in Latin America have become a priority for the European Union;

3.  Points out that trade policy is an important tool in achieving the objective of a bi-regional strategic partnership between the European Union and Latin America; supports, in this respect, the creation of a Euro-Latin America interregional partnership area based on a WTO-compatible regionalism model;

4.  Notes that the aim of closer integration of the European and Latin American economic spheres is to create a win-win situation for both sides; stresses that intensified and fair trade relations should create more and better jobs in both regions and must support the aim of more resource-efficient and greener economies; notes, however, that a growth in trade should not lead to deforestation and more green-house gas emissions;

5.  Calls on the Commission to actively support the development of fair trade schemes and trade in sustainably managed resources;

6.  Welcomes the fact that the Madrid Declaration explicitly recognises the principle of the sovereign right of States to manage and regulate their natural resources, while stressing that due attention should be paid to sustainability criteria;

7.  Insists on the fact that all countries have the right to establish the necessary mechanisms to defend their food security and ensure the survival and the development of small and medium-sized food producers;

8.  Believes that, in order to draw greater benefit from their trade relations and appropriately distribute the gains from trade among their populations, governments in both regions should mobilise those gains in order to improve social welfare and need to accompany trade policy with the adoption of appropriate internal and structural reforms, in particular in the social and fiscal fields, while promoting responsibility of trade reforms and further expanding and enhancing trade-related institutional capacity;

9.  Stresses that it is necessary to promote the implementation of country-specific, complementary policies to increase the opportunities for trade exchanges among stakeholders in conformity with the specific development goals; believes that it is crucial to mobilise Aid for Trade and harness trade intensification in order to promote development;

10.  Welcomes the positive developments in those Latin American countries where new trade and resource policies accompanied by internal reforms have contributed to the reduction of poverty and inequality, as documented by the improvement in their Gini coefficients, and considers these developments to be illustrative of the conditions under which trade policy may have progressive distributive effects;

11.  Welcomes the fact that in Latin America new and ambitious forms of economic cooperation which are linked with socio-economic policies, are being explored; calls on the Commission to support such approaches to South-South integration and to avoid clauses in EU trade agreements that would undermine the positive effects of the respective integration approaches;

12.  Stresses that resources and technical assistance must be mobilised to identify and fund programmes that provide local and regional production opportunities, in order to guarantee food security and sustainable access to markets for excluded communities at the bottom of the socio-economic pyramid and for small and medium-sized enterprises;

13.  Considers that trade-related assistance should help producers reduce the transaction costs involved in complying with regulatory and quality standards, and that programmes should be developed to help firms with inspection, testing and official certification;

14.  Stresses the importance of applying environmental, traceability and food security standards to imported agricultural products in the context of the cooperation agreements between the EU and Latin American countries;

15.  Considers it crucial for Latin America further to diversify its trade, which is mainly based on raw materials, and to continue to move forward towards sustainable trade in products and services with greater added value, in order to compete globally; considers that global transport related to current supply chains and international labour division should take environmental concerns into consideration;

16.  Calls for closer cooperation between the EU and the Latin American countries, so as to jointly push for the swift conclusion of a fair, ambitious and comprehensive WTO Doha Agreement in accordance with the commitments made in the Madrid Declaration; stresses that an open and fair rules-based multilateral trade system will contribute to the recovery of world economies from the economic crisis and to promoting growth and development, applying a progressive and balanced reduction of tariff and non-tariff barriers, where appropriate and in line with the principle of special and differential treatment for developing countries, while contributing effectively to poverty reduction;

17.  Deplores the protectionist measures taken during the financial crisis by some Latin American countries, especially Argentina; urges the Commission regularly to address the issue of market access with countries in Latin America;

18.  Emphasises that the attainment of all eight UN MDGs should be regarded as a crucial task in the current multilateral and bilateral trade negotiations; stresses that keeping the promises reiterated in the Madrid Declaration on attaining the MDGs and eradicating global poverty will require a trade environment in which developing countries in Latin America have real access to the markets of developed countries and can maintain and develop their own competitive manufacturing and food processing industries – an environment in which more equitable trade practices are implemented and strong and enforced rules apply to the protection of the environment and social rights;

19.  Considers that the European Union should seek to make a more attractive offer aimed at serving the economic development interests of our partners, in order to ensure its presence in the region, alongside the US and China; believes that this should include complementary offers, for instance regarding capacity building and technology transfers; stresses also the need for respectful treatment of our partners and acknowledgement of asymmetric needs;

20.  Reiterates the importance of including human rights clauses and environmental and social standards in all trade agreements concluded between the EU and third countries, including Latin American countries, in order for external action to be coherent, both the reflecting the EU's economic interests and promoting its fundamental values;

21.  Stresses that positive market developments along the entire value chain must give rise to appropriate levels of income and that profit margins should benefit all involved actors within the entire value chain;

22.  Considers that it is necessary to give our trade partnership a truly European dimension, increasing the exchanges between Latin American countries and all countries, including countries in Central and Eastern Europe; considers it necessary to integrate a wider range of economic activities in our exchanges;

23.  Emphasises the constructive role that EU-based companies operating in Latin America should play by applying high environmental, social protection and quality management standards and by offering decent wages and job security;

24.  Is aware that in the past some cases of misconduct by companies operating in Latin America have occurred, involving ecological degradation, cases of exploitation of labour, and serious human rights violations; points out that the EU as a whole and EU-based companies operating in Latin America should display exemplary behaviour in environmental, social and employment-related matters within a wider framework of transparency and respect for human rights that ensures the protection of all involved; stresses that European multinationals are responsible to a great extent for the EU's image in the region and must promote its values, whilst observing the principles of corporate social responsibility;

25.  Recognises that the conclusion of the WTO agreements on trade in bananas put an end to a long-term dispute with Latin American and ACP partner countries' banana suppliers, could facilitate progress in the Doha Round negotiations and has contributed to concluding the negotiations on the various agreements with Central America and Colombia and Peru; calls, nonetheless, for account to be taken of the commitments made to ACP partners and the interests of EU producers; calls, in order to avoid further disputes, for fair treatment to be guaranteed to all trade partners in Latin America, including those who have not concluded a trade agreement with the EU;

26.  Points out that the agreements adopted within the WTO and the bilateral agreements under negotiation with certain Latin American countries have consequences for the vulnerable economies of the outermost regions because of the similarities between their agricultural sectors and those on the Latin American continent; supports therefore the approach under which, in trade relations between the EU and Latin America, the strategic and traditional sectors of the outermost regions are preserved and are the subject of both appropriate compensation and particular attention in order not to undermine the obligations that the EU adopted towards these regions in its European strategy for the outermost regions in 2009;

27.  Points out that the implementation of all Association Agreements must take into account the interests of the people concerned and must be subject to ratification by parliaments in respect of all of their pillars, namely political dialogue, cooperation and trade;

28.  Notes the positive conclusion of the negotiations on the EU-Central America Association Agreement which, as a first example of a region-to-region agreement, should contribute, with appropriate accompanying policies, to enhancing not only wealth but also the further integration of Central American countries; takes note of the decision by Panama to begin the process of accession to the Central American Economic Integration Subsystem;

29.  Points out that the negotiations for a Multi-Party Trade Agreement between the EU and Colombia and Peru have come to a positive conclusion; notes that Bolivia has decided to withdraw the claim it presented to the Andean Community Court of Justice regarding the Multi-Party Trade Agreement; calls therefore on the relevant parties to move towards a future Association Agreement negotiated with all the countries of the Andean Community;

30.  Supports the resumption of negotiations on the EU-Mercosur Association Agreement - given that an Association Agreement of this kind, which is of the utmost importance and affects 700 million people, would, if concluded swiftly, be the world's most ambitious bi-regional agreement - and therefore stresses that the European Parliament should be closely involved at all stages of the negotiations; is aware that agriculture issues will probably be one of the sensitive topics in the negotiations; calls for agricultural imports to be allowed into the EU only if they have been produced in a manner consistent with European consumer protection, animal welfare and environmental protection standards and minimum social standards; emphasises that a balanced outcome for both parties has to be achieved in the end by making sure that the negotiations take full account of recent developments in the global economy, global environmental challenges, such as climate change, and the demands and concerns put forward by Parliament;

31.  Calls on the Commission to closely involve Parliament in the negotiations relating to the necessary updating of the agreements with Chile and Mexico;

32.  Strongly supports the approval of the Joint Executive Plan for the Mexico-EU Strategic Partnership and the negotiations with a view to fundamentally modernising trade relations so as to unlock the full potential of the EU-Mexico Association Agreement, which, since entering into force, has led to an increase of 122% in trade flows;

33.  Strongly supports the road map and work programme for the Chile-EU Association for Development and Innovation (ADI) and the mutually beneficial rise in trade in goods and services that the Association Agreement has made possible, as evidenced by the fact that trade between Chile and the EU has more than doubled since 2003;

34.  Stresses the need for a prior assessment of the impact of an agreement with Mercosur in view of the expected increase in the volume of meat exported to Europe – 70% for beef and 25% for poultry –, which is cheaper because of the less stringent sanitary, environmental and social standards governing its production;

35.  Calls on the Commission and its Latin American partners to involve civil society in the assessment of compliance with labour, human rights and environmental standards included in trade agreements and to promote the regular dialogue with civil society that is provided for in the Association Agreements;

36.  Is deeply concerned about the restrictive measures recently adopted by the Argentinian authorities on foodstuffs imported from third countries, including the European Union; considers these measures to constitute a real non-tariff barrier incompatible with WTO obligations; calls, therefore, on the Argentinian authorities to eliminate this illegal burden on foodstuff, which could send out a bad signal and represent a serious obstacle for the ongoing EU-MERCOSUR negotiations;

37.  Calls on the Commission to make trade negotiations more transparent by giving early access to key documents and draft agreements to all social partners in sectors that are potentially affected by the outcome of trade agreements, while applying standard procedures regarding documents subject to confidentiality requirements, and to establish an ongoing and formalised process of consultation with them;

38.  Draws attention to the important role that the Union of South American Nations (UNASUR) is playing;

39.  Calls on the Commission to consider the possibility of establishing close cooperation between the two continents in order to develop a new Latin American railways network;

40.  Takes note of the decision to set up the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC); points out that regional integration is a process that is essential in order to help Latin America adjust to the new global challenges;

41.  Believes that trade, energy and climate change frameworks should be mutually supportive;

42.  Calls on the Commission to support the partners in Latin America in establishing competitive value-added production facilities; proposes the establishment of regional trade academies both in Latin American regions and across EU Member States, aimed at building capacity among SMEs by providing training sessions on the preconditions for trading agricultural products, goods and services with the partner region;

43.  Urges the Latin American countries to make sincere efforts to combat climate change and, in particular, to stop deforestation;

44.  Encourages EU support for EU-Latin American trade fairs in the various European and Latin American countries, to provide a platform for contacts and partnership agreements, in particular among SMEs;

45.  Considers that the next reform of the generalised system of preferences (GSP) must make it more efficient and stable so as to ensure that Latin America producers will reap the potential benefit of this preferential scheme; considers that the negotiations for trade agreements with countries already benefitting from the GSP+ scheme should allow for a degree of asymmetry that takes into account to a large extent the level of preferences enjoyed under the GSP + scheme; points out that all countries are free not to enter into the negotiations and may therefore continue to benefit from the GSP+ scheme as long as they continue to fulfil the relevant conditions;

46.  Notes the creation by the EU of a new Latin America Investment Facility, the main objective of which should be to serve as a lever to mobilise additional financing to diversify investment in Latin America that is intended to foster progress in the priority areas, such as sound public transport and mobility systems, energy saving, renewables, education and research;

47.  Welcomes the decision to establish an EU-LAC Foundation, which will promote trade and contribute to strengthening the bi-regional partnership, raising awareness of it and realising its full potential;

48.  Believes that the wording of chapters on investment protection in trade agreements must help shore up the legal certainty of investments made, without affecting the responsiveness of governments to the environmental, health and social demands of their populations;

49.  Recognises the importance of the audit of Ecuador's external debt by an international commission and encourages other countries to undertake similar processes; calls on the Commission and the Council to speed up the solving of the problem of the external debts of some countries in Latin America and the Caribbean, both on a bilateral basis and within the international finance institutions;

50.  Calls on the European Union to support the new concept of supporting environmental protection by compensating for the loss in potential trade revenues and to co-finance the creation of the Yasuni-ITT Trust Fund under the auspices of the UNDP, as proposed by the Ecuadorian Government, which is intended to compensate the Ecuadorian people for refraining from extracting oil from the fields located in the Yasuni National Park;

51.  Reiterates that the EU should actively and concretely support those developing countries that use the so-called flexibilities built into the TRIPS Agreement in order to be able to provide medicines at affordable prices under their domestic public health programmes;

52.  Calls on the Commission to implement the recommendations of this report in its new EU trade strategy, in particular as far as future EU-LAC trade is concerned;

53.  Instructs its President to forward this resolution to the Council and the Commission.

(1) OJ C 285 E, 22.11.2006, p. 126.
(2) OJ C 293 E, 2.12.2006, p. 155.
(3) OJ C 298 E, 8.12.2006, p. 261.
(4) OJ C 296 E, 6.12.2006, p. 123.
(5) OJ C 308 E, 16.12.2006, p. 182.
(6) OJ C 102 E, 24.4.2008, p. 291.
(7) OJ C 175 E, 10.07.2008, p. 591.
(8) OJ C 297 E, 20.11.2008, p. 193.
(9) OJ C 259 E, 29.10.2009, p. 64.
(10) OJ C 259 E, 29.10.2009, p. 77.
(11) OJ C 279 E, 19.11.2009, p. 5.
(12) Texts adopted, P7_TA(2010)0089.
(13) Texts adopted, P7_TA(2010)0141.
(14) OJ C 285 E, 26.11.2009, p. 126.
(15) OJ L 211, 6.8.2008, p. 1.
(16) ‘The Future of the WTO - Addressing Institutional Challenges in the New Millennium’, Report by the Consultative Board to the Director-General, Supachai Panitchpakdi (WTO, January 2005).
(17) UNFCCC Draft decision -/CP.15, Copenhagen Accord, FCCC/CP/2009/L.7.

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