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Procedure : 2016/0336(CNS)
Document stages in plenary
Document selected : A8-0051/2018

Texts tabled :

A8-0051/2018

Debates :

PV 14/03/2018 - 15
CRE 14/03/2018 - 15

Votes :

PV 15/03/2018 - 10.9
Explanations of votes

Texts adopted :

P8_TA(2018)0087

Texts adopted
PDF 667kWORD 98k
Thursday, 15 March 2018 - Strasbourg
Common Consolidated Corporate Tax Base *
P8_TA(2018)0087A8-0051/2018

European Parliament legislative resolution of 15 March 2018 on the proposal for a Council directive on a Common Consolidated Corporate Tax Base (CCCTB) (COM(2016)0683 – C8-0471/2016 – 2016/0336(CNS))

(Special legislative procedure – consultation)

The European Parliament,

–  having regard to the Commission proposal to the Council (COM(2016)0683),

–  having regard to Article 115 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, pursuant to which the Council consulted Parliament (C8‑0471/2016),

–  having regard to the reasoned opinions submitted, within the framework of Protocol No 2 on the application of the principles of subsidiarity and proportionality, by the Danish Parliament, Dáil Éireann, Seanad Éireann, the Luxembourg Chamber of Representatives, the Maltese Parliament, the Netherlands Senate, the Netherlands House of Representatives and the Swedish Parliament, asserting that the draft legislative act does not comply with the principle of subsidiarity,

–  having regard to Rule 78c of its Rules of Procedure,

–  having regard to the report of the Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs and the opinion of the Committee on Legal Affairs (A8-0051/2018),

1.  Approves the Commission proposal as amended;

2.  Calls on the Commission to alter its proposal accordingly, in accordance with Article 293(2) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union;

3.  Calls on the Council to notify Parliament if it intends to depart from the text approved by Parliament;

4.  Asks the Council to consult Parliament again if it intends to substantially amend the Commission proposal;

5.  Instructs its President to forward its position to the Council, the Commission and the national parliaments.

Text proposed by the Commission   Amendment
Amendment 1
Proposal for a directive
Recital 1
(1)  Companies which seek to do business across frontiers within the Union encounter serious obstacles and market distortions owing to the existence and interaction of 28 disparate corporate tax systems. Furthermore, tax planning structures have become ever-more sophisticated over time, as they develop across various jurisdictions and effectively take advantage of the technicalities of a tax system or of mismatches between two or more tax systems for the purpose of reducing the tax liability of companies. Although those situations highlight shortcomings that are completely different in nature, they both create obstacles which impede the proper functioning of the internal market. Action to rectify these problems should therefore address both these types of market deficiencies.
(1)  Companies which seek to do business across frontiers within the Union encounter serious obstacles and market distortions owing to the existence and interaction of 28 disparate corporate tax systems. In times of globalisation and digitalisation, taxation of in particular financial and intellectual capital on a source base is becoming increasingly harder to retrace and easier to manipulate. Furthermore, tax planning structures have become ever-more sophisticated over time, as they develop across various jurisdictions and effectively take advantage of the technicalities of a tax system or of mismatches between two or more tax systems for the purpose of reducing the tax liability of companies. The mainstream digitalisation of many sectors of the economy coupled with the fast developing digital economy calls into question the suitability of the Union corporate tax models designed for brick and mortar industries, including with regard to the extent that valuation and calculation criteria could be re-invented to reflect the commercial activities of the 21st century. Although those situations highlight shortcomings that are completely different in nature, they all create obstacles which impede the proper functioning of the internal market and give rise to distortions between large companies and small and medium-sized enterprises. A new standard for a corporate tax base for the Union should therefore address those types of market deficiencies while respecting the aims of long-term legal clarity and certainty and the principle of tax neutrality. More convergence between national tax systems will lead to a significant decrease in costs and administrative burden for businesses operating cross-border within the Union. While taxation policy is a national competence, Article 115 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union clearly stipulates that the Council should, acting unanimously in accordance with a special legislative procedure and after consulting the European Parliament and the Economic and Social Committee, issue directives for the approximation of such taxation laws, regulations or administrative provisions of the Member States as directly affect the establishment or functioning of the internal market.
Amendment 2
Proposal for a directive
Recital 2
(2)  To support the proper functioning of the internal market, the corporate tax environment in the Union should be shaped in accordance with the principle that companies pay their fair share of tax in the jurisdiction(s) where their profits are generated. It is therefore necessary to provide for mechanisms that discourage companies from taking advantage of mismatches amongst national tax systems in order to lower their tax liability. It is equally important to also stimulate growth and economic development in the internal market by facilitating cross-border trade and corporate investment. To this end, it is necessary to eliminate both double taxation and double non-taxation risks in the Union through eradicating disparities in the interaction of national corporate tax systems. At the same time, companies need an easily workable tax and legal framework for developing their commercial activity and expanding it across borders in the Union. In that context, remaining cases of discrimination should also be removed.
(2)  To support the proper functioning of the internal market, the corporate tax environment in the Union should be shaped in accordance with the principle that companies pay their fair share of tax in the jurisdiction(s) where their profits are generated and where companies have permanent establishment. Taking into account the digital change in the business environment, it is necessary to ensure that companies which generate revenues in a Member State without having a physical permanent establishment but having a digital permanent establishment in that Member State should be treated in the same way as companies having a physical permanent establishment. It is therefore necessary to provide for mechanisms that discourage companies from taking advantage of mismatches amongst national tax systems in order to lower their tax liability. It is equally important to also stimulate growth and economic development in the internal market by facilitating cross-border trade and corporate investment. To this end, it is necessary to eliminate both double taxation and double non-taxation risks in the Union through eradicating disparities in the interaction of national corporate tax systems. At the same time, companies need an easily workable tax and legal framework for developing their commercial activity and expanding it across borders in the Union. In that context, remaining cases of discrimination should also be removed. Consolidation is an essential element of the CCCTB system, since the major tax obstacles faced by companies of the same group that operate cross-border in the Union can only be tackled in that way. Consolidation eliminates transfer pricing formalities and intra-group double taxation.
Amendment 3
Proposal for a directive
Recital 3
(3)  As pointed out in the proposal of 16 March 2011 for a Council Directive on a Common Consolidated Corporate Tax Base (CCCTB)7 , a corporate tax system which treats the Union as a single market for the purpose of computing the corporate tax base of companies would facilitate cross-border activity for companies resident in the Union and promote the objective of making it a more competitive location for investment internationally. The proposal of 2011 for a CCCTB focussed on the objective of facilitating the expansion of commercial activity for businesses within the Union. In addition to that objective, it should also be taken into account that a CCCTB can be highly effective in improving the functioning of the internal market through countering tax avoidance schemes. In this light, the initiative for a CCCTB should be re-launched in order to address, on an equal footing, both the aspect of business facilitation and the initiative's function in countering tax avoidance. Such an approach would best serve the aim of eradicating distortions in the functioning of the internal market.
(3)  As pointed out in the proposal of 16 March 2011 for a Council Directive on a Common Consolidated Corporate Tax Base (CCCTB)7 , a corporate tax system which treats the Union as a single market for the purpose of computing the corporate tax base of companies would facilitate cross-border activity for companies resident in the Union and promote the objective of making it a more competitive location for investment internationally especially for small and medium-sized enterprises. The proposal of 2011 for a CCCTB focussed on the objective of facilitating the expansion of commercial activity for businesses within the Union. In addition to that objective, it should also be taken into account that a CCCTB can be highly effective in improving the functioning of the internal market through countering tax avoidance schemes. In this light, the initiative for a CCCTB should be re-launched in order to address, on an equal footing, both the aspect of business facilitation and the initiative's function in countering tax avoidance. Once implemented in all Member States, a CCCTB would ensure that taxes are paid where profits are generated and where companies have permanent establishment. Such an approach would best serve the aim of eradicating distortions in the functioning of the internal market. Improving the internal market is a key factor for encouraging growth and job creation. The introduction of a CCCTB would improve economic growth and result in more jobs in the Union by reducing harmful tax competition between companies.
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7 Proposal for a Council Directive COM(2011)0121 final/2 of 3.10.2011 on a Common Consolidated Corporate Tax Base.
7 Proposal for a Council Directive COM(2011)0121 final/2 of 3.10.2011 on a Common Consolidated Corporate Tax Base.
Amendment 4
Proposal for a directive
Recital 4
(4)  Considering the need to act swiftly in order to ensure a proper functioning of the internal market by making it, on the one hand, friendlier to trade and investment and, on the other hand, more resilient to tax avoidance schemes, it is necessary to divide the ambitious CCCTB initiative into two separate proposals. At a first stage, rules on a common corporate tax base should be agreed, before addressing, at a second stage, the issue of consolidation.
(4)  Considering the need to act swiftly in order to ensure a proper functioning of the internal market by making it, on the one hand, friendlier to trade and investment and, on the other hand, more resilient to tax avoidance schemes, it is very important to ensure simultaneous entry into force of the Directive on a Common Corporate Tax Base and the Directive on a Common Consolidated Corporate Tax Base. Because such a change of regime is a significant step in the completion of the internal market, it needs flexibility in order to be properly executed from the outset. Hence, as the internal market encompasses all Member States, the CCCTB should be introduced in all Member States. If the Council fails to adopt a unanimous decision on the proposal to establish a CCCTB, the Commission should issue a new proposal based on Article 116 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, whereby the European Parliament and the Council act in accordance with the ordinary legislative procedure to issue the necessary legislation. As a last resort, an enhanced cooperation should be initiated by Member States which should be open at any time to non-participating Member States in accordance with the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union. It is regrettable, however, that no sufficiently detailed assessment has been conducted in respect of either the CCTB or CCCTB proposals in terms of the impact on Member States' corporate tax revenue on a country-by-country basis.
Amendment 5
Proposal for a directive
Recital 5
(5)  Many aggressive tax planning structures tend to feature in a cross-border context, which implies that the participating groups of companies possess a minimum of resources. On this premise, for reasons of proportionality, the rules on a CCCTB should be mandatory only for groups of companies of a substantial size. For that purpose, a size-related threshold should be fixed on the basis of the total consolidated revenue of a group which files consolidated financial statements. In addition, in order to better serve the aim of facilitating trade and investment in the internal market, the rules on a CCCTB should also be available, as an option, to those groups that fall short of the size-related threshold.
(5)  Many aggressive tax planning structures tend to feature in a cross-border context, which implies that the participating groups of companies possess a minimum of resources. On this premise, for reasons of proportionality, the rules on a common base should be mandatory initially only for companies which belong to a group of a substantial size. For that purpose, a size-related starting threshold of EUR 750 million should be fixed on the basis of the total consolidated revenue of a group which files consolidated financial statements. Since this Directive sets a new standard for the corporate tax base for all businesses in the Union, the threshold should be lowered to zero over a maximum period of seven years. In order to better serve the aim of facilitating trade and investment in the internal market, the rules on a common corporate tax base should also be available in the first phase, as an option, to companies which do not meet those criteria.
Amendment 6
Proposal for a directive
Recital 5 a (new)
(5a)  All things being equal the switch to a common consolidated corporate tax base could result in losses or gains of fiscal revenues for Member States. In order to compensate losses, a temporary compensation mechanism should be created, financed by the fiscal surplus from those Member States that experience gains in fiscal revenue due to the new regime. Compensation should be adjusted each year to take into account national or regional decisions taken prior to the entry into force of this Directive. The Commission should be required to propose the removal or the change of the compensation system after a period of seven years, and to set the ceilings for compensation.
Amendment 7
Proposal for a directive
Recital 5 b (new)
(5b)  In order to avoid the existing allocation of the tax burden between small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and multinational corporations as mentioned in the European Parliament resolution of 25 November 2015 on tax rulings and other measures similar in nature or effect, a common corporate tax base has the aim of not putting SMEs at a competitive disadvantage, thereby creating a level playing field for them. The principal tax authority can provide SMEs with the necessary tools to help them to comply with the administrative and organisational requirements that an opt-in to the CCCTB entails.
Amendment 8
Proposal for a directive
Recital 6
(6)  Eligibility for the consolidated tax group should be determined in accordance with a two-part test based on (i) control (more than 50 percent of voting rights) and (ii) ownership (more than 75 percent of equity) or rights to profits (more than 75 percent of rights giving entitlement to profit). Such a test would ensure a high level of economic integration between group members. To guarantee the integrity of the system, the two thresholds for control and ownership or profit rights should be met throughout the tax year; otherwise, the failing company should leave the group immediately. To prevent a manipulation of the tax results through companies entering and leaving the group within a short-term, there should also be a minimum requirement of nine consecutive months for establishing group membership.
(6)  It is necessary to define the concept of a permanent establishment situated in the Union and belonging to a taxpayer who is resident for tax purposes within the Union. Too often, multinational companies make arrangements to transfer their profits to favourable tax regimes without paying any tax or paying very low rates of tax. The concept of a permanent establishment would provide a precise, binding definition of the criteria to be met if a multinational company is to prove that it is situated in a given country. That will compel multinational companies to pay their taxes fairly. The aim would be to ensure that all concerned taxpayers share a common understanding and to exclude the possibility of a mismatch due to divergent definitions. Similarly, it is important to have a common definition of permanent establishments situated in a third country, or in the Union but belonging to a taxpayer who is resident for tax purposes in a third country. If transfer pricing gives rise to profit shifting into a low tax jurisdiction, a system that awards profit via a formula apportionment is preferable. The Union can establish an international standard for modern and efficient corporate taxation by adopting such a system. The Commission should draft guidelines for the transitional phase in which formulary apportionment coexists with other allocation methods in dealing with third countries, while ultimately formulary apportionment should be the standard method of allocation. The Commission should make a proposal to set up a Union model of a tax treaty which could ultimately replace the thousands of bilateral treaties concluded by each of the Member States.
Amendment 9
Proposal for a directive
Recital 6 a (new)
(6a)  Digital goods tend to be highly mobile and intangible. Studies have shown that the digital sector is highly involved in aggressive tax planning practices, since many business models do not require physical infrastructure in order to carry out transactions with customers and make profits. That allows the biggest digital companies to pay taxes of close to zero on their revenue. The treasuries of the Member States lose billions of euros in tax revenues from not being able to tax digital multinationals. To tackle that real and urgent social injustice, current corporate tax law needs to be expanded to include a new digital permanent establishment nexus based on a significant digital presence. A level-playing field is needed for similar business models to address the tax challenges that arise from the context of digitalisation, without hampering the potential of the digital sector. Particular account should be taken in that respect of the work carried out by the OECD on an internationally consistent set of rules.
Amendment 10
Proposal for a directive
Recital 10
(10)  The formula apportionment for the consolidated tax base should comprise three equally weighted factors, namely labour, assets and sales by destination. Those equally weighted factors should reflect a balanced approach to distributing taxable profits amongst the relevant Member States and should ensure that profits are taxed where they are actually earned. Labour and assets should therefore be allocated to the Member State where the labour is performed or the assets are located, and would thereby give appropriate weight to the interests of the Member State of origin, whilst sales should be allocated to the Member State of destination of the goods or services. To account for differences in the levels of wages across the Union and thus allow for a fair distribution of the consolidated tax base, the labour factor should comprise both payroll and the number of employees (i.e. each item counting for half). The asset factor, on the other hand, should comprise all fixed tangible assets, but not intangible and financial assets because of their mobile nature and the resulting risk that the rules of this Directive could be circumvented. Where, due to exceptional circumstances, the outcome of the apportionment does not fairly represent the extent of business activity, a safeguard clause should provide for an alternative method of income allocation.
(10)  The formula apportionment for the consolidated tax base should comprise four equally weighted factors, namely labour, assets, sales by destination, and collection and use of personal data of online platforms and services users (the latter referred to herein as the ‘data factor’). Those equally weighted factors should reflect a balanced approach to distributing taxable profits amongst the relevant Member States and should ensure that profits are taxed where they are actually earned. Labour and assets should therefore be allocated to the Member State where the labour is performed or the assets are located, and would thereby give appropriate weight to the interests of the Member State of origin, whilst sales should be allocated to the Member State of destination of the goods or services. To account for differences in the levels of wages across the Union and thus allow for a fair distribution of the consolidated tax base, the labour factor should comprise both payroll and the number of employees (i.e. each item counting for half). The asset factor, on the other hand, should only comprise tangible assets. Where, due to exceptional circumstances, the outcome of the apportionment does not fairly represent the extent of business activity, a safeguard clause should provide for an alternative method of income allocation.
Amendment 11
Proposal for a directive
Recital 10 a (new)
(10a)  The formula for the apportionment of the consolidated tax base needs to fully reflect the economic activity that has taken place in each Member State, by duly taking full account of potential significant differences between their economies. Where the formula results in an imbalanced apportionment that fails to reflect the economic activity, a dispute resolution mechanism could remedy such a situation. In light of the foregoing, the Commission should assess the possible establishment of a dispute resolution mechanism in order to ensure the proper resolution of disputes when different Member States are involved.
Amendment 12
Proposal for a directive
Recital 11
(11)  Due to their specificities, certain sectors, such as the financial and insurance sector, the oil and gas sector as well as shipping and air transport, need an adjusted formula for the apportionment of the consolidated tax base.
deleted
Amendment 13
Proposal for a directive
Recital 14
(14)  This Directive builds upon Council Directive 2016/xx/EU on a common corporate tax base (which lays down a common set of corporate tax rules for computing the tax base) and focusses on the consolidation of tax results across the group. It would thus be necessary to deal with the interaction between the two legislative instruments and cater for the transition of certain elements of the tax base into the new framework of the group. Such elements should include, in particular, the interest limitation rule, the switch-over clause and controlled foreign company legislation as well as hybrid mismatches.
(14)  This Directive builds upon Council Directive 2016/xx/EU on a common corporate tax base (which lays down a common set of corporate tax rules for computing the tax base) and focusses on the consolidation of tax results across the group. It is thus necessary to deal with the interaction between the two legislative instruments and cater for the transition of certain elements of the tax base into the new framework of the group. Such elements should include, in particular, the interest limitation rule, the switch-over clause and controlled foreign company legislation as well as hybrid mismatches. Member States should not be prevented from introducing additional anti-tax avoidance measures in order to reduce the negative effects of shifting profits to low-tax third countries.
Amendment 14
Proposal for a directive
Recital 16
(16)  In order to supplement or amend certain non-essential elements of this Directive, the power to adopt acts in accordance with Article 290 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union should be delegated to the Commission with respect of (i) taking into account changes to the laws of Member States concerning the company forms and corporate taxes and amend Annexes I and II accordingly; (ii) laying down additional definitions; and (iii) supplementing the rule on the limitation of interest deductibility with anti-fragmentation rules, to better address the tax avoidance risks which may emerge within a group. It is of particular importance that the Commission carry out appropriate consultations during its preparatory work, including at expert level. The Commission, when preparing and drawing up delegated acts, should ensure a simultaneous, timely and appropriate transmission of relevant documents to the European Parliament and the Council.
(16)  In order to supplement or amend certain non-essential elements of this Directive, the power to adopt acts in accordance with Article 290 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union should be delegated to the Commission with respect of (i) taking into account changes to the laws of Member States concerning the company forms and corporate taxes and amend Annexes I and II accordingly; (ii) laying down additional definitions; (iii) supplementing the rule on the limitation of interest deductibility with anti-fragmentation rules, to better address the tax avoidance risks which may emerge within a group; and (iv) issuing guidelines for the transitional phase in which formulary apportionment coexists with other allocation methods in dealing with third countries. It is of particular importance that the Commission carry out appropriate consultations during its preparatory work, including at expert level, and it should take into account the European Parliament's annual resolution. The Commission, when preparing and drawing up delegated acts, should ensure a simultaneous, timely and appropriate transmission of relevant documents to the European Parliament and the Council.
Amendment 15
Proposal for a directive
Recital 17
(17)  In order to ensure uniform conditions for the implementation of this Directive, implementing powers should be conferred on the Commission (i) to adopt annually a list of third country company forms that are similar to the company forms listed in Annex I; (ii) to lay down detailed rules on the calculation of the labour, asset and sales factors, the allocation of employees and payroll, assets and sales to the respective factor and the valuation of assets; (iii) to adopt an act establishing a standard form of the notice to create a group; and (iv) to lay down rules on the electronic filing of the consolidated tax return, the form of the consolidated tax return, the form of the single taxpayer's tax return and the supporting documentation required. Those powers should be exercised in accordance with Regulation (EU) No 182/2011 of the European Parliament and of the Council12.
(17)  In order to ensure uniform conditions for the implementation of this Directive, implementing powers should be conferred on the Commission (i) to adopt annually a list of third country company forms that are similar to the company forms listed in Annex I; (ii) to lay down detailed rules on the calculation of the labour, asset and sales factors and the data factor, the allocation of employees and payroll, the allocation of collected personal data and exploited personal data, assets and sales to the respective factor and the valuation of assets; (iii) to adopt an act establishing a standard form of the notice to create a group; and (iv) to lay down rules on the electronic filing of the consolidated tax return, the form of the consolidated tax return, the form of the single taxpayer's tax return and the supporting documentation required. The Commission should design those uniform tax return formats in cooperation with the tax administrations of the Member States. Those powers should be exercised in accordance with Regulation (EU) No 182/2011 of the European Parliament and of the Council12.
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12 Regulation (EU) No 182/2011 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 February 2011 laying down the rules and general principles concerning mechanisms for control by Member States of the Commission’s exercise of implementing powers (OJ L 55, 28.2.2011, p. 13).
12 Regulation (EU) No 182/2011 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 February 2011 laying down the rules and general principles concerning mechanisms for control by Member States of the Commission’s exercise of implementing powers (OJ L 55, 28.2.2011, p. 13).
Amendment 16
Proposal for a directive
Recital 18
(18)  Since the objectives of this Directive, namely to improve the functioning of the internal market through countering practices of international tax avoidance and to facilitate businesses in expanding across borders within the Union, cannot be sufficiently achieved by the Member States acting individually and in a disparate fashion because coordinated action is necessary to obtain these objectives, but can rather, by reason of the fact that the Directive targets inefficiencies of the internal market that originate in the interaction between disparate national tax rules which impact on the internal market and discourage cross-border activity, be better achieved at Union level, the Union may adopt measures, in accordance with the principle of subsidiarity as set out in Article 5 of the Treaty on European Union. In accordance with the principle of proportionality, as set out in that Article, this Directive does not go beyond what is necessary in order to achieve those objectives, especially considering that its mandatory scope is limited to groups beyond a certain size.
(18)  Since the objectives of this Directive, namely to improve the functioning of the internal market through countering practices of international tax avoidance and to facilitate businesses, in particular SMEs, in expanding across borders within the Union, cannot be sufficiently achieved by the Member States acting individually and in a disparate fashion because coordinated action is necessary to obtain these objectives, but can rather, by reason of the fact that the Directive targets inefficiencies of the internal market that originate in the interaction between disparate national tax rules which impact on the internal market and discourage cross-border activity, be better achieved at Union level, the Union may adopt measures, in accordance with the principle of subsidiarity as set out in Article 5 of the Treaty on European Union. In accordance with the principle of proportionality, as set out in that Article, this Directive does not go beyond what is necessary in order to achieve those objectives, especially considering that its mandatory scope is limited to groups beyond a certain size.
Amendment 17
Proposal for a directive
Recital 20
(20)  The Commission should be required to review the application of the Directive five years after its entry into force and report to Council on its operation. Member States should be required to communicate to the Commission the text of the provisions of national law which they adopt in the field covered by this Directive,
(20)  Since this Directive contains an important change to corporate taxation rules, the Commission should be required to conduct a thorough assessment of the application of the Directive five years after its entry into force and report to the European Parliament and the Council on its operation. That implementation report should include at least the following points: the impact of the system of taxation provided for in this Directive on Member States’ revenues, the advantages and disadvantages of the system for SMEs, the impact on a fair tax collection between Member States, the impact on the internal market as a whole, with particular regard to possible distortion of competition between companies subject to the new rules laid down in this Directive, and the number of undertakings that fall within the scope during the transition period. The Commission should be required to review the application of this Directive 10 years after its entry into force and report to the European Parliament and the Council on its operation. Member States should be required to communicate to the Commission the text of the provisions of national law which they adopt in the field covered by this Directive,
Amendment 18
Proposal for a directive
Recital 20 a (new)
(20a)  In order to achieve a full and consistent consolidation and prevent new opportunities for arbitrage arising from accounting inconsistencies between Member States, it is necessary to adopt clear, consistent and objective criteria for calculating the consolidated tax base. To that end, the Commission should propose the necessary adjustments to the relevant provisions of this Directive concerning the definition and calculation of the consolidated tax base.
Amendment 19
Proposal for a directive
Recital 20 b (new)
(20b)  The Commission should consider additional studies that analyse the potential impact of the CCCTB on the corporate tax revenues of individual Member States, and potential competitive disadvantages for the Union in relation to third countries.
Amendment 20
Proposal for a directive
Article 1 – paragraph 1
1.  This Directive establishes a system for the consolidation of the tax bases, as referred to in Council Directive 2016/xx/EU14, of companies that are members of a group and lays down rules on how a common consolidated corporate tax base shall be allocated to Member States and administered by the national tax authorities.
1.  This Directive establishes a common base for the taxation in the Union of certain companies and lays down rules for the calculation of that base, including rules on measures to prevent tax avoidance and on measures relating to the international dimension of the proposed tax system.
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14 [full title of the Directive (OJ L [ ], [ ], p. [ ])].
Amendment 21
Proposal for a directive
Article 2 – paragraph 1 – introductory part
1.  The rules of this Directive shall apply to a company that is established under the laws of a Member State, including its permanent establishments in other Member States, where the company meets all of the following conditions:
1.  The rules of this Directive shall apply to a company that is established under the laws of a Member State, including its permanent and digital permanent establishments in other Member States, where the company meets all of the following conditions:
Amendment 22
Proposal for a directive
Article 2 – paragraph 1 – point c
(c)  it belongs to a consolidated group for financial accounting purposes with a total consolidated group revenue that exceeded EUR 750 000 000 during the financial year preceding the relevant financial year;
(c)  it belongs to a consolidated group for financial accounting purposes with a total consolidated group revenue that exceeded EUR 750 000 000 during the financial year preceding the relevant financial year. That threshold shall be lowered to zero over a maximum period of seven years;
Amendment 23
Proposal for a directive
Article 2 – paragraph 3
3.  A company that meets the conditions of points (a), (b) and (d) of paragraph 1, but does not meet the conditions of point (c) of that paragraph, may opt, including for its permanent establishments situated in other Member States, to apply the rules of this Directive for a period of five tax years. That period shall automatically be extended for successive terms of five tax years, unless there is a notice of termination as referred to in the second subparagraph of Article 47. The conditions under points (a), (b) and (d) of paragraph 1 shall be met each time the extension takes place.
3.  A company that meets the conditions of points (a), (b) and (d) of paragraph 1, but does not meet the conditions of point (c) of that paragraph, may opt, including for its permanent establishments situated in other Member States, to apply the rules of this Directive.
Amendment 24
Proposal for a directive
Article 2 – paragraph 4
4.  The rules of this Directive shall not apply to a shipping company under a special tax regime. A shipping company under a special tax regime shall be taken into account for the purpose of determining the companies which are members of the same group as referred to in Articles 5 and 6.
deleted
Amendment 25
Proposal for a directive
Article 3 – paragraph 1 – point 23
(23)  'consolidated tax base' means the result of adding up the tax bases of all group members, as calculated in accordance with Directive 2016/xx/EU;
(23)  'consolidated tax base' means the consolidated net taxable revenue of the group members, as calculated on a consistent accounting basis applicable to all group members in accordance with Directive 2016/xx/EU;
Amendment 26
Proposal for a directive
Article 3 – paragraph 1 – point 28 a (new)
(28a)  'data factor' means the collection and exploitation for commercial purposes of personal data of online platforms and services users in one or more Member States.
Amendment 27
Proposal for a directive
Article 4 – paragraph 3
3.  Where the place of effective management of a group member engaged in shipping or in inland waterways transport is aboard a ship or boat, the group member shall be considered to be resident for tax purposes in the Member State of the home harbour of the ship or boat, or, where there is no such home harbour, in the Member State of residence for tax purposes of the operator of the ship or boat.
deleted
Amendment 28
Proposal for a directive
Article 4 – paragraph 4
4.  A resident taxpayer shall be subject to corporate tax on all income derived from any source, whether inside or outside the Member State where it is resident for tax purposes.
4.  A resident taxpayer shall be subject to corporate tax on all income generated by any activity, whether inside or outside the Member State where it is resident for tax purposes.
Amendment 29
Proposal for a directive
Article 4 – paragraph 5
5.  A non-resident taxpayer shall be subject to corporate tax on all income from an activity carried on through a permanent establishment in a Member State.
5.  A non-resident taxpayer shall be subject to corporate tax on all income from an activity carried on through a permanent establishment, including through a digital permanent establishment, in a Member State. A digital permanent establishment of a taxpayer shall be determined in accordance with the conditions and criteria listed in Article 5 of Council Directive ... on a Common Corporate Tax Base1a.
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1a Council Directive ... on a Common Corporate Tax Base (OJ L ..., ..., p. ...).
Amendment 30
Proposal for a directive
Article 5 – paragraph 1 – point a
(a)  it has a right to exercise more than 50 % of the voting rights; and
(a)  it has a right to exercise voting rights exceeding 50 %; and
Amendment 31
Proposal for a directive
Article 6 – paragraph 2 a (new)
2a.  Permanent establishments shall include digital permanent establishments in accordance with the conditions and criteria listed in Article 5 of Council Directive ... on a Common Corporate Tax Base1a.
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1a Council Directive ... on a Common Corporate Tax Base (OJ L ..., ..., p. ...).
Amendment 32
Proposal for a directive
Article 7 – paragraph 1
1.  The tax bases of all members of a group shall be added together into a consolidated tax base.
1.  The tax basis of a consolidated group shall be determined as if it were one single entity. For that purpose, the aggregate tax basis of the group shall be retreated in order to eliminate all profits or losses including those arising from any transaction, whatever its nature, between two or more entities within the group.
Amendment 33
Proposal for a directive
Article 7 – paragraph 2
2.  Where the consolidated tax base is negative, the loss shall be carried forward and be set off against the next positive consolidated tax base. Where the consolidated tax base is positive, it shall be apportioned in accordance with Chapter VIII.
2.  Where the consolidated tax base is negative, the loss shall be carried forward and be set off against the next positive consolidated tax base for a maximum period of five years. Where the consolidated tax base is positive, it shall be apportioned in accordance with Chapter VIII.
Amendment 34
Proposal for a directive
Article 9 – paragraph 2
2.  Groups shall apply a consistent and adequately documented method for recording intra-group transactions. Groups may change the method only for valid commercial reasons and only at the beginning of a tax year.
2.  Groups shall apply a consistent and adequately documented method for recording intra-group transactions. Groups may change the method only for valid commercial reasons and only at the beginning of a tax year. All such transactions shall be eliminated from the tax base as a result of the consolidation carried out pursuant to Article 7(1).
Amendment 35
Proposal for a directive
Article 9 – paragraph 3
3.  The method for recording intra-group transactions shall enable all intra-group transfers and sales to be identified at the lowest cost for assets not subject to depreciation or the value for tax purposes for depreciable assets.
deleted
Amendment 36
Proposal for a directive
Article 9 – paragraph 4
4.  Intra-group transfers shall not change the status of self-generated intangible assets.
deleted
Amendment 37
Proposal for a directive
Article 23 – paragraph 1 – subparagraph 1
Where, as a result of a business reorganisation, one or more groups, or two or more group members, become part of another group, any unrelieved losses of the previously existing group or groups shall be allocated to each of the group members in accordance with Chapter VIII and on the basis of the factors as they stand at the end of the tax year in which the business reorganisation takes place. Unrelieved losses of the previously existing group or groups shall be carried forward for future years.
Where, as a result of a business reorganisation, one or more groups, or two or more group members, become part of another group, any unrelieved losses of the previously existing group or groups shall be allocated to each of the group members in accordance with Chapter VIII and on the basis of the factors as they stand at the end of the tax year in which the business reorganisation takes place. Unrelieved losses of the previously existing group or groups shall be carried forward for a maximum period of five years.
Amendment 38
Proposal for a directive
Article 23 – paragraph 2
2.  Where two or more principal taxpayers merge within the meaning of points (i) and (ii) of Article 2(a) of Council Directive 2009/133/EC15 , any unrelieved losses of a group shall be allocated to its members in accordance with Chapter VIII, on the basis of the factors as they stand at the end of the tax year in which the merger takes place. Unrelieved losses shall be carried forward for future years.
2.  Where two or more principal taxpayers merge within the meaning of points (i) and (ii) of Article 2(a) of Council Directive 2009/133/EC15, any unrelieved losses of a group shall be allocated to its members in accordance with Chapter VIII, on the basis of the factors as they stand at the end of the tax year in which the merger takes place. Unrelieved losses shall be carried forward for a maximum period of five years.
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15 Council Directive 2009/133/EC of 19 October 2009 on the common system of taxation applicable to mergers, divisions, partial divisions, transfers of assets and exchanges of shares concerning companies of different Member States and to the transfer of the registered office of an SE or SCE between Member States (OJ L 310, 25.11.2009, p. 34).
15 Council Directive 2009/133/EC of 19 October 2009 on the common system of taxation applicable to mergers, divisions, partial divisions, transfers of assets and exchanges of shares concerning companies of different Member States and to the transfer of the registered office of an SE or SCE between Member States (OJ L 310, 25.11.2009, p. 34).
Amendment 39
Proposal for a directive
Article 28 – paragraph 1 – subparagraph 1
The consolidated tax base shall be shared between the group members in each tax year on the basis of a formula for apportionment. In determining the apportioned share of a group member A, the formula shall take the following form, giving equal weight to the factors of sales, labour and assets:
The consolidated tax base shall be shared between the group members in each tax year on the basis of a formula for apportionment. In determining the apportioned share of a group member A, the formula shall take the following form, giving equal weight to the factors of sales, labour, assets and the data factor:
Amendment 40
Proposal for a directive
Article 28 – paragraph 1 – formula

Text proposed by the Commission

Amendment

Amendment 41
Proposal for a directive
Article 28 – paragraph 1 – subparagraph 1 a (new)
Where one or more factors do not apply due to the nature of a taxpayer’s activities, all other applicable factors should be proportionally re-weighted in the formula in order to maintain an absolute equal weight given to each applicable factor.
Amendment 42
Proposal for a directive
Article 28 – paragraph 5
5.  When determining the apportioned share of a group member, equal weight shall be given to the factors of sales, labour and assets.
5.  When determining the apportioned share of a group member, equal weight shall be given to the factors of sales, labour, assets and the data factor.
Amendment 43
Proposal for a directive
Article 28 – paragraph 5 a (new)
5a.  One half of the data factor shall consist of the total volume of personal data of online platform and services users collected per Member State by a group member as its numerator and the total volume of personal data of online platforms and services users collected per Member State by the group as its denominator, and the other half of the data factor shall consist of the total volume of personal data of online platforms and services users exploited per Member State by a group member as its numerator and the total volume of personal data of online platforms and services users exploited per Member State by the group as its denominator.
Amendment 44
Proposal for a directive
Article 28 – paragraph 5 b (new)
5b.  The volume of personal data collected pursuant to the data factor shall be measured at the end of the tax year in each Member State.
Amendment 45
Proposal for a directive
Article 28 – paragraph 5 c (new)
5c.  The definition of the collection and exploitation for commercial purposes of personal data in the context of the data factor shall be determined in accordance with Regulation (EU) 2016/679.
Amendment 46
Proposal for a directive
Article 29
Article 29
deleted
Safeguard clause
As an exception to the rule set out in Article 28, if the principal taxpayer or a competent authority considers that the outcome of the apportionment of the consolidated tax base to a group member does not fairly represent the extent of the business activity of that group member, the principal taxpayer or competent authority may request the use of an alternative method for calculating the tax share of each group member. An alternative method can be used only if, following consultations among the competent authorities and, where applicable, discussions held in accordance with Articles 77 and 78, all these authorities agree to that alternative method. The Member State of the principal tax authority shall inform the Commission about the alternative method used.
Amendment 47
Proposal for a directive
Article 38 – paragraph 1
1.  Sales of goods shall be included in the sales factor of the group member located in the Member State where the dispatch or transport of the goods to the person acquiring them ends. Where that place cannot be determined, the sales of goods shall be attributed to the group member located in the Member State of the last identifiable location of the goods.
1.  Sales of goods shall be included in the sales factor of the group member located in the Member State where the dispatch or transport of the goods to the person acquiring them ends. Where that place cannot be determined or the group member has no taxable nexus, the sales of goods shall be attributed to the group member located in the Member State of the last identifiable location of the goods.
Amendment 48
Proposal for a directive
Article 43
Article 43
deleted
Shipping, inland waterways transport and air transport
The revenues, expenses and other deductible items of a group member whose principal business is the operation of ships or aircraft in international traffic or the operation of boats engaged in inland waterways transport shall be excluded from the consolidated tax base and not be apportioned in accordance with the rules laid down in Article 28. Instead, those revenues, expenses and other deductible items shall be attributed to that group member on a transaction-by-transaction basis and be subject to adjustments for pricing in accordance with Article 56 of Directive 2016/xx/EU.
Participations in and by the group member shall be taken into account for the purpose of determining whether there is a group as referred to in Articles 5 and 6.
Amendment 49
Proposal for a directive
Article 46 – paragraph 2
2.  The notice referred to in paragraph 1 shall cover all group members, except for the shipping companies referred to in Article 2(4).
2.  The notice referred to in paragraph 1 shall cover all group members.
Amendment 50
Proposal for a directive
Article 48 – paragraph 2
The Commission may adopt an act establishing a standard form of the notice to create a group. That implementing act shall be adopted in accordance with the examination procedure referred to in Article 77(2).
The Commission shall adopt an act establishing a standard form of the notice to create a group. That implementing act shall be adopted in accordance with the examination procedure referred to in Article 77(2).
Amendment 51
Proposal for a directive
Article 55 – paragraph 1
The Commission may adopt acts laying down rules on the electronic filing of the consolidated tax return, on the form of the consolidated tax return, on the form of the single taxpayer's tax return and on the supporting documentation required. Those implementing acts shall be adopted in accordance with the examination procedure referred to in Article 77(2).
The Commission shall adopt acts laying down rules on the electronic filing of the consolidated tax return, on the form of the consolidated tax return, on the form of the single taxpayer's tax return and on the supporting documentation required. The Commission shall design those uniform tax return formats in cooperation with the tax administrations of the Member States. Those implementing acts shall be adopted in accordance with the examination procedure referred to in Article 77(2).
Amendment 52
Proposal for a directive
Article 65 – paragraph 1
1.  Where the competent authority of the Member State in which a group member is resident for tax purposes or situated in the form of a permanent establishment disagrees with a decision of the principal tax authority made pursuant to Articles 49 or 56(2) or (4) or the second subparagraph of Article 56(5) may challenge that decision before the courts of the Member State of the principal tax authority within a period of three months.
1.  Where the competent authority of the Member State in which a group member is resident for tax purposes or situated in the form of a permanent establishment, including in the form of a digital permanent establishment, disagrees with a decision of the principal tax authority made pursuant to Articles 49 or 56(2) or (4) or the second subparagraph of Article 56(5) may challenge that decision before the courts of the Member State of the principal tax authority within a period of three months.
Amendment 53
Proposal for a directive
Article 65 – paragraph 2 a (new)
2a.  The Commission shall analyse whether the establishment of a dispute resolution mechanism would further increase the effectiveness and efficiency of the settlement of disagreements between Member States. The Commission shall submit a report thereon to the European Parliament and the Council, including, if appropriate, a legislative proposal.
Amendment 54
Proposal for a directive
Article 67 – paragraph 1
1.  Appeals against amended tax assessments or tax assessments made pursuant to Article 54 shall be heard by an administrative body that according to the law of the Member State of the principal tax authority is competent to hear appeals at first instance. That administrative body shall be independent from the tax authorities in the Member State of the principal tax authority. Where there is no such administrative body in that Member State, the principal taxpayer may lodge a judicial appeal directly.
1.  Appeals against amended tax assessments or tax assessments made pursuant to Article 54 shall be heard by an administrative body that according to the law of the Member State of the principal tax authority is competent to hear appeals at first instance. That administrative body shall be independent from the tax authorities in the Member State of the principal tax authority. Where there is no such administrative body in that Member State, or where the principal taxpayer prefers to do so, the principal taxpayer may lodge a judicial appeal directly.
Amendment 55
Proposal for a directive
Article 67 – paragraph 5
5.  The administrative body referred to in paragraph 1 shall decide on the appeal within six months. If no decision is received by the principal taxpayer within that period, the decision of the principal tax authority shall be deemed to have been confirmed.
5.  If seized of an appeal, the administrative body referred to in paragraph 1 shall decide on the appeal within six months. If no decision is received by the principal taxpayer within that period, the decision of the principal tax authority shall be deemed to have been confirmed.
Amendment 56
Proposal for a directive
Article 69 – paragraph 2
2.  Where paragraph 1 applies, the exceeding borrowing costs and EBITDA shall be calculated at the level of the group and comprise the results of all group members. The amount of EUR 3 000 000 referred to in Article 13 of Directive 2016/xx/EU shall be increased to 5 000 000.
2.  Where paragraph 1 applies, the exceeding borrowing costs and EBITDA shall be calculated at the level of the group and comprise the results of all group members. The amount of EUR 1 000 000 referred to in Article 13 of Directive 2016/xx/EU shall be increased to 5 000 000.
Amendment 57
Proposal for a directive
Article 71
Article 71
deleted
Loss relief and recapture
1.  Article 41 of Directive 2016/xx/EU on loss relief and recapture shall automatically cease to apply when this Directive comes into force.
2.  Transferred losses which have not yet been recaptured when this Directive enters into force shall remain with the taxpayer to which they have been transferred.
Amendment 58
Proposal for a directive
Article 72 – paragraph 1
For the purposes of this Directive, the reference to the statutory corporate tax rate that the taxpayer would have been subject to in the first subparagraph of Article 53(1) of Directive 2016/xx/EU shall not apply and shall be replaced by the average statutory corporate tax rate applicable amongst all Member States instead.
For the purposes of this Directive, the switch-over rules laid down in Article 53 of Directive 2016/xx/EU shall apply.
Amendment 59
Proposal for a directive
Article 73 – paragraph 1
For the purposes of this Directive, the scope of controlled foreign company legislation under Article 59 of Directive 2016/xx/EU shall be limited to relations between group members and entities that are resident for tax purposes, or permanent establishments that are situated, in a third country.
For the purposes of this Directive, the scope of controlled foreign company legislation under Article 59 of Directive 2016/xx/EU shall be limited to relations between group members and entities that are resident for tax purposes, or permanent establishments, including digital permanent establishments, that are situated in a third country.
Amendment 60
Proposal for a directive
Article 74 – paragraph 1
For the purposes of this Directive, the scope of the rules on hybrid mismatches under Article 61 of Directive 2016/xx/EU shall be limited to relations between group members and non-group members that are associated enterprises, as referred to in Article 56 of Directive 2016/xx/EU.
For the purposes of this Directive, the scope of the rules on hybrid mismatches and related arrangements applies as defined under Article 61 of Directive 2016/xx/EU.
Amendment 61
Proposal for a directive
Article 76
Article 76
Article 76
Informing the European Parliament
Informing the European Parliament
1.  The European Parliament shall organise an interparliamentary conference to evaluate the CCCTB regime, taking into account the outcomes of the tax policy discussions held under the procedure of the European Semester. The European Parliament shall communicate its opinion and conclusions thereon by means of a resolution addressed to the Commission and the Council.
The European Parliament shall be informed of the adoption of delegated acts by the Commission, of any objection formulated to them, and of the revocation of that delegation of powers by the Council.
2.   The European Parliament shall be informed of the adoption of delegated acts by the Commission, of any objection formulated to them, and of the revocation of that delegation of powers by the Council.
Amendment 62
Proposal for a directive
Article 78 a (new)
Article 78a
Compensation mechanism
In order to compensate for sudden shocks to tax revenues across Member States arising from fiscal gains and losses directly and solely caused by the switch to the new regime introduced by this Directive, the Commission shall establish a dedicated compensation mechanism, operational from the entry into force of this Directive. Compensation shall be adjusted each year to take into account national or regional decisions taken prior to the entry into force of this Directive. The compensation mechanism shall be financed by the fiscal surplus from those Member States that experience gains in fiscal revenues, and shall be set for an initial period of seven years. After that period, the Commission shall assess the need for the compensation mechanism to continue operating, and accordingly decide to terminate or renew it once for another maximum period of two years.
Amendment 63
Proposal for a directive
Article 79
Article 79
Article 79
Review
Implementation report and review
The Commission shall, five years after the entry into force of this Directive, review its application and report to the Council on the operation of this Directive. The report shall in particular include an analysis of the impact of the mechanism set up in Chapter VIII of this Directive on the apportionment of the tax bases between the Member States.
The Commission shall, five years after the entry into force of this Directive, assess its application and report to the European Parliament and the Council on the operation of this Directive. That implementation report shall in particular include an analysis of the impact of the mechanism set up in Chapter VIII of this Directive on the apportionment of the tax bases between the Member States. In drawing the conclusions of such an implementation report or in the context of the next multi-annual financial framework, the Commission shall propose the terms and conditions to allocate a part of the fiscal revenues generated from the common consolidated corporate tax base to the general budget of the Union in order to proportionally reduce Member States contributions to the same budget.
The Commission shall, 10 years after the entry into force of this Directive, review its application and report to the European Parliament and the Council on the operation of this Directive.
Amendment 64
Proposal for a directive
Article 80 – paragraph 1 – subparagraph 1
Member States shall adopt and publish, by 31st December 2020 at the latest, the laws, regulations and administrative provisions necessary to comply with this Directive. They shall forthwith communicate to the Commission the text of those provisions.
Member States shall adopt and publish, by 31 December 2019 at the latest, the laws, regulations and administrative provisions necessary to comply with this Directive. They shall forthwith communicate to the Commission the text of those provisions.
Amendment 65
Proposal for a directive
Article 80 – paragraph 1 – subparagraph 2
They shall apply those provisions from 1st January 2021.
They shall apply those provisions from 1 January 2020.
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