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Procedure : 2013/2090(INI)
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Document selected : A7-0380/2013

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Debates :

PV 09/12/2013 - 24
CRE 09/12/2013 - 24

Votes :

PV 10/12/2013 - 9.2
CRE 10/12/2013 - 9.2
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Texts adopted
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Tuesday, 10 December 2013 - Strasbourg
Development of 'state building' in South Sudan

European Parliament resolution of 10 December 2013 on the efforts of the international community in the area of development and of ‘state building’ in South Sudan (2013/2090(INI))

The European Parliament,

–  having regard to its resolution of 13 June 2012 on the situation in Sudan and South Sudan(1),

–  having regard to its resolution of 5 July 2011 on the future of EU budget support to developing countries(2),

–  having regard to its resolution of 25 October 2011 on the 4th High Level Forum on Aid Effectiveness(3),

–  having regard to its resolution of 18 December 2008 on development perspectives for peace-building and nation building in post-conflict situations(4),

–  having regard to the fact-finding mission of its Committee on Development to South Sudan in July 2011,

–  having regard to the final report of the European Union Election Observation Mission on the Southern Sudan Referendum 9-15 January 2011(5),

–  having regard to the Partnership Agreement between the Members of the African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States (ACP), and the European Union and its Member States, signed in Cotonou on 23 June 2000(6), first amended in Luxembourg on 25 June 2005(7) and again amended in Ouagadougou on 22 June 2010(8),

–  having regard to the declaration by the Co-Presidents of the ACP-EU Joint Parliamentary Assembly on the situation in Sudan and South Sudan, issued in Horsens (Denmark) in May 2012(9),

–  having regard to the declaration by the EU and its Member States on the Republic of South Sudan’s independence of 9 July 2011(10),

–  having regard to the Council conclusions of 22 July 2013 on Sudan and South Sudan(11),

–  having regard to the statement of 5 July 2012 by Commissioner Georgieva on Sudan and South Sudan(12),

–  having regard to the Directorate-General for Humanitarian Aid’s humanitarian implementation plan (HIP) for Sudan and South Sudan for 2013 and the modification thereof(13),

–  having regard to the statements by the Spokesperson for High Representative Catherine Ashton of 18 June 2013 on the deadly attack on a United Nations Interim Security Force for Abyei (UNISFA) peacekeeper in Southern Kordofan(14); of 1 May 2013 on the conflict in Sudan’s Southern Kordofan and Blue Nile states(15); and of 8 January 2013 on the recent closure of civil society organisations in Sudan(16),

–  having regard to the statement issued locally by the EU Delegation on 25 July 2013, following the dismissal by the President of the entire Government of the Republic of South Sudan(17),

–  having regard to the Dili Declaration: A new vision for peace-building and state‑building of 10 April 2010(18),

–  having regard to the Deal for Engagement in Fragile States presented at the Fourth High Level Forum on Aid Effectiveness in Busan in December 2011(19),

–  having regard to the OECD’s 2011 Report on International Engagement in Fragile States - Republic of South Sudan(20),

–  having regard to the World Development Report 2011: Conflict, Security, and Development(21),

–  having regard to the Report of the African Union High-Level Implementation Panel on Sudan and South Sudan (AUHP) published on 31 July 2013(22),

–  having regard to the statement of 8 March 2013 by the Spokesperson for the UN Secretary-General on the establishment of the Safe Demilitarized Border Zone between Sudan and South Sudan and the activation of the Joint Border Verification and Monitoring Mechanism(23),

–  having regard to the resolution adopted by the UN Human Rights Council on technical assistance and capacity-building for South Sudan in the field of human rights’ on 27 June 2013 (A/HRC/21/L.7/Rev.1),

–  having regard to the Framework Agreement on the Political and Security Arrangements in the Blue Nile and Kordofan States signed on 28 June 2011(24),

–  having regard to the conclusions of reports of the High Commissioner for Human Rights presented to the Human Rights Council at its 21st and 23rd sessions(25),

–  having regard to the agreements concluded in Addis Ababa between the Republic of the Sudan and the Republic of South Sudan on 27 September 2012(26),

–  having regard to Amnesty International’s 2013 report on the human rights situation in South Sudan(27),

–  having regard to the Human Rights Watch report ‘This old man can feed us, you will marry him’(28),

–  having regard to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948,

–  having regard to Rule 48 of its Rules of Procedure,

–  having regard to the report of the Committee on Development and the opinions of the Committee on Foreign Affairs and the Committee on Women’s Rights and Gender Equality (A7-0380/2013),

A.  whereas UN Security Council Resolution 1996 (2011) welcomed the establishment of the Republic of South Sudan on 9 July 2011 and whereas the United Nations General Assembly voted on 14 July 2011 to admit South Sudan as a member state (A/RES/65/308);

B.   whereas the belt of insecurity, under-development and poor governance across the Sahel to the Horn of Africa can only be addressed through a comprehensive approach;

C.  whereas the newly created South Sudan is also one of the poorest countries in the world, with 50 % of the population living below the poverty line; whereas, having emerged from a war and being situated in an unstable region, it is in danger of failing if the international community and local actors fail to cooperate in developing a joint strategy to turn it into a democratic and inclusive state;

D.  whereas certain measures have been taken in the context of the Security Sector Reform (SSR), such as the establishment of the South Sudanese National Police Service (SSNPS), the National Security and Disarmament Council (NSDC) and the Demobilisation and Reintegration Council (DRC);

E.  whereas the prosperity and the viability of the new state of South Sudan depends to a large extent on constructive and peaceful relations with all neighbouring countries, in particular the Republic of the Sudan, and on the capability of these two countries to resolve their differences and to agree on and implement viable solutions, in particular regarding border conflicts, oil revenue, the final status of Abyei, national debt and citizenship;

F.  whereas state-building and overcoming fragility require a long-term perspective and solid, predictable and stable engagement by the international community;

G.  whereas, while the new country faces a great number of serious challenges, South Sudan has made considerable progress in relation to the key development indicators since the Comprehensive Peace Agreement of 2005 was enacted, including a six-fold increase in primary school enrolment, a 25 % decrease in infant mortality and the establishment of key state institutions at federal and state level;

H.  whereas children are the primary victims of the insecurity and conflict affecting South Sudan; whereas sexual violence is being perpetrated against children and women, and children are being recruited by armed groups;

I.  whereas the scope of democratic reconstruction is broadened when more women are involved in conflict resolution processes and political decision‑making;

J.  whereas South Sudan is highly reliant on oil production, which accounts for approximately 88% of national revenue, and is currently entirely dependent on the Republic of Sudan for its export; whereas this overreliance puts the country's economy at risk, but is also used to exert pressure on the new country, and is causing further tensions and even conflict, particularly with Sudan and between ethnic groups, as has been the case over the past two years; whereas South Sudan has concluded agreements with neighbouring Kenya, Ethiopia and Djibouti to explore the possibility of two new pipelines linking its oil fields to the Gulf of Aden and the Indian Ocean;

K.  whereas the suspension of oil production by the South Sudanese Government for over a year and the closure of the oil pipes in Sudan have deprived the country of one of its principal sources of income and plunged it into a major financial crisis leading to continued harsher austerity;

L.  whereas the 2013 Resource Governance Index, while acknowledging an ‘ambitious legal framework designed to promote transparent governance of the oil sector’, ranks South Sudan 50th out of 58 countries owing to its authorities having failed to release information about the sector and to establish proper monitoring and auditing mechanisms;

M.  whereas the international community has given important political and material support to South Sudan’s independence and viability, as well as its economic and social development and whereas the EU has played a very positive role in this connection; whereas the EU and its Member States pledged, on the occasion of South Sudan’s independence, to develop a close and long-term partnership with the Republic of South Sudan and its people;

N.  whereas on 23 May 2011, the Council approved a financial package of EUR 200 million for South Sudan to provide the funding for the EU’s contribution to the Joint Country Strategy Paper (Response Strategy) for South Sudan 2011-2013;

O.  whereas the international community and international humanitarian organisations have been very responsive to the need to relieve the suffering of people in the region, even though they are barred from certain areas by rebel groups and by the Sudanese Government, and whereas the EU has provided and continues to provide substantial levels of humanitarian aid, including EUR 110 million in 2012 alone;

P.  whereas the prospects for longer-term development and state-building in South Sudan are inextricably linked with regional interdependence in the Horn of Africa, not least in terms of addressing security concerns with neighbouring Sudan (including in the Darfur, Kurdofan and Blue Nile regions) and investing in economic integration with other regional partners;

Q.  whereas South Sudan is one of the very first countries in which joint programming between the European External Action Service (EEAS) and the Commission and EU Member States, aligned with the South Sudan Development Plan, has been put into practice in the form of a Single EU Country Strategy Paper, agreed on in December 2011, comprising a total of EUR 830 million in development aid;

R.  whereas South Sudan has not yet acceded to the Cotonou Agreement, with the Government of South Sudan voicing concerns about potential implications for its relations with the Republic of the Sudan; whereas accession to the Cotonou Agreement would not oblige South Sudan to accede immediately to the Rome Statute; whereas this reluctance to accede to the Cotonou Agreement is leading to problems in programming EU aid from 2014 onwards under the 11th European Development Fund, which could potentially result in South Sudan losing out, not only in terms of national allocations, but also with a view to regional funds and substantial European Investment Bank (EIB) resources which would enhance its infrastructure and regional economic integration; whereas by ratifying the Cotonou Agreement, South Sudan could also increase its capacity to attract European private sector investments; whereas the additional financial facilities to which South Sudan could have access following accession to the Cotonou Agreement could equally help with the implementation of the Addis Ababa Agreement;

S.  whereas the Council appointed Ms Rosalind Marsden as the European Union Special Representative (EUSR) for Sudan in August 2010 and subsequently enlarged and extended her mandate, but in June 2013 only agreed to a four-month extension until 31 October 2013 in order to integrate it into the mandate of the EUSR for the Horn of Africa, despite her outstanding work and her important role in leveraging the EU’s various tools and influence on the developments in the region; whereas without a designated EU Special Representative for Sudan/South Sudan, the EU will be side-lined in international negotiations and efforts;

T.  whereas the European Union has provided support for the African Union High-Level Panel, which includes the former South African President Thabo Mbeki as chair, and for the UN missions, namely the United Nations Mission in Sudan (UNMIS), the United Nations Mission in the Republic of South Sudan (UNMISS), the United Nations-African Union Mission in Darfur (UNAMID) and the United Nations Interim Security Force for Abyei (UNISFA);

U.  whereas a ‘New Deal for Engagement in Fragile States’ was formulated by the G7+ group of states (including South Sudan) and the International Dialogue on Peace Building and State Building (IDPS) and then endorsed by the EU, along with 36 countries, at the Fourth High Level Forum on Aid Effectiveness in Busan in December 2011;

V.  whereas an Economic Partners Forum was held in Washington in April 2013 at which a ‘new deal compact’ was announced, setting out framework provisions regarding further international development aid commitments for South Sudan;

W.  whereas external efforts made with regard to state-building and development can only be successful if the leadership of South Sudan is committed to and will be capable of developing accountable, responsive, and inclusive governance, and overcomes short-term or clientelistic interests; whereas South Sudan is not yet included in most governance indicators and there is still very little quantitative data available on the extent of corruption in the country; whereas the international community, both private and public, does not tolerate corruption and therefore needs to ensure that the provision of aid or investment does not lead to or encourage harmful practices;

X.  whereas a social security net is lacking and access to services such as health care, electricity and water remains extremely limited; whereas, according to some estimates, only one third of the population has access to clean water and whereas water access issues have exacerbated communal conflicts;

Y.  whereas South Sudanese women and girls face the highest maternal mortality rate in the world and one in seven women in South Sudan will die during or just after childbirth(29); whereas the main causes of maternal mortality are infection and/or haemorrhaging, and South Sudan faces a serious lack of basic medical equipment and qualified nurses and midwives;

Z.  whereas it is estimated that 48 % of girls aged between 15-19 years are forced into marriage in South Sudan and whereas 12-year-old girls have reportedly been forced into marriage, thereby directly affecting the enrolment of girls at school, with girls representing only 39 % of pupils at primary school and 30 % at secondary school;

AA.  whereas the belief that females are the property of their father or husband is entrenched in the dowry system that exists in South Sudan;

AB.  whereas domestic violence is considered an entrenched social norm throughout South Sudan and whereas 82 % of women and 81 % of men believe that a woman should tolerate domestic violence and keep the problem within the family(30);

AC.  whereas the illiteracy rate is estimated at over 80 % (the highest rate of female illiteracy in the world), with girls accounting for only 25 % of school pupils, representing the lowest rate of female access to education in the world; whereas there is a shortage of teachers;

AD.  whereas there is a shortage of teachers and a serious need for people with vocational qualifications, as well as a need for education and training colleges to produce a skilled workforce;

AE.  whereas the vast expanse of arable land in South Sudan means that agriculture not only has great potential in terms of lucrative commercial and local job creation prospects in the country, but it could also help alleviate food shortages in South Sudan itself and, in the longer term, meet the needs of neighbouring countries;

AF.  whereas women are key to reducing food and nutrition insecurity, and can help boost agricultural productivity;

AG.  whereas South Sudan has practically no permanent road, rail or inland waterway transport infrastructures; whereas it is necessary to develop these infrastructures to boost the country’s economic growth, as well as trade, market access and job creation;

AH.  whereas the number of landmines and undetonated ordnance still buried in South Sudan since the civil war is estimated to be in the millions;

AI.  whereas internal security remains one of the critical challenges for South Sudan, with several low intensity conflicts giving rise to a serious humanitarian situation; whereas abuses by South-Sudanese security forces, including extra-judicial killings, rape and torture during civilian disarmament campaigns, have been reported repeatedly; whereas the post-2005 efforts in the field of demobilisation, disarmament, and reintegration have stalled and whereas an acceptable retirement scheme for veterans is lacking;

AJ.  whereas the population faces major risks in terms of food insecurity, affecting 4.1 million South Sudanese in 2013; whereas access to health services is very limited, there is a shortage of medical personnel and supplies, and there is evident humanitarian need among the people displaced by conflict; whereas the rate of mortality of under-fives is very high and the maternal mortality rate is the highest in the world;

AK.  whereas in 2013 South Sudan dropped 12 places in the Reporters Without Borders World Press Freedom Index to 124th out of 180 countries ranked;

AL.  whereas viable long-term stability in the Horn of Africa can only be built on strong institutions, a proper role and place for civil society, the rule of law and respect for human rights, in particular freedom of expression, as well as strong economic prospects for society in general; whereas the separation of Sudan and South Sudan has reportedly led to religious conflict; whereas a number of refugees have fled from Sudan to the largely Christian South Sudan; whereas the estimated number of refugees moving from Sudan to South Sudan in June 2013 was 263 000(31);

AM.  whereas journalists have frequently been threatened, arrested and detained without charge; whereas security forces have been reported to harass and illegally detain journalists; whereas the South Sudanese authorities have failed to carry out prompt, effective and impartial investigations into attacks on journalists, or cases such as the killing of the government critic and journalist Isaiah Abraham;

AN.  whereas weaknesses in the justice system give rise to serious human rights violations; whereas there is a clear need for specialised training in the field of human rights for the legal profession; whereas in order to address impunity, it is necessary to increase knowledge of core human rights instruments, which will contribute to their application; whereas there is an almost total lack of legal aid in the criminal justice system;

AO.  whereas South Sudan’s official language is English but it is not generally spoken, and most of the South Sudanese population is illiterate; whereas English is the predominant language in the public services and the legal system, in private-sector companies and in the country’s major media outlets; whereas South Sudan’s various ethnic groups speak, in total, more than 60 languages and dialects; whereas language is a key factor in national cohesion and therefore an appropriate language policy is important;

AP.  whereas South Sudan will continue to uphold capital punishment unless amendments in this connection are introduced into the country’s constitution;

AQ.  whereas the high prevalence of child marriage, with nearly half of all girls in South Sudan between the ages of 15 and 19 being married, creates an environment in which there is increased vulnerability to physical, sexual, psychological, and economic abuse;

AR.  whereas equitable participation of women in the public sphere is a constitutional right supported by a mandated quota of 25 %; whereas despite the commitment of the Government of South Sudan to increase the participation of women in the public sector, progress has been limited on this point; whereas the effective engagement of the women of South Sudan in peace making, governance and economic development can help consolidate peace and security for the country;

1.  Welcomes the most recent signs of eased tensions between the governments of South Sudan and the Republic of the Sudan, demonstrated during the visit of the South Sudanese President to the Republic of the Sudan in early September 2013, and the statements of good will on both sides on this occasion; underlines that the economic and social development of both countries depends to a large extent on peaceful and collaborative relations between the two countries;

2.  Calls on the governments of both countries and the international community to continue and intensify efforts to resolve the outstanding issues left unresolved following the expiration of the 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement and South Sudan’s independence in July 2011, which are still obstacles to good neighbourly relations, and to abstain entirely from the use of threats and military force and the support of irregular armed forces in the region;

3.  Urges the South Sudanese authorities to comply with UN Security Council Resolution 2109, to uphold the rule of law, to honour their responsibility to protect civilians and to respect the fundamental rights of their citizens; calls likewise on the South Sudanese authorities to step up their efforts to tackle the widespread and violent theft of cattle which traditionally takes place in rural parts of the country;

4.  Regrets that the recommendation made by the African Union to the governments in Khartoum and Juba that a referendum on the disputed region of Abyei be held in October 2013 has not been followed up by any effective action; calls on the South Sudanese authorities to ensure that Misseriya nomads are able to participate in the referendum, as Khartoum is otherwise opposed to its holding; welcomes the statement by the authorities in South Sudan pointing out that the Misseriya have always had free access to water and pastureland in Abyei and that they will continue to enjoy this right in the future;

5.  Proposes that the governments of Sudan and South Sudan consider, as a last resort, referring the outstanding problems with regard to the border between the two countries to the International Court of Justice (ICJ) so that they may be resolved legally and peacefully;

6.  Urges the Republic of the Sudan and the Republic of South Sudan to respect fully the Addis Ababa Agreements of September 2012;

7.  Reiterates its support for the European Union’s regional engagement under the EU Strategic Framework for the Horn of Africa, as well as under the comprehensive approach to Sudan and South Sudan; notes further the overlapping geography of the Sahel region and its interlinked political, economic and social challenges; calls for the European Union, therefore, to coordinate its strategy across the wider region more effectively, specifically by linking the aims and scope of the EU Strategic Framework for the Horn of Africa with those of the EU Strategy for Security and Development in the Sahel; encourages a closely linked consideration of human rights within both; calls further for the European Union to engage with the European Union Special Representatives for the Sahel and Human Rights, in addition to the EUSR for the Horn of Africa, when addressing the outstanding challenges faced by this region, and to commit itself to a full dialogue with regional partners for the purpose of improving cooperation and development;

8.  Recognises and fully supports the good offices of the EU Special Representative for Sudan and South Sudan and other EU partners; calls on all EU institutions and Member States to develop and/or maintain a constructive dialogue with both countries and also to contribute to a genuine process of comprehensive national dialogue for the future of the people of Sudan and South Sudan;

9.  Urges the authorities of Sudan and South Sudan to implement fully the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA), which calls on the two states to tackle issues concerning power sharing, citizenship, oil revenues and debt sharing; stresses that despite important differences between the governments of Khartoum and Juba, especially on the controversial Abyei referendum that should have taken place in October 2013, there are positive signs of cooperation between the two governments, such as the initiative to allow cross-border movements as a preparatory step to establishing trade agreements between the two countries; praises the progress made by the African Union in bringing together the Presidents of Sudan and South Sudan to encourage the implementation of the cooperation agreements; calls on Sudan and South Sudan to resume negotiations on the supply of oil to the North;

10.  Calls on South Sudan and Sudan to make best use of the wealth and potential which the oil resources in the region represent for both countries and to reach an agreement on the unsolved transitional economic arrangements between the two countries;

11.  Underlines the importance of the Cooperation Agreement, including the sectoral agreements, between Sudan and South Sudan signed in Addis Ababa on 27 September 2012; stresses, however, its concern over the unilateral announcement by the Sudanese Government with regard to the shutting down of oil exports from South Sudan and the freezing of all sectoral agreements as a measure that will damage both countries’ economies and escalate regional tensions; calls for both governments to work with the African Union High-Level Implementation Panel to return to the Cooperation Agreement, to end support for armed rebel groups, to adhere fully to the agreement on the Safe Demilitarised Border Zone monitored by the expanded UN Interim Security Force for Abyei, and to prepare for a referendum on the future status of Abyei;

12.  Calls on all groups and parties within South Sudan to develop a joint vision for their country and its peaceful, prosperous and equitable development; proposes that the Government of South Sudan consider launching an inclusive national debate with a view to ending interethnic conflict and envisaging peaceful relations;

13.  Stresses the importance of demonstrating to the people of South Sudan the value and effectiveness of their new democratic state, including the establishment of a stable government which does not operate by arbitrary presidential decrees and ensures the separation of executive, legislative and judicial powers, as well as respecting human rights and the freedom of the media, preventing and tackling corruption and delivering public services and infrastructure, including in rural areas outside Juba; deplores the impact of corruption on this new state and calls for the international donor community, including the European Union, to assess carefully South Sudan’s capacity to tackle this matter; calls in addition for South Sudan to enhance efforts to tackle corruption, including initiatives by President Kiir against senior officials, whilst encouraging the government to pursue the implementation of its development plan, including by diversifying its economy away from dependence on oil exports;

14.  Urges South Sudan to ratify the Cotonou Agreement between the EU and ACP states, in order to permit the long-term commitment of the EU to South Sudan’s development and underlines that South Sudan’s accession to the Agreement should in no way affect reconciliation and constructive relations with the Republic of the Sudan which, in fact, has a long-term interest in the prosperous development of all of its neighbours;

15.  Calls on South Sudan to ratify without delay the international agreements protecting human rights;

16.  Calls on key international partners, especially EU Members States, the Commission and the EEAS, to maintain their commitment to development and state-building and to human security for all South-Sudanese people; underlines the need to link peace-building, including the issue of dealing with the past, to state-building efforts in order to ensure sustainable state-building; supports the engagement of the EU as a key partner in the context of the New Deal through a State-Building Compact;

17.  Calls on key international partners, especially EU Members States, the Commission and the EEAS, to maintain their commitment to development and state-building and to human security for all South-Sudanese people; supports the engagement of the EU as a key partner in the context of the New Deal through a State-Building Compact;

18.  Underlines the importance of the European Union, working with multilateral partners and donors, in supporting South Sudan on its democratic journey; welcomes, in this connection, the European Union’s contribution (USD 4,9 million) to the International Organisation for Migration, which will facilitate dialogue and communication among the different tribes and clans on how to share scarce resources (water, pastureland) in a context of growing inter‑community violence; welcomes the work of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (Unesco) in preserving the historical archives as an important tool for South Sudan in its nation‑building process; urges the South Sudanese Government, given the growing sensitivity of the international community regarding chemical weapons, to sign and ratify as soon as possible the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on their Destruction, as well as other arms control and disarmament treaties, including those designed to tackle the illicit and uncontrolled flow of small arms and light weapons;

19.  Recalls that all forms of budgetary support to developing countries require proper risk management tools, should be complimentary to other aid modalities, and need to be backed-up by proper parliamentary scrutiny of the national budget in the recipient country, as well as by other forms of accountability and by the participation of citizens, and that these measures need to be ensured and supported both by the national government and the respective aid donors;

20.  Encourages the EEAS, the EU Special Representative for Sudan and South Sudan and the Commission to enhance awareness and visibility of the EU’s very positive contributions to a peaceful, democratic transition and to the economic and social development of South Sudan; is concerned that putting an end to the mandate of the EU Special Representative for Sudan and South Sudan, at a time when a number of commitments contained in the 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement and the September 2012 Addis Ababa Agreement still have not been fully met, could further decrease this visibility and reduce the leverage of the EU and its Member States; asks for the extension of the Special Representative’s mandate instead of the plan to add Sudan to the already overburdened mandate of the Special Representative for the Horn of Africa;

21.  Calls for the regular review of the EU’s Strategic Framework for the Horn of Africa and its comprehensive approach to Sudan and South Sudan in order to ensure that policy instruments and resources are tailored to supporting the peace process and democracy‑building, including preparations for the elections in 2015; notes that future mandates, including decisions to merge positions, of the EU Special Representatives in this region should be considered in the context of such a policy review and in response to political realities on the ground;

22.  Welcomes the fact that the EU has committed EUR 285 million in development aid to South Sudan since 2011, when South Sudan gained independence (excluding Member State aid), in addition to humanitarian aid;

23.  Calls on the state not to prevent NGOs or humanitarian organisations from reaching people in conflict zones; points out that impeding NGOs and humanitarian organisations in this way constitutes a breach of international humanitarian law;

24.  Supports the focus of EU aid for South Sudan on agriculture, democratic governance and the rule of law, education and health; notes that even though laws and regulations are in place, implementation is lagging behind; welcomes the Commission’s efforts to provide support for capacity-building of the South Sudanese legal system, in particular to provide technical assistance to the judiciary and the Supreme Court; welcomes EU support to the National Legislative Assembly of South Sudan;

25.  Urges the Commission, the Member States and the South Sudanese authorities to work with communities and women’s organisations to provide and promote access to education and sexual and reproductive rights and healthcare services for girls and women, including access to contraception and HIV/AIDS testing and treatment;

26.  Calls for projects funded by the EU to be monitored and assessed regularly, including as regards progress towards gender equality, and calls for Parliament to be informed of the results;

27.  Calls for the views of local communities, in particular women, to be taken into account so that clearer objectives can be set for projects and so that those objectives can be tailored to the situation on the ground as well as to developments;

28.  Calls on the international community, in particular the EU and its Member States in the context of their external action, and in cooperation with local partners and NGOs, to emphasise the importance of access for girls to primary education and of efforts to tackle adult illiteracy, which is depriving South Sudan of the precious human capital that it needs for its development and in order to strengthen it as a democratic State;

29.  Recommends the establishment, without delay, of an education system that will provide qualified people to build and maintain South Sudan’s infrastructure, including its roads, housing, water purification system, sewage treatment plants, electricity, IT and telephone networks, etc.;

30.  Welcomes EU support to the African Union High-Level Implementation Panel for Sudan and South Sudan (AUHIP) while, at the same time, calling for a review of the panel with a view to assessing its effectiveness; regrets that EU support has not always been fully visible;

31.  Underlines the need to support mechanisms which will allow for the proper and transparent distribution and management of oil revenues; calls on the South-Sudanese authorities and the National Legislative Assembly, as well as international partners and companies present in South Sudan to contribute to greater transparency in the generation and use of those revenues; welcomes the recent passing of the Petroleum Revenue Management Bill by the National Legislative Assembly; calls for the quick adoption into law by the President and quick implementation of all modalities of the Act;

32.  Stresses the need to make major sustainable investments in infrastructure, in the provision of basic services and in agricultural development in South Sudan; insists that agricultural development should have the primary aim of ensuring food security for the population and the diversification of the country’s economy, which may be endangered by concessions of fertile land given to private foreign companies for extracting and exporting large amounts of commodities; highlights, in this connection, the importance of land tenure, largely neglected in South Sudan, which has led to disputes over land representing one of the root causes of conflict in the country; calls on the EU to support efforts of land governance and the strengthening of tenure security in the country, while at the same time taking into account local informal arrangements of dispute resolution and recognition of customary tenure;

33.  Encourages the Government of South Sudan to foster economic diversification and reduce hydrocarbon dependence; encourages South Sudan to increase local food production, to promote export industries and to develop transport infrastructure with the aim of facilitating access to markets;

34.  Draws attention to the contribution which women could make to the development of agriculture and the rural economy; encourages South Sudan to take measures to promote the involvement of women in these economic activities;

35.  Underscores the importance of developing and improving infrastructure to give people throughout the country access to drinking water and improved water supplies; recommends that plans for investment in hydropower be improved;

36.  Stresses that ensuring human security for all South-Sudanese people requires a renewed effort by the Government of South Sudan and its international partners to follow through with the disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration (DDR) of armed groups and to undertake broader security sector reform (SSR) leading to a reduction in the size of the standing army, as well as its professionalisation, full respect for civilian control and the chain of command, as well as greater respect for human rights among the armed forces; Stresses the need to engage constructively and frequently with South Sudanese civil society and women’s associations to deal with the problem of insecurity and promote respect for human rights including women’s rights;

37.  Is deeply concerned that women and children of the armed conflicts in South Sudan represent the overwhelming majority of the internally displaced persons and refugees; calls for effective human rights monitoring, including of any sexual and gender-based violence or violations and abuses committed against children; calls on all warring parties to end the impunity of the perpetrators;

38.  Urges the South Sudanese Government to ensure gender equality and guarantee that women enjoy their rights and freedoms without being discriminated against on any grounds, such as sex, race, religious or cultural beliefs, or national or social origin;

39.  Calls on the South Sudanese authorities to introduce a family law setting out a minimum marriageable age and conditions for the custody of children, as well as a law tackling gender-based violence, particularly by criminalising harmful traditional practices such as female genital mutilation;

40.  Urges the South Sudanese Government to ratify the Convention to Eliminate all forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) and the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child;

41.  Calls upon the Government of South Sudan to continue to cooperate fully with the United Nations Mission in the Republic of South Sudan (UNMISS) and to assist the UN in fulfilling its mandate, in particular as regards the protection of civilians; urges UN member states to uphold their commitment to the UNMISS while realistically adapting, if necessary, its mandate, to take account of the evolving capacity of the South Sudanese authorities to provide human security over the coming years;

42.  Is surprised that the United Nations, in view of the contributions made by the EU to its budget, does not grant the Union special status during election missions, ensuring that its observers are protected and can do their job properly (i.e. affording them secure accommodation and access to health care);

43.  Underlines the importance of replacing the Transitional Constitution by a permanent constitution based on popular consultation and support; is concerned at the South Sudan Government's lack of political will; strongly reminds the government of its obligations under the presidential decree to conduct a constitutional review process, and calls on the government to do so before the 2015 elections; calls on the EU and its Member States to accompany and support a locally owned and driven constitution-making process, which must involve all groups of society, including women and those living in peripheral regions; calls on the EU delegation in Juba, with a view to the 2015 presidential elections, to ensure implementation of the recommendations in the report of the EU election observation mission in 2011;

44.  Welcomes the commitment made by the President of South Sudan to achieve the goal of having a female representation of at least 25 % in the cabinet and invites him to strengthen the participation of women in the ongoing constitutional process; recalls that women play a key role in conflict resolution, peace-building processes and in building a stable state; invites the South Sudanese authorities, in this connection, to ensure that women are fully included in the implementation of the peace process with Sudan; calls on the international community to continue supporting the participation of women at all levels of public life;

45.  Urges the South Sudanese Government to increase efforts to establish a roadmap, in order to sustain the process of transition until constitutional order and the rule of law have been fully re-established throughout the country, through the organisation of democratic, free, fair and transparent elections in 2015; calls on the EU and its international partners to increase their support for the upcoming electoral process;

46.  Notes that since the CPA in 2005, there have been efforts to intensify the fight against corruption, but South Sudan’s anti-corruption framework is still in the early stages of development; notes also that even where legal instruments do exist, a lack of capacity, resources and political will can hamper their implementation; encourages South Sudan to ratify the international conventions against corruption and calls on the South Sudanese authorities to develop and implement an integrated anti-corruption strategy; stresses that the international community and the EU should assist South Sudan’s efforts in this area, in particular by increasing support to capacity building;

47.  Urges the Government of South Sudan to enact any media laws to protect media freedom and safeguard the media in carrying out their work of reporting;

48.  Calls on South Sudan’s National Security Service (NSS) to end the harassment of human rights activists and journalists and the unlawful detention and censorship of journalists – which constitute breaches of South Sudan’s Constitution – thereby requiring the government to guarantee freedom of the press;

49.  Urges the authorities of South Sudan to carry out prompt, effective, and impartial investigations into all allegations of threats and attacks against human rights activists and journalists and to hold those responsible to account, in accordance with international standards; welcome recent steps taken by authorities to investigate the killing of civilians and alleged human rights abuses by the armed forces;

50.  Urges the Government of South Sudan to do everything in its power to put an end to extrajudicial executions and to identify and bring to justice the security officers accused of the killing of the journalist Isaiah Abraham;

51.  Urges the South Sudanese authorities to strengthen the fight against impunity by equipping the justice and law enforcement community with tools designed to prevent and curb violence against women, ensuring that the perpetrators are successfully convicted;

52.  Recommends that the Human Rights Council establish a meaningful follow‑up mechanism on the situation of human rights in South Sudan, such as an independent expert;

53.  Strongly opposes the death penalty in all circumstances and calls on South Sudan to take specific steps to move towards the abolition thereof;

54.  Underlines that women in South Sudan face multiple forms of discrimination as well as violations of their fundamental rights, including widespread early and forced marriage, the absence of family law, limited political participation by women’s at all levels of government, and sexual and domestic violence; calls on the South Sudanese Government to eliminate all kinds of discrimination against women, to fight illiteracy by improving access to education for women, thereby improving their role in society and in the building of the new state; calls on the South Sudanese Government to set out a national action plan to end child marriage by promoting, inter alia, access to education for children; urges the South Sudanese Government, in this connection, and considering that traditional practices play an important role in the society of South-Sudan, to end any discriminatory traditional practices carried out against women by engaging with NGOs, for example, in order to educate members of the judiciary with respect to the field of human rights;

55.  Welcomes the creation of the first College of Nursing and Midwifery at the Juba teaching hospital, but notes that more qualified nurses and midwives are needed to ensure a significant improvement in maternal and child health, and to open up roads and establish more health centres based on this model throughout the whole country;

56.  Instructs its President to forward this resolution to the Council, the Commission, the governments and parliaments of the Member States, the governments of South Sudan and Sudan, the Human Rights Commissioner of South Sudan, the National Legislative Assembly of South Sudan, the National Assembly of Sudan, the African Union, and the Secretary General of the United Nations.

(1) OJ C 332 E, 15.11.2013, p. 49.
(2) OJ C 33 E, 5.2.2013, p. 38.
(3) OJ C 131 E, 8.5.2013, p. 80.
(4) OJ C 45 E, 23.2.2010, p. 74.
(6) OJ L 317, 15.12.2000, p. 3.
(7) OJ L 209, 11.8.2005, p. 27.
(8) OJ L 287, 4.11.2010, p. 3.
(19), page 39.
(29) Humanitarian news and analysis, Report on ‘Women’s Security in South Sudan’ 2012.
(30) Conflict and Health, March 2013.
(31) UN Refugee Agency, ‘CAP for South Sudan, Mid-Year Review 2013’.

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